Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural best-management practices

  1. The Influence of Perceptions of Practice Characteristics: An Examination of Agricultural Best Management Practice Adoption in Two Indiana Watersheds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Adam P.; Weinkauf, Denise Klotthor; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural best management practices (BMPs), or conservation practices, can help reduce nonpoint source pollution from agricultural lands, as well as provide valuable wildlife habitat. There is a large literature exploring factors that lead to a producer's voluntary adoption of BMPs, but there have been inconsistent findings. Generally, this…

  2. Water quality monitoring of an agricultural watershed lake: the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beasley Lake is an oxbow lake located in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Plain (the Delta), a region of intensive agricultural activity. Due to intensive row-crop agricultural practices, the 915 ha watershed was sediment impaired when monitoring began in 1995 and was a candidate to assess the effect...

  3. Intra-annual variation of the association between agricultural best management practices and stream nutrient concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Nolan J T; Yates, Adam G

    2017-05-15

    Temporal variation may influence the ability of best management practices (BMPs) to mitigate the loss of agricultural pollutants to streams. Our goal was to assess variation in mitigation effects of BMPs by examining the associations between instream nutrient concentrations and the abundance and location of four structural BMPs over a hydrologic year. Water samples were collected monthly (Nov. 2013-Oct. 2014) in 15 headwater streams representing a gradient of BMP use in Southern Ontario, Canada. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models were used to associate two groups of collinear nutrient forms with the abundance and location of BMPs, antecedent precipitation and time of year. BMP metrics in PLS models were associated with instream concentrations of major phosphorus forms and ammonium throughout the year. In contrast, total nitrogen and nitrate-nitrite were only associated with BMPs during snowmelt. BMP metrics associated with reductions of phosphorus and ammonium included greater abundances of riparian buffers and manure storage structures, but not livestock restriction fences. Likewise, the abundance and location riparian vegetation in areas capturing more surface runoff were associated with decreased stream nitrogen concentrations during snowmelt. However, the amount of tile drainage was associated with increased nitrogen concentrations following snowmelt, as well as with greater phosphorus and ammonium concentrations throughout the year. Overall, our findings indicate that increasing the abundance of riparian buffers and manure storage structures may decrease instream nutrient concentrations in agricultural areas. Additionally, the implementation of these structural BMPs appear to be an effective year-round strategy to assist management objectives in reducing phosphorus concentrations in small agricultural streams and thus loadings to downstream tributaries. Further mitigation measures, such as managerial BMPs and controlled tile drainage, may be

  4. Best Management Practices for sediment control in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahab, Ossama M. M.; Bingner, Ronald L.; Milillo, Fabio; Gentile, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion can lead to severe destruction of agricultural sustainability that affects not only productivity, but the entire ecosystem in the neighboring areas. Sediments transported together with the associated nutrients and chemicals can significantly impact downstream water bodies. Various conservation and management practices implemented individually or integrated together as a system can be used to reduce the negative impacts on agricultural watersheds from soil erosion. Hydrological models are useful tools for decision makers when selecting the most effective combination of management practices to reduce pollutant loads within a watershed system. The Annualized Agricultural Non-point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading management model can be used to analyze the effectiveness of diverse management and conservation practices that can control or reduce the impact of soil erosion processes and subsequent sediment loads in agricultural watersheds. A 506 km2 Mediterranean medium-size watershed (Carapelle) located in Apulia, Southern Italy was used as a case study to evaluate the model and best management practices (BMPs) for sediment load control. A monitoring station located at the Ordona bridge has been instrumented to continuously monitor stream flow and suspended sediment loads. The station has been equipped with an ultrasound stage meter and a stage recorder to monitor stream flow. An infrared optic probe was used to measure suspended sediment concentrations (Gentile et al., 2010 ). The model was calibrated and validated in the Carapelle watershed on an event basis (Bisantino et al., 2013), and the validated model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs on sediment reduction. Various management practices were investigated including evaluating the impact on sediment load of: (1) converting all cropland areas into forest and grass covered conditions; (2) converting the highest eroding cropland areas to forest or grass covered conditions; and (3

  5. Effects of low-grade weirs on soil microbial communities to advance agricultural best management practices for nitrate remediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities throughout the Mississippi River Basin have been identified as a major source of nutrient pollution, particularly nitrogen from fertilizer application, to downstream waters including the Gulf of Mexico. Utilizing best management practices, such as low-grade weirs have been id...

  6. Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Porto, Antonio Lo

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The

  7. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  8. Innovative best management practices for improving nutrient reductions in agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the burgeoning human population increases pressures on agriculture for increasing yields, the concomitant strain on the aquatic environment downstream is elevated through non-point source pollution. Traditional management practices of conservation tillage, terracing, and cover crops are good prac...

  9. Application of analytical hierarchy process for effective selection of agricultural best management practices.

    PubMed

    Giri, Subhasis; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan

    2014-01-01

    In this study an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used for ranking best management practices (BMPs) in the Saginaw River Watershed based on environmental, economic and social factors. Three spatial targeting methods were used for placement of BMPs on critical source areas (CSAs). The environment factors include sediment, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus reductions at the subbasin level and the watershed outlet. Economic factors were based on total BMP cost, including installation, maintenance, and opportunity costs. Social factors were divided into three favorability rankings (most favorable, moderately favorable, and least favorable) based on area allocated to each BMP. Equal weights (1/3) were considered for the three main factors while calculating the BMP rank by AHP. In this study three scenarios were compared. A comprehensive approach in which environmental, economic, and social aspects are simultaneously considered (Scenario 1) versus more traditional approaches in which both environmental and economic aspects were considered (Scenario 2) or only environmental aspects (sediment, TN, and TP) were considered (Scenario 3). In Scenario 1, only stripcropping (moderately favorable) was selected on all CSAs at the subbasin level, whereas stripcropping (49-69% of CSAs) and residue management (most favorable, 31-51% of CSAs) were selected by AHP based on the watershed outlet and three spatial targeting methods. In Scenario 2, native grass was eliminated by moderately preferable BMPs (stripcropping) both at the subbasin and watershed outlet levels due the lower BMP implementations cost compared to native grass. Finally, in Scenario 3, at subbasin level, the least socially preferable BMP (native grass) was selected in 100% of CSAs due to greater pollution reduction capacity compared to other BMPs. At watershed level, nearly 50% the CSAs selected stripcropping, and the remaining 50% of CSAs selected native grass and residue management equally.

  10. Effectiveness of Integrated Best Management Practices on Mitigation of Atrazine and Metolachlor in an Agricultural Lake Watershed.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, Richard; Locke, Martin; Bingner, Ronald; Steinriede, R Wade; Smith, Sammie

    2017-04-01

    The study examined the influence of land-use (cropping patterns) and integrated agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on spring herbicide levels in an agricultural watershed. Atrazine and metolachlor were applied for weed control during spring of 1998-2002, 2005, and 2007-2013. Watershed-wide mass of applied herbicides ranged from 12.7 to 209.2 g atrazine and 10.9-302.2 g metolachlor with greatest application during 1998, 2009-2010 (atrazine) and 2007-2013 (metolachlor). Spring herbicide concentrations in Beasley Lake water ranged from below detection to 3.54 μg atrazine/L and 3.01 μg metolachlor/L. Multiple linear regression analyses with cropping patterns, BMPs, rainfall and time as independent variables, showed atrazine applications were associated with increases in cotton acreage and quail buffer, while metolachlor applications increased over time. Multiple linear regressions showed lake atrazine concentrations were associated with conservation tillage, rainfall, and corn, while lake metolachlor concentrations were associated with the cumulative metolachlor application and sediment retention pond installation.

  11. Nitrate removal from agricultural drainage ditch sediments with amendments of organic carbon: Potential for an innovative best management practice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faust, Derek R.; Kröger, Robert; Miranda, Leandro E.; Rush, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural fertilizer applications have resulted in loading of nutrients to agricultural drainage ditches in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) amendments on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N) removal from overlying water, pore water, and sediment of an agricultural drainage ditch. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, control (i.e., no amendment), DOC, and POC treatments were applied in laboratory microcosms for time intervals of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. In experiment 2, control, DOC, and POC treatments were applied in microcosms at C/N ratios of 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, and 20:1. There were statistically significant effects of organic carbon amendments in experiment 1 (F2,71 = 27.1, P < 0.001) and experiment 2 (F2,53 = 39.1, P < 0.001), time (F1,71 = 14.5, P < 0.001) in experiment 1, and C/N ratio (F1,53 = 36.5, P < 0.001) in experiment 2. NO3−-N removal varied from 60 to 100 % in overlying water among all treatments. The lowest NO3−-N removals in experiment 1 were observed in the control at 14 and 28 days, which were significantly less than in DOC and POC 14- and 28-day treatments. In experiment 2, significantly less NO3−-N was removed in overlying water of the control compared to DOC and POC treatments at all C/N ratios. Amendments of DOC and POC made to drainage ditch sediment: (1) increased NO3−-N removal, especially over longer time intervals (14 to 28 days); (2) increased NO3−-N removal, regardless of C/N ratio; and (3) NO3−-N removal was best at a 5:1 C/N ratio. This study provides support for continued investigation on the use of organic carbon amendments as a best management practice for NO3−-N removal in agricultural drainage ditches.

  12. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Mining Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet describes best management practices (BMPs) that can be used to reduce the environmental footprint of cleanup activities associated with common project components, cleanup phases, and implementation of remediation technologies.

  13. URBAN STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE (BMP) RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation on urban best management practice research conducted by the Urban Watershed Research Branch. The presentation to Region 3 started with Branch history, discussed results of recent projects, identified mechanisms for collaboration between ORD and Regions and discussed ...

  14. STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Implementation of an effective BMP monitoring program is not a straight-forward task. BMPs by definition are devices, practices, or methods used to manage stormwater runoff. This umbrella term lumps widely varying techniques into a single category. Also, with the existence of ...

  15. STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TEST FACILITY - SWALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NRMRL swale evaluation is part of a larger collection of long-term research projects that evaluates many Best Management Practices. EPA has ongoing research examining the performance of constructed wet lands, and detention and retention ponds. Other projects will evaluate ra...

  16. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Stormwater Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored, a wetland/retention pond, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed in the New York City Department of Envi...

  17. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP currently being monitored, a retention pond with wetland plantings, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed part of New Yor...

  18. COST ESTIMATING EQUATIONS FOR BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development of an interactive internet-based cost-estimating tool for commonly used urban storm runoff best management practices (BMP), including: retention and detention ponds, grassed swales, and constructed wetlands. The paper presents the cost data, c...

  19. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; a summary report, 1982-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietman, Patricia L.

    1997-01-01

    Pipe-outlet terracing was effective in reducing sediment losses from a field site, but total nitrogen and phosphorus losses with runoff were not significantly different before and after terracing. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrate in several ground-water sampling locations increased after terrace installation. Dissolved nitrate concentrations in ground water decreased significantly after nutrient-management implementation. Findings indicate that agricultural-management practices to improve water quality are most effective if their overall design effects on surface- and ground-water systems are considered in their design.

  20. Miscellaneous streams best management practices (BMP) report

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, K.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and U.S. Department of Energy Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 (Consent Order) lists regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-216 (`State Waste Discharge Permit Program`) or WAC 173-218 (`Washington Underground Injection Control Program`) where applicable. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column are categorized as Phase I and Phase II Streams, and Miscellaneous Streams. There were originally 33 Phase I and Phase II Streams, however some of these streams have been eliminated. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluent streams discharged to the ground that are not categorized as Phase I or Phase II Streams, and are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the Consent Order. The three criteria for identifying streams that are potentially affecting groundwater are: (1) streams discharging to surface contaminated areas (referred to as category `b` streams); (2) potentially contaminated streams (referred to as category `c` streams); and (3) streams discharging within 91 meters (300 feet) of a contaminated crib, ditch, or trench (referred to as category `d` streams). Miscellaneous Streams that meet any of these criteria must be evaluated for application of best management practices (BMP). The purpose of this report is to provide the best management practice preferred alternative. The list of BMP streams has been revised since the original submittal. Several streams from the original list of BMP streams have already been eliminated through facility upgrades, reduction of steam usage, and facility shutdowns. This document contains a description of the changes to the list of BMP streams, applicable definitions and regulatory requirements and possible alternatives, and a schedule for implementing the preferred alternatives.

  1. STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES DESIGN GUIDE VOLUME 3 - BASIN BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides design guidelines for a group of stormwater management (SWM) best management practices (BMPs) broadly referred to as basin or pond BMPs. Basin BMPs are the mainstay of stormwater management. Water resources engineers have designed small and large ponds for ma...

  2. Assessing the impacts of Best Management Practices on nitrate pollution in an agricultural dominated lowland catchment considering environmental protection versus economic development.

    PubMed

    Haas, Marcelo B; Guse, Björn; Fohrer, Nicola

    2017-03-15

    Water quality is strongly affected by nitrate inputs in agricultural catchments. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are alternative practices aiming to mitigate the impacts derived from agricultural activities and to improve water quality. Management activities are influenced by different governmental policies like the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). Their distinct goals can be contrasting and hamper an integrated sustainable development. Both need to be addressed in the actual conjuncture in rural areas. Ecohydrological models like the SWAT model are important tools for land cover and land use changes investigation and the assessment of BMPs implementation effects on water quality. Thus, in this study, buffer strip, fertilization reduction and alternative crops were considered as BMPs and were implemented in the SWAT model for the Treene catchment. Their efficiency in terms of nitrate loads reduction related to implementation costs at the catchment scale was investigated. The practices correspond to the catchment conditions and are based on small and mid areal changes. Furthermore, the BMPs were evaluated from the perspective of ecologic and economic policies. The results evidenced different responses of the BMPs. The critical periods in winter were addressed by most of the BMPs. However, some practices like pasture land increase need to be implemented in greater area for better results in comparison to current activities. Furthermore, there is a greater nitrate reduction potential by combining BMPs containing fertilization reduction, buffer strips and soil coverage in winter. The discussion about efficiency showed the complexity of costs stipulation and the relation with arable land and yield losses. Furthermore, as the government policies can be divergent an integrated approach considering all the involved actors is important and seeks a sustainable development.

  3. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Implementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Eagle Creek, Tributary to Maumee River, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-11-19

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  4. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Iimplementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Alger Creek, Tributary to Saginaw River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-11-19

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  5. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Implementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Upper East River, Tributary to Green Bay, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-11-19

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  6. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; methods of data collection and analysis and description of study areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chichester, Douglas C.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water quality study as part of the nationally implemented Rural Clean Water Program in the headwaters of the Conestoga River, Pennsylvania. The study, which began in 1982, was designed to determine the effect of agricultural best management practices on surface--and groundwater quality. The study was concentrated in four areas within the intensively farmed, carbonate rock terrane located predominately in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. These areas were divided into three monitoring components: (1) a Regional study area (188 sq mi): (2) a Small Watershed study area (5.82 sq mi); and (3) two field site study areas, Field-Site 1 (22.1 acres) and Field 2 (47.5 acres). The type of water quality data and the methods of data collection and analysis are presented. The monitoring strategy and description of the study areas are discussed. The locations and descriptions for all data collection locations at the four study areas are provided. (USGS)

  7. Use of Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season to Assess Effectiveness of Agricultural and Environmental Best Management Practices in California and Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagalski, J. L.; Schlegel, B.; Hutchins, J.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term data sets on stream-water quality and discharge can be used to assess whether best management practices (BMPs) are restoring beneficial uses of impaired water as required under the Clean Water Act. In this study, we evaluated a greater than 20-year record of water quality from selected streams in the Central Valley (CV) of California and Lake Tahoe (California and Nevada, USA). The CV contains a mix of agricultural and urbanized land, while the Lake Tahoe area is mostly forested, with seasonal residents and tourism. Because nutrients and fine sediments cause a reduction in water clarity that impair Lake Tahoe, BMPs were implemented in the early 1990's, to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loads. The CV does not have a current nutrient management plan, but numerous BMPs exist to reduce pesticide loads, and it was hypothesized that these programs could also reduce nutrient levels. In the CV and Lake Tahoe areas, nutrient concentrations, loads, and trends were estimated by using the recently developed Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) model. Sufficient data were available to compare trends during a voluntary and enforcement period for seven CV sites within the lower Sacramento and San Joaquin Basins. For six of the seven sites, flow-normalized mean annual concentrations of total phosphorus and nitrate decreased at a faster rate during the enforcement period than during the earlier voluntary period. Concentration changes during similar years and ranges of flow conditions suggest that BMPs designed for pesticides also reduced nutrient loads in the CV. A trend analysis using WRTDS was completed for six streams that enter Lake Tahoe during the late 1980's through 2008. The results of the model confirm that nutrient loading is influenced strongly by season, such as by spring runoff from snowmelt. The highest nutrient concentrations in the late 1980's and early 1990's correlate with high flows, followed by statistically significant decreases

  8. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; hydrology of a small carbonate site near Ephrata, Pennsylvania, prior to implementation of nutrient management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koerkle, E.H.; Hall, D.W.; Risser, D.W.; Lietman, P.L.; Chichester, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, investigated the effects of agricultural best-management practices on water quality in the Conestoga River headwaters watershed. This report describes environmental factors and the surface-water and ground-water quality of one 47.5-acre field site, Field-Site 2, from October 1984 through September 1986, prior to implementation of nutrient management. The site is partially terraced agricultural cropland underlain by carbonate rock. Twenty-seven acres are terraced, pipe-drained, and are under no-till cultivation. The remaining acreage is under minimum-till cultivation. Corn is the primary crop. The average annual rate of fertilization at the site was 480 pounds per acre of nitrogen and 110 pounds per acre of phosphorus. An unconfined limestone and dolomitic aquifer underlies the site, Depth to bedrock ranges from 5 to 30 feet below land surface. Estimated specific yields range from 0.05 to 0.10, specific capacities of wells range from less than 1 to about 20 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown, and estimates of transmissivities range from 10 to 10,000 square feet per day. Average ground-water recharge was estimated to be about 23 inches per year. The specific capacity and transmissivity data indicate that two aquifer regimes are present at the site. Wells drilled into dolomites in the eastern part of the site have larger specific capacities (averaging 20 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown) relative to specific capacities (averaging less than 1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown) of wells drilled into limestones in the western part of the site. Median concentrations of soil-soluble nitrate and soluble phosphorus in the top 4 feet of silt- or silty-clay-loam soil ranged from 177 to 329 and 8.5 to 35 pounds per acre, respectively. Measured runoff from the pipe-drained terraces ranged from 10 to 48,000 cubic feet and was

  9. Best management practices for herbicide resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of the recent focus on herbicide resistant weeds, herbicide resistant weeds are not new to agriculture; the first herbicide resistant weed was documented in 1957, with the first widespread resistance occurring in common groundsel with atrazine in the early 1970’s. Glyphosate resistant weed...

  10. Green Remediation: Best Management Practices for Excavation and Surface Restoration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet is one of a series describing best management practices (BMPs) for green remediation, which holistically addresses a cleanup project's energy requirements, air emissions, impacts on water, impacts on land and ecosystems, material consumpt..

  11. Effective Best Management Practices for Nitrogen Removal in Aquatic Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated nitrate levels in streams and groundwater are detrimental to human and ecosystem health. The Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) of the USEPA investigates best management practices (BMP’s) that enhance nitrogen removal in aquatic ecosystems througho...

  12. Effects of agricultural best-management practices on the Brush Run Creek headwaters, Adams County, Pennsylvania, prior to and during nutrient management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, M.J.; Fishel, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, investigated the effects of agricultural best-management practices on surface-water quality as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay Program. This report characterizes a 0.63-square- mile agricultural watershed underlain by shale, mudstone, and red arkosic sandstone in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin. The water quality of the Brush Run Creek site was studied from October 1985 through September 1991, prior to and during the implementation of nutrient management designed to reduce sediment and nutrient discharges into Conewago Creek, a tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. The original study area was 0.38 square mile and included an area immediately upstream from a manure lagoon. The study area was increased to 0.63 square mile in the fall of 1987 after an extensive tile-drain network was discovered upstream and downstream from the established streamflow gage, and the farm owner made plans to spray irrigate manure to the downstream fields. Land use for about 64 percent of the 0.63 square mile watershed is cropland, 14 percent is pasture, 7 percent is forest, and the remaining 15 percent is yards, buildings, water, or gardens. About 73 percent of the cropland was used to produce corn during the study. The average annual animal population consisted of 57,000 chickens, 1,530 hogs, and 15 sheep during the study. About 59,340 pounds of nitrogen and 13,710 pounds of phosphorus were applied as manure and commercial fertilizer to fields within the subbasin during the 3-year period prior to implementation of nutrient management. During nutrient management, about 14 percent less nitrogen and 57 percent less phosphorus were applied as commercial and manure fertilizer. Precipitation totaled 209 inches, or 13 percent less than the long-term normal, during the 6-year study. Concentrations of total ammonia in

  13. STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES DESIGN GUIDE VOLUME 2 - VEGETATIVE BIOFILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is Volume 2 of a three volume document that provides guidance on the selection and design of stormwater management Best Management Practices (BMPs). This second volume provides specific design guidance for a group of onsite BMP control practices that are referred t...

  14. STORM WATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: CAPACITIES, CAPABILITIES, AND SOME LIMITATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will cover the basics of what a storm water best management practices and focus on infiltration-type practices using the example of rain gardens. I will demonstrate how water moves through rain gardens with a simple hydrologic model and discuss ancillary benefit...

  15. 40 CFR 430.28 - Best management practices (BMPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Best management practices (BMPs). 430.28 Section 430.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft...

  16. 40 CFR 430.28 - Best management practices (BMPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Best management practices (BMPs). 430.28 Section 430.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft...

  17. ISSUES OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE DESIGN TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Today, many municipalities are implementing low-cost best management practices (BMPs). Structural control BMPs involve building a structure of some kind to store stormwater until it can be discharged into a nearby receiving water. Commonly used structural treatment BMPs include...

  18. 40 CFR 430.28 - Best management practices (BMPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Best management practices (BMPs). 430.28 Section 430.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  19. 40 CFR 430.28 - Best management practices (BMPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Best management practices (BMPs). 430.28 Section 430.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  20. 40 CFR 430.28 - Best management practices (BMPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Best management practices (BMPs). 430.28 Section 430.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  1. STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES DESIGN GUIDE VOLUME 1 - GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is Volume 1 of a three volume series that provides guidance on the selection and design of stormwater management Best Management Practices (BMPs). This first volume provides general considerations associated with the selection and design of BMPs.
    Volume I provi...

  2. 40 CFR 440.148 - Best Management Practices (BMP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Best Management Practices (BMP). 440.148 Section 440.148 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer...

  3. 40 CFR 440.148 - Best Management Practices (BMP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Best Management Practices (BMP). 440.148 Section 440.148 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory §...

  4. 40 CFR 440.148 - Best Management Practices (BMP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Best Management Practices (BMP). 440.148 Section 440.148 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer...

  5. 40 CFR 440.148 - Best Management Practices (BMP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Best Management Practices (BMP). 440.148 Section 440.148 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer...

  6. Farm-system modeling to evaluate environmental losses, profitability, and best management practice cost-effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To meet Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load requirements for agricultural pollution, conservation districts and farmers are tasked with implementing best management practices (BMPs) that reduce farm losses of nutrients and sediment. The importance of the agricultural industry to the regional eco...

  7. CONSIDERATION IN THE DESIGN OF TREATMENT BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS) TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Today, many municipalities are implementing low-cost best management practices (BMPs). The lowest cost BMPs, termed non-structural or source control BMPs, include practices such as limiting pesticide use in agricultural areas. There are a set of higher cost BMPs, which involve ...

  8. CONSIDERATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF TREATMENT BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS) TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory


    Today, many municipalities are implementing low-cost best management practices (BMPs). The lowest cost BMPs, termed non-structural or source control BMPs, include practices such as limiting pesticide use in agricultural areas. There are a set of higher cost BMPs, which in...

  9. Development and Validation of the Texas Best Management Practice Evaluation Tool (TBET)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation planners need simple yet accurate tools to predict sediment and nutrient losses from agricultural fields to guide conservation practice implementation and increase cost-effectiveness. The Texas Best management practice Evaluation Tool (TBET), which serves as an input/output interpreter...

  10. Monitoring Pasture Best Management Practices in the Spring Creek Watershed of Central Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) for grazing farms such as streambank fencing, cattle crossings and conservation buffers are intended to reduce sediment and nutrient movement into streams, but the effects of these practices are difficult to measure. A large interdisciplinary team is exa...

  11. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; description and water quality of the Little Conestoga Creek headwaters prior to the implementation of nutrient management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishel, D.K.; Brown, M.J.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Howse, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The headwaters of the Conestoga River are being studied to determine the effects of agricultural Best-Management Practices on surface-water and ground-water quality. As part of this study, a 5.82-square-mile area of the Little Conestoga Creek headwaters (Small Watershed) was monitored during 1984-86, prior to implementation of Best-Management Practices. This report describes the land use and hydrology of this study area and characterizes its surface-water and ground-water quality during the pre-Best-Management Practice phase. During base-flow conditions, median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen as nitrogen increased from 2.7 to 8.1 milligrams per liter as the stream flowed through the intensively-farmed carbonate valley. Median total phosphorus increased from 0.05 to 0.20 milligram per liter. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate nitrogen as nitrogen measured in ground water in carbonate rocks in the valley were as great as 25 milligrams per liter and consistently exceeded 10 milligrams per liter. Statistical analysis showed that it will require substantial reductions in concentrations and discharges of nitrogen and phosphorus in base flow to obtain statistically measurable improvements in water quality. If concentrations and discharges of total nitrogen in base flow at the five sites are reduced by 15 to 33 percent, and by 63 to 70 percent, respectively, then the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney rank-sum test will be able to detect an improvement in water quality 95 percent of the time. Likewise, if concentrations of total phosphorus are reduced by 36 to 54 percent, or discharges of total phosphorus are reduced by 52 to 69 percent at the five sites, then an improvement in water quality will be able to be detected 95 percent of the time.

  12. A study of the effects of implementing agricultural best management practices and in-stream restoration on suspended sediment, stream habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at three stream sites in Surry County, North Carolina, 2004-2007-Lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Douglas G.; Ferrell, G.M.; Harned, Douglas A.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of agricultural best management practices and in-stream restoration on suspended-sediment concentrations, stream habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were examined in a comparative study of three small, rural stream basins in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces of North Carolina and Virginia between 2004 and 2007. The study was designed to assess changes in stream quality associated with stream-improvement efforts at two sites in comparison to a control site (Hogan Creek), for which no improvements were planned. In the drainage basin of one of the stream-improvement sites (Bull Creek), several agricultural best management practices, primarily designed to limit cattle access to streams, were implemented during this study. In the drainage basin of the second stream-improvement site (Pauls Creek), a 1,600-foot reach of the stream channel was restored and several agricultural best management practices were implemented. Streamflow conditions in the vicinity of the study area were similar to or less than the long-term annual mean streamflows during the study. Precipitation during the study period also was less than normal, and the geographic distribution of precipitation indicated drier conditions in the southern part of the study area than in the northern part. Dry conditions during much of the study limited opportunities for acquiring high-flow sediment samples and streamflow measurements. Suspended-sediment yields for the three basins were compared to yield estimates for streams in the southeastern United States. Concentrations of suspended sediment and nutrients in samples from Bull Creek, the site where best management practices were implemented, were high compared to the other two sites. No statistically significant change in suspended-sediment concentrations occurred at the Bull Creek site following implementation of best management practices. However, data collected before and after channel stabilization at the Pauls

  13. Modeling the Connectedness Between best Management Practices and Vulnerability Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandhi, A.; Bailey, N.; Thomas, M.; Bartnick, B.

    2015-12-01

    The overall goal of this study is to better understand the connectedness between Best management practices (BMPs) and vulnerability assessments (VA) in a changing landuse. Developing this connectedness will help understand key vulnerabilities and improve adaptive capacity important for ecosystem sustainability. BMPs are practical management practices or systems designed and installed in watersheds to provide a wide range of effects to protect or restore the physical, chemical, and biological condition of waterbodies (e.g. changing hydrology; improving vegetative habitat; mitigate adverse environmental change). VAs can be defined as "the degree to which the system is susceptible to and is unable to cope with adverse effects of change" and are often characterized as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. There are many variables and factors used in calculating the impact of BMPs and VAs. The event mean concentration or load (e.g. nutrient, sediment,) associated with the specific landuse is an important variable. There is much data that predicts the loads associated with the major landuses (urban, agricultural). Loads greatly vary with region; rainfall characteristics (e.g. rainfall intensity, rainfall frequency); soil characteristics (e.g. soil type, hydrologic soil groups); hydrologic characteristics (e.g. runoff potential). A concern also exists that possibly all of the variables associated with changes in an individual land use have not been identified and distinguished for their impact on land use. For example, the loads associated with a high density residential with much green space may be more similar to medium density than loads associated with high rise apartment buildings. Other factors may include age of construction, % of families with children, % of families with pets, level of transiency, and construction activity The objective of our study is to develop an initial framework using multiple variables and factors to represent the

  14. Effectiveness of best management practices with changing climate in a Maryland watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large scale hydrologic modeling can be a useful tool to explore the effects of climate change on watersheds. In the Chesapeake Bay region agriculture has been identified as one of many contributing sources to water quality degradation. Many best management practices (BMPs) have been established over...

  15. Effectiveness of barnyard best management practices in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    1998-01-01

    In 1978, the Wisconsin Legislature committed to protecting water quality by enacting the Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program. Through this program, cost-share money is provided within priority watersheds to control sources of nonpoint pollution. Most of the cost-share dollars for rural watersheds have been used to implement barnyard Best Management Practices (BMPs) because barnyards are believed to be a major source of pollutants, most notably phosphorus. Reductions in phosphorus loads of as much as 95 percent have been predicted for the barnyard BMPs recommended for priority watersheds.

  16. Model for prioritizing best management practice implementation: sediment load reduction.

    PubMed

    Jang, Taeil; Vellidis, George; Hyman, Jeffrey B; Brooks, Erin; Kurkalova, Lyubov A; Boll, Jan; Cho, Jaepil

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the best way to allocate limited resources is a constant challenge for water quality improvement efforts. The synoptic approach is a tool for geographic prioritization of these efforts. It uses a benefit-cost framework to calculate indices for functional criteria in subunits (watersheds, counties) of a region and then rank the subunits. The synoptic approach was specifically designed to incorporate best professional judgment in cases where information and resources are limited. To date, the synoptic approach has been applied primarily to local or regional wetland restoration prioritization projects. The goal of this work was to develop a synoptic model for prioritizing watersheds within which suites of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) can be implemented to reduce sediment load at the watershed outlets. The model ranks candidate watersheds within an ecoregion or river basin so that BMP implementation within the highest ranked watersheds will result in the most sediment load reduction per conservation dollar invested. The model can be applied anywhere and at many scales provided that the selected suite of BMPs is appropriate for the evaluation area's biophysical and climatic conditions. The model was specifically developed as a tool for prioritizing BMP implementation efforts in ecoregions containing watersheds associated with the USDA-NRCS conservation effects assessment project (CEAP). This paper presents the testing of the model in the little river experimental watershed (LREW) which is located near Tifton, Georgia, USA and is the CEAP watershed representing the southeastern coastal plain. The application of the model to the LREW demonstrated that the model represents the physical drivers of erosion and sediment loading well. The application also showed that the model is quite responsive to social and economic drivers and is, therefore, best applied at a scale large enough to ensure differences in social and economic drivers across the

  17. 75 FR 54627 - Best Management Practices for Unused Pharmaceuticals at Health Care Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... AGENCY Best Management Practices for Unused Pharmaceuticals at Health Care Facilities AGENCY... guidance document entitled, Best Management Practices for Unused Pharmaceuticals at Health Care Facilities... been studying unused pharmaceutical disposal practices at health care facilities, prompted by...

  18. Best management practices for soft engineering of shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caulk, Andrew D.; Gannon, John E.; Shaw, John R.; Hartig, John H.; Caulk, Andrew D.; Gannon, John E.; Shaw, John R.; Hartig, John H.

    2000-01-01

    Historically, many river shorelines were stabilized and hardened with concrete and steel to protect developments from flooding and erosion, or to accommodate commercial navigation or industry. Typically shorelines were developed for a single purpose. Today, there is growing interest in developing shorelines for multiple purposes so that additional benefits can be accrued. Soft engineering is the use of ecological principles and practices to reduce erosion and achieve the stabilization and safety of shorelines, while enhancing habitat, improving aesthetics, and saving money. The purpose of this best management practices manual is to provide insights and technical advice to local governments, developers, planners, consultants, and industries on when, where, why, and how to incorporate soft engineering of shorelines into shoreline redevelopment projects and reap subsequent benefits. More specific technical advice and contact information can be found in the soft engineering case studies presented in this manual.

  19. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; effects of nutrient management on water quality in the Little Conestoga Creek headwaters, 1983-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koerkle, E.H.; Fishel, D.K.; Brown, M.J.; Kostelnik, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Water quality in the headwaters of the Little Conestoga Creek, Lancaster County, Pa., was investigated from April 1986 through September 1989 to determine possible effects of agricultural nutrient management on water quality. Nutrient management, an agricultural Best-Management Practice, was promoted in the 5.8-square-mile watershed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Rural Clean Water Program. Nonpoint-source- agricultural contamination was evident in surface water and ground water in the watershed; the greatest contamination was in areas underlain by carbonate rock and with intensive row-crop and animal production. Initial implementation of nutrient management covered about 30 percent of applicable land and was concentrated in the Nutrient-Management Subbasin. By 1989, nutrient management covered about 45 percent of the entire Small Watershed, about 85 percent of the Nutrient- Management Subbasin, and less than 10 percent of the Nonnutrient-Management Subbasin. The number of farms implementing nutrient management increased from 14 in 1986 to 25 by 1989. Nutrient applications to cropland in the Nutrient- Management Subbasin decreased by an average of 35 percent after implementation. Comparison of base- flow surface-water quality from before and after implementation suggests that nutrient management was effective in slowing or reversing increases in concentrations of dissolved nitrate plus nitrite in the Nutrient-Management Subbasin. Although not statistically significant, the Mann-Whitney step-trend coefficient for the Nutrient-Management Subbasin was 0.8 milligram per liter, whereas trend coefficients for the Nonnutrient-Management Subbasin and the Small Watershed were 0.4 and 1.4 milligrams per liter, respectively, for the period of study. Analysis of covariance comparison of concurrent concentrations from the two sub- basins showed a significant decrease in concen- trations from the Nutrient-Management Subbasin compared to the Nonnutrient-Management Subbasin

  20. Evaluating best management practices at an urban golf course.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nate M; Lydy, Michael J

    2002-05-01

    This three-year study evaluated the effects of best management practices (BMPs) in reducing surface water contamination at an urban golf course. Water samples were collected before BMP implementation from two ponds on Braeburn Golf Course (Wichita, KS, USA). The pesticides 2,4-dicholorodiphenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and simazine were periodically found at concentrations above recommended water quality criteria. Excessive nutrients in the form of nitrates and total phosphorus were also measured. In addition, an assessment of macroinvertebrate populations revealed only a few tolerant species. Beginning in year 2, recommendations to alter chemical applications on the course were implemented as part of the BMPs. Surface water sampling during year 2 showed significant declines in nitrate and total phosphorus levels; however, seasonal contamination from pesticides continued to occur. Beginning in year 3, structural changes to the golf course were made as part of the BMPs. Subsequent water sampling indicated further reductions of nitrates (80%) and total phosphorus (40 and 60% in the two ponds, respectively), and elimination of contamination from spring applications of 2,4-D and simazine. Finally, an assessment of macroinvertebrate populations indicated an improvement in taxa richness, as well as repopulation by less tolerant organisms. Results of this study can be used to develop and refine golf course management procedures to protect aquatic environments.

  1. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; effects of nutrient management on quality of surface runoff at a small carbonate-rock site near Ephrate, Pennsylvania, 1984-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.W.; Lietman, P.L.; Koerkle, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a study from 1984 to 1990 to determine theeffects of the implementation and practice of nutrient management [an agricultural best-management practice (BMP)] on the quality of surface runoff and ground water at a 55-acre crop and livestock farm in carbonate terrain nearEphrata, Pa. Implementation of nutrient management at Field-Site 2 resulted in application decreases of 33 percent for nitrogen and 29 percent for phosphorus. There wereno significant changes in nitrogen or phosphorusloads for a given amount of runoff from the pre-BMP to the post-BMP periods. However, less than 2 percent of the applied nutrients weredischarged with runoff throughout the study period.After the implementation of nutrient management, statistically significant decreases in concentrations of nitrate in ground-water samples occurred at threeof the four wells monitored throughout the pre- and post-BMP periods. The largest decreases in nitrate concentrations occurred at wells where samples hadthe largest nitrate concentrations prior to nutrient management. Changes in nitrogen applications to the contributing areas of five wells were correlated with nitrate concentrations of the well water. The correlations between the timing and amount of applied nitrogen and changes in ground-water quality met the four conditions that are characteristic of a cause-effect relation: an association, consistency, responsiveness, and a mechanism. Changes in ground-water nitrate concentrations lagged behind changes in loading of nitrogen fertilizers (primarily manure) by approximately 4 to 19 months.

  2. Performance comparison of structural stormwater best management practices.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a method for comparing the pollutant removal of a number of structural stormwater treatment devices, commonly referred to as best management practices (BMPs). Historically, the pollutant removal ability of a BMP has been expressed as a percent reduction in concentration or load. Unfortunately, the calculated percent reduction in pollutant concentration is strongly affected by the influent concentration, with the calculated reduction generally being much lower when the event mean concentrations (EMCs) in the untreated runoff from the test watershed are low. The objective of the proposed methodology is to eliminate this problem by predicting BMP performance for an arbitrary influent concentration, so that BMPs evaluated in different watersheds can be compared as if the influent quality at all sites were the same. This method allows BMPs to be compared based on the quality of effluent produced and the mass reduction. The proposed method uses linear regression as the primary tool to compute the expected effluent concentration from a BMP, given a specific influent concentration of interest and was developed using data collected in the California Department of Transportation BMP Retrofit Pilot Program. This technique reveals that for media filters, the concentration of sediment and other particle-associated pollutants in treated runoff is generally unrelated to influent quality and is relatively constant. Wet basins with large permanent pool volumes also have effluent concentrations that are constant for most constituents and unrelated to influent concentrations. In these situations, the "percent reduction" in a pollutant EMC is not an inherent characteristic of the BMP, but a function of the influent EMC, because the quality of effluent produced is constant. Predicting the effluent quality of several types of conventional BMPs based on a common influent concentration allows an objective comparison of their performance and the selection of a BMP that

  3. Performance Probability Distributions for Sediment Control Best Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, L.; Beighley, R.; Walsh, K.

    2007-12-01

    Controlling soil erosion and sediment transport can be a significant challenge during the construction process due to the extent and conditions of bare, disturbed soils. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used as the framework for the design of sediment discharge prevention systems in stormwater pollution prevention plans which are typically required for construction sites. This research focuses on commonly-used BMP systems for perimeter control of sediment export: silt fences and fiber rolls. Although these systems are widely used, the physical and engineering parameters describing their performance are not well understood. Performance expectations are based on manufacturer results, but due to the dynamic conditions that exist on a construction site performance expectations are not always achievable in the field. Based on experimental results product performance is shown to be highly variable. Experiments using the same installation procedures show inconsistent sediment removal performances ranging from (>)85 percent to zero. The goal of this research is to improve the determination of off-site sediment yield based on probabilistic performance results of perimeter control BMPs. BMPs are evaluated in the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL) in the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University. SERL experiments are performed on a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with a soil depth of 0.5 meters and a slope of 33 percent. The simulated storm event consists of 17 mm/hr for 20 minutes followed by 51 mm/hr for 30 minutes. The storm event is based on an ASTM design storm intended to simulate BMP failures. BMP performance is assessed based on experiments where BMPs are installed per manufacture specifications, less than optimal installations, and no treatment conditions. Preliminary results from 30 experiments are presented and used to develop probability distributions for BMP sediment removal efficiencies. The results are then combined with

  4. Hydrology and the hypothetical effects of reducing nutrient applications of water quality in the Bald Eagle Creek Headwaters, southeastern Pennsylvania prior to implementation of agricultural best-management practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishel, D.K.; Langland, M.J.; Truhlar, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    The report characterizes a 0.43-square-mile agricultural watershed in York County, underlain by albite-chlorite and oligoclase-mica schist in the Lower Susquehanna River basin, that is being studied as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay Program. The water quality of Bald Eagle Creek was studied from October 1985 through September 1987 prior to the implementation of Best-Management Practices to reduce nutrient and sediment discharge into Muddy Creek, a tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. About 88 percent of the watershed is cropland and pasture, and nearly 33 percent of the cropland is used for corn. The animal population is entirely dairy cattle. About 85,640 pounds of nitrogen (460 pounds per acre) and 21,800 pounds of phosphorus (117 pounds per acre) were applied to fields; 52 percent of the nitrogen and 69 percent of the phosphorus was from commercial fertilizer. Prior to fertilization, nitrate nitrogen in the soil ranged from 36 to 136 pounds per acre and phosphorus ranged from 0.89 to 5.7 pounds per acre in the top 4 feet of soil. Precipitation was about 18 percent below normal and streamflow about 35 percent below normal during the 2-year study. Eighty-four percent of the 20.44 inches of runoff was base flow. Median concentrations of total nitrogen and dissolved phosphorous in base flow were 0.05 and 0.04 milligrams per liter as phosphorus, respectively. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate in base flow increased following wet periods after crops were harvested and manure was applied. During the growing season, concentrations decreased similarly to those observed in carbonate-rock areas as nutrient uptake and evapotranspiration by corn increased. About 4,550 pounds of suspended sediment, 5,250 pounds of nitrogen, and 66.6 pounds of phosphorus discharged in base flow during the 2-year period. The suspended sediment load was about 232,000 pounds in stormflow from 26 storms that contributed 51 percent of the total stormflow. The

  5. Spatial Dependence and Determinants of Dairy Farmers' Adoption of Best Management Practices for Water Protection in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Sharp, Basil

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses spatial dependence and determinants of the New Zealand dairy farmers' adoption of best management practices to protect water quality. A Bayesian spatial durbin probit model is used to survey data collected from farmers in the Waikato region of New Zealand. The results show that farmers located near each other exhibit similar choice behaviour, indicating the importance of farmer interactions in adoption decisions. The results also address that information acquisition is the most important determinant of farmers' adoption of best management practices. Financial problems are considered a significant barrier to adopting best management practices. Overall, the existence of distance decay effect and spatial dependence in farmers' adoption decisions highlights the importance of accounting for spatial effects in farmers' decision-making, which emerges as crucial to the formulation of sustainable agriculture policy.

  6. School Indoor Air Quality Best Management Practices Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard; Ellis, Richard; Hardin, Tim

    This manual, written in response to requirements of the Washington State legislature, focuses on practices which can be undertaken during the siting, design, construction, or renovation of a school, recommends practices to help ensure good indoor air quality during building occupancy, and suggests protocols and useful reference documents for…

  7. Pathogen reduction co-benefits of nutrient best management practices

    PubMed Central

    Wainger, Lisa A.; Barber, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many of the practices currently underway to reduce nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loads entering the Chesapeake Bay have also been observed to support reduction of disease-causing pathogen loadings. We quantify how implementation of these practices, proposed to meet the nutrient and sediment caps prescribed by the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), could reduce pathogen loadings and provide public health co-benefits within the Chesapeake Bay system. Methods We used published data on the pathogen reduction potential of management practices and baseline fecal coliform loadings estimated as part of prior modeling to estimate the reduction in pathogen loadings to the mainstem Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay attributable to practices implemented as part of the TMDL. We then compare the estimates with the baseline loadings of fecal coliform loadings to estimate the total pathogen reduction potential of the TMDL. Results We estimate that the TMDL practices have the potential to decrease disease-causing pathogen loads from all point and non-point sources to the mainstem Potomac River and the entire Chesapeake Bay watershed by 19% and 27%, respectively. These numbers are likely to be underestimates due to data limitations that forced us to omit some practices from analysis. Discussion Based on known impairments and disease incidence rates, we conclude that efforts to reduce nutrients may create substantial health co-benefits by improving the safety of water-contact recreation and seafood consumption. PMID:27904807

  8. ROLE OF WATERSHED SUBDIVISION ON MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributed parameter watershed models are often used for evaluating the effectiveness of various best management practices (BMPs). Streamflow, sediment, and nutrient yield predictions of a watershed model can be affected by spatial resolution as dictated by watershed subdivisio...

  9. Watershed optimization of best management practices using AnnAGNPS and a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, P.; Hamlett, J. M.; Robillard, P. D.; Day, R. L.

    2002-03-01

    An optimization algorithm linked with a nonpoint source (NPS) pollution model can be used to optimize NPS pollution control strategies on a field-by-field basis in a watershed by maximizing NPS pollution reduction and net monetary return. In this paper a methodology is described which integrated a genetic algorithm (GA) (an optimization algorithm) with a continuous simulation, watershed-scale, NPS pollution model, Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution model (AnnAGNPS) to optimize the selection of best management practices (BMP) on a field-by-field basis for an entire watershed. To test the methodology, optimization analysis was performed for a U.S. Department of Agriculture experimental watershed in Pennsylvania to identify BMPs that minimized long-term (over a 4-year period) water quality degradation and maximized net farm return on an annual basis. Results indicate that the GA was able to identify BMP schemes that reduced pollutant load by as much as 56% and increased net annual return by 109%.

  10. Effects of Best Management Practice on Ecological Condition: Does Location Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Roger; Armanini, David G.; Yates, Adam G.

    2016-05-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) are increasingly being promoted as a solution to the potentially adverse effects agriculture can have on aquatic systems. However, the ability of BMPs to improve riverine systems continues to be questioned due to equivocal empirical evidence linking BMP use with improved stream conditions, particularly in regard to ecological conditions. Explicitly viewing BMP location in relation to hydrological pathways may, however, assist in establishing stronger ecological linkages. The goal of this study was to assess the association between water chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrate community structure, and the number and location of agricultural BMPs in a catchment. Macroinvertebrate and water samples were collected in 30 small (<12 km2) catchments exhibiting gradients of BMP use and location in the Grand River Watershed, Southern Ontario, Canada. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that concentrations of most stream nutrients declined in association with greater numbers of BMPs and particularly when BMPs were located in hydrologically connected areas. However, BMPs were significantly associated with only one metric (%EPT) describing macroinvertebrate community structure. Furthermore, variance partitioning analysis indicated that less than 5 % of the among site variation in the macroinvertebrate community could be attributed to BMPs. Overall, the implemented BMPs appear to be achieving water quality improvement goals but spatial targeting of specific BMP types may allow management agencies to attain further water quality improvements more efficiently. Mitigation and rehabilitation measures beyond the BMPs assessed in this study may be required to meet goals of enhanced ecological condition.

  11. Project 15: McIntosh enhanced stormwater treatment wetland best management practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study will quantify the effectiveness of best management practice (BMP) in enhancing the treatment of stormwater runoff. By combining treatment mechanisms in series rather than using a single method of treatment for stormwater, the overall levels and reliability of pollutant removal can be impr...

  12. Evaluating the Effect of Green Infrastructure Stormwater Best Management Practices on New England Stream Habitat

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is evaluating the effectiveness of green infrastructure (GI) stormwater best management practices (BMPs) on stream habitat at the small watershed (< HUC12) scale in New England. Predictive models for thermal regime and substrate characteristics (substrate size, % em...

  13. Implementation of retrofit best management practices in a suburban watershed (Cincinnati OH) via economic incentives

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great potential for managing stormwater runoff quantity; however, implementation in already-developed areas remains a challenge. We assess the viability of economic incentives to place best management practices (BMPs) on parcels in a 1.8 km2 suburban watershed near Cinci...

  14. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND IN THE STATEN ISLAND BLUEBELT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored is a retention pond with wetland plantings in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed. This BMP, designated RC-...

  15. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND IN THE STATEN ISLAND BLUEBELL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Stormwater Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored, a wetland/retention pond, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed in the New York City Department of Envi...

  16. Explanation for Anomalous Readings during Monitoring of a Best Management Practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has monitored storm-water drainage and best management practices (BMPs) as part of its overall research program. As part of this effort, continuous monitoring equipment was deployed to measure both storm events and periods bet...

  17. Monitoring of a Best Management Practice Wetland Before and After Maintenance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its overall research program. One such project monitored a retention pond with wetland plantings in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed; one of several in...

  18. Best management practices for reducing nutrient loads in a sub-watershed of Chesapeake Bay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality improvement in the Chesapeake Bay is a grave concern. An initiative to reduce the nutrient loads to stream has been undertaken to attain a target total maximum daily load (TMDL) at Chesapeake Bay. A general guideline with a set of best management practices (BMPs) has been in place for ...

  19. Best management practices for reducing nutrient loads in a sub-watershed of Chesapeake Bay area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality improvement in the Chesapeake Bay is a grave concern. An initiative to reduce the nutrient loads to stream has been undertaken to attain a target total maximum daily load (TMDL) at Chesapeake Bay. A general guideline with a set of best management practices (BMPs) has been in place for ...

  20. BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE CONTROL OF NUTRIENTS FROM URBAN NONPOINT SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While the costs and benefits associated with the point source control of nutrients are relatively well defined, considerable uncertainties remain in the efficiency and long-term costs associated with the best management practices (BMPs) used to redcuce loads from nonpoint and dif...

  1. Adoption and farmer perception of best management practices in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Portero, Ángela; Vanwallenghem, Tom; Laguna, Ana; Vanderlinden, Karl; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Bijttebier, Jo; ten Berge, Hein

    2015-04-01

    Soil resources in many parts of Europe are being degraded due to non-sustainable land and soil management practices. During the past decennia, best management practices (BMPs) have been developed in order to maintain or restore soil health. However, the adoption rate in practice is rather low. Amongst other reasons, these practices might lack on-farm compatibility, or farmers may lack confidence in the proposed measures. In order to assess the adoption of management practices (MPs) and obtain information on farmer perception a study was performed in the Southern region of Spain (Andalusia), within three predefined farm type zones (FTZs) corresponding to arable, permanent crop and mixed farms. In order to identify main drivers and barriers for the adoption of different tillage practices, a sequential mixed method was applied, by combining qualitative and quantitative research techniques at different stages in time. First, a qualitative data-collection though semi-structured interviews were conducted in each FTZ to identify behavioral outcomes, normative referents and control factors for each unique MP in that specific FTZ context. Secondly, the quantitative stage of the mixed method approach encompassed a large scale survey based on the final list of control factors, outcomes and referents of each BMP which resulted from the first stage. As a final qualitative step, focus groups were conducted in each FTZ to elaborate on possible solutions towards the barriers on one or more MPs For this particular region of Spain, we observed that the adoption rates of a certain MP differed among subregions within each FTZ. In general barriers and drivers were found to vary in their nature and across the different subregions, although some of them were common across all subregions. It is noteworthy that the Common Agricultural Policy is the main influential agent for farmers' decisions and their perception of drivers (financial support) and limitations (rigidity of the measures

  2. Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This plan was prepared in support of the Phase II Remedial Design Report (DOE/OR/01-1449&D1) and in accordance with requirements under CERCLA to present the plan for best management practices to be followed during the remediation. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about spill prevention and control, water quality monitoring, good housekeeping practices, sediment and erosion control measures, and inspections and environmental compliance practices to be used during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit.

  3. Hydrology and the effects of selected agricultural best-management practices in the Bald Eagle Creek Watershed, York County, Pennsylvania, prior to and during nutrient management : Water-Quality Study for the Chesapeake Bay Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael J.; Fishel, David K.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, conducted a study as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay Program to determine the effects of nutrient management of surface-water quality by reducing animal units in a 0.43-square-mile agricultural watershed in York County. The study was conducted primarily from October 1985 through September 1990 prior to and during the implementation of nutrient-management practices designed to reduce nutrient and sediment discharges. Intermittent sampling continued until August 1991. The Bald Eagle Creek Basin is underlain by schist and quartzite. About 87 percent of the watershed is cropland and pasture. Nearly 33 percent of the cropland was planted in corn prior to nutrient management, whereas 22 percent of the cropland was planted in corn during the nutrient-management phase. The animal population was reduced by 49 percent during nutrient management. Average annual applications of nitrogen and phosphorus from manure to cropland were reduced by 3,940 pounds (39 percent) and 910 pounds (46 percent), respectively, during nutrient management. A total of 94,560 pounds of nitrogen (538 pounds per acre) and 26,400 pounds of phosphorus (150 pounds per acre) were applied to the cropland as commercial fertilizer and manure during the 5-year study. Core samples from the top 4 feet of soil were collected prior to and during nutrient management and analyzed from concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The average amount of nitrate nitrogen in the soil ranged from 36 to 135 pounds per acre, and soluble phosphorus ranged from 0.39 to 2.5 pounds per acre, prior to nutrient management. During nutrient management, nitrate nitrogen in the soil ranged from 21 to 291 pounds per acre and soluble phosphorus ranged from 0.73 to 1.7 pounds per acre. Precipitation was about 18 percent below normal and streamflow was about 35

  4. Why farmers adopt best management practice in the United States: A meta-analysis of the adoption literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumgart-Getz, Adam; Stalker Prokopy, Linda; Floress, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis of both published and unpublished studies assesses factors believed to influence adoption of agricultural Best Management Practices in the United States. Using an established statistical technique to summarize the adoption literature in the United States, we identified the following variables as having the largest impact on adoption: access to and quality of information, financial capacity, and being connected to agency or local networks of farmers or watershed groups. This study shows that various approaches to data collection affect the results and comparability of adoption studies. In particular, environmental awareness and farmer attitudes have been inconsistently used and measured across the literature. This meta-analysis concludes with suggestions regarding the future direction of adoption studies, along with guidelines for how data should be presented to enhance the adoption of conservation practices and guide research.

  5. REVERSE AUCTION RESULTS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF DECENTRALIZED RETROFIT BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN A SMALL URBAN WATERSHED (CINCINNATI OH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urban stormwater is typically conveyed to centralized infrastructure, there is great potential for reducing stormwater runoff quantity through decentralization. In this case we hypothesize that smaller-scale retrofit best management practices (BMPs) such as rain gardens ...

  6. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Overview of EPA's Methodology to Address the Environmental Footprint of Site Cleanup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contaminated site cleanups involving complex activities may benefit from a detailed environmental footprint analysis to inform decision-making about application of suitable best management practices for greener cleanups.

  7. Assessing the effectiveness of green infrastructure stormwater best management practices in New England at the small watershed scale.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of existing Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) and Low Impact Development and to predict the relative effectiveness of proposed stormwater management plans in maintaining the habitat and biotic integrity of streams in New ...

  8. Water quality effects and placement of pasture best management practices in the Spring Creek Watershed (Centre County, PA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based best management practices (BMPs), including stream bank fencing, stream crossings, and bank stabilization, improved water quality ten years after installation by reducing sediment, but did not affect nitrogen concentration. Abundance and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates increas...

  9. SUSTAIN – A Framework for Placement of Best Management Practices in Urban Watersheds to Protect Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUSTAIN (System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration) is a decision support system to facilitate selection and placement of best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) techniques at strategic locations in urban watersheds. It was develope...

  10. Engineered Hyporheic Zones as Novel Water Quality Best Management Practice: Flow and Contaminant Attenuation in Constructed Stream Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, S.; McCray, J. E.; Higgins, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is a hotspot for biogeochemical processing that can attenuate a variety of nonpoint source contaminants in streamwater. However, hyporheic zones in urban and agricultural streams are often degraded and poorly connected with surface water. In order to increase hyporheic exchange and improve water quality, we introduced engineered streambeds as a stormwater and restoration best management practice. Modifications to streambed hydraulic conductivity and reactivity are termed Biohydrochemical Enhancement structures for Streamwater Treatment (BEST). BEST are subsurface modules that utilize low- and high-permeability sediments to drive efficient hyporheic exchange, and reactive geomedia to increase reaction rates within the hyporheic zone. This work presents the first physical performance data of BEST modules at the pilot scale. BEST modules were installed in a constructed stream facility at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, CO. This facility features two 15m artificial streams, which included an all sand control condition alongside the BEST test condition. Streams were continuously operated at a discharge of 1 L/s using recycled water. Time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys demonstrated that BEST modules provided substantially greater hyporheic exchange than the control condition. Water quality samples at the hyporheic and reach scales also revealed greater attenuation of nitrogen, coliforms, and select metals and trace organics by BEST modules relative to the control condition. These experimental results were also compared to previous numerical model simulations to evaluate model accuracy. Together, these results show that BEST may be an effective best management practice for improving streamwater quality in urban and agricultural settings.

  11. The Stakeholder Preference for Best Management Practices in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jiali; Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Sun, Chengchun; Huang, Qin

    2014-11-01

    A qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 92 farmers and 42 policy managers in Wuxi County, the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, was conducted to identify stakeholder preferences for alternative best management practices (BMPs) and to determine the factors that affect their acceptance. Policy manager support for most of the practices was relatively stronger than support by farmers, except for the grade stabilization structure (GSS), hillside ditch (HD) and constructed wetland alternative, owing to their perceptions of soil benefits, economic advantages and environmental advantages. Farmers opposed those practices that occupied cultivated lands or changed the conventional planting methods, such as field border, conservation tillage (CT) and contour buffer strips. They tended to accept the BMPs with off-farm pollution reduction, such as GSS, riparian forest buffer and HD, and the BMPs associated with soil benefits, such as nutrient management and Terrace. The result that almost all respondents did not accept CT differed from reports in the existing literature. There is a significant correlation between the acceptance of some BMPs and the townships where the farmers lived ( P ≤ 0.05). The environmental conditions and social factors would affect farmer support for BMPs, including local soil conditions, farming methods, economic income, education level and age. The economic advantages of the BMPs were the main motivation for farmers to accept the practices. Furthermore, intensive education efforts, financial incentives or economic subsidies may promote the adoption of the BMPs in our study area.

  12. The stakeholder preference for best management practices in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiali; Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Sun, Chengchun; Huang, Qin

    2014-11-01

    A qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 92 farmers and 42 policy managers in Wuxi County, the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, was conducted to identify stakeholder preferences for alternative best management practices (BMPs) and to determine the factors that affect their acceptance. Policy manager support for most of the practices was relatively stronger than support by farmers, except for the grade stabilization structure (GSS), hillside ditch (HD) and constructed wetland alternative, owing to their perceptions of soil benefits, economic advantages and environmental advantages. Farmers opposed those practices that occupied cultivated lands or changed the conventional planting methods, such as field border, conservation tillage (CT) and contour buffer strips. They tended to accept the BMPs with off-farm pollution reduction, such as GSS, riparian forest buffer and HD, and the BMPs associated with soil benefits, such as nutrient management and Terrace. The result that almost all respondents did not accept CT differed from reports in the existing literature. There is a significant correlation between the acceptance of some BMPs and the townships where the farmers lived (P ≤ 0.05). The environmental conditions and social factors would affect farmer support for BMPs, including local soil conditions, farming methods, economic income, education level and age. The economic advantages of the BMPs were the main motivation for farmers to accept the practices. Furthermore, intensive education efforts, financial incentives or economic subsidies may promote the adoption of the BMPs in our study area.

  13. A topography analysis incorporated optimization method for the selection and placement of best management practices.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Xu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Best Management Practices (BMPs) are one of the most effective methods to control nonpoint source (NPS) pollution at a watershed scale. In this paper, the use of a topography analysis incorporated optimization method (TAIOM) was proposed, which integrates topography analysis with cost-effective optimization. The surface status, slope and the type of land use were evaluated as inputs for the optimization engine. A genetic algorithm program was coded to obtain the final optimization. The TAIOM was validated in conjunction with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the Yulin watershed in Southwestern China. The results showed that the TAIOM was more cost-effective than traditional optimization methods. The distribution of selected BMPs throughout landscapes comprising relatively flat plains and gentle slopes, suggests the need for a more operationally effective scheme, such as the TAIOM, to determine the practicability of BMPs before widespread adoption. The TAIOM developed in this study can easily be extended to other watersheds to help decision makers control NPS pollution.

  14. Kraft mill effluent survey: progress toward best management practices for reducing effects on fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Tibor G; Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; MacLatchy, Deborah L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Hewitt, L Mark

    2011-06-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents have been linked to effects on fish reproduction for more than 25 years. To date, the causes of these effects and remedial strategies have eluded investigators. Recent work has shown that the degree of reproductive effect caused by a mill effluent is related to the overall organic content. If verified, this could lead to breakthroughs for best management practices (BMPs). For this study, the effluents from seven kraft mills were assessed for their ability to reduce egg production in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in the laboratory. At the same time, the effluents were analyzed for three parameters thought to be good indicators of organic losses: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), methyl-substituted 2-cyclopentenones (cellulose degradation products), and a gas chromatographic (GC) profile index, which integrates the total area of the chromatographic peaks of solvent-extracted effluents using low-resolution mass spectrometry. The results showed that the degree to which the effluents reduced egg production increased with increased organic losses as characterized by BOD and the GC profile index. Therefore, these parameters could be used to guide BMPs at kraft mills according to specific targets: BOD < 20 mg/L and GC profile index equivalent to effluent with BOD of 20 mg/L. Such targets should be achievable by good in-plant control of organic losses and optimized effluent biotreatment systems.

  15. Biogas production in Kentucky: A best management practice alternative for nonpoint source pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Zourarakis, D.P.; Coleman, S.A.; Thom, W.O.

    1996-12-31

    Despite continued conservation efforts on the part of private landowners, citizens groups, universities, and government agencies, the lack of adequate animal waste management systems still poses a significant threat to both water and land quality in Kentucky. Recent surveys indicate that only a fraction of the animal confinement units in the state have waste management systems in good operating condition. Biogas production systems are not presently included as a technological option or {open_quotes}best management practice{close_quotes} (BMP) for recycling animal wastes and are not eligible for Cost Share financial aid programs. Abundant animal manure is produced as a reasonably collectible resource in farm operations where dairy cattle, swine, and poultry are raised. Broiler and layer houses are rapidly proliferating in the western part of the state. This paper assesses the economic viability of using a low-cost, floating cover lagoon technology to collect biogas and generate electricity in several types of animal raising operations. In cases where the biogas energy can be used effectively on the farm and the technology receives partial funding as a BMP, the technology is economically viable.

  16. Implementation of a best management practice (BMP) system for a clay mining facility in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jen-Yang; Chen, Yen-Chang; Chen, Walter; Lee, Tsu-Chuan; Yu, Shaw L

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes the planning and implementation of a best management practice (BMP) system for a clay mining facility in Northern Taiwan. It is a challenge to plan and design BMPs for mitigating the impact of clay mining operations due to the fact that clay mining drainage typically contains very high concentrations of suspended solids (SS), Fe-ions, and [H+] concentrations. In the present study, a field monitoring effort was conducted to collect data for runoff quality and quantity from a clay mining area in Northern Taiwan. A BMP system including holding ponds connected in series was designed and implemented and its pollutant removal performance was assessed. The assessment was based on mass balance computations and an analysis of the relationship between BMP design parameters such as pond depth, detention time, surface loading rate, etc. and the pollutant removal efficiency. Field sampling results showed that the surface-loading rate is exponential related to the removing rate. The results provide the basis for a more comprehensive and efficient BMP implementation plan for clay mining operations.

  17. Identifying key factors in homeowner's adoption of water quality best management practices.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Joan M; Pasko, Danielle K; Eisenhauer, Brian W

    2013-07-01

    The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf , 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs.

  18. Permitting program with best management practices for shale gas wells to safeguard public health.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Petetin, Ludivine

    2015-11-01

    The development of shale gas resources in the United States has been controversial as governments have been tardy in devising sufficient safeguards to protect both people and the environment. Alleged health and environmental damages suggest that other countries around the world that decide to develop their shale gas resources can learn from these problems and take further actions to prevent situations resulting in the release of harmful pollutants. Looking at U.S. federal regulations governing large animal operations under the permitting provisions of the Clean Water Act, the idea of a permitting program is proposed to respond to the risks of pollution by shale gas development activities. Governments can require permits before allowing the drilling of a new gas well. Each permit would include fluids and air emissions reduction plans containing best management practices to minimize risks and releases of pollutants. The public availability of permits and permit applications, as occurs for water pollution under various U.S. permitting programs, would assist governments in protecting public health. The permitting proposals provide governments a means for providing further assurances that shale gas development projects will not adversely affect people and the environment.

  19. Evaluating barnyard Best Management Practices in Wisconsin using upstream-downstream monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.

    1995-01-01

    The Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program was created in 1978 by the Wisconsin Legislature. The goal of the program is to improve and protect the water quality of lakes, streams, wetlands, and ground water within selected priority watersheds by controlling sources of nonpoint pollution. For each selected watershed, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources drafts a management plan that guides the implementation of pollution-control strategies known as Best Management Practices (BMP's). This plan summarizes resource and land-use inventories, describes the results of pollution-source modeling, and suggests pollution reduction goals. The U.S. Geological Survey, through a cooperative effort with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, is monitoring water-quality improvements that result from the implementation of BMP's. The data collected are then compared to the watershed plans to assess progress and determine whether goals are being realized. This fact sheet describes the data-collection efforts, preliminary results, and planned data-analysis techniques of monitoring projects for pre-BMP conditions at two barnyards, one each on Otter Creek and Halfway Prairie Creek.

  20. Integrated Stormwater Management in Los Angeles, California: Best Management Practices and Evaluation of Ancillary Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Best Management Practices (BMPs) and Low Impact Development (LID) have been the primary tools to address quantitative and qualitative surface runoff impacts. The City of Los Angeles (City) is evaluating plans for individual Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) pollutants in each of its major watersheds. However, it has yet to be studied if implementing individual BMP projects will adequately address water quality objectives for receiving (downstream) water bodies, such as Ballona Creek, Ballona Estuary and the Santa Monica Bay. In addition, there is significant uncertainty surrounding potential ancillary benefits (flood reduction, water supply, green space, etc.) from BMP/LID implementation. This presentation will overview our work with the City evaluating the influence of BMPs and LIDs in improving water quality at the watershed scale as well as quantifying other hydrologic benefits. Multiple BMP scenarios are considered to identify various pathways toward improved receiving water body quality in Ballona Creek and Dominquez watersheds. Specific study objectives are to: 1) identify suites of BMP scenarios which can lead to TMDL compliance, 2) quantify the multiple benefits provided by BMPs beyond their primary water quality improvement purpose, and 3) evaluate the success of using existing software for watershed-scale BMP modeling. Our goal is to provide realistic, implementable pathways that can be used by stakeholders to help plan for future education, outreach and capital improvement programs as well as determine feasible pollutant reduction objectives.

  1. Incorporating water quality responses into the framework of best management practices optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Wei, Guoyuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-10-01

    Determining cost-effective configurations of best management practices (BMPs) is a notably complex problem, especially for large-scale watersheds. In this paper, a Markov-based simulator that has been developed to quantify water quality responses is described, and a new framework is also proposed for the optimal design of BMPs by integrating the Markov approach, a watershed model, and an evolutionary algorithm. This new framework was then tested in a typical watershed, the Three Georges Reservoir Region in China. The results obtained from this application indicate the integration of water quality responses is vital for the optimal design of BMPs, especially for the downstream areas of the targeted river assessment section. The Markov-based algorithm had a computational advantage over traditional algorithm and this new algorithm offers the prospect of providing more cost-effective medium-cost solutions. The relative impacts of upstream BMPs were also highlighted in protecting water quality at multiple river assessment sections. This new algorithm can easily be extended to any other watershed to aid decision managers in the optimal design of BMPs at the watershed scale.

  2. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices.

    PubMed

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K

    2016-09-01

    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (<1%). Despite being an immobile element in the soil, migration of Pb within shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state.

  3. Water quality effects of clearcut harvesting and forest fertilization with best management practices.

    PubMed

    McBroom, Matthew W; Beasley, R Scott; Chang, Mingteh; Ice, George G

    2008-01-01

    Nine small (2.5 ha) and four large (70-135 ha) watersheds were instrumented in 1999 to evaluate the effects of silvicultural practices with application of best management practices (BMPs) on stream water quality in East Texas, USA. Two management regimes were implemented in 2002: (i) conventional, with clearcutting, herbicide site preparation, and BMPs and (ii) intensive, which added subsoiling, aerial broadcast fertilization, and an additional herbicide application. Watershed effects were compared with results from a study on the same small watersheds in 1981, in which two combinations of harvesting and mechanical site preparation without BMPs or fertilization were evaluated. Clearcutting with conventional site preparation resulted in increased nitrogen losses on the small watersheds by about 1 additional kg ha(-1) each of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) in 2003. First-year losses were not significantly increased on the large watershed with a conventional site preparation with BMPs. Fertilization resulted in increased runoff losses in 2003 on the intensive small watersheds by an additional 0.77, 2.33, and 0.36 kg ha(-1) for NO(3)-N, TKN, and total phosphorus, respectively. Total loss rates of ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and NO(3)-N were low overall and accounted for only approximately 7% of the applied N. Mean loss rates from treated watersheds were much lower than rainfall inputs of about 5 kg ha(-1) TKN and NO(3)-N in 2003. Aerial fertilization of the 5-yr-old stand on another large watershed did not increase nutrient losses. Intensive silvicultural practices with BMPs did not significantly impair surface water quality with N and P.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of effects of best management practices in the Black Earth Creek, Wisconsin, priority watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Olem, H.

    1993-01-01

    Nonpoint-source contamination accounts for a substantial part of the water quality problems in many watersheds. The Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program provides matching money for voluntary implementation of various best management practices (BMPs). The effectiveness of BMPs on a drainage-basin scale has not been adequately assessed in Wisconsin by use of data collected before and after BMP implementation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, monitored water quality in the Black Earth Creek watershed in southern Wisconsin from October 1984 through September 1986 (pre-BMP conditions). BMP implementation began during the summer of 1989 and is planned to continue through 1993. Data collection resumed in fall 1989 and is intended to provide information during the transitional period of BMP implementation (1990-93) and 2 years of post-BMP conditions (1994-95). Preliminary results presented for two subbasins in toe Black Earth Creek watershed (Brewery and Garfoot Creeks) are based on data collected during pre-BMP conditions and the first 3 years of the transitional period. The analysis includes the use of regressions to control for natural variability in the data and, hence, enhance the ability to detect changes. Data collected to date (1992) indicate statistically significant differences in storm mass transport of suspended sediment and ammonia nitrogen at Brewery Creek. The central tendency of the regression residuals has decreased with the implementation of BMPs; hence, the improvement in water quality in the Brewery Creek watershed is likely a result of BMP implementation. Differences in storm mass transport at Garfoot Creek were not detected, primarily because of an insufficient number of storms in the transitional period. As practice implementation continues, the additional data will be used to determine the level of management which results in significant improvements in water

  5. Identifying best management practices to minimize P loss in a tile drained landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses from agriculture have been identified as a primary contributor to harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie. The objectives of this presentation will be to provide estimates of cropping systems management and other conservation practices that can be used to minimize P losses from this land...

  6. Urban Stormwater Modeling: Ultra-High-Resolution Evaluation of Best Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, S. R.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Urban infrastructures affect drainage networks, alter flow paths, change feedbacks to the atmosphere and enhance contaminant transport. Urban stormwater either floods a system due to poor drainage and impervious surfaces, or is quickly transported out of the system in channels that then carry contaminants to downstream ecosystems with potentially harmful impacts. To mitigate these impacts, developers often use best management practices (BMPs) such as pervious pavement, infiltration basins, rain gardens or engineered wetlands. BMPs are typically represented using conceptually-based, coarse resolution hydrologic models; however, to effectively capture the flow dynamics, trace non-source pollutants and test BMP types and distributions, a high-resolution hydrologic model is needed. The goal of this work is to develop a novel approach to evaluate BMP implementation using an ultra-high-resolution hydrologic model. This study domain is located in Aurora, CO, in an area characterized by growing urban development. The ultra-high-resolution domain was constructed using LIDAR imagery and consisted of 1m x 1m horizontal resolution over a ~12 km by 4.5 km lateral extent up to 1m in the subsurface, with a domain totaling more than 108 unknowns. This analysis was performed using ParFlow, a physically-based, parallel hydrologic model that simulates surface and subsurface water interactions. Extreme wet, dry and normal storms events were coupled with three types of pervious pavement, amounting to 9 simulation scenarios. We investigated changes to stormwater routing and infiltration with and without BMP implementation. Contaminant transport is also included in this analysis via a Lagrangian, particle tracking approach, that allows for complex, contaminant-loading scenarios common in the urban environment. Future work includes investigating implications of alternate BMPs also used within urban developments.

  7. Best management practices for nutrient and sediment retention in urban stormwater runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, D.M.; Walbridge, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Stormwater management infrastructure is utilized in urban areas to alleviate flooding caused by decreased landscape permeability from increased impervious surface cover (ISC) construction. In this study, we examined two types of stormwater detention basins, SDB-BMPs (stormwater detention basin-best management practice), and SDB-FCs (stormwater detention basin-flood control). Both are constructed to retain peak stormwater flows for flood mitigation. However, the SDB-BMPs are also designed using basin topography and wetland vegetation to provide water quality improvement (nutrient and sediment removal and retention). The objective of this study was to compare SDB (both SDB-BMP and SDB-FC) surface soil P concentrations, P saturation, and Fe chemistry with natural riparian wetlands (RWs), using sites in Fairfax County, Virginia as a model system. The SDB-BMPs had significantly greater surface soil total P (Pt) concentrations than the RWs and SDB-FCs (831.9 ?? 32.5 kg ha-1, 643.3 ?? 19.1 kg ha-1, and 652.1 ?? 18.8 kg ha-1, respectively). The soil P sorption capacities of SDB-BMPs were similar to the RWs, and were greater than those of SDB-FCs, appearing to result in greater soil P removal and retention in SDB-BMPs compared with SDB-FCs. Increased Fe concentrations and relatively greater amounts of more crystalline forms of Fe in SDB-BMP soils suggested increased sediment deposition compared with RW and SDB-FC soils. Data suggest that SDB nutrient and sediment retention is facilitated in SDB-BMPs. When stormwater management is necessary, use of SDB-BMPs instead of SDB-FCs could foster more responsible urban development and be an appropriate mitigation action for receiving aquatic ecosystems. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  8. Large-scale performance and design for construction activity erosion control best management practices.

    PubMed

    Faucette, L B; Scholl, B; Beighley, R E; Governo, J

    2009-01-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II requires construction activities to have erosion and sediment control best management practices (BMPs) designed and installed for site storm water management. Although BMPs are specified on storm water pollution prevention plans (SWPPPs) as part of the construction general permit (GP), there is little evidence in the research literature as to how BMPs perform or should be designed. The objectives of this study were to: (i) comparatively evaluate the performance of common construction activity erosion control BMPs under a standardized test method, (ii) evaluate the performance of compost erosion control blanket thickness, (iii) evaluate the performance of compost erosion control blankets (CECBs) on a variety of slope angles, and (iv) determine Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover management factors (C factors) for these BMPs to assist site designers and engineers. Twenty-three erosion control BMPs were evaluated using American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-6459, standard test method for determination of ECB performance in protecting hill slopes from rainfall induced erosion, on 4:1 (H:V), 3:1, and 2:1 slopes. Soil loss reduction for treatments exposed to 5 cm of rainfall on a 2:1 slope ranged from-7 to 99%. For rainfall exposure of 10 cm, treatment soil loss reduction ranged from 8 to 99%. The 2.5 and 5 cm CECBs significantly reduced erosion on slopes up to 2:1, while CECBs < 2.5 cm are not recommended on slopes >or= 4:1 when rainfall totals reach 5 cm. Based on the soil loss results, USLE C factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.9. These performance and design criteria should aid site planners and designers in decision-making processes.

  9. Particle-Tracking within an Ultra-High-Resolution Urban Domain Integrated with Best Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, S. R.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) are used to offset the impacts of urban developments known to decrease aquifer recharge, alter drainage networks, change feedbacks to the atmosphere and enhance contaminant transport. To evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs (i.e. engineered wetlands, grass swales, permeable pavements, etc.), a high-resolution study of these processes can be performed in the field using timely monitored instruments, or conceptually-based hydrologic models. However, this approach requires advancing stormwater modeling techniques using high performance computing. The goal of this work is to develop a novel approach to evaluate BMP implementation using an ultra-high-resolution domain and ParFlow, a physically-based hydrologic model that simulates surface and subsurface water interactions. This study domain is located in Aurora, CO, an area that experienced over 200% urban growth over the last 30 years. The ultra-high-resolution domain was constructed using LIDAR imagery and consisted of 1m x 1m horizontal resolution over a ~7.7 km by 2.1 km lateral extent up to 2 m in the subsurface, with a domain totaling more than 3x106unknowns. Three storm events (wet, dry and normal) were simulated with two pavement types, permeable (K=0.18 mhr-1,Φ=0.1) and impermeable (K=0.0018 mhr-1, Φ=0.06), amounting to 6 simulation scenarios. We investigated changes to stormwater routing and infiltration with and without BMP implementation. Contaminant transport was performed using SLIM-FAST, a Lagrangian, particle tracking approach that allows for complex, contaminant-loading scenarios common in the urban environment. Preliminary results show delayed particle movement within impermeable pavement scenarios and particle trapping along the gutters and rooftop locations. This approach is useful for evaluating the effectiveness of BMPs in trapping and reducing concentrations of emerging contaminants of concern within urban environments.

  10. Shale Gas Development and Brook Trout: Scaling Best Management Practices to Anticipate Cumulative Effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Shale gas development may involve trade-offs between energy development and benefits provided by natural ecosystems. However, current best management practices (BMPs) focus on mitigating localized ecological degradation. We review evidence for cumulative effects of natural gas development on brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and conclude that BMPs should account for potential watershed-scale effects in addition to localized influences. The challenge is to develop BMPs in the face of uncertainty in the predicted response of brook trout to landscape-scale disturbance caused by gas extraction. We propose a decision-analysis approach to formulating BMPs in the specific case of relatively undisturbed watersheds where there is consensus to maintain brook trout populations during gas development. The decision analysis was informed by existing empirical models that describe brook trout occupancy responses to landscape disturbance and set bounds on the uncertainty in the predicted responses to shale gas development. The decision analysis showed that a high efficiency of gas development (e.g., 1 well pad per square mile and 7 acres per pad) was critical to achieving a win-win solution characterized by maintaining brook trout and maximizing extraction of available gas. This finding was invariant to uncertainty in predicted response of brook trout to watershed-level disturbance. However, as the efficiency of gas development decreased, the optimal BMP depended on the predicted response, and there was considerable potential value in discriminating among predictive models through adaptive management or research. The proposed decision-analysis framework provides an opportunity to anticipate the cumulative effects of shale gas development, account for uncertainty, and inform management decisions at the appropriate spatial scales.

  11. RECONCILING ON-SITE STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE (BMP) EFFECTIVENESS AND PERFORMANCE WITH CURRENT HYDROLOGIC AND ECONOMIC PERCEPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is currently a dearth of data characterizing best management practice impacts on runoff production at the parcel-level. This data is of critical importance insofar as judging the effectiveness and reliability of on-site stormwater BMPs, with significant implications for bot...

  12. THE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF PONDS AND WETLANDS AS "BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS)" FOR STREAMS IN DEVELOPING LANDSCAPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ponds and constructed wetlands, also referred to as detention/retention basins, have a long history as best management practices (BMPs) used to mitigate the impacts of stormwater runoff from developed lands on receiving waters. Initially designed for flood control by peak flow at...

  13. Phosphorous Attenuation in Urban Best Management (BMP) and Low Impact Development (LID) Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    While all living organisms require phosphorous (P) to live and grow, adding too much P to the environment can cause unintended and undesirable effects, such as eutrophication of surface waters and harmful algal blooms. Urban best management (BMP) and low impact development (LI...

  14. Comparing the Selection and Placement of Best Management Practices in Improving Water Quality Using a Multiobjective Optimization and Targeting Method

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Maringanti, Chetan; Huang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Suites of Best Management Practices (BMPs) are usually selected to be economically and environmentally efficient in reducing nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas in a watershed. The objective of this research was to compare the selection and placement of BMPs in a pasture-dominated watershed using multiobjective optimization and targeting methods. Two objective functions were used in the optimization process, which minimize pollutant losses and the BMP placement areas. The optimization tool was an integration of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) and a watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool—SWAT). For the targeting method, an optimum BMP option was implemented in critical areas in the watershed that contribute the greatest pollutant losses. A total of 171 BMP combinations, which consist of grazing management, vegetated filter strips (VFS), and poultry litter applications were considered. The results showed that the optimization is less effective when vegetated filter strips (VFS) are not considered, and it requires much longer computation times than the targeting method to search for optimum BMPs. Although the targeting method is effective in selecting and placing an optimum BMP, larger areas are needed for BMP implementation to achieve the same pollutant reductions as the optimization method. PMID:24619160

  15. Use of drinking water treatment residuals as a potential best management practice to reduce phosphorus risk index scores.

    PubMed

    Dayton, E A; Basta, N T

    2005-01-01

    The P risk index system has been developed to identify agricultural fields vulnerable to P loss as a step toward protecting surface water. Because of their high Langmuir phosphorus adsorption maxima (P(max)), use of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) should be considered as a best management practice (BMP) to lower P risk index scores. This work discusses three WTR application methods that can be used to reduce P risk scores: (i) enhanced buffer strip, (ii) incorporation into a high soil test phosphorus (STP) soil, and (iii) co-blending with manure or biosolids. The relationship between WTR P(max) and reduction in P extractability and runoff P was investigated. In a simulated rainfall experiment, using a buffer strip enhanced with 20 Mg WTR ha(-1), runoff P was reduced by from 66.8 to 86.2% and reductions were related to the WTR P(max). When 25 g kg(-1) WTR was incorporated into a high STP soil of 315 mg kg(-1) determined using Mehlich-3 extraction, 0.01 M calcium chloride-extractable phosphorus (CaCl(2)-P) reductions ranged from 60.9 to 96.0% and were strongly (P < 0.01) related to WTR P(max). At a 100 g kg(-1) WTR addition, Mehlich 3-extractable P reductions ranged from 41.1 to 86.7% and were strongly (P < 0.01) related to WTR P(max). Co-blending WTR at 250 g kg(-1) to manure or biosolids reduced CaCl(2)-P by >75%. The WTR P(max) normalized across WTR application rates (P(max) x WTR application) was significantly related to reductions in CaCl(2)-P or STP. Using WTR as a P risk index modifying factor will promote effective use of WTR as a BMP to reduce P loss from agricultural land.

  16. Evaluation of the two-stage ditch as a best management practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodaj, A.; Bowling, L. C.; Cibin, R.; Chaubey, I.

    2015-12-01

    Artificial drainage has long been an important component of agriculture in the poorly-drained regions of the US Corn Belt. Continued increases in drainage intensity funnel more water into existing drainage ditches, resulting in higher flood stages, more erosive water velocities and decreased time for in-channel nutrient processing. The two-stage ditch is a type of in-stream restoration that involves modification of a trapezoidal drainage ditch to resemble more the features of a natural stream. The idea is to create or simulate extended benches on both sides of the ditch that would develop naturally over a period of time in a stream because of geomorphological processes. These in-channel flood plains provide a greater flow area during high flow events and offer the potential to reduce sediment load and extend the interaction time between water and vegetation on the benches, allowing larger uptake of nutrients and increasing the denitrification rates in the bench soil. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model has recently been modified to represent the two-stage ditch as a conservation practice. Processes that are represented in the model include: velocity reductions due to the change in channel geometry, particle settling, plant nutrient uptake and denitrification on the benches of the two-stage ditch. The model is evaluated using data collected from a two-stage ditch constructed at the Throckmorton Purdue Agricultural Center (TPAC) near Lafayette, Indiana in September 2012. It drains an area of approximately 2.7 km2 of farmland used for corn and soybean production. Simulation results for 30 years of weather data indicated the impact of the two-stage ditch on reducing peak flow rates, flood stage and nutrient loads. For this 30 year period, 1985 - 2014, the results showed reductions of up to 40% of peak flow velocities, 35% reduction per km of two-stage ditch, of sediment basin output, 10 - 80% reduction in total phosphorus output and 0 - 15

  17. Riverine Nutrient Load Reductions Through Modeling/Simulation Directed Field Targeting of Best Management Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased agricultural production has led to a reduction in water quality. With the decreasing availability of funds for protection or improvement of water quality, it has become important to spend these dollars wisely. The objective of this study is to model the implementation at different location...

  18. Best Management Practices in the CEAP Goodwater Creek Watershed: What, Where, Why, and How Much?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuation of conservation funding may depend upon demonstration that past funded projects have contributed to improvement of water quality or reduction of pollutant loadings from agricultural sources. In the Goodwater Creek watershed, a 7,250 ha sub-watershed of the Mark Twain Lake watershed in N...

  19. Evaluation of Soil Media for Stormwater Infiltration Best Management Practices (BMPs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will improve the performance of structural management practices, and provide guidance that will allow designers to balance infiltration rates with sorption capacity. This project will also perform a standard column test procedure for evaluating candidate soil media.

  20. DESIGN OF THE DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR PLACEMENT AND SELECTION OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS) FOR STORMWATER CONTROL IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A decision support system for selection and placement of best management practices (BMPs) at strategic locations in urban watersheds is being developed. The primary objective of the system is to assist stormwater management practioners and decision makers in developing effective...

  1. Decision Support Tool For Optimizing Best Management Practices In The US Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct measurements combined with system modeling are used to estimate the impacts of management practices on crop yields and soil organic carbon (SOC). We developed a decision support tool that integrates the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model with soil, climate, land use, and man...

  2. Risk factors and monitoring for water quality to determine best management practices for splash parks.

    PubMed

    de Man, H; Leenen, E J T M; van Knapen, F; de Roda Husman, A M

    2014-09-01

    Splash parks have been associated with infectious disease outbreaks as a result of exposure to poor water quality. To be able to protect public health, risk factors were identified that determine poor water quality. Samples were taken at seven splash parks where operators were willing to participate in the study. Higher concentrations of Escherichia coli were measured in water of splash parks filled with rainwater or surface water as compared with sites filled with tap water, independent of routine inspection intervals and employed disinfection. Management practices to prevent fecal contamination and guarantee maintaining good water quality at splash parks should include selection of source water of acceptable quality.

  3. Evaluation of non-point source pollution reduction by applying best management practices using a SWAT model and QuickBird high resolution satellite imagery.

    PubMed

    Lee, MiSeon; Park, GeunAe; Park, MinJi; Park, JongYoon; Lee, JiWan; Kim, SeongJoon

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the reduction effect of non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs) to a 1.21 km2 small agricultural watershed using a SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. Two meter QuickBird land use data were prepared for the watershed. The SWAT was calibrated and validated using daily streamflow and monthly water quality (total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and suspended solids (SS)) records from 1999 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2002. The average Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency was 0.63 for the streamflow and the coefficients of determination were 0.88, 0.72, and 0.68 for SS, TN, and TP, respectively. Four BMP scenarios viz. the application of vegetation filter strip and riparian buffer system, the regulation of Universal Soil Loss Equation P factor, and the fertilizing control amount for crops were applied and analyzed.

  4. Identifying biogeochemical processes beneath stormwater infiltration ponds in support of a new best management practice for groundwater protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P.; Xuan, Zhemin; Schirmer, Mario; Hoehn, Eduard; Vogt, Tobias

    2011-01-01

     When applying a stormwater infiltration pond best management practice (BMP) for protecting the quality of underlying groundwater, a common constituent of concern is nitrate. Two stormwater infiltration ponds, the SO and HT ponds, in central Florida, USA, were monitored. A temporal succession of biogeochemical processes was identified beneath the SO pond, including oxygen reduction, denitrification, manganese and iron reduction, and methanogenesis. In contrast, aerobic conditions persisted beneath the HT pond, resulting in nitrate leaching into groundwater. Biogeochemical differences likely are related to soil textural and hydraulic properties that control surface/subsurface oxygen exchange. A new infiltration BMP was developed and a full-scale application was implemented for the HT pond. Preliminary results indicate reductions in nitrate concentration exceeding 50% in soil water and shallow groundwater beneath the HT pond.

  5. Combining the Power of Statistical Analyses and Community Interviews to Identify Adoption Barriers for Stormwater Best-Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, F. A.; Bowling, L. C.; Prokopy, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Urban stormwater is an on-going management concern in municipalities of all sizes. In both combined or separated sewer systems, pollutants from stormwater runoff enter the natural waterway system during heavy rain events. Urban flooding during frequent and more intense storms are also a growing concern. Therefore, stormwater best-management practices (BMPs) are being implemented in efforts to reduce and manage stormwater pollution and overflow. The majority of BMP water quality studies focus on the small-scale, individual effects of the BMP, and the change in water quality directly from the runoff of these infrastructures. At the watershed scale, it is difficult to establish statistically whether or not these BMPs are making a difference in water quality, given that watershed scale monitoring is often costly and time consuming, relying on significant sources of funds, which a city may not have. Hence, there is a need to quantify the level of sampling needed to detect the water quality impact of BMPs at the watershed scale. In this study, a power analysis was performed on data from an urban watershed in Lafayette, Indiana, to determine the frequency of sampling required to detect a significant change in water quality measurements. Using the R platform, results indicate that detecting a significant change in watershed level water quality would require hundreds of weekly measurements, even when improvement is present. The second part of this study investigates whether the difficulty in demonstrating water quality change represents a barrier to adoption of stormwater BMPs. Semi-structured interviews of community residents and organizations in Chicago, IL are being used to investigate residents understanding of water quality and best management practices and identify their attitudes and perceptions towards stormwater BMPs. Second round interviews will examine how information on uncertainty in water quality improvements influences their BMP attitudes and perceptions.

  6. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  7. Evaluation of Structural Best Management Practices for Highway Runoff in Beaufort and Colleton Counties, South Carolina, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Kevin; Journey, Celeste

    2009-01-01

    As part of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program mandated in the Clean Water Act, the South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) is required to address the quality of stormwater runoff from state-maintained roadways. From 2005 to 2006, the SCDOT and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked cooperatively in Beaufort and Colleton Counties, South Carolina (SC), to evaluate the performance of four different structural devices that served as best management practices (BMPs). These structural devices were installed to lessen the potential effects of stormwater runoff on water quality in waterways near state roads. The purpose of this Fact Sheet is to summarize results published in the USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5150. The report documents the ability of these four BMP devices to remove suspended sediment, metals, nutrients, and organics compounds in stormwater runoff. The quantity of rainfall and stormflow and quality of stormwater entering and leaving the BMPs were monitored during 12-13 storms over a 21-month period. The results provide the SCDOT with quantitative information to evaluate whether or not the BMPs effectively enhanced stormwater quality. This information can be used by the SCDOT and other State, local, and Federal agencies in the selection of appropriate BMPs for future installation.

  8. Effects of best-management practices in Bower Creek in the East River priority watershed, Wisconsin, 1991-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven R.; Horwatich, Judy A.; Rutter, Troy D.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected at Bower Creek during the periods before best-management practices (BMPs), and after BMPs were installed for evaluation of water-quality improvements. The monitoring was done between 1990 and 2009 with the pre-BMP period ending in July 1994 and the post-BMP period beginning in October 2006. BMPs installed in this basin included streambank protection and fencing, stream crossings, grade stabilization, buffer strips, various barnyard-runoff controls, nutrient management, and a low degree of upland BMPs. Water-quality evaluations included base-flow concentrations and storm loads for total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen. The only reductions detected between the base-flow samples of the pre- and post-BMP periods were in median concentrations of total phosphorus from base-flow samples, but not for total suspended solids or dissolved ammonia nitrogen. Differences in storm loads for the three water-quality constituents monitored were not observed during the study period.

  9. Research for the development of best management practices for minimizing horse trail impacts on the Hoosier National Forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aust, M.W.; Marion, J.L.; Kyle, K.

    2005-01-01

    This research investigates horse trail impacts to gain an improved understanding of the relationship between various levels of horse use, horse trail management alternatives, and subsequent horse trail degradation. A survey of existing horse trails on the Hoosier National Forest was used to collect data on use-related, environmental and management factors to model horse trail impacts. Results are analyzed to identify which factors are most easily manipulated by managers to effectively avoid and minimize horse trail impacts. A specific focus includes evaluating the relative effect of trail use level, surfacing, grade, and water control on indices of erosion and trafficability such as trail cross sectional area, estimated erosion, muddiness, and incision. Overall, the Hoosier National Forest horse trails could be significantly improved by relocating or closing inherited trails that directly ascend slope or are excessively steep, reducing the distance between water control structures, and by applying gravel to harden trail surfaces and reduce soil erosion. A set of Best Management Practices for trails are included as a product of this work, with recommendations based on this research.

  10. A web tool for STORET/WQX water quality data retrieval and Best Management Practice scenario suggestion.

    PubMed

    Park, Youn Shik; Engel, Bernie A; Kim, Jonggun; Theller, Larry; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Merwade, Venkatesh; Lim, Kyoung Jae

    2015-03-01

    Total Maximum Daily Load is a water quality standard to regulate water quality of streams, rivers and lakes. A wide range of approaches are used currently to develop TMDLs for impaired streams and rivers. Flow and load duration curves (FDC and LDC) have been used in many states to evaluate the relationship between flow and pollutant loading along with other models and approaches. A web-based LDC Tool was developed to facilitate development of FDC and LDC as well as to support other hydrologic analyses. In this study, the FDC and LDC tool was enhanced to allow collection of water quality data via the web and to assist in establishing cost-effective Best Management Practice (BMP) implementations. The enhanced web-based tool provides use of water quality data not only from the US Geological Survey but also from the Water Quality Portal for the U.S. via web access. Moreover, the web-based tool identifies required pollutant reductions to meet standard loads and suggests a BMP scenario based on ability of BMPs to reduce pollutant loads, BMP establishment and maintenance costs. In the study, flow and water quality data were collected via web access to develop LDC and to identify the required reduction. The suggested BMP scenario from the web-based tool was evaluated using the EPA Spreadsheet Tool for the Estimation of Pollutant Load model to attain the required pollutant reduction at least cost.

  11. Long-term water quality and biological responses to multiple best management practices in Rock Creek, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, T.R.; MacCoy, D.E.; Carlisle, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Water quality and macroinvertebrate assemblage data from 1981 to 2005 were assessed to evaluate the water quality and biological responses of a western trout stream to the implementation of multiple best management practices (BMPs) on irrigated cropland. Data from Rock Creek near Twin Falls, Idaho, a long-term monitoring site, were assembled from state and federal sources to provide the evaluation. Seasonal loads of the nonpoint source pollutants suspended sediment (SS), total phosphorus (TP), and nitrate-nitrite (NN) were estimated using a regression model with time-series streamflow data and constituent concentrations. Trends in the macroinvertebrate assemblages were evaluated using a number of biological metrics and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination. Regression analysis found significant annual decreases in TP and SS flow-adjusted concentrations during the BMP implementation period from 1983 to 1990 of about 7 and 10%, respectively. These results are coincident with the implementation of multiple BMPs on about 75% of the irrigated cropland in the watershed. Macroinvertebrate assemblages during this time also responded with a change in taxa composition resulting in improved biotic index scores. Taxon specific TP and SS optima, empirically derived from a large national dataset, predicted a decrease in SS concentrations of about 37% (52 to 33 mg/l) and a decrease in TP concentrations of about 50% (0.20 to 0.10 mg/l) from 1981 to 1987. Decreasing trends in TP, SS, and NN pollutant loads were primarily the result of naturally low streamflow conditions during the BMP post-implementation period from 1993 to 2005. Trends in macroinvertebrate responses during 1993 to 2005 were confounded by the introduction of the New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which approached densities of 100,000 per m 2 in riffle habitat. The occurrence of this invasive species appears to have caused a major shift in composition and function of the macroinvertebrate

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: STORMWATER SOURCE AREA TREATMENT DEVICE; PRACTICAL BEST MANAGEMENT OF GEORGIA, INC., CRYSTALSTREAM� WATER QUALITY VAULT MODEL 1056

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Practical Best Management, Inc., CrystalStream™ stormwater treatment system was conducted over a 15-month period starting in March, 2003. The system was installed in a test site in Griffin, Georgia, and served a drainage basin of approximately 4 ...

  13. Effects of distributed and centralized stormwater best management practices and land cover on urban stream hydrology at the catchment scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loperfido, John V.; Noe, Gregory B.; Jarnagin, S. Taylor; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2014-01-01

    Urban stormwater runoff remains an important issue that causes local and regional-scale water quantity and quality issues. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used to mitigate runoff issues, traditionally in a centralized manner; however, problems associated with urban hydrology have remained. An emerging trend is implementation of BMPs in a distributed manner (multi-BMP treatment trains located on the landscape and integrated with urban design), but little catchment-scale performance of these systems have been reported to date. Here, stream hydrologic data (March, 2011–September, 2012) are evaluated in four catchments located in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: one utilizing distributed stormwater BMPs, two utilizing centralized stormwater BMPs, and a forested catchment serving as a reference. Among urban catchments with similar land cover, geology and BMP design standards (i.e. 100-year event), but contrasting placement of stormwater BMPs, distributed BMPs resulted in: significantly greater estimated baseflow, a higher minimum precipitation threshold for stream response and maximum discharge increases, better maximum discharge control for small precipitation events, and reduced runoff volume during an extreme (1000-year) precipitation event compared to centralized BMPs. For all catchments, greater forest land cover and less impervious cover appeared to be more important drivers than stormwater BMP spatial pattern, and caused lower total, stormflow, and baseflow runoff volume; lower maximum discharge during typical precipitation events; and lower runoff volume during an extreme precipitation event. Analysis of hydrologic field data in this study suggests that both the spatial distribution of stormwater BMPs and land cover are important for management of urban stormwater runoff. In particular, catchment-wide application of distributed BMPs improved stream hydrology compared to centralized BMPs, but not enough to fully replicate forested

  14. Detecting channel riparian vegetation response to best-management-practices implementation in ephemeral streams with the use of spot high-resolution visible imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamp, Kendall Vande; Rigge, Matthew B.; Troelstrup, Nels H.; Smart, Alexander J.; Wylie, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Heavily grazed riparian areas are commonly subject to channel incision, a lower water table, and reduced vegetation, resulting in sediment delivery above normal regimes. Riparian and in-channel vegetation functions as a roughness element and dissipates flow energy, maintaining stable channel geometry. Ash Creek, a tributary of the Bad River in western South Dakota contains a high proportion of incised channels, remnants of historically high grazing pressure. Best management practices (BMP), including off-stream watering sources and cross fencing, were implemented throughout the Bad River watershed during an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 319 effort to address high sediment loads. We monitored prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) establishment within stream channels for 16 yr following BMP implementation. Photos were used to group stream reaches (n = 103) subjectively into three classes; absent (estimated  40% cover; n = 16) based on the relative amount of prairie cordgrass during 2010 assessments of ephemeral channels. Reaches containing drainage areas of 0.54 to 692 ha were delineated with the use of 2010 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were extracted from 5 to 39 sample points proportional to reach length using a series of Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite imagery. Normalized NDVI (nNDVI) of 2 152 sample points were determined from pre- and post-BMP images. Mean nNDVI values for each reach ranged from 0.33 to 1.77. ANOVA revealed significant increase in nNDVI in locations classified as present prairie cordgrass cover following BMP implementation. Establishment of prairie cordgrass following BMP implementation was successfully detected remotely. Riparian vegetation such as prairie cordgrass adds channel roughness that reduces the flow energy responsible for channel degradation.

  15. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; effects of pipe-outlet terracing on quantity and quality of surface runoff and ground water in a small carbonate-rock basin near Churchtown, Pennsylvania, 1983-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietman, P.L.; Gustafson-Minnich, L. C.; Hall, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Terracing effects on surface-runoff and ground- water quantity and quality were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, during 1983-89 at a 23.1-acre agricultural site in Lancaster County, Pa., as part of the 1982 Rural Clean Water Program. The site, underlain by carbonate rock, was primarily corn and alfalfa fields; the median slope was 6 percent.Normal precipitation is about 42 inches per year. Average annual runoff was 11 percent and ground- water recharge was 37 percent of precipitation.Runoff quantity, suspended-sediment, and nutrient data, ground-water level and nutrient data, and precipitation-quantity data were collected for 21 months prior to, and 58 months after, pipe-outlet terrace construction. Data were analyzed by use of graphical, regression, covariate, cluster, Mann- Whitney Rank Sum test, and double-mass curvetechniques. Terracing changed runoff characteristics. Storm characteristics were similar throughout the study period. However, after terracing, storms producing less than 0.4 inch of precipitation rarely produced runoff. Total-storm discharge as a function of precipitation did not change significantly throughout the range of runoff-producing storms after terracing. Multiple-discharge peaks on hydrographs before terracing did not occur after terracing when hydrographs reflected the stepwisedraining of each terrace through the pipe outlet. After an initial 2-year period of terrace stabilization, suspended-sediment yield in runoff decreased significantly as a function of runoff. This result was expected because terracing decreased runoff energy, and because terrace ponding allowed time for sediment redeposition. Nitrate plus nitrite yields increased proportionally throughout the range of runoff during the post-terracing period relative to the pre- terracing period. After terracing, a combination of increased soil contact time and increased nitrification caused by wetter

  16. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania : characterization of surface-runoff and ground-water quantity and quality in a small carbonate basin near Churchtown, Pennsylvania, prior to terracing and implementation of nutrient management : water-quality study of the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leitman, Patricia L.; Hall, D.W.; Langland, M.J.; Chichester, D.C.; Ward, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Surface-runoff and ground-water quantity and quality of a 22.1-acre field site were characterized from January 1983 through September 1984, before implementation of terracing and nutrient-management practices. The site, underlain by carbonate rock, was cropland used primarily for the production of corn and alfalfa. Average annual application of nutrients to the 14.4 acres of cornfields was 410 pounds of nitrogen and 110 pounds of phosphorus. About three times more nutrients were applied during the 1984 water year than during the 1983 water year. During the investigation, 714,000 cubic feet of runoff transported 244 tons of suspended sediment, 300 pounds of nitrogen, and 170 pounds of phosphorus during the 1984 water year. Runoff from storms on frozen ground produced the highest loads of nitrogen. Regression analyses indicate that runoff rates and quantities were controlled by precipitation intensities of quantities and the amount of crop cover, and that mean concentrations of nitrogen for runoff events increased with increased surface-nitrogen applications made prior to runoff. Ground-water levels responded quickly to recharge, with peaks occurring several hours to a day after precipitation. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrate in ground water ranged from 9.2 to 13 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. A lag time of 1 to 3 months was observed between the time that nitrogen was applied to the land surface and local maximums in nitrate concentrations were detected in ground water unaffected by recharge events. About 3 million cubic feet of ground water and an associated 2,200 pounds of nitrate-nitrogen discharged from the site during the study period. For the study period, 42 percent of the precipitation recharged to ground water, 10 percent became runoff, and 48 percent evapotranspired. Inputs of nitrogen to the study area were estimated to be 93 percent from manure, 5 percent from commercial fertilizer, and 2 percent from precipitation. Nitrogen outputs from the

  17. Effectiveness of three best management practices for highway-runoff quality along the Southeast Expressway, Boston, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2002-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) near highways are designed to reduce the amount of suspended sediment and associated constituents, including debris and litter, discharged from the roadway surface. The effectiveness of a deep-sumped hooded catch basin, three 2-chambered 1,500-gallon oil-grit separators, and mechanized street sweeping in reducing sediment and associated constituents was examined along the Southeast Expressway (Interstate Route 93) in Boston, Massachusetts. Repeated observations of the volume and distribution of bottom material in the oil-grit separators, including data on particle-size distributions, were compared to data from bottom material deposited during the initial 3 years of operation. The performance of catch-basin hoods and the oil-grit separators in reducing floating debris was assessed by examining the quantity of material retained by each structural BMP compared to the quantity of material retained by and discharged from the oil-grit separators, which received flow from the catch basins. The ability of each structural BMP to reduce suspended-sediment loads was assessed by examining (a) the difference in the concentrations of suspended sediment in samples collected simultaneously from the inlet and outlet of each BMP, and (b) the difference between inlet loads and outlet loads during a 14-month monitoring period for the catch basin and one separator, and a 10-month monitoring period for the second separator. The third separator was not monitored continuously; instead, samples were collected from it during three visits separated in time by several months. Suspended-sediment loads for the entire study area were estimated on the basis of the long-term average annual precipitation and the estimated inlet and outlet loads of two of the separators. The effects of mechanized street sweeping were assessed by evaluating the differences between suspended-sediment loads before and after street sweeping, relative to storm precipitation totals, and by

  18. Assessment of best management practice effects on metolachlor mitigation in an agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beasley Lake watershed in the Mississippi Delta is a 915 ha intensively cultivated watershed (49-78% in row crop production) that was monitored for the herbicide metolachlor from 1998-2009. As part of the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), the watershed was assessed for the effecti...

  19. EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES AND BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON WATER QUALITY OF SEASONAL PRAIRIE POTHOLE WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term effectsof within-basin tillage can constrain condition and function of prairie wetlands even after uplands are restored. Runoff was significantly greater to replicate wetlands within tilled basins with or without vegetated buffer strips as compared to ConsrvationReserve...

  20. Rivierine Nutrient, Sediment and Carbon Load Reductions Through Modeling/Simulation Directed Field Targeting of Best Management Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased agricultural production has led to a reduction in water quality while funding for protection or improvement of water quality from agricultural runoff has been decreasing over time. It is becoming increasingly important that available funds be spent where it will result in the most benefici...

  1. Effects of urban best management practices on streamflow and phosphorus and suspended-sediment transport on Englesby Brook in Burlington, Vermont, 2000-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2012-01-01

    An assessment of the effectiveness of several urban best management practice structures, including a wet extended detention facility and a shallow marsh wetland (together the "wet extended detention ponds"), was made using data collected from 2000 through 2010 at Englesby Brook in Burlington, Vermont. The purpose of the best management practices was to reduce high streamflows and phosphorus and suspended-sediment loads and concentrations and to increase low streamflows. Englesby Brook was monitored for streamflow, phosphorus, and suspended-sediment concentrations at a streamgage downstream of the best management practice structures for 5 years before the wet extended detention ponds were constructed in 2005 and for 4 years (phosphorus and suspended-sediment concentrations) or 5 years (streamflow) after they were constructed. The period after construction of the best management practice structures was wetter and had higher discharges than the period before construction. Despite the wetter conditions, streamflow duration curves provided evidence that the streamflow regime appeared to have shifted so that the percentages of low streamflows have increased and those of high streamflows may have slightly decreased. Two other hydrologic measures showed improvements in the years following construction of the best management practices: the percentage of annual discharge transported during the 3 days with highest discharges and the number of days with zero streamflow have both decreased. Evidence was mixed for the effectiveness of the best management practices in reducing phosphorus and suspended-sediment concentrations and loads. Annual phosphorus and suspended-sediment loads, monthly loads, low-streamflow concentrations, storm-averaged streamflow-adjusted concentrations, and total storm loads either did not change significantly or increased in the period after construction. These results likely were because of the wetter conditions in the period after construction. For

  2. Evaluation of water quality and best management practices (BMPs) in the Black Creek Watershed using SWAT model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpoint sources of runoff from agricultural lands are believed to be responsible for elevated nutrient and sediment levels in the Black Creek Watershed (BCW). This watershed located in Shelby County in Northeast Missouri covers an area of 140 km2. The purpose of this project was to quantify sedimen...

  3. Reverse auction results for implementation of decentralized retrofit best management practices in a small urban watershed (Cincinnati OH)Participatory storm water management and sustainability – what are the connections?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban stormwater is typically conveyed to centralized infrastructure, and there is great potential for reducing stormwater runoff quantity through decentralization. In this case we hypothesize that smaller-scale retrofit best management practices (BMPs) such as rain gardens and r...

  4. Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek remedial action project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has three major operating facilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee: the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the K-25 Site, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed by Lockheed Martin Environmental Research Corporation. All facilities are managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Incorporated (Energy Systems) for the DOE. The Y-12 Plant is adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge and is also upstream from Oak Ridge along East Fork Poplar Creek. The portion of the creek downstream from the Y-12 Plant is Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC). This project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the LEFPC floodplain, transport the soils to Industrial Landfill V (ILF-V), and restore any affected areas. This project contains areas that were designated in 1989 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site. The site includes DOE property and portions of commercial, residential, agricultural, and miscellaneous areas within the city of Oak Ridge.

  5. Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site.

  6. Using the EPA's SUSTAIN Model to Assess the Capability of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to Improve Water Quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radavich, K.; Hogue, T. S.; Beck, A. J.; Gold, M.; Mika, K.

    2014-12-01

    The desire to control the flow, storage and release of stormwater in urban systems distinctly alters the flow paths, water quality, and flood behavior of these once natural systems. The EPA and local municipalities have identified Low Impact Development (LID) and Best Management Practices (BMPs) as more natural methods to manage stormwater in urban areas, though the efficacy of these methods has not been quantified at the watershed scale. By holistically modeling stormwater flow at the watershed scale, engineered BMP solutions can be optimized for cost and evaluated on their ability to improve water quality and flood protection. In this research, the EPA System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) model is applied to heavily urbanized watersheds in Southern California, specifically the Ballona Creek and Dominguez Channel watersheds (61% and 69% impervious land cover, respectively). Stormwater flow and pollutant load of selected metals are calibrated and validated over the gauged portions (89 sq. mi. in Ballona and 33 sq. mi. in Dominguez) and simulated over the full watersheds (~128 sq. mi. in both). Scenarios of BMP implementation are optimized for cost and pollutant load reduction. Results show that receiving water quality improvement is limited by BMP pollutant removal effectiveness. Consequently, larger BMP treatment capacity does not result in greater pollutant load reduction. The optimal scenario routed runoff from 90% of the watershed area through a variety of regional and distributed BMPs indicating that BMP implementation needs to focus on strategic placements to capture runoff from the largest drainage area instead of only maximizing BMP capacity. Secondary benefits such as peak flow reduction of 20-50% and recharge potential between 12,000 and 30,000 acre-ft per year were also demonstrated in selected Ballona Creek optimization scenarios.

  7. Statistics for stochastic modeling of volume reduction, hydrograph extension, and water-quality treatment by structural stormwater runoff best management practices (BMPs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM) in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to indicate the risk for stormwater concentrations, flows, and loads to be above user-selected water-quality goals and the potential effectiveness of mitigation measures to reduce such risks. SELDM models the potential effect of mitigation measures by using Monte Carlo methods with statistics that approximate the net effects of structural and nonstructural best management practices (BMPs). In this report, structural BMPs are defined as the components of the drainage pathway between the source of runoff and a stormwater discharge location that affect the volume, timing, or quality of runoff. SELDM uses a simple stochastic statistical model of BMP performance to develop planning-level estimates of runoff-event characteristics. This statistical approach can be used to represent a single BMP or an assemblage of BMPs. The SELDM BMP-treatment module has provisions for stochastic modeling of three stormwater treatments: volume reduction, hydrograph extension, and water-quality treatment. In SELDM, these three treatment variables are modeled by using the trapezoidal distribution and the rank correlation with the associated highway-runoff variables. This report describes methods for calculating the trapezoidal-distribution statistics and rank correlation coefficients for stochastic modeling of volume reduction, hydrograph extension, and water-quality treatment by structural stormwater BMPs and provides the calculated values for these variables. This report also provides robust methods for estimating the minimum irreducible concentration (MIC), which is the lowest expected effluent concentration from a particular BMP site or a class of BMPs. These statistics are different from the statistics commonly used to characterize or compare BMPs. They are designed to provide a stochastic transfer function to approximate

  8. Effects of best-management practices in Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks in the Waumandee Creek Priority Watershed, Wisconsin, 1990-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Walker, John F.; Bannerman, Roger T.; Rutter, Troy D.

    2012-01-01

    In many watersheds, nonpoint-source contamination is a major contributor to water-quality problems. In response to the recognition of the importance of nonpoint sources, the Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program (Nonpoint Program) was enacted in 1978. This report summarizes the results of a study to assess the effectiveness of watershed-management practices for controlling nonpoint-source contamination for the Eagle Creek and Joos Valley Creek Watersheds. Streamflow-gaging stations equipped for automated sample collection and continuous recording of stream stage were installed in July 1990 at Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks and were operated through September 2007. In October 1990, three rain gages were installed in each watershed and were operated through September 2007. Best-Management Practices (BMPs) were installed during 1993 to 2000 in Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks and were tracked throughout the study period. By the year 2000, a majority of the BMPs were implemented in the two watersheds and goals set by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the local Land Conservation Department had been achieved for the two study watersheds (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 1990). The distributions of the rainstorms that produced surface runoff and storm loads were similar in the pre-BMP (1990-93) and post-BMP implementation (2000-07) periods for both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks. The highest annual streamflow occurred at both sites in water year 1993, which corresponded to the greatest above normal nonfrozen precipitation measured at two nearby NOAA weather stations. The minimum streamflow occurred in water year 2007 at both sites. Base-flow and stormwater samples were collected and analyzed for suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen. For both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks the median concentrations of suspended solids and total phosphorus in base flow were lower during the post-BMP period compared to the pre

  9. Find Best Management Practices to Protect Pollinators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources and ways to reduce potential pesticide exposure to honey bees and other pollinators include new pesticide labels, neonicotinoid insecticide information, reducing dust from treated seed, and state-level efforts.

  10. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Bioremediation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outlines the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site.

  11. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH ON URBAN BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Storm driven wet weather flow (WWF) which includes combined sewer and sanitary sewer overflows and stormwater discharges are a leading cause of water-quality impairment. Problem constituents in WWF include pathogens, solids, nutrients, and toxicants. New technologies to control...

  12. Best Management Practices for Beginning Farmer Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochterski, Jim; Frenay, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Many beginning farmers have little previous contact with Extension, yet they will comprise an important part of our future base of support. We present those educational activities directed toward beginning farmers that represent high impact, outcome-based Extension programming, given an educator's time limitations. This checklist of insights will…

  13. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Site Investigation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site and conducting site investigation.

  14. Grassland birds associated with agricultural riparian practices in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renfrew, R.B.; Ribic, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Rotational grazing has been proposed as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for minimizing runoff in Wisconsin agricultural riparian areas. The influence of this land management practice on grassland birds has not been evaluated in relation to more traditional agricultural land management systems in Midwestern riparian areas. This study compared the grassland bird community in riparian areas in Wisconsin that were rotationally grazed to 2 common land use practices along streams in Wisconsin: continuously grazed pastures and rowcrop fields with 10-m-wide ungrazed buffer strips located along the stream. We calculated total number of birds, the Berger-Parker Index of Dominance, and number of birds ha-1 for each site. Vegetation variables used were height-density, litter depth, and percent bare ground. Bird species richness, species dominance, and density did not differ among land use types. In contrast, grassland bird species of management concern [Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis Gmelin), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna L.), and Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus L.)] were found on continuous and rotational pastures but very rarely or never occurred on buffer strips. Contrary to previous research, however, rotationally grazed pastures did not support more of these species than continuously grazed pastures. Bird density was related to vegetation structure, with higher densities found on sites with deeper litter. Within the pasture land use types, there were no consistent differences between species richness and density near the stream (10 m).

  15. The current state of knowledge on the interaction of Escherichia coli within vegetative filter strips as a sustainable best management practice to reduce fecal pathogen loading into surface waters

    PubMed Central

    Olilo, Casianes Owino; Muia, Anastasia Wairimu; Moturi, Wilkister Nyaora; Onyando, Japhet Ogalo; Amber, Ford Roegner

    2016-01-01

    Agro-pastoral operations have the potential to threaten public health with loading of diverse pathogens into surface waters through overland flow; increasing awareness of the limitations of fecal indicators has led to development of a number of advancements in detection, source tracking and predictive modeling of public health risk. These tools and techniques are beginning to be integrated into management strategies. The objective of this review was to determine the status of current knowledge and challenges of the fate and transport of Escherichia coli in overland flow and their interaction within vegetative filter strip (VFS) as one of these implemented best management practices and to critically evaluate its use in that setting as an indicator organism. With few studies directly focusing on VFS removal of E. coli from overland flow, we critically evaluated the available data on movement of E. coil from fecal source loading to retention and decay or re-release for potential contamination of water ways and pointed out potential limitations in both pathogen-specific removal and its use as an indicator organisms within overland flow and VFS. Critical areas of focus for future studies to reduce gaps in knowledge were identified, and the integration of newer approaches in source tracking, alternative indicators and the use of non-pathogenic surrogates for field testing of existing VFS models was encouraged. With VFS as a growing field of interest as an economical conservation practice and as an avenue for conservation of resources for small-scale agro-pastoral operations, management strategies to reduce initial fecal load from either applied manure constituents or shedding from free-range animals will continue to test the limits in the applications of models to overland flow and VFS management strategies. Further studies at the microscale in understanding discrepancies between low and high pathogenicity strains of E. coil and between E. coil and other fecal pathogens

  16. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  17. Measures of the Effects of Agricultural Practices on Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Polasky, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture produces more than just crops. Agricultural practices have environmental impacts that affect a wide range of ecosystem services, including water quality, pollination, nutrient cycling, soil retention, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity conservation. In turn, ecosystem services affect agricultural productivity. Understanding the contribution of various agricultural practices to the range of ecosystem services would help inform choices about the most beneficial agricultural practices. To accomplish this, however, we must overcome a big challenge in measuring the impact of alternative agricultural practices on ecosystem services and of ecosystem services on agricultural production.

  18. Hyperspectral image classification for mapping agricultural tillage practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An efficient classification framework for mapping agricultural tillage practice using hyperspectral remote sensing imagery is proposed, which has the potential to be implemented practically to provide rapid, accurate, and objective surveying data for precision agricultural management and appraisal f...

  19. Ten-year assessment of agricultural management and land-use practices on pesticide loads and risk to aquatic biota of an oxbow lake in the Mississippi Delta, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current chapter examined the combined influence of changing row crop production, implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and enrollment of 112 ha into Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) on pesticide contamination and potential risk to lake aquatic biota in a 914-ha Beasl...

  20. Practical application of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing program imagery from several types of platforms, from light aircraft to the LANDSAT (ERTS) satellites, have been utilized during the past few years, with preference for inexpensive imagery over expensive magnetic tapes. Emphasis has been on practical application of remote sensing data to increase crop yield by decreasing plant stress, disease, weeds and undesirable insects and by improving irrigation. Imagery obtained from low altitudes via aircraft provides the necessary resolution and complements but does not replace data from high altitude aircraft, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft, Skylab space station and LANDSAT satellites. Federal government centers are now able to supply imagery within about thirty days from data of order. Nevertheless, if the full potential of space imagery in practical agricultural operations is to be realized, the time span from date of imaging to user application needs to be shortened from the current several months to not more than two weeks.

  1. Lake Nutrient Responses to Integrated Conservation Practices in an Agricultural Watershed.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, Richard E; Yasarer, Lindsey M W; Locke, Martin A; Bingner, Ronald L; Knight, Scott S

    2017-03-01

    Watershed-scale management efforts to reduce nutrient loads and improve the conservation of lakes in agricultural watersheds require effective integration of a variety of agricultural conservation best management practices (BMPs). This paper documents watershed-scale assessments of the influence of multiple integrated BMPs on oxbow lake nutrient concentrations in a 625-ha watershed of intensive row-crop agricultural activity during a 14-yr monitoring period (1996-2009). A suite of BMPs within fields and at field edges throughout the watershed and enrollment of 87 ha into the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) were implemented from 1995 to 2006. Total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), ammonium, and nitrate were measured approximately biweekly from 1996 to 2009, and total nitrogen (TN) was measured from 2001 to 2009. Decreases in several lake nutrient concentrations occurred after BMP implementation. Reductions in TP lake concentrations were associated with vegetative buffers and rainfall. No consistent patterns of changes in TN or SRP lake concentrations were observed. Reductions in ammonium lake concentrations were associated with conservation tillage and CRP. Reductions in nitrate lake concentrations were associated with vegetative buffers. Watershed simulations conducted with the AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source) model with and without BMPs also show a clear reduction in TN and TP loads to the lake after the implementation of BMPs. These results provide direct evidence of how watershed-wide BMPs assist in reducing nutrient loading in aquatic ecosystems and promote a more viable and sustainable lake ecosystem.

  2. Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Soils Treatment Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Document providing guidance on how to design and conduct soil remediation activities at RCRA and other hazardous waste sites so that transfers of contaminants from contaminated soil to other media are minimized.

  3. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Soil Vapor Extraction & Air Sparging

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Historically, approximately one-quarter of Superfund source control projects have involved soil vapor extraction (SVE) to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sorbed to soil in the unsaturated (vadose) zone.

  4. Best Management Practices to Prevent and Control Hydrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas can be emitted from both construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. H2S emissions may be problematic at a landfill as they can cause odor, impact surrounding communities, cause wear or damage to landfill gas (LFG) collection and energy utilization components, or contribute to the formation of explosive conditions. H2S emissions at landfills have often been attributed to the disposal of gypsum drywall, though other sources such as sulfur-containing industrial wastes and biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment facilities can also contribute to H2S production. Addressing problems from H2S emissions at landfills can be costly and time consuming for landfill owners and operators. Several years of operational experience and research efforts have identified several key pieces of information regarding the conditions that can cause H2S production, factors that result in H2S production at landfills, and strategies to prevent these conditions from occurring and to minimize the release of H2S to the surrounding environment when it is produced. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Office of Research and Development, in coordination with U.S. EPA Region 5, commissioned the development of a document designed to provide landfill owners and operators with guidance on pertinent subject matter associated with H2S production, emissions, prevention, and control at landfill sites. A previous

  5. THE USE OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS) IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater is part of a natural hydrologic process. However, human activities, especially those in an urban environment, cause significant changes in patterns of stormwater flow from land into receiving waters. The undesirable impacts of stormwater runoff can be controlled by pru...

  6. Modeling Firing Range Best Management Practices with TREECS (trademark)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    17  5  Sedimentation Basin Model for MC Removal...sedimentation basin ................................................. 29  ERDC/EL TR-13-6 iv References...18  Figure 3. Removal efficiency of lead for sedimentation basin as related to hydraulic

  7. 40 CFR 440.148 - Best Management Practices (BMP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the greatest extent applicable in each such mining operation. (a) Surface water diversion: The flow of... incursion into the plant site. (b) Berm construction: Berms, including any pond walls, dikes, low dams and similar water retention structures shall be constructed in a manner such that they are reasonably...

  8. A Summary of Best Management Practices for Nonpoint Source Pollution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    EPrein) rvienw s gou and Te ichuo~ jat e Enirnmn &Iealn az 191 3 sd ihpr~~o. FIgsured1 bann nIdsra tr emt Is W14 Through this process, the municipality...should be delegated authority to enforce local ordinances. 1I. Leaf disposal - leaves should be collected and stored , unshredded (shredding tends to...culvert. 28. Rooftop storage - roof areas used to store water for a detention or retention device. Rooftop detention can be incorporated into the design

  9. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Implementing In Situ Thermal Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Over recent years, the use of in situ thermal technologies such as electrical resistance heating, thermal conductive heating, and steam enhanced extraction to remediate contaminated sites has notably increased.

  10. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Pump and Treat Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site with pump and treat technologies.

  11. Critically evaluating best management practices for preventing freshwater turtle extinctions.

    PubMed

    Spencer, R J; Van Dyke, J U; Thompson, Michael B

    2017-03-20

    Ex situ conservation tools, such as captive breeding for reintroduction, are considered last resort to help recover threatened or endangered species. However, they may also provide alternative strategies where reducing threats directly is difficult or ineffective. Headstarting, or captive rearing of eggs or neonate animals and subsequent release into the wild, has been controversial for decades. A major criticism is that headstarting is a symptomatic treatment of conservation problems (halfway technology), however, it may provide a mechanism to address multiple threats, particularly in close proximity of population centres. Here we conduct Population Viability Analyses (PVA) to assess the risk of extinction of Australia's most widespread freshwater turtle, Chelodina longicollis, to increasing adult road mortality and reduced recruitment through nest predation from introduced foxes. We also model a range of management scenarios to test the effectiveness of headstarting, fox management, and measures that reduce adult road mortality. We show that headstarting should be a primary tool for managing freshwater turtles under threats that affect multiple life history stages. Headstarting from harvest populations were the only scenarios that eliminated all risks of extinction, while also maintaining population growth. Small increments in adult mortality have greatest effect on population growth and extinction risk, however, where threats simultaneously affect other life history stages (e.g.. recruitment), eliminating harvest pressures on adult females alone will not eliminate the risk of population extinction. In our models, one harvest population could supply enough hatchlings to supplement 25 other similar sized populations at an annual rate to maintain population growth and eliminate the risk of population extinction. We advocate the creation of harvest populations for managing freshwater turtles facing significant threats to multiple life history stages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Landfill Cover Systems & Energy Production

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site.

  13. Cost of areal reduction of gulf hypoxia through agricultural practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major share of the area of hypoxic growth in the Northern Gulf of Mexico has been attributed to nutrient run-off from agricultural fields, but no estimate is available for the cost of reducing Gulf hypoxic area using agricultural conservation practices. We apply the Soil and Water Assessment Tool ...

  14. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices.

    PubMed

    Tilman, David; Cassman, Kenneth G; Matson, Pamela A; Naylor, Rosamond; Polasky, Stephen

    2002-08-08

    A doubling in global food demand projected for the next 50 years poses huge challenges for the sustainability both of food production and of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Agriculturalists are the principal managers of global usable lands and will shape, perhaps irreversibly, the surface of the Earth in the coming decades. New incentives and policies for ensuring the sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services will be crucial if we are to meet the demands of improving yields without compromising environmental integrity or public health.

  15. Effects of conservation practices on fishes within agricultural watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation practices have been regularly implemented within agricultural watersheds in the United States without documentation of their impacts. The goal of the ARS Conservation Effects Assessment Project Watershed Assessment Study is to quantify the effect of conservation practices within 14 agri...

  16. [Ecological agriculture: future of Good Agriculture Practice of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-ping; Zhou, Liang-yun; Mo, Ge; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the ecological and economic problems in Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) of Chinese material medica, we introduced the origin, concept, features and operative technology of eco-agriculture worldwide, emphasizing its modes on different biological levels of landscape, ecosystem, community, population, individual and gene in China. And on this basis, we analyzed the background and current situation of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and proposed its development ideas and key tasks, including: (1) Analysis and planning of the production pattern of Chinese material medica national wide. (2) Typical features extraction of regional agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (3) Investigation of the interaction and its mechanism between typical Chinese materia medica in each region and the micro-ecology of rhizosphere soil. (4) Study on technology of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (5) Extraction and solidification of eco-agriculture modes of Chinese materia medica. (6) Study on the theory of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. Also we pointed out that GAP and eco-agriculture of Chinese material medica are both different and relative, but they are not contradictory with their own features. It is an irresistible trend to promote eco-agriculture in the GAP of Chinese material medica and coordinate ecological and economic development.

  17. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  18. Effects of conservation practices on fishes, amphibians, and reptiles within agricultural streams and wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation practices have been traditionally used to manage soil and water resources to improve agricultural production, and now include methods to reduce the environmental impacts of agriculture on streams and wetlands. These practices have been regularly implemented within agricultural watershed...

  19. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  20. Communication Technologies and Knowledge Building in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrave, Robin

    2004-01-01

    The concept of knowledge building communities has not traditionally been associated with agricultural extension, but is one which has the potential to increase the rate of adoption of best management practices by the industry. A potentially important mechanism to facilitate knowledge building is information and communication technology (ICT);…

  1. Knowledge Gained from Good Agricultural Practices Courses for Iowa Growers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda; Domoto, Paul; Wilson, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) educational courses provide produce growers with the fundamental information for producing and processing safe produce. To determine the effectiveness of the current 7-hour GAP course provided in Iowa, growers were surveyed before and 7-14 days after the course to determine changes in knowledge and opinions.…

  2. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  3. Effects of agricultural practices on organic matter degradation in ditches

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, Ellard R.; Vonk, J. Arie; Musters, C.J.M.; Kraak, Michiel H.S.; Vijver, Martina G.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural practices can result in differences in organic matter (OM) and agricultural chemical inputs in adjacent ditches, but its indirect effects on OM composition and its inherent consequences for ecosystem functioning remain uncertain. This study determined the effect of agricultural practices (dairy farm grasslands and hyacinth bulb fields) on OM degradation by microorganisms and invertebrates with a consumption and food preference experiment in the field and in the laboratory using natural OM collected from the field. Freshly cut grass and hyacinths were also offered to control for OM composition and large- and small mesh-sizes were used to distinguish microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption. Results show that OM decomposition by microorganisms and consumption by invertebrates was similar throughout the study area, but that OM collected from ditches adjacent grasslands and freshly cut grass and hyacinths were preferred over OM collected from ditches adjacent to a hyacinth bulb field. In the case of OM collected from ditches adjacent hyacinth bulb fields, both microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption were strongly retarded, likely resulting from sorption and accumulation of pesticides. This outcome illustrates that differences in agricultural practices can, in addition to direct detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, indirectly alter the functioning of adjacent aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26892243

  4. Effects of agricultural practices on organic matter degradation in ditches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunting, Ellard R.; Vonk, J. Arie; Musters, C. J. M.; Kraak, Michiel H. S.; Vijver, Martina G.

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural practices can result in differences in organic matter (OM) and agricultural chemical inputs in adjacent ditches, but its indirect effects on OM composition and its inherent consequences for ecosystem functioning remain uncertain. This study determined the effect of agricultural practices (dairy farm grasslands and hyacinth bulb fields) on OM degradation by microorganisms and invertebrates with a consumption and food preference experiment in the field and in the laboratory using natural OM collected from the field. Freshly cut grass and hyacinths were also offered to control for OM composition and large- and small mesh-sizes were used to distinguish microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption. Results show that OM decomposition by microorganisms and consumption by invertebrates was similar throughout the study area, but that OM collected from ditches adjacent grasslands and freshly cut grass and hyacinths were preferred over OM collected from ditches adjacent to a hyacinth bulb field. In the case of OM collected from ditches adjacent hyacinth bulb fields, both microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption were strongly retarded, likely resulting from sorption and accumulation of pesticides. This outcome illustrates that differences in agricultural practices can, in addition to direct detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, indirectly alter the functioning of adjacent aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Knowledge needs, available practices, and future challenges in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Georgina; Whitfield, Mike G.; Cooper, Julia; De Vries, Franciska T.; Collison, Martin; Dedousis, Thanasis; Heathcote, Richard; Roth, Brendan; Mohammed, Shamal; Molyneux, Andrew; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Dicks, Lynn V.; Sutherland, William J.; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study is to clarify research needs and identify effective practices for enhancing soil health. This was done by a synopsis of soil literature that specifically tests practices designed to maintain or enhance elements of soil health. Using an expert panel of soil scientists and practitioners, we then assessed the evidence in the soil synopsis to highlight practices beneficial to soil health, practices considered detrimental, and practices that need further investigation. A partial Spearman's correlation was used to analyse the panel's responses. We found that increased certainty in scientific evidence led to practices being considered to be more effective due to them being empirically justified. This suggests that for practices to be considered effective and put into practice, a substantial body of research is needed to support the effectiveness of the practice. This is further supported by the high proportion of practices (33 %), such as changing the timing of ploughing or amending the soil with crops grown as green manures, that experts felt had unknown effectiveness, usually due to insufficiently robust evidence. Only 7 of the 27 reviewed practices were considered to be beneficial, or likely to be beneficial in enhancing soil health. These included the use of (1) integrated nutrient management (organic and inorganic amendments); (2) cover crops; (3) crop rotations; (4) intercropping between crop rows or underneath the main crop; (5) formulated chemical compounds (such as nitrification inhibitors); (6) control of traffic and traffic timing; and (7) reducing grazing intensity. Our assessment, which uses the Delphi technique, is increasingly used to improve decision-making in conservation and agricultural policy, identified practices that can be put into practice to benefit soil health. Moreover, it has enabled us to identify practices that need further research and a need for increased communication between researchers, policy-makers, and

  6. Agricultural Marketing. Farmers' Marketing Practices and Programs To Teach Alternative Practices. Briefing Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a General Accounting Office study of farmers' marketing practices. The report specifically discusses farmers' use of the three advanced marketing techniques--cash forward contracting, hedging in the futures market, and trading in agricultural options--as disclosed in nine studies of farmers' marketing practices made from 1976…

  7. Evaluation of the effects of agricultural conservation practices on sediment yield in the Colusa Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzke, S. E.; Zhang, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to assess the impact of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on sediment runoff from almond orchards in the lower Colusa Basin Drain watershed in the Sacramento Valley, California. This study used modeling techniques that include varying hydrologic parameters for both upland areas and small channels to quantify the effects of BMPs water quality. The BMPs simulated in this study are commonly used in almond orchards and include strip cropping, cover cropping, vegetative filter strips, grassed waterways and channel stabilization. The effectiveness of each BMP was simulated for an above average, below average and average rainfall year. Comparison of annual total watershed sediment loads for each BMP simulation showed that overall, channel stabilization and grassed waterways, which target in stream sediment erosion and transport, are the most effective BMPs with an estimated respective reduction in sediment load of 18% and 35% for a below average precipitation year, 13% and 26% for an above average precipitation year, and 17% and 30% for an average precipitation year. Simulations of BMPs designed to reduce sediment transport in upland areas, which include strip cropping and vegetative filter strips, estimated a reduction in total annual sediment load of less than 1% at the watershed outlet. These results indicated that in-stream sediment transport is the dominant sediment transport process in this watershed. Implementation of channel stabilization measures or grassed waterways on almond orchards is estimated to result in an annual reduction of total sediment load of 41,874 kg or 72,753 kg of sediment per square kilometer of almond orchard for an above average precipitation year.

  8. Investigation of denitrifying microbe communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a potential best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. This study examined microbe community abundance and diversity involved in den...

  9. Integrating Federal and State data records to report progress in establishing agricultural conservation practices on Chesapeake Bay farms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, W. Dean; Devereux, Olivia H.; Claggett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In response to the Executive Order for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration (E.O. #13508, May 12, 2009), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) took on the task of acquiring and assessing agricultural conservation practice data records for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs, and transferred those datasets in aggregated format to State jurisdictional agencies for use in reporting conservation progress to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership (CBP Partnership). Under the guidelines and regulations that have been developed to protect and restore water-quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the six State jurisdictions that fall within the Chesapeake Bay watershed are required to report their progress in promoting agricultural conservation practices to the CBP Partnership on an annual basis. The installation and adoption of agricultural best management practices is supported by technical and financial assistance from both Federal and State conservation programs. The farm enrollment data for USDA conservation programs are confidential, but agencies can obtain access to the privacy-protected data if they are established as USDA Conservation Cooperators. The datasets can also be released to the public if they are first aggregated to protect farmer privacy. In 2012, the USGS used its Conservation Cooperator status to obtain implementation data for conservation programs sponsored by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) for farms within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Three jurisdictions (Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) used the USGS-provided aggregated dataset to report conservation progress in 2012, whereas the remaining three jurisdictions (Maryland, New York, and Virginia) used jurisdictional Conservation Cooperator Agreements to obtain privacy-protected data directly from the USDA. This report reviews the status of conservation data sharing between the USDA and the various jurisdictions, discusses the

  10. Cost of areal reduction of gulf hypoxia through agricultural practice.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Gerald; Barnhart, Bradley L; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2015-02-01

    A major share of the area of hypoxic growth in the Northern Gulf of Mexico has been attributed to nutrient run-off from agricultural fields, but no estimate is available for the cost of reducing Gulf hypoxic area using agricultural conservation practices. We apply the Soil and Water Assessment Tool using observed daily weather to simulate the reduction in nitrogen loading in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) that would result from enrolling all row crop acreage in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Nitrogen loadings at the outlet of the UMRB are used to predict Gulf hypoxic area, and net cash farm rent is used as the price for participation in the CRP. Over the course of the 42 year simulation, direct CRP costs total more than $388 billion, and the Inter-Governmental Task Force goal of hypoxic area less than 5000 square kilometers is met in only two years.

  11. Theme: Innovative Curriculum Ideas and Practices in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen theme articles discuss the following: curriculum ideas and innovations in agricultural education, agricultural literacy, Supervised Agricultural Experience, active learning, locating agricultural education resources, distance and web-based instruction, principles of forest management, professional development, and service learning. (JOW)

  12. Agricultural practices in grasslands detected by spatial remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Dusseux, Pauline; Vertès, Françoise; Corpetti, Thomas; Corgne, Samuel; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    The major decrease in grassland surfaces associated with changes in their management that has been observed in many regions of the earth during the last half century has major impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems. This study focuses on the identification of grassland management practices in an intensive agricultural watershed located in Brittany, France, by analyzing the intra-annual dynamics of the surface condition of vegetation using remotely sensed and field data. We studied the relationship between one vegetation index (NDVI) and two biophysical variables (LAI and fCOVER) derived from a series of three SPOT images on one hand and measurements collected during field campaigns achieved on 120 grasslands on the other. The results show that the LAI appears as the best predictor for monitoring grassland mowing and grazing. Indeed, because of its ability to characterize vegetation status, LAI estimated from remote sensing data is a relevant variable to identify these practices. LAI values derived from the SPOT images were then classified based on the K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) supervised algorithm. The results points out that the distribution of grassland management practices such as grazing and mowing can be mapped very accurately (Kappa index = 0.82) at a field scale over large agricultural areas using a series of satellite images.

  13. Nutrient prices and concentrations in midwestern agricultural watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Policies to reduce nutrient emissions from agriculture rest on the assumption that it is very difficult to link inputs on farms to nutrient outputs. As a result, conservation programs fund the installation of best management practices that attempt to avoid, trap, or otherwise control nutrient emissi...

  14. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: Land-use and Best-Management-Practices inventory, selected streamwater-quality data, urban-watershed quality assurance and quality control, constituent loads in rural streams, and snowmelt-runoff analysis, water year 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, S.R.; Owens, D.W.; Wierl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in rural and urban watersheds. This report is an annual summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S Geological Survey and a report of the results of several different detailed analyses of the data. A land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track the sources of nonpoint-source pollution in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that may cause changes in the water quality of streams. Updated information is gathered each year, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of data collected during water years 1989-94 are presented. A water year is the period beginning October 1 and ending September 30; the water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Suspended-sediment and total-phosphorus data (storm loads and annual loads) are summarized for eight rural sites. For all sites, the annual suspended-sediment or suspended-solids load for water year 1993 exceeded the average for the period of data collection; the minimum annual loads were transported in water year 1991 or 1992. Continuous dissolved-oxygen data were collected at seven rural sites during water year 1994. Data for water years 1990-93 are summarized and plotted in terms of percentage of time that a particular concentration is equaled or exceeded. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in four streams were less than 9 mg/L at least 50 percent of the time, a condition that fails to meet suggested criterion for coldwater streams. The dissolved-oxygen probability curve for one of the coldwater streams is markedly different than the curves for the other streams, perhaps because of differences in aquatic biomass. Blank quality-assurance samples were collected at two of the urban evaluation monitoring sites to

  15. Hyperspectral image classification for mapping agricultural tillage practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Qiong; Li, Wei; Du, Qian; Yang, Chenghai

    2015-01-01

    An efficient classification framework for mapping agricultural tillage practice using hyperspectral remote sensing imagery is proposed, which has the potential to be implemented practically to provide rapid, accurate, and objective surveying data for precision agricultural management and appraisal from large-scale remote sensing images. It includes a local region filter [i.e., Gaussian low-pass filter (GLF)] to extract spatial-spectral features, a dimensionality reduction process [i.e., local fisher's discriminate analysis (LFDA)], and the traditional k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier, and is denoted as GLF-LFDA-KNN. Compared to our previously used local average filter and adaptive weighted filter, the GLF also considers spatial features in a small neighborhood, but it emphasizes the central pixel itself and is data-independent; therefore, it can achieve the balance between classification accuracy and computational complexity. The KNN classifier has a lower computational complexity compared to the traditional support vector machine (SVM). After classification separability is enhanced by the GLF and LFDA, the less powerful KNN can outperform SVM and the overall computational cost remains lower. The proposed framework can also outperform the SVM with composite kernel (SVM-CK) that uses spatial-spectral features.

  16. Simulation of conservation practices using the APEX model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) and their effectiveness in controlling agricultural non-point source pollution is crucial in developing Clean Water Act programs such as the Total Maximum Daily Loads for impaired watersheds. A modeling study was conducted to evaluate var...

  17. Changing agricultural practices: Potential consequences to aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasier, Peter J.; Urich, Matthew L.; Hassan, Sayed M.; Jacobs, Whitney N.; Bringolf, Robert B.; Owens, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural practices pose threats to biotic diversity in freshwater systems with increasing use of glyphosate-based herbicides for weed control and animal waste for soil amendment becoming common in many regions. Over the past two decades, these particular agricultural trends have corresponded with marked declines in populations of fish and mussel species in the Upper Conasauga River watershed in Georgia/Tennessee, USA. To investigate the potential role of agriculture in the population declines, surface waters and sediments throughout the basin were tested for toxicity and analyzed for glyphosate, metals, nutrients, and steroid hormones. Assessments of chronic toxicity with Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca indicated that few water or sediment samples were harmful and metal concentrations were generally below impairment levels. Glyphosate was not observed in surface waters, although its primary degradation product, aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA), was detected in 77% of the samples (mean = 509 μg/L, n = 99) and one or both compounds were measured in most sediment samples. Waterborne AMPA concentrations supported an inference that surfactants associated with glyphosate may be present at levels sufficient to affect early life stages of mussels. Nutrient enrichment of surface waters was widespread with nitrate (mean = 0.7 mg NO3-N/L, n = 179) and phosphorus (mean = 275 μg/L, n = 179) exceeding levels associated with eutrophication. Hormone concentrations in sediments were often above those shown to cause endocrine disruption in fish and appear to reflect the widespread application of poultry litter and manure. Observed species declines may be at least partially due to hormones, although excess nutrients and herbicide surfactants may also be implicated.

  18. Changing agricultural practices: potential consequences to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Lasier, Peter J; Urich, Matthew L; Hassan, Sayed M; Jacobs, Whitney N; Bringolf, Robert B; Owens, Kathleen M

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural practices pose threats to biotic diversity in freshwater systems with increasing use of glyphosate-based herbicides for weed control and animal waste for soil amendment becoming common in many regions. Over the past two decades, these particular agricultural trends have corresponded with marked declines in populations of fish and mussel species in the Upper Conasauga River watershed in Georgia/Tennessee, USA. To investigate the potential role of agriculture in the population declines, surface waters and sediments throughout the basin were tested for toxicity and analyzed for glyphosate, metals, nutrients, and steroid hormones. Assessments of chronic toxicity with Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca indicated that few water or sediment samples were harmful and metal concentrations were generally below impairment levels. Glyphosate was not observed in surface waters, although its primary degradation product, aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA), was detected in 77% of the samples (mean = 509 μg/L, n = 99) and one or both compounds were measured in most sediment samples. Waterborne AMPA concentrations supported an inference that surfactants associated with glyphosate may be present at levels sufficient to affect early life stages of mussels. Nutrient enrichment of surface waters was widespread with nitrate (mean = 0.7 mg NO3-N/L, n = 179) and phosphorus (mean = 275 μg/L, n = 179) exceeding levels associated with eutrophication. Hormone concentrations in sediments were often above those shown to cause endocrine disruption in fish and appear to reflect the widespread application of poultry litter and manure. Observed species declines may be at least partially due to hormones, although excess nutrients and herbicide surfactants may also be implicated.

  19. Effects of agricultural practices on greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from corn fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, D.; Wang, J.; Jima, T.; Dennis, S.; Stockert, C.; Smart, D.; Bhattarai, S.; Brown, K.; Sammis, T.; Reddy, C.

    2012-12-01

    The United States is, by far, the largest producer of corn (Zea mays L.) in the world. Recent increases in fertilizer cost and concerns over global climate change have farmers and others interested in more efficient fertilization management and greenhouse gas emissions reductions. To seek the best management practices, we conducted field experiments during the 2012 growing season at Tennessee State University Agricultural Research and Demonstration Center in Nashville, TN. Six treatments were applied including regular URAN application [2 times], multiple URAN applications [4 times], denitrification inhibitor with regular URAN application, and chicken litter plus regular URAN application in no-tilled plots, and URAN application plus bio-char in tilled plots, all compared to regular URAN application in conventional tilled plots. Each treatment was replicated six times (blocks). We measured N2O, CO2 and CH4 emissions using a closed chamber method after rainfall events, fertilizer applications or every two weeks whichever was shorter. Corresponding soil NH4+-N and NO3--N, soil temperature and moisture were also measured during the gas sampling. Plant physiology and growth were measured about every two weeks. While preliminary results indicate that N2O and CO2 fluxes were significantly influenced by the agricultural practices on some days, particularly after rainfall events, CH4 flux was not influenced by the treatments during most of the days. Plots with bio-char showed significantly lower N2O emissions. We also measured N2O flux in a commercial corn field using the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique to ground verify the chamber based N2O emissions at the field scale. Results obtained with the EC technique seem comparable with the chamber method.

  20. AnnAGNPS – A United States Department of Agriculture Watershed Conservation Management Planning Tool for Non-Point Source Pollution Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A watershed scale assessment of the effect of conservation practices on the environment is critical when recommending best management practices to agricultural producers. The environmental benefits of these practices have not been widely quantified at the watershed scale, which would require extens...

  1. Organic matter composition of soil macropore surfaces under different agricultural management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Leue, Marin; Magid, Jacob; Gerke, Horst H.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the heterogeneous nature of soil, i.e. properties and processes occurring specifically at local scales is essential for best managing our soil resources for agricultural production. Examination of intact soil structures in order to obtain an increased understanding of how soil systems operate from small to large scale represents a large gap within soil science research. Dissolved chemicals, nutrients and particles are transported through the disturbed plow layer of agricultural soil, where after flow through the lower soil layers occur by preferential flow via macropores. Rapid movement of water through macropores limit the contact between the preferentially moving water and the surrounding soil matrix, therefore contact and exchange of solutes in the water is largely restricted to the surface area of the macropores. Organomineral complex coated surfaces control sorption and exchange properties of solutes, as well as availability of essential nutrients to plant roots and to the preferentially flowing water. DRIFT (Diffuse Reflectance infrared Fourier Transform) Mapping has been developed to examine composition of organic matter coated macropores. In this study macropore surfaces structures will be determined for organic matter composition using DRIFT from a long-term field experiment on waste application to agricultural soil (CRUCIAL, close to Copenhagen, Denmark). Parcels with 5 treatments; accelerated household waste, accelerated sewage sludge, accelerated cattle manure, NPK and unfertilized, will be examined in order to study whether agricultural management have an impact on the organic matter composition of intact structures.

  2. Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Practices Through Remote Sensing Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driese, K. L.; Sivanpillai, R.

    2007-12-01

    Ever increasing demand for food and fiber calls for farm management strategies such as effective use of chemicals and efficient water use that will maximize productivity while reducing adverse impacts on the environment. Remotely sensed data collected by satellites are a valuable resource for farmers and ranchers for gaining insights about farm and ranch productivity. While researchers in universities and agencies have made tremendous advances, technology transfer to end-users has lagged, preventing the farmers from taking advantage of this valuable resource. To overcome this barrier, the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), a NASA funded program headed by the University of North Dakota, has been working with end-users to promote the use of remote sensing technology for sustainable agricultural practices. We will highlight the UMAC activities in Wyoming aimed at promoting this technology to sugar-beet farmers in the Big Horn Basin. To assist farmers who might not have a computer at home, we provide them to local county Cooperative Extension Offices pre-loaded with relevant imagery. Our targeted outreach activities have resulted in farmers requesting and using new and old Landsat images to identify growth anomalies and trends which have enabled them to develop management zones within their croplands.

  3. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  4. From Agricultural Extension to Capacity Development: Exploring the Foundations of an Emergent Form of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Al

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that capacity development is a response to changes in the organization and practice of agricultural extension as these changes have excluded small resource farmers. In this essay I trace the changes in the organization of agricultural extension through to the emergence of the concept and practice of capacity development. The idea…

  5. ASSESSING EFFECTS OF ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES ON WILDLIFE HABITAT IN IOWA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A habitat-change model was used to compare past, present, and future land cover and management practices to assess potential impacts of alternative agricultural practices on wildlife in two agricultural watersheds, Walnut Creek and Buck Creek, in central Iowa, USA. This approach ...

  6. Combining agricultural practices key to elevating soil microbial activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of soil health is an emerging topic in applied ecology, specifically as it pertains to the agriculture, which utilizes approximately 40% of earth’s land. However, rigorous quantification of soil health and the services provided by soil organisms to support agriculture production (e.g., n...

  7. Simulating Sustainable P Management Practices in Tile-Drained Landscapes of Central Ohio Using the Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, W. I., III; King, K.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite extensive application of conservation practices to minimize sediment P delivery to streams, hypoxic conditions and harmful algal blooms persist in receiving water bodies. Tile-drainage networks are a focal point for reducing soluble P in the food-producing Midwestern United States in that they promote higher connectivity between upland soils and stream channels which decreases soil contact time, and biogeochemical alterations. A critical next step to reduce the environmental impact and maintain sustainable agriculture is to implement best management practices (BMPs) under a holistic framework that considers adverse effects to water resources and crop production, while maintaining economic feasibility. The objective of this study was to apply a robust numerical model, the Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX), in a tile-drained landscape in Central Ohio in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a suite of BMPs on soluble and particulate P delivery to stream channels. The model was applied and evaluated at two adjacent edge-of-field sites with similar soil, topographic and management characteristics (except for tillage and tile installation on the south field in 2012, preceded by more than 20 years of no-till operations). Three years of daily discharge, total suspended solids, soluble P, soluble N (NO3 and NH4), total P, total N, and crop yields were utilized to verify the model performance. Prevalent BMPs simulated within the modeling framework included drainage water management, tillage and crop rotations, the 4Rs framework (right fertilizer source, rate, time, and placement), and bioreactors. Results of the study quantify the ability of the numerical model to simulate hydrology and P transport for surface runoff and subsurface tile drainage and highlight modifications that improve model performance. Further, results highlight BMPs that effectively reduce P loads to streams while maintaining crop yields, which can later be used to inform BMPs

  8. Mentoring Functions Practiced by Undergraduate Faculty in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Ashley J.; Retallick, Michael S.; Martin, Robert; Steiner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The literature has indicated that faculty and administrators are often uncertain about how to foster effective mentoring relationships with undergraduate students. This study analyzed the mentoring functions of faculty in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Iowa State University regarding the undergraduate mentoring process. Six…

  9. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  10. Certified Organic Agriculture in Mexico: Market Connections and Certification Practices in Large and Small Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Laura Gomez; Martin, Lauren; Cruz, Manuel Angel Gomez; Mutersbaugh, Tad

    2005-01-01

    Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which…

  11. Effects of agricultural conservation practices on oxbow lake watersheds in the Mississippi River alluvial plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, agricultural lands are considered to major sources of nonpoint source pollutants such as sediment, pesticides and nutrients in the United States. While conservation practices have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing agricultural related pollutants on test plot scales, they typ...

  12. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  13. Agricultural practices and personal hygiene among agricultural workers in a rural area of Howrah district, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Dey, T K

    2005-01-01

    The study attempted to assess agricultural practices and personal hygiene among 100 agricultural workers in a rural area of West Bengal in 1999. 69% of the study population was marginal farmer with less than 2 acres of land. Organophosphorus group of pesticides were most commonly used pesticides (68%); spraying was irregular in nature (98%), through semiautomatic sprayer (99%) and only 5% used any special dress while spraying pesticides. 40% of workers used to store pesticides either in living room or in food storage area. 88% of them did not take any food during work with pesticides, only 37% used to take regular bath after working with pesticides but regular hand washing was practiced by all of them.

  14. Integrating seasonal climate prediction and agricultural models for insights into agricultural practice

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James W

    2005-01-01

    Interest in integrating crop simulation models with dynamic seasonal climate forecast models is expanding in response to a perceived opportunity to add value to seasonal climate forecasts for agriculture. Integrated modelling may help to address some obstacles to effective agricultural use of climate information. First, modelling can address the mismatch between farmers' needs and available operational forecasts. Probabilistic crop yield forecasts are directly relevant to farmers' livelihood decisions and, at a different scale, to early warning and market applications. Second, credible ex ante evidence of livelihood benefits, using integrated climate–crop–economic modelling in a value-of-information framework, may assist in the challenge of obtaining institutional, financial and political support; and inform targeting for greatest benefit. Third, integrated modelling can reduce the risk and learning time associated with adaptation and adoption, and related uncertainty on the part of advisors and advocates. It can provide insights to advisors, and enhance site-specific interpretation of recommendations when driven by spatial data. Model-based ‘discussion support systems’ contribute to learning and farmer–researcher dialogue. Integrated climate–crop modelling may play a genuine, but limited role in efforts to support climate risk management in agriculture, but only if they are used appropriately, with understanding of their capabilities and limitations, and with cautious evaluation of model predictions and of the insights that arises from model-based decision analysis. PMID:16433092

  15. Agricultural environmental management; case studies from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Frost, A; Stewart, S; Kerr, D; MacDonald, J; D'Arcy, B

    2004-01-01

    Six farms were examined, each from a different sector of Scottish agriculture. Surveys were carried out to identify both diffuse pollution risks and options for habitat conservation and enhancement. Financial data were also gathered to determine the current sources of farm income, both from sale of produce and from grants. Whole farm plans were produced aimed at bringing about reductions in diffuse pollution to water, soil and air and also habitat improvements. The assembled information was used to devise a possible agri-environment grant scheme to aid the implementation of the whole farm plans.

  16. Influence of agricultural practices on fruit quality of bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zahra, T R

    2011-09-15

    An experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to compare the effect of four fermented organic matter sources (cattle, poultry and sheep manure in addition to 1:1:1 mixture of the three organic matter sources) in which 4 kg organic matter m(-2) were used, with that of the conventional agriculture (chemical fertilizers) treatments on Marvello red pepper fruit quality, by using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Pepper fruits characteristics cultivated in soil supplemented with manure were generally better than those from plants grown in soil only. Addition of animal manure increased bell pepper fruit content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, crude fibre and intensity of red color as compare with conventional agriculture that produced fruits with higher titratable acidity, water content, lycopene and bigger fruit size. In most cases of animal manure treatments, best results were obtained by the sheep manure treatment that produced the highest TSS, while the worst results were obtained by the poultry manure treatment that produced the smallest fruit and lowest fruit lycopene content.

  17. Smallholder farmers' behavioural intentions towards sustainable agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Zeweld, Woldegebrial; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Tesfay, Girmay; Speelman, Stijn

    2017-02-01

    The introduction of sustainable practices is considered a win-win strategy for low-income countries because of its potential to simultaneously improve food security and address environmental issues. Despite the numerous studies that focus on the adoption of technological innovations, little work has been done on the socio-psychological behaviour of farmers with regard to sustainable practices. This study investigates smallholder farmers' intentions towards two practices: minimum tillage and row planting. The decomposed theory of planned behaviour is used as a theoretical framework to analyse the intentions. The findings reveal that attitudes and normative issues positively explain farmers' intentions to adopt both practices. Perceived control also has a positive significant effect on the intention to apply minimum tillage. When the intention is formed, farmers are expected to carry out their intention when opportunities arise. Moreover, perceived usefulness, social capital, and perceived ease of operation are also significant predictors of farmers' attitudes. Furthermore, social capital and training are factors that positively affect the normative issue, which in turn also positively mediates the relationship between training, social capital and intention. Finally, it is shown that neither the perceived resources nor information from the media significantly affect farmers' intentions. This paper thus confirms that social capital, personal efficacy, training and perceived usefulness play significant roles in the decision to adopt sustainable practices. In addition, willingness to adopt seems to be limited by negative attitudes and by weak normative issues. Therefore, to improve adoption of sustainable practices by smallholder farmers, attention should be given to socio-psychological issues. This could lead to improvements in farm productivity and enhance the livelihoods of smallholders.

  18. An Analysis of Selected Data Practices: A Case Study of the Purdue College of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouchard, Line; Bracke, Marianne Stowell

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a survey of data practices given to the Purdue College of Agriculture. Data practices are a concern for many researchers with new governmental funding mandates that require data management plans, and for the institution providing resources to comply with these mandates. The survey attempted to answer these questions: What are…

  19. Impact of agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon: simulation of Australian wheat systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Bryan, Brett A; King, Darran; Luo, Zhongkui; Wang, Enli; Song, Xiaodong; Yu, Qiang

    2013-05-01

    Quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics at a high spatial and temporal resolution in response to different agricultural management practices and environmental conditions can help identify practices that both sequester carbon in the soil and sustain agricultural productivity. Using an agricultural systems model (the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator), we conducted a high spatial resolution and long-term (122 years) simulation study to identify the key management practices and environmental variables influencing SOC dynamics in a continuous wheat cropping system in Australia's 96 million ha cereal-growing regions. Agricultural practices included five nitrogen application rates (0-200 kg N ha(-1) in 50 kg N ha(-1) increments), five residue removal rates (0-100% in 25% increments), and five residue incorporation rates (0-100% in 25% increments). We found that the change in SOC during the 122-year simulation was influenced by the management practices of residue removal (linearly negative) and fertilization (nonlinearly positive) - and the environmental variables of initial SOC content (linearly negative) and temperature (nonlinearly negative). The effects of fertilization were strongest at rates up to 50 kg N ha(-1) , and the effects of temperature were strongest where mean annual temperatures exceeded 19 °C. Reducing residue removal and increasing fertilization increased SOC in most areas except Queensland where high rates of SOC decomposition caused by high temperature and soil moisture negated these benefits. Management practices were particularly effective in increasing SOC in south-west Western Australia - an area with low initial SOC. The results can help target agricultural management practices for increasing SOC in the context of local environmental conditions, enabling farmers to contribute to climate change mitigation and sustaining agricultural production.

  20. Agriculture Teachers' Perception and Practice for Teaching Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, Justin Lee

    2011-01-01

    Federal legislation mandates that appropriate education be provided for all students in US public schools (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2004; No Child Left Behind, 2001). The use of evidence-based instructional practices for special education, such as Direct Instruction and Strategy Instruction, is one example of mandated…

  1. Environmental Effects of Agricultural Practices - Summary of Workshop Held on June 14-16, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    A meeting between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners was held June 14-16, 2005, in Denver, CO, to discuss science issues and needs related to agricultural practices. The goals of the meeting were to learn about the (1) effects of agricultural practices on the environment and (2) tools for identifying and quantifying those effects. Achieving these goals required defining the environmental concerns, developing scientific actions to address assessment of environmental effects, and creating collaborations to identify future research requirements and technical gaps. Five areas of concern were discussed-emerging compounds; water availability; genetically modified organisms; effects of conservation practices on ecosystems; and data, methods, and tools for assessing effects of agricultural practices.

  2. The eco-evolutionary impacts of domestication and agricultural practices on wild species.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Martin M; Araki, Hitoshi; Karp, Daniel S; Poveda, Katja; Whitehead, Susan R

    2017-01-19

    Agriculture is a dominant evolutionary force that drives the evolution of both domesticated and wild species. However, the various mechanisms of agriculture-induced evolution and their socio-ecological consequences are not often synthetically discussed. Here, we explore how agricultural practices and evolutionary changes in domesticated species cause evolution in wild species. We do so by examining three processes by which agriculture drives evolution. First, differences in the traits of domesticated species, compared with their wild ancestors, alter the selective environment and create opportunities for wild species to specialize. Second, selection caused by agricultural practices, including both those meant to maximize productivity and those meant to control pest species, can lead to pest adaptation. Third, agriculture can cause non-selective changes in patterns of gene flow in wild species. We review evidence for these processes and then discuss their ecological and sociological impacts. We finish by identifying important knowledge gaps and future directions related to the eco-evolutionary impacts of agriculture including their extent, how to prevent the detrimental evolution of wild species, and finally, how to use evolution to minimize the ecological impacts of agriculture.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'.

  3. Using knowledge of agricultural practices to enhance through-the-season interpretation of Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Pestre, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat data contain features that can be interpreted to produce information about crops, in support of crop estimation procedures. This paper considers ways in which detailed knowledge of agricultural practices and events might increase and improve the utilization of Landsat data in both the predictive and observational or measurement components of such procedures. Landsat observables related to agricultural practices and events throughout the cropping season are listed. Agricultural fields are identified as the preferred observational units for incorporating refined agricultural understanding, such as crop rotation patterns, into machine procedures. Uses of Landsat data from both prior seasons and the current season are considered, as is use of predictive models of crop appearance. The investigation of knowledge engineering systems tailored to through-the-season estimation problems is recommended for long range development.

  4. Selection criteria for water disinfection techniques in agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Haute, Sam van; Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    This paper comprises a selection tool for water disinfection methods for fresh produce pre- and postharvest practices. A variety of water disinfection technologies is available on the market and no single technology is the best choice for all applications. It can be difficult for end users to choose the technology that is best fit for a specific application. Therefore, the different technologies were characterized in order to identify criteria that influence the suitability of a technology for pre- or postharvest applications. Introduced criteria were divided into three principal components: (i) criteria related to the technology and which relate to the disinfection efficiency, (ii) attention points for the management and proper operation, and (iii) necessities in order to sustain the operation with respect to the environment. The selection criteria may help the end user of the water disinfection technology to obtain a systematic insight into all relevant aspects to be considered for preliminary decision making on which technologies should be put to feasibility testing for water disinfection in pre- and postharvest practices of the fresh produce chain.

  5. Ergonomic risks and musculoskeletal disorders in production agriculture: recommendations for effective research to practice.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R; Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Banks, R J

    2010-07-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are increasingly recognized as a significant hazard of agricultural occupation. In agricultural jobs with significant physical labor, MSDs are typically the most frequently reported injury. Although not as lethal as tractor roll-overs, MSDs can result in disability, lost work time, and increased production costs. MSDs increase production costs as a result of worker absence, medical and insurance costs, decreased work capacity, and loss of employees to turnover and competition from other less physically demanding industries. This paper will provide an overview of what is currently known about MSDs in agriculture, including high-risk commodities, tasks and work practices, and the related regulatory factors and workers' compensation costs. As agricultural production practices evolve, the types of MSDs also change, as do ergonomic risk factors. One example is the previous higher rates of knee and hip arthritis identified in farmers in stanchion dairies evolving into upper extremity tendonitis, arthritis, and carpal tunnel syndrome now found in milking technicians in dairy milking parlors. This paper summarizes the presentation, "Musculoskeletal Disorders in Labor-Intensive Operations," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. The primary focus of the paper is to address current research on ergonomic solutions for MSDs in agriculture. These include improved tools, carts or equipment, as well as work practices. One of the key challenges in this area pertains to measurement, due to the fact that musculoskeletal strain is a chronic condition that can come and go, with self-reported pain as its only indicator. Alternative measurement methods will be discussed. Finally, the implementation of research into practice is reviewed, with an emphasis on best

  6. Practicing Conservation Agriculture to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change in Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2016-04-01

    Climate change scenarios indicate that Jordan and the Middle East could suffer from reduced agricultural productivity and water availability among other negative impacts. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6 °C by 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. The dominant form of agriculture system in Jordan is based on intensive tillage. This form of tillage has resulted in large losses of organic soil carbon, weaker soil structure, and cause compaction. It has negative effects on soil aeration, root development and water infiltration among other factors. There is a need to transform farming practices to conservation agriculture to sequester carbon so that climate change mitigation becomes an inherent property of future farming systems. Conservation Agriculture, a system avoiding or minimizing soil disturbance, combined with soil cover and crop diversification, is considered to be a sustainable production system that can also sequester carbon unlike tillage agriculture. Conservation agriculture promotes minimal disturbance of the soil by tillage (zero tillage), balanced application of chemical inputs and careful management of residues and wastes. This study was conducted to develop a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of the two most common types of agriculture, traditional tillage agriculture and conservation agriculture with respect to their effects on land productivity and on soil carbon pools. The study results indicated that conservation agriculture contributed to the reduction of the farming systems' greenhouse gas emissions and enhance its role as carbon sinks. Also, it was found that by shifting to conservation agriculture labor cost needed for

  7. School Meal Programs: Sharing Information on Best Practices May Improve Programs' Operations. Report to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    At the request of the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, this investigation identified state and local school food authorities' (SFA) management and operating practices recognized as best practice by the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) or other officials. In addition, the study determined whether some of these practices could be…

  8. Topographic placement of management practices to reduce water quality impacts from pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Best management practices (BMPs) such as streambank fencing and vegetative buffers lessen environmental impacts on streams from pasture-based agriculture by limiting livestock time in streams and intercepting sediment and nutrients in overland flow. Placing streamside BMPs at the closest point to th...

  9. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area.

  10. Environmental Cleanup Best Management Practices: Effective Use of the Project Life Cycle Conceptual Site Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet is the first in a series of documents that address conceptual site models (CSMs). This fact sheet summarizes how environmental practitioners can use CSMs to achieve, communicate, and maintain stakeholder consensus.

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of best management practices and green infrastructure in the State of California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 2010, the State of California has required construction operators to utilize the electronic Storm Water Application and Report Tracking System (SMARTS) for construction projects covered by the General Construction Permit. The General Construction permit encourages BMP and G...

  12. Modules for Modeling Firing Range Best Management Practices within TREECS (trademark)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    points, impact berms for small arms firing ranges (SAFRs), demolition sites, grenade ranges, etc. Source loading management can involve rotating ...removal is performed primarily to remove intact duds, there can be exposed chunks of HE from low order detonations that can be removed. The extraction of...and perforation of duds that can expose HE. Sympathetic duds are low order detonations due to another round exploding close enough to the dud to

  13. Use of Organic Substrates as a Best Management Practice for Active Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-30

    RDX Biodegradation 4Soil h10.4 % organic matter h58% sand, 35% silt, 7% clay 4Un- saturated soil hremained aerobic h~50% RDX loss over 35 d... Saturated and Well-Drained Surface Soil, ERDC/CRREL TR-05-4 RDX Biodegradation 4 Aerobic conditions h low/zero degradation h Potential GW...humates hLignosulfonate dust suppressants (liquid and powder) hKraft lignin with alkali (NaOH or Ca(OH)2) hPartially sulfonated Kraft lignin Fire

  14. A Watershed-scale Design Optimization Model for Stormwater Best Management Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency developed a decision-support system, System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis Integration (SUSTAIN), to evaluate alternative plans for stormwater quality management and flow abatement techniques in urban and developing areas. SUSTAI...

  15. Analysis of Best Management Practices for Storm Water Compliance at Air Force Airfields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    substitution - The principal runway deicing chemical alternatives that may be used in lieu of urea and glycol include potassium acetate, calcium magnesium...acetate, and sodium formate. Acetate-based deicers have the advantage of alleviating the threat of 19 ammonia, nitrate, glycol and 1,4-dioxane to the...environment in the storm water runoff (E’Itri, 1992:336) . Potassium .cetate chemicals, such as BP Clearway I and Crytech E36, are "safer and their

  16. A multilevel model of the impact of farm-level best management practices on phosphorus runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multilevel or hierarchical models have been applied for a number of years in the social sciences but only relatively recently in the environmental sciences. These models can be developed in either a frequentist or Bayesian context and have similarities to other methods such as empirical Bayes analys...

  17. Selenium removal during a flood experiment: Best management practice for a contaminated wetland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, D. L.; Yahnke, J.; Miller, J.; Noyes, S.

    2003-12-01

    Constructed and natural wetlands can accumulate elevated levels of selenium (Se); however, few data are available on cost-effective methods for remobilization and removal of Se from these areas. The experiment was conducted at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area (SLWMA), a Se-contaminated wetland in northeastern Utah. The purpose of the experiment was to assess the effectiveness of flooding on the removal of Se from surface sediments and transport to the chemically reducing ground water 1.8 meters (m) below land surface. The 84-m2 flood-experiment plot contained 10 monitoring wells, a water-quality minimonitor (continuous measurement of pH, specific conductance, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen), a down-hole bromide (Br) electrode, and 2 pressure transducers. Flooding was initiated on August 27, 2002, and a Br tracer was added to water delivered through a pipeline to the flood plot. Standing water depth in the flood plot was maintained at 0.3 m through September 1, 2002. Mean vertical water velocities were estimated to range from 0.3 to 1.3 centimeters per hour. Dissolved (less than 0.45 micron) Se increased from pre-flood concentrations of less than 10 micrograms per liter (ug/L) to greater than 800 ug/L during flooding in samples from deep (1.8 m below land surface) ground water. Se concentrations exceeded 5,500 ug/L in samples from shallow (0.8 m below land surface) ground water. Ratios of Se to Br in water samples indicate that Se moved conservatively during the experiment and was derived from leaching of near-surface sediments. Cumulative Se flux to the deep ground water during the experiment ranged from 54.9 to 172 milligrams per square meter (mg/m2). Pre- and post-flood surface soil sampling indicated a mean Se flux of 750 mg/m2 through the top 15 centimeters of soil. Measurable Se flux to the deep ground water would have increased if the flood experiment had continued beyond September 1, 2002. Water samples from the deep ground water collected in April 2003 (8 months after the flood experiment) contained Se concentrations of less than 20 ug/L and dissolved oxygen concentrations of less than 0.1 milligrams per liter. The minimonitor data indicate a rapid return to chemically reducing conditions in the deep ground water, limiting the mobility of the selenium dissolved in the water pulse introduced during the flood experiment. Ratios of Se to Br in deep ground-water samples collected 8 months after the experiment confirmed the removal of Se from the aqueous phase. Based on the median Se flux rate observed during the experiment of 0.65 mg/hr/m2 (n = 52), seven flooding cycles would be required to meet the 4 milligrams per kilogram remediation goal in surface soils from the SLWMA wetland.

  18. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Textiles is one the nation's oldest industries, dating back to the beginning of the American Industrial revolution in the 1790s. Despite perceptions of the decline of U.S. textile manufacturing in the face of offshore competition, the industry remains one of the largest, most di...

  19. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Sites with Leaking Underground Storage Tank Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site.

  20. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Air Quality Best Management Practice (AQBMP) Resource Document for Shipyards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    problem with lead occurs when small particles are inhaled, absorbed , or ingested into the body and circulated through the bloodstream. When ingested...remove any residue. Terpenes , blends of alcohols, glycol ethers, and suxfactants are widely used in aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning. Most solvent...steady liquid stream or brush cleaning. * In vapor degreaser, only work in or below the vapor zone. * Do not degrease porous or absorbent materials such

  1. Developing Baselines for Prescribed Burning Smoke Management Plans and Best Management Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Protection Agency (EPA) sets policy on controlling emis- sions from prescribed burning that is complex and still evolving. States have implemented EPA...Services DoD Department of Defense ESMP enhanced smoke management program EPA Environmental Protection Agency FMP fire management plan GFC Georgia...loads. ERDC/CERL TR 15-30 2 Range maintenance is enhanced by protecting training land assets from fire damage and developing lands suitable for

  2. Stormwater Management Decision Support System for Using Low Impact Development Best Management Practices in Industrial Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-30

    16  Figure 3-2. Wood Pile...Solids UFC Unified Facilities Criteria U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation U.S. EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency...features con ode faster than untouched features Runoff or Foundation wood Higher flows 7 increased leaching of copper- groundwater containing wood

  3. Department of Defense Best Management Practices for Munitions Constituents on Operational Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    disadvantages. Cost Information: Costs for the implementation and maintenance of a buried peat moss/ soybean oil (PMSO) layer 2 feet below ground surface...and soybean oil April 2014 A-2 PRB permeable reactive barrier RDX hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine SAR small arms

  4. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SLABSTOCK AND MOLDED FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require EPA to develop standards for major emission sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA has identified the flexible polyurethane foam industry as a large emitter of HAPs and has slated the industry for regulation under Title III, ...

  5. Environmental Compliance and Best Management Practices: Guidance Manual for K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This user-friendly guidance manual is organized by the "target audience" or "end user." First, the manual introduces a "Typical School," which is a school organized in such a way that it represents how many schools in the real world are organized. This Typical School is subdivided into "Organizational Units"…

  6. COSTS OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ASSOCIATED LAND FOR URBAN STORMWATER CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to present information on the cost of stormwater pollution control facilities in urban areas, including collection, control, and treatment systems. Information on prior cost studies of control technologies and cost estimating models used in these stu...

  7. Best management practices: Managing cropping systems for soil protection and bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in renewable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased. Crop residue such as corn stover or wheat straw can be used for bioenergy including a substitution for natural gas or coal. Harvesting crop residue needs to be managed to protect the soil and future soil productivity. The amount of bi...

  8. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Integrating Renewable Energy into Site Cleanup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site.

  9. Storm Water Management for Industrial Activities: Developing Pollution Prevention Plans and Best Management Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Ammonium fluoborate 13828830 5000 1 D 5000 (2270) Ammonium fluoride 12125018 5000 1 S 100 (46.4) Ammonium hydroxide 1336216 1000 1 C 1000(454) Ammonium...Lead subacetete 1. 4 U146 5 100(46.4) Lead chloride 7758964 5000 1 B 100 (46.4) Lead fluoborate 13814965 6000 1 B 100 (45.4) Lead fluoride 7783462 1000 1...U129 X 1 (0.454? hexachioro-,( I alpha,2alpha,3beta, 4alpha,6alpha,6bota)-gamma-8HC Hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma isomer) Lithium Chromate 14307358

  10. Evaluation of best management practice products in preventing discharge of metals: a laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Büyüksönmez, Fatih; Yang, Li; Beighley, R Edward

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in soil poses serious environmental and health risks, as metals are carried with eroded soils. In this study, 17 different soil erosion and sediment control products were investigated for their effectiveness in controlling transport of particulate heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd). Among the treatments investigated, wood mulch and tackifiers were found to be the most effective in reducing total suspended solids (TSS) and total heavy metal losses. They reduced TSS to an undetectable level during short-term simulation tests. Paper mulch was the only treatment that had no significant reduction in both total metal loss and TSS. Fiber rolls, silt fences, and gravel bags were effective in reducing sediment loss. Although the netting/blanket treatments were not effective in reducing total metal discharge, they significantly reduced sediment loss compared with the control.

  11. CONSIDERATION IN THE DESIGN OF TREATMENT BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS) TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the past three decades, municipalities in the United States have successfully addressed pollution in the watershed by collecting and treating their wastewater. Currently, all municipalities provide secondary level treatment, and in some cases tertiary treatment, and industri...

  12. Modeling the impacts of climate change and agricultural management practices on surface erosion in a dryland agricultural basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottenbreit, E.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of climate change and agricultural management practices on suspended sediment concentrations in the Potlach River basin in northwestern Idaho. Suspended sediment is a pollutant in many water systems and contributes to the impairment of streams. Conventional tillage practices and rain-on-snow events in the Palouse region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington can produce some of the highest sediment losses per acre in the United States. Climate change may lead to further problems as more frequent and intense winter storm events are predicted to occur. Many hydrological models have been developed which examine suspended sediment in river systems. The Potlatch River basin near Julietta, ID was examined using the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), which has a sediment module that includes surface erosion and channel sediment transport. DHSVM was calibrated and evaluated over the historical period of streamflow observations and was used to predict soil erosion rates and suspended sediment concentrations using a range of downscaled Global Climate Models (GCMs) emissions scenarios for the year 2045. Furthermore, the sensitivity of suspended sediment concentrations to conventional versus convservative tillage practices was explored. The results show that as the projected climate-driven intensity of storms increase, more sediment is predicted in the Potlatch River. Suspended sediment and streamflow are predicted to increase during the late fall through the early spring. This increase occurs during times of heightened runoff when suspended sediment concentration in the river is highest. Three tillage scenarios were incorporated into DHSVM for winter wheat: conventional till, reduced till, and no till. Erosion and suspended sediment were higher during storm events under conventional agricultural tillage scenarios. In the long-term, this research can lead to examination of the effects of climate

  13. Nursing organizations call for phase-out of agricultural practices that promote antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Rebecca

    2006-02-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is considered a contributing factor to the problem of antibiotic resistance. A majority of antibiotics and related drugs produced in the United States are not used to treat the infirm, but rather are used as feed additives for agricultural animals to promote growth and compensate for stressful and crowded growing conditions. Significant efforts must be made to decrease inappropriate overuse in animals and agriculture. Several leading health and political organizations have begun to address the issue. The American Nurses Association has established policies that call on Congress, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and meat producers to promptly phase out the agricultural practices that promote antibiotic resistance.

  14. EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY IN AGRICULTURAL AND NATIVE SYSTEMS IN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increase in agricultural practices in the Cerrado (tropical savannah) and Amazon regions in Brazil is causing drastic changes in the nutrient and carbon cycling of native areas. Because microorganisms play a key role in biogeochemical cycling, monitoring the shifts in the microb...

  15. Occupational Safety and Health: A View of Current Practices in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threeton, Mark D.; Ewing, John C.; Evanoski, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    Providing safe and secure teaching and learning environments within schools is an ongoing process which requires a significant amount of attention. Therefore, this study sought to: 1) explore safety and health practices within secondary Agricultural Mechanics Education; and 2) identify the perceived obstacles which appear to hinder implementation…

  16. Responses of corn physiology and yield to six agricultural practices over three years in middle Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chih-Li; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Wang, Junming; Reddy, K. Chandra; Dennis, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Different agricultural practices may have substantial impacts on crop physiology and yield. However, it is still not entirely clear how multiple agricultural practices such as tillage, biochar and different nutrient applications could influence corn physiology and yield. We conducted a three-year field experiment to study the responses of corn physiology, yield, and soil respiration to six different agricultural practices. The six treatments included conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (NT), in combination with nitrogen type (URAN or chicken litter) and application method, biochar, or denitrification inhibitor. A randomized complete block design was applied with six replications. Leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration, plant height, leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and yield were measured. Results showed that different agricultural practices had significant effects on plant leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, soil respiration, height, and yield, but not on LAI and biomass. The average corn yield in the NT-URAN was 10.03 ton/ha, 28.9% more than in the CT-URAN. Compared to the NT-URAN, the NT-biochar had lower soil respiration and similar yield. All variables measured showed remarkable variations among the three years. Our results indicated that no tillage treatment substantially increased corn yield, probably due to the preservation of soil moisture during drought periods. PMID:27272142

  17. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  18. Responses of corn physiology and yield to six agricultural practices over three years in middle Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chih-Li; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Wang, Junming; Reddy, K Chandra; Dennis, Sam

    2016-06-07

    Different agricultural practices may have substantial impacts on crop physiology and yield. However, it is still not entirely clear how multiple agricultural practices such as tillage, biochar and different nutrient applications could influence corn physiology and yield. We conducted a three-year field experiment to study the responses of corn physiology, yield, and soil respiration to six different agricultural practices. The six treatments included conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (NT), in combination with nitrogen type (URAN or chicken litter) and application method, biochar, or denitrification inhibitor. A randomized complete block design was applied with six replications. Leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration, plant height, leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and yield were measured. Results showed that different agricultural practices had significant effects on plant leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, soil respiration, height, and yield, but not on LAI and biomass. The average corn yield in the NT-URAN was 10.03 ton/ha, 28.9% more than in the CT-URAN. Compared to the NT-URAN, the NT-biochar had lower soil respiration and similar yield. All variables measured showed remarkable variations among the three years. Our results indicated that no tillage treatment substantially increased corn yield, probably due to the preservation of soil moisture during drought periods.

  19. Of birds, carbon and water: integrating multiple ecosystem service impacts to identify locations for agricultural conservation practice adoption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human use of the landscape for crop production can degrade ecosystem services. A number of agricultural conservation practices are touted as mitigating these impacts. Many of these practices are encouraged by incentive programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program administere...

  20. Relating management practices and nutrient export in agricultural watersheds of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Relations between riverine export (load) of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) from 133 large agricultural watersheds in the United States and factors affecting nutrient transport were evaluated using empirical regression models. After controlling for anthropogenic inputs and other landscape factors affecting nutrient transport-such as runoff, precipitation, slope, number of reservoirs, irrigated area, and area with subsurface tile drains-the relations between export and the area in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) (N) and conservation tillage (P) were positive. Additional interaction terms indicated that the relations between export and the area in conservation tillage (N) and the CRP (P) progressed from being clearly positive when soil erodibility was low or moderate, to being close to zero when soil erodibility was higher, to possibly being slightly negative only at the 90th to 95th percentile of soil erodibility values. Possible explanations for the increase in nutrient export with increased area in management practices include greater transport of soluble nutrients from areas in conservation tillage; lagged response of stream quality to implementation of management practices because of nitrogen transport in groundwater, time for vegetative cover to mature, and/or prior accumulation of P in soils; or limitations in the management practice and stream monitoring data sets. If lags are occurring, current nutrient export from agricultural watersheds may still be reflecting the influence of agricultural land-use practices that were in place before the implementation of these management practices.

  1. Namibia specific climate smart agricultural land use practices: Challenges and opportunities for enhancing ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Talamondjila Naanda, Martha; Bloemertz, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture is a backbone for many African economies, with an estimated 70% of Africans active in agricultural production. The sector often does not only directly contribute to, but sustains food security and poverty reduction efforts. Sustaining this productivity poses many challenges, particularly to small scale subsistence farmers (SSF) in dry land areas and semi-arid countries like Namibia. SSF in northern central Namibia mix crop and livestock production on degraded semi-arid lands and nutrient-poor sandy soils. They are fully dependent on agricultural production with limited alternative sources of income. Mostly, their agricultural harvests and outputs are low, not meeting their livelihood needs. At the same time, the land use is often not sustainable, leading to degradation. The Namibia case reveals that addressing underlying economic, social and environmental challenges requires a combination of farm level-soil management practices with a shift towards integrated landscape management. This forms the basis for SSF to adopt sustainable land management practices while building institutional foundations, like establishing SSF cooperatives. One way in which this has been tested is through the concept of incentive-based motivation, i.e. payment for ecosystem services (PES), in which some of the beneficiaries pay, for instance for farmers or land users, who provide the services. The farmers provide these services by substituting their unsustainable land and soil management and adopting new (climate smart agricultural) land use practices. Climate Smart Agricultural land use practices (CSA-LUP) are one way of providing ecosystem services, which could be fundamental to long-term sustainable soil and land management solutions in Africa. There are few PES cases which have been systematically studied from an institutional development structure perspective. This study presents lessons evolving from the notion that direct participation and involvement of local people

  2. Practices to reduce nitrate leaching and increase nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quemada, Miguel; Baranski, Marcin; Nobel de Lange, Majimcha; Vallejo, Antonio; Cooper, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Despite the large body of research in irrigated agriculture, it is still not clear which practices most effectively reduce nitrate leaching (NL) while maintaining crop yield. A meta-analysis (MA) of published experimental results from agricultural irrigated systems was conducted to identify those agricultural practices that have proven effective at reducing NL and to quantify the scale of reduction that can be achieved. Forty-four scientific articles were identified which investigated four main strategies (water and fertilizer management, use of cover crops and fertilizer technology) creating a database with 279 observations on NL and 166 on crop yield. Management practices that adjust water application to crop needs reduced NL by a mean of 80% without a reduction in crop yield. Improved fertilizer management reduced NL by 40%, and the best relationship between yield and NL was obtained when applying the recommended N fertilizer rate. Applications above the recommended rate increased leaching without enhancing yield. Replacing a fallow with a non-legume cover crop (CC) reduced NL by 50% while using a legume CC did not have any effect on NL. Legume CC increased yield and N use efficiency while yields following non-legume CC were not different from the fallow. Improved fertilizer technology also decreased NL but was the least effective of the selected strategies. The risk of nitrate leaching from irrigated systems is high, but optimum management practices may mitigate this risk and maintain crop yields while enhancing environmental sustainability.

  3. The Role of Networks of Practice and Webs of Influencers on Farmers' Engagement with and Learning about Agricultural Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oreszczyn, Sue; Lane, Andy; Carr, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the UK research project, "Farmers' understandings of GM crops within local communities", this paper considers the application of the concepts of communities of practice and networks of practice in the agricultural context. A brief review of theories about communities of practice and networks of practice is given and some of…

  4. Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneja, Viney P.; Blunden, Jessica; Roelle, Paul A.; Schlesinger, William H.; Knighton, Raymond; Niyogi, Dev; Gilliam, Wendell; Jennings, Greg; Duke, Clifford S.

    The first Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science was held at the Bolger Center in Potomac, Maryland from 4 to 8 June 2006. This international conference assembled approximately 350 people representing 25 nations from 5 continents, with disciplines ranging from atmospheric chemistry to soil science. The workshop was designed as an open forum in which participants could openly exchange the most current knowledge and learn about numerous international perspectives regarding agricultural air quality. Participants represented many stakeholder groups concerned with the growing need to assess agricultural impacts on the atmosphere and to develop beneficial policies to improve air quality. The workshop focused on identifying methods to improve emissions inventories and best management practices for agriculture. Workshop participants also made recommendations for technological and methodological improvements in current emissions measurement and modeling practices. The workshop commenced with a session on agricultural emissions and was followed by international perspectives from the United States, Europe, Australia, India, and South America. This paper summarizes the findings and issues of the workshop and articulates future research needs. These needs were identified in three general areas: (1) improvement of emissions measurement; (2) development of appropriate emission factors; and (3) implementation of best management practices (BMPs) to minimize negative environmental impacts. Improvements in the appropriate measurements will inform decisions regarding US farming practices. A need was demonstrated for a national/international network to monitor atmospheric emissions from agriculture and their subsequent depositions to surrounding areas. Information collected through such a program may be used to assess model performance and could be critical for evaluating any future regulatory policies or BMPs. The workshop concluded that efforts to maximize

  5. Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

    2012-05-01

    In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have

  6. Climate sensitivity of DSSAT under different agriculture practice scenarios in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2014-12-01

    Crop yields are sensitive to both agricultural practice and climate changes. Under different agricultural practice scenarios, crop yield may have different climate sensitivities. Since it is important to understand how future climate changes affect agriculture productivity and what the potential adaptation strategies would be to compensate for possible negative impacts on crop production, we performed experiments to study climate sensitivity under different agricultural practice scenarios for rice, maize and wheat in the top four production provinces in China using the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. The agricultural practice scenarios include four categories: different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer or no nitrogen stress; irrigation turned on or off, or no water stress; all possible seeds in the DSSAT cultivar data base; and different planting dates. For the climate sensitivity test, the control climate is from 1998 to 2007, and we individually modify four climate variables: daily maximum and minimum temperature by +2 °C and -2 °C, daily precipitation by +20% and -20%, and daily solar radiation by + 20% and -20%. With more nitrogen fertilizer applied, crops are more sensitive to temperature changes as well as precipitation changes because of their release from nitrogen limitation. With irrigation turned on, crop yield sensitivity to temperature decreases in most of the regions depending on the amount of the local precipitation, since more water is available and soil temperature varies less with higher soil moisture. Those results indicate that there could be possible agriculture adaptation strategies under certain future climate scenarios. For example, increasing nitrogen fertilizer usage by a certain amount might compensate for the negative impact on crop yield from climate changes. However, since crops are more sensitive to climate changes when there is more nitrogen fertilizer applied, if the climate changes are

  7. An assessment of alternative agricultural management practice impacts on soil carbon in the corn belt

    SciTech Connect

    Barnwell, T.O. Jr.; Jackson, R.B.; Mulkey, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    This impact of alternative management practices on agricultural soil C is estimated by a soil C mass balance modeling study that incorporates policy considerations in the analysis. A literature review of soil C modeling and impacts of management practices has been completed. The models selected for use and/or modification to meet the needs of representing soil C cycles in agroecosystems and impacts of management practices are CENTURY and DNDC. These models share a common ability to examine the impacts of alternative management practices on soil organic C, and are readily accessible. An important aspect of this effort is the development of the modeling framework and methodology that define the agricultural production systems and scenarios (i.e., crop-soil-climate combinations) to be assessed in terms of national policy, the integration of the model needs with available databases, and the operational mechanics of evaluating C sequestration potential with the integrated model/database system. We are working closely with EPA`s Office of Policy and Program Evaluation to define a reasonable set of policy alternatives for this assessment focusing on policy that might be affected through a revised Farm Bill, such as incentives to selectively promote conservation tillage, crop rotations, and/or good stewardship of the conservation reserve. Policy alternatives are translated into basic data for use in soil C models through economic models. These data, including such elements as agricultural practices, fertilization rates, and production levels are used in the soil C models to produce net carbon changes on a per unit area basis. The unit-area emissions are combined with areal-extent data in a GIS to produce an estimate of total carbon and nitrogen changes and thus estimate greenhouse benefits.

  8. Modelling the effect of agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon stocks: does soil erosion matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeu, Elisabet; Van Wesemael, Bas; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decades, an increasing number of studies have been conducted to assess the effect of soil management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. At regional scales, biogeochemical models such as CENTURY or Roth-C have been commonly applied. These models simulate SOC dynamics at the profile level (point basis) over long temporal scales but do not consider the continuous lateral transfer of sediment that takes place along geomorphic toposequences. As a consequence, the impact of soil redistribution on carbon fluxes is very seldom taken into account when evaluating changes in SOC stocks due to agricultural management practices on the short and long-term. To address this gap, we assessed the role of soil erosion by water and tillage on SOC stocks under different agricultural management practices in the Walloon region of Belgium. The SPEROS-C model was run for a 100-year period combining three typical crop rotations (using winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet and maize) with three tillage scenarios (conventional tillage, reduced tillage and reduced tillage in combination with additional crop residues). The results showed that including soil erosion by water in the simulations led to a general decrease in SOC stocks relative to a baseline scenario (where no erosion took place). The SOC lost from these arable soils was mainly exported to adjacent sites and to the river system by lateral fluxes, with magnitudes differing between crop rotations and in all cases lower under conservation tillage practices than under conventional tillage. Although tillage erosion plays an important role in carbon redistribution within fields, lateral fluxes induced by water erosion led to a higher spatial and in-depth heterogeneity of SOC stocks with potential effects on the soil water holding capacity and crop yields. This indicates that studies assessing the effect of agricultural management practices on SOC stocks and other soil properties over the landscape should

  9. Effects of different management practices on fungal biodiversity in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borriello, R.; Lumini, E.; Bonfante, P.; Bianciotto, V.

    2009-04-01

    Symbiotic associations between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots are widespread in natural environments and provide a range of benefits to the host plant. These include improved nutrition, enhanced resistance to soil-borne pests, diseases, and drought, as well as tolerance to heavy metals. In addition, the presence of a well developed AMF hyphal network improve the soil structure. As obligate mutualistic symbionts these fungi colonize the roots of many agricultural crops and it is often claimed that agricultural practices (use of fertilizers and biocides, tillage, dominance of monocultures and the growing of non-mycorrhizal crops) are detrimental to AMF. As a result, agro ecosystems impoverished in AMF may not get the fully expected range of benefits from these fungi. Using molecular markers on DNA extracted directly from soil and roots we studied the effects of different management practices (tillage and nitrogen fertilization) on the AMF populations colonizing an experimental agro ecosystem in Central Italy. Fungi in roots and soil were identified by cloning and sequencing a region of ~550bp of the 18S rDNA and ~600bp of the 28S rDNA. In symbiosis with the maize roots we detected only members of Glomeraceae group A that showed decrement in number under nitrogen fertilization. Instead in soil were mainly present members of two AMF groups, respectively Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae group A. In addition only the low input management practices preserve also members of Diversisporaceae and Glomeraceae group B. From our study we can conclude that agricultural practices can directly or indirectly influence AMF biodiversity. The result of this study highlight the importance and significant effects of the long term nitrogen fertilization and tillage practices on specific groups of fungi playing a key role in arable soils. The research was founded by Biodiversity Project (IPP-CNR) and by SOILSINK (FISR-MIUR)

  10. Influence of management practices on microbial nitrogen cyclers in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural land management has great influences on soil properties, in particular on microbial communities, due to their sensitivity to the perturbations of the soils. This is even more relevant in Mediterranean agricultural areas under semi-arid conditions. The Mediterranean belt is suffering from an intense degradation of its soils due to the millennia of intense land use and due to unsustainable management practices. As a consequence this area is suffering from a depletion of N content. In this work we investigated the effect of several traditional agricultural management practices on specific functional groups related to the nitrogen cycle in the soil. A field experiment was performed with orchard orange trees (citrus sinesis) in Eastern Spain to assess the long-term effects of ploughing with inorganic fertilization (PI) and ecological practices (EP) (chipped pruned branches and weeds as well as manure from sheep and goats) on microbes that can undertake nitrogen fixation and denitrification. Nine samples of soil were taken from every treatment, near the drip irrigation point and in a zone without the influence of drip irrigation (between trees row), and total DNA extracted. DNA samples were stored at minus-20°C to be analysed by qPCR. Microbial populations involved in the N biochemical cycle were analysed by targeted amplification of key functional biomarker genes: the abundance of nifH (nitrogen fixation), nirS, nirK and nosZ (denitrification) detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) has shown significant differences between treatments with higher abundance of all four genes in soils from ecological agricultural treatments. This may indicate that the ecological treatment created conditions that are more suitable for N cyclers in the soil and a better fertility and quality status of these soils.

  11. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  12. The 3D elevation program - Precision agriculture and other farm practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2016-12-27

    The agriculture industry, including farmers who rely on advanced technologies, increasingly use light detection and ranging (lidar) data for crop management to enhance agricultural productivity. Annually, the combination of greater yields and reduced crop losses is estimated to increase revenue by \\$2 billion for America's farmers when terrain data derived from lidar are available for croplands. Additionally, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) estimates that the value of improved services for farmers, through its farm assistance program, would be \\$79 million annually if lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) are made available to the public.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey provides the programmatic infrastructure to generate and supply superior, lidar-derived terrain data to the agriculture industry, which would allow farms to refine agricultural practices and produce crops more efficiently. By providing data to users, 3DEP reduces users’ costs and risks, allowing them to concentrate on mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards and specifications, and (4) most importantly, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data.

  13. Assessment of MODIS spectral indices for determining rice paddy agricultural practices and hydroperiod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornos, Lucia; Huesca, Margarita; Dominguez, Jose Antonio; Moyano, Maria Carmen; Cicuendez, Victor; Recuero, Laura; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia

    2015-03-01

    Rice agricultural practices and hydroperiod dates must be determined to obtain information on water management practices and their environmental effects. Spectral indices derived from an 8-day MODIS composite allows to identify rice phenometrics at varying degrees of success. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the dynamics of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI(1) and NDWI(2)) and Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI) in relation to rice agricultural practices and hydroperiod, and (2) to assess the capability for these indices to detect phenometrics in rice under different flooding regimes. Two rice farming areas in Spain that are governed under different water management practices, the Ebro Delta and Orellana, were studied over a 12-year period (2001-2012). The index time series autocorrelation function was calculated to determine index dynamics in both areas. Secondly, average indices were calculated to identify significant points close to key agricultural and flooding dates, and index behaviors and capacities to identify phenometrics were assessed on a pixel level. The index autocorrelation function produced a regular pattern in both zones, being remarkably homogeneous in the Ebro Delta. It was concluded that a combination of NDVI, NDWI(1), NDWI(2) and SASI may improve the results obtained through each index. NDVI was more effective at detecting the heading date and flooding trends in the Ebro Delta. NDWI(1), NDWI(2) and SASI identified the harvest and the end of environmental flooding in the Delta, and the flooding in Orellana, more effectively. These results may set strong foundations for the development of new strategies in rice monitoring systems, providing useful information to policy makers and environmental studies.

  14. Spatial data in geographic information system format on agricultural chemical use, land use, cropping practices in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial data in geographic information system format described in this report consist of estimates for all counties in the conterminous United States of the annual use of 96 herbicides in 1989; annual sales of nitrogen fertilizer, in tons, for 1985-91; and agricultural expenses, land use, chemical use, livestock holdings, and cropping practices in 1987. The source information, originally in tabular form, is summarized as digital polygon attribute data in the 18 geographic information system spatial data layers (coverages) provided. The information in these coverages can be used in estimating regional agricultural-chemical use or agricultural practices and in producing visual displays and mapping relative rates of agricultural-chemical use or agricultural practices across broad regions of the United States.

  15. Ammonia Emissions from the Agriculture Sector of Argentina in a Context of Changing Technologies and Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowski, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is a key sector of the Argentinean economy, accounting for 6 to 8 5% of the GDP in the last ten years. Argentina switched in the 90´s from an articulated co-evolution between extensive livestock and crop farming, with annual rotation of crops and livestock, to intensive decoupled practices. Under these new production schemes, ecosystems were supplied with more nutrients, generating increasing levels of wastes. Other changes have also occurred, associated with the shift of the agricultural frontier and the consequent reduction in the cattle stock. In addition, changes related to climate through the strong increase in rainfall in the 80s and 90s in the west Pampas, helped to boost agricultural development. The agriculture sector accounts for practically all NH3 emissions in Argentina, however no inventory has been thus far available. To bridge this gap and particularly to have accurate input information to run coupled atmospheric chemistry models for secondary inorganic aerosols, we estimated 2000-2012 NH3 emissions, both at national and spatially disaggregated levels. Of particular interest for us was also temporal disaggregation as crops growing and temperature exhibit strong seasonal variability. As no NH3 inventory was available we also estimated related N2O emissions to verify our estimates with those of national GHG emission inventory (NEI). National NH3 emissions in 2012 amounted to 309.9 Gg, use of fertilizers accounted for 43.6%, manure management 18,9%, manure in pasture 36,0% and agricultural waste burning 1.5%. Our N2O estimates are in good agreement with the GHG-NEI. NH3 estimates in the EDGAR database for 2008 are 84.0% higher than ours for this year, and exhibit more significant differences per category, namely 113,6% higher for use of fertilizers and about 500% higher for agricultural waste burning. Urea dominates national NH3 emissions, accounting for 32,8% of the total and its use for wheat and corn crops dominates the trend.

  16. Glucosinolates profile and antioxidant capacity of Romanian Brassica vegetables obtained by organic and conventional agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Vicas, Simona I; Teusdea, Alin C; Carbunar, Mihai; Socaci, Sonia A; Socaciu, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    The profile of glucosinolates in relation to the antioxidant capacity of five Brassica vegetables (Broccoli, Cauliflower, Kohlrabi, White and Red Cabbage) grown by organic and conventional agricultural practices in Transylvania region-Romania, were determined and compared. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of glucosinolates were determined by HPLC-PDA technique. The antioxidant capacity was comparatively determined by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. The highest glucosinolates levels were found in the Broccoli samples grown under conventional practices (14.24 μmol/g dry weight), glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin and neo-glucobrassicin being the major components. The total glucosinolates content was similar in Kohlrabi and Cauliflower (4.89 and 4.84 μmol/g dry weight, respectively), the indolyl glucosinolates were predominant in Kohlrabi, while the aliphatic derivatives (sinigrin and glucoiberin) were major in Cauliflower. In Cabbage samples, the aliphatic glucosinolates were predominat against indolyl derivatives, glucoraphanin and glucoiberin being the main ones in Red Cabbage. The principal component analysis was applied to discriminate among conventional and organic samples and demonstrated non-overlaps between these two agricultural practices. Meanwhile it was shown that glucosinolates may represent appropriate molecular markers of Brassica vegetables, their antioxidant capacity being higher in organic crops, without significant differences among different Brassica varieties.

  17. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon for Agricultural Land Use Under Various Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Drewniak, B.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Jacob, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Bioenergy is generating tremendous interest as an alternative energy source that is both environmentally friendly and economically competitive. The amount of land designated for agriculture is expected to expand, including changes in the current distribution of crops, as demand for biofuels increases as a carbon neutral alternative fuel source. However, the influence of agriculture on the carbon cycle is complex, and varies depending on land use change and management practices. The purpose of this research is to integrate agriculture in the carbon-nitrogen based Community Land Model (CLM) to evaluate the above and below ground carbon storage for corn, soybean, and wheat crop lands. The new model, CLM-Crop simulates carbon allocation during four growth stages, a soybean nitrogen fixation scheme, fertilizer, and harvest practices. We present results from this model simulation, which includes the impact of a new dynamic roots module to simulate the changing root structure and depth with growing season based on the availability of water and nitrogen in the root zone and a retranslocation scheme to simulate redistribution of nitrogen from leaves, roots, and stems to grain during organ development for crop yields, leaf area index (LAI), carbon allocation, and changes in soil carbon budgets under various practices such as fertilizer and residue management. Simulated crop yields for corn, soybean and wheat are in general agreement with measurements. Initial model results indicate a loss of soil organic carbon over cultivated lands after removal of natural vegetation which continues in the following years. Soil carbon in crop lands is a strong function of the residue management and has the potential to impact crop yields significantly.

  18. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011–2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize–cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  19. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  20. Agricultural practices that store organic carbon in soils: is it only a matter of inputs ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenu, Claire; Cardinael, Rémi; Autret, Bénédicte; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Girardin, Cyril; Mary, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Increasing the world soils carbon stocks by a factor of 4 per mil annually would compensate the annual net increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. This statement is the core of an initiative launched by the French government at the recent COP21, followed by many countries and international bodies, which attracts political attention to the storage potential of C in soils. Compared to forest and pasture soils, agricultural soils have a higher C storage potential, because they are often characterized by low C contents, and increasing their C content is associated with benefits in terms of soil properties and ecosystem services. Here we quantified, under temperate conditions, the additional C storage related to the implementation of two set of practices that are recognized to be in the framework of agroecology: conservation tillage on the one hand and agroforestry on the other hand. These studies were based on long-term experiments, a 16-years comparison on cropping systems on luvisols in the Paris area and a 18-year-old silvoarable agroforestry trial, on fluvisols in southern France, the main crops being cereals in both cases. C stocks were measured on an equivalent soil mass basis. Both systems allowed for a net storage of C in soils, which are, for the equivalent of the 0-30 cm tilled layer, of 0.55 ± 0.16 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for conservation agriculture (i.e. no tillage with permanent soil coverage with an associated plant, fescue or alfalfa) and of 0.25 ± 0.03 t ha-1 yr-1 for the agroforestry system. These results are in line with estimates proposed in a recent French national assessment concerning the potential of agricultural practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Compared to recent literature, they further show that practices that increase C inputs to soil through additional biomass production would be more effective to store C in soil (tree rows, cover crops in conservation agriculture) than practices, such as no-tillage, that are assumed to reduce

  1. Metal uptake by agricultural plant species grown in sludge-amended soil following ecosystem restoration practices

    SciTech Connect

    Peles, J.D.; Barrett, G.W.; Brewer, S.R.

    1996-12-01

    The disposal of municipal sewage sludge is an important environmental problem presently facing society. Because sludge is rich in plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous, land application as a fertilizer has been proposed as a cost-effective means of disposal. This method of disposal, however, is frequently the subject of public health concern since municipal sludge may contain heavy metals that potentially could be introduced into the human food chain. This study examined metal concentrations in two agricultural species at a study site where ecosystem restoration practices (liming and tilling) had been conducted for 5 years following 11 years of sludge enrichment. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Using agricultural practices information for multiscale environmental assessment of phosphorus risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos Moreira, Mariana; Lemercier, Blandine; Michot, Didier; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth. In intensively farmed areas, excessive applications of animal manure and mineral P fertilizers to soils have raised both economic and ecological concerns. P accumulation in agricultural soils leads to increased P losses to surface waterbodies contributing to eutrophication. Increasing soil P content over time in agricultural soils is often correlated with agricultural practices; in Brittany (NW France), an intensive livestock farming region, soil P content is well correlated with animal density (Lemercier et al.,2008). Thus, a better understanding of the factors controlling P distribution is required to enable environmental assessment of P risk. The aim of this study was to understand spatial distribution of extractable (Olsen method) and total P contents and its controlling factors at the catchment scale in order to predict P contents at regional scale (Brittany). Data on soil morphology, soil tests (including P status, particles size, organic carbon…) for 198 punctual positions, crops succession since 20 years, agricultural systems, field and animal manure management were obtained on a well-characterized catchment (ORE Agrhys, 10 km²). A multivariate analysis with mixed quantitative variables and factors and a digital soil mapping approach were performed to identify variables playing a significant role in soil total and extractable P contents and distribution. Spatial analysis was performed by means of the Cubist model, a decision tree-based algorithm. Different scenarios were assessed, considering various panels of predictive variables: soil data, terrain attributes derived from digital elevation model, gamma-ray spectrometry (from airborne geophysical survey) and agricultural practices information. In the research catchment, mean extractable and total P content were 140.0 ± 63.4 mg/kg and 2862.7 ± 773.0 mg/kg, respectively. Organic and mineral P inputs, P balance, soil pH, and Al contents were

  3. Climate benefits of changes in agricultural practices in the context of heat wave mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davin, E.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Ciais, P.; Olioso, A.; Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    About half of the terrestrial biosphere is under direct human influence through land management (i.e., agricultural areas and managed forests). Changing management practices is therefore a promising avenue for climate change mitigation. The mitigation potential arising from changes in land management practices has been mainly evaluated in terms of carbon storage and GHG emissions [2]. On the other hand, these practices can also influence climate by altering the physical properties of the land surface, but these effects have received less attention so far. Here we show that peak temperatures during heat heaves can be attenuated through cropland albedo management [2]. We first present observational evidence that a substantial summer albedo increase can be obtained by switching from conventional to no-till agriculture. Then, using a regional climate model, we investigate the biogeophysical effect of a full conversion to no-till management over Europe. The cooling effect owing to albedo increase under no-till farming appears to be strongly amplified during warm events. This is due to the low cloud cover during these events, thus leading to a more efficient radiative cooling from albedo change. This implies a strong potential of no-till farming to mitigate heat wave impacts. The reduced evaporation associated with the crop residue cover tends to counteract the albedo-induced cooling, but during hot days the albedo effect remains the dominating factor. For heatwave summer days the local cooling effect gained from no-till practice is of the order of 2 degrees. These findings strongly suggest that the biogeophysical effect of management practices should be considered in the design of climate mitigation policies involving land management. References:[1] Smith, P. et al. (2014): Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel

  4. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  5. An investigation of the practice of scientific inquiry in secondary science and agriculture courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Julie R.

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to investigate the practice of scientific inquiry in two secondary biology classes and one agriculture class from different schools in different communities. The focus was on teachers' interests and intentions for the students' participation in inquiry, the voices contributing to the inquiry, and students' opportunities to confront their conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP) served as the context by providing students with opportunities to design and conduct original experiments to help elucidate the function(s) of a disabled gene in Arabidopsis thaliana . Transcripts of teacher and student semi-structured interviews, field notes of classroom observations and classroom conversations, and documents (e.g., student work, teacher handouts, school websites, PREP materials) were analyzed for evidence of the practice of scientific inquiry. Teachers were interested in implementing inquiry because of potential student learning about scientific research and because PREP supports course content and is connected to a larger scientific project outside of the school. Teachers' intentions regarding the implementation of inquiry reflected the complexity of their courses and the students' previous experiences. All inquiries were student-directed. The biology students' participation more closely mirrored the practice of scientists, while the agriculture students were more involved with the procedural display of scientific inquiry. All experiences could have been enhanced from additional knowledge-centered activities regarding scientific reasoning. No activities brought explicit attention to NOS. Biology activities tended to implicitly support NOS while the agriculture class activities tended to implicitly contradict NOS. Scientists' interactions contributed to implied support of the NOS. There were missed opportunities for explicit attention to NOS in all classes

  6. Impact of agricultural management practices on DOC leaching - results of a long-term lysimeter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A.; Ollesch, G.; Seeger, J.; Meißner, R.; Rode, M.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes are recently increasing in surface waters of humid climate regions. Due to its substantial importance for leaching processes, aquatic foodwebs, and drinking water purification a better understanding of sources and pathways of DOC is needed. Therefore this study aims to analyse and simulate DOC fluxes in agricultural ecosystems with selected crop rotations. A data set of 24 lysimeters of the UFZ Lysimeter station at Falkenberg (Saxony-Anhalt) covering nine years of DOC investigation has been selected and examined. The data set covers a wide range of climatic conditions with deviating management practices for grasslands and agricultural crop rotations. The monthly DOC concentrations assessed in the leached water range from 2.4 to 34.1 mg /l. DOC concentrations depend on temperature, precipitation and discharge. The type of crop grown on the lysimeter is an important trigger for DOC leaching - especially lysimeters used as pasture, or planted with rape and carrots exhibit high DOC concentrations. Management practices and fertilizer application modify the leaching of DOC and offer potentials to reduce DOC losses. The results form the basis of further process simulation studies and upscaling of the results to the small catchment scale.

  7. Irrigation water quality and the benefits of implementing good agricultural practices during tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) production.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Acosta, M; Jiménez, M; Chaidez, C; León-Félix, J; Castro-Del Campo, N

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of good agricultural practices (GAP) from irrigation water to the tomato packaging process enhances the safety of fresh produce and its value throughout the food chain. The aim of the present study was to show that fresh produce farms that apply and enforce GAP could reduce the presence of Salmonella in finished produce. Samples were collected biweekly from six packing houses from the central region of Sinaloa, México, for the isolation of Salmonella spp by the ISO 6579:2002 method, and the isolated strains were serotyped and genotyped by the Kauffmman-White scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Salmonella strains were detected in 13 (36.1 %) irrigation water samples, while only two tomato samples were positive (5.5 %). Eight different serotypes were identified in irrigation water, and Salmonella Oranienburg (34 %) was the most prevalent; however, only Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Weltevreden were present on tomatoes. Salmonella Oranienburg was the most widely dispersed and variable serotype, with 10 different PFGE profiles. Salmonella Weltevreden was isolated from both types of samples, albeit with distinct genetic profiles, implying that the sources of contamination differ. These results confirm the utility of implementing good agricultural practices to reduce Salmonella contamination in irrigation water and the packaging process.

  8. The effect of changes in agricultural practices on the density of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-07-30

    The impact of agricultural practices/ activities on the environment has been falling in many areas of Europe due to the widespread exodus of inhabitants from rural areas. The associated abandonment of agricultural lands has enabled a wide range of wild animals to prosper in the countryside, including birds, ungulates and large carnivores. One consequence has been the increase in ticks and associated tick-borne diseases which now constitute a greater threat for public health than earlier. The aim of the present study was to compare tick densities in different habitats (pasture, meadow, fallow land, post-fire areas) to assess the impact of different agricultural practices on tick densities in vicinities close to human habitation. Between September 2011 and June 2014, 2985 Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected by conventional dragging, in the Mazowieckie (Mazovia) and Warmińsko-Mazurskie (Masuria) regions of Poland. In each region, 3 study sites were selected, each situated near surface water sources (i.e., ponds or canals). At each site, three neighboring habitats of surface area 150-600 m(2) were dragged: one on a cattle/horse pasture; the second on meadow; the third on fallow land (abandoned field or meadow), at least twice during each spring and autumn. Additionally, four post-fire areas (one in 2013 and three in 2014) were identified in the Mazowieckie region, and dragging was conducted there in spring and autumn, including in each case a 'control area' comprising intact unburned fallow land situated in close vicinity to the burned areas. Eight hundred D. reticulatus ticks were collected and the densities were compared by multifactorial ANOVA. The highest tick densities were recorded on the fallow lands, and the lowest - on the grazed pastures. Tick densities were up to 10 × times higher on the control sites compared to neighboring post-fire sites.

  9. Best management practices for environmental issues related to highway and street maintenance. A synthesis of highway practice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, W.A.; Vary, D.

    1999-01-01

    Highway and street maintenance is a diverse and complex set of undertakings: pavement crack and joint scaling; bridge painting; snow and ice control; erosion control; roadside vegetation management; and light, sign, and traffic signal repair and replacement. Pertinent environmental issues cut across all areas of public and regulatory concern including air quality, water quality, wetland and habitat preservation, noise, and energy usage. Moreover, driver safety and the occupational health and safety of maintenance personnel are critical issues. This report contains BMPs that fall into three categories: (1) High-level, broad-based BMPs applicable to an entire maintenance program--planning, programmatic environmental analysis, pollution prevention programs, classification of generated wastes in the conduct of site reviews or audits, and the development of a comprehensive training curriculum that addresses maintenance related environmental issues. These BMPs may be undertaken by managers of a department-wide level; (2) BMPs pertinent to specific maintenance activities or program areas--winter operations, vegetation management, bridge maintenance, buildings and ground maintenance, vehicle maintenance, collection of litter and debris, and maintenance of signs, striping, and markers; (3) BMPs pertinent to specific environmental issues--hazardous wastes, wildlife and habitat, water quality, and noise.

  10. Best management practices for environmental issues related to highway and street maintenance. A synthesis of highway practice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, W.A.; Vary, D.

    1999-11-01

    Highway and street maintenance is a diverse and complex set of undertakings: pavement crack and joint scaling; bridge painting; snow and ice control; erosion control; roadside vegetation management; and light, sign, and traffic signal repair and replacement. Pertinent environmental issues cut across all areas of public and regulatory concern including air quality, water quality, wetland and habitat preservation, noise, and energy usage. Moreover, driver safety and the occupational health and safety of maintenance personnel are critical issues. This report contains BMPs that fall into three categories: (1) High-level, broad-based BMPs applicable to an entire maintenance program--planning, programmatic environmental analysis, pollution prevention programs, classification of generated wastes in the conduct of site reviews or audits, and the development of a comprehensive training curriculum that addresses maintenance related environmental issues. These BMPs may be undertaken by managers of a department-wide level; (2) BMPs pertinent to specific maintenance activities or program areas--winter operations, vegetation management, bridge maintenance, buildings and ground maintenance, vehicle maintenance, collection of litter and debris, and maintenance of signs, striping, and markers; (3) BMPs pertinent to specific environmental issues--hazardous wastes, wildlife and habitat, water quality, and noise.

  11. Farmer's Incentives for Adoption of Recommended Farm Practices in Wheat Crop in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidyarthy, Gopal Saran

    This study was undertaken to identify farmer incentives that led them to adopt wheat crop practices in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District Program: the association between the farmer's characteristics and adoption groups; the incentives that lead the farmers to adopt recommended wheat crop practices; relationship between identified incentives…

  12. Identification and Prioritization of Management Practices to Reduce Methylmercury Exports from Wetlands and Irrigated Agricultural Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Stephen A.; Heim, Wesley A.

    2015-03-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site.

  13. Evaluating sustainable water quality management in the U.S.: Urban, Agricultural, and Environmental Protection Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oel, P. R.; Alfredo, K. A.; Russo, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable water management typically emphasizes water resource quantity, with focus directed at availability and use practices. When attention is placed on sustainable water quality management, the holistic, cross-sector perspective inherent to sustainability is often lost. Proper water quality management is a critical component of sustainable development practices. However, sustainable development definitions and metrics related to water quality resilience and management are often not well defined; water quality is often buried in large indicator sets used for analysis, and the policy regulating management practices create sector specific burdens for ensuring adequate water quality. In this research, we investigated the methods by which water quality is evaluated through internationally applied indicators and incorporated into the larger idea of "sustainability." We also dissect policy's role in the distribution of responsibility with regard to water quality management in the United States through evaluation of three broad sectors: urban, agriculture, and environmental water quality. Our research concludes that despite a growing intention to use a single system approach for urban, agricultural, and environmental water quality management, one does not yet exist and is even hindered by our current policies and regulations. As policy continues to lead in determining water quality and defining contamination limits, new regulation must reconcile the disparity in requirements for the contaminators and those performing end-of-pipe treatment. Just as the sustainable development indicators we researched tried to integrate environmental, economic, and social aspects without skewing focus to one of these three categories, policy cannot continue to regulate a single sector of society without considering impacts to the entire watershed and/or region. Unequal distribution of the water pollution burden creates disjointed economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy

  14. Evaluating the impacts of agricultural land management practices on water resources: A probabilistic hydrologic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Prada, A F; Chu, M L; Guzman, J A; Moriasi, D N

    2017-02-24

    Evaluating the effectiveness of agricultural land management practices in minimizing environmental impacts using models is challenged by the presence of inherent uncertainties during the model development stage. One issue faced during the model development stage is the uncertainty involved in model parameterization. Using a single optimized set of parameters (one snapshot) to represent baseline conditions of the system limits the applicability and robustness of the model to properly represent future or alternative scenarios. The objective of this study was to develop a framework that facilitates model parameter selection while evaluating uncertainty to assess the impacts of land management practices at the watershed scale. The model framework was applied to the Lake Creek watershed located in southwestern Oklahoma, USA. A two-step probabilistic approach was implemented to parameterize the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model using global uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to estimate the full spectrum of total monthly water yield (WYLD) and total monthly Nitrogen loads (N) in the watershed under different land management practices. Twenty-seven models were found to represent the baseline scenario in which uncertainty of up to 29% and 400% in WYLD and N, respectively, is plausible. Changing the land cover to pasture manifested the highest decrease in N to up to 30% for a full pasture coverage while changing to full winter wheat cover can increase the N up to 11%. The methodology developed in this study was able to quantify the full spectrum of system responses, the uncertainty associated with them, and the most important parameters that drive their variability. Results from this study can be used to develop strategic decisions on the risks and tradeoffs associated with different management alternatives that aim to increase productivity while also minimizing their environmental impacts.

  15. Identification and prioritization of management practices to reduce methylmercury exports from wetlands and irrigated agricultural lands.

    PubMed

    McCord, Stephen A; Heim, Wesley A

    2015-03-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site.

  16. The potential of agricultural practices to increase C storage in cropped soils: an assessment for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenu, Claire; Angers, Denis; Métay, Aurélie; Colnenne, Caroline; Klumpp, Katja; Bamière, Laure; Pardon, Lenaic; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Though large progress has been achieved in the last decades, net GHG emissions from the agricultural sector are still more poorly quantified than in other sectors. In this study, we examined i) technical mitigation options likely to store carbon in agricultural soils, ii) their potential of additional C storage per unit surface area and iii) applicable areas in mainland France. We considered only agricultural practices being technically feasible by farmers and involving no major change in either production systems or production levels. Moreover, only currently available techniques with validated efficiencies and presenting no major negative environmental impacts were taken into account. Four measures were expected to store additional C in agricultural soils: - Reducing tillage: either a switch to continuous direct seeding, direct seeding with occasional tillage once every five years, or continuous superficial (<15 cm) tillage. - Introducing cover crops in cropping systems: sown between two cash crops on arable farms, in orchards and vineyards (permanent or temporary cover cropping) . - Expanding agroforestry systems; planting of tree lines in cultivated fields and grasslands, and hedges around the field edges. - Increasing the life time of temporary sown grasslands: increase of life time to 5 years. The recent literature was reviewed in order to determine long term (>20yrs) C storage rates (MgC ha-1 y-1,) of cropping systems with and without the proposed practice. Then we analysed the conditions for potential application, in terms of feasibility, acceptance, limitation of yield losses and of other GHG emissions. According to the literature, additional C storage rates were 0.15 (0-0.3) MgC ha-1 y-1 for continuous direct seeding, 0.10 (0-0.2) MgC ha-1 y-1for occasional tillage one year in five, and 0.0 MgC ha-1 y-1 for superficial tillage. Cover crops were estimated to store 0.24 (0.13-0.37) MgC ha-1 y-1 between cash crops and 0.49 (0.23-0.72) MgC ha-1 y-1 when

  17. Assessing the impacts of sustainable agricultural practices for water quality improvements in the Vouga catchment (Portugal) using the SWAT model.

    PubMed

    Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Rial-Rivas, María Ermitas

    2015-12-01

    The extensive use of fertilizers has become one of the most challenging environmental issues in agricultural catchment areas. In order to reduce the negative impacts from agricultural activities and to accomplish the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive we must consider the implementation of sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we assess sustainable agricultural practices based on reductions in N-fertilizer application rates (from 100% to 0%) and N-application methods (single, split and slow-release) across key agricultural land use classes in the Vouga catchment, Portugal. The SWAT model was used to relate sustainable agricultural practices, agricultural yields and N-NO3 water pollution deliveries. Results show that crop yields as well as N-NO3 exportation rates decrease with reductions in N-application rates and single N-application methods lead to lower crop yields and higher N-NO3 exportation rates as compared to split and slow-release N-application methods.

  18. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  19. Investigating the Environmental Effects of Agriculture Practices on Natural Resources: Scientific Contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to Enhance the Management of Agricultural Landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) enhances and protects the quality of life in the United States by advancing scientific knowledge to facilitate effective management of hydrologic, biologic, and geologic resources. Results of selected USGS research and monitoring projects in agricultural landscapes are presented in this Fact Sheet. Significant environmental and social issues associated with agricultural production include changes in the hydrologic cycle; introduction of toxic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens; reduction and alteration of wildlife habitats; and invasive species. Understanding environmental consequences of agricultural production is critical to minimize unintended environmental consequences. The preservation and enhancement of our natural resources can be achieved by measuring the success of improved management practices and by adjusting conservation policies as needed to ensure long-term protection.

  20. Agricultural management practices to sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Whitehead, Wayne F; Singh, Bharat P

    2003-08-20

    In the past several decades, agricultural management practices consisting of intensive tillage and high rate of fertilization to improve crop yields have resulted in the degradation of soil and environmental qualities by increasing erosion and nutrient leaching in the groundwater and releasing greenhouses gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), that cause global warming in the atmosphere by oxidation of soil organic matter. Consequently, management practices that sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities are needed. This paper reviews the findings of the effects of tillage practices, cover crops, and nitrogen (N) fertilization rates on crop yields, soil organic carbon (C) and N concentrations, and nitrate (NO3)-N leaching from the soil. Studies indicate that conservation tillage, such as no-till or reduced till, can increase soil organic C and N concentrations at 0- to 20-cm depth by as much as 7-17% in 8 years compared with conventional tillage without significantly altering crop yields. Similarly, cover cropping and 80-180 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) fertilization can increase soil organic C and N concentrations by as much as 4-12% compared with no cover cropping or N fertilization by increasing plant biomass and amount of C and N inputs to the soil. Reduced till, cover cropping, and decreased rate of N fertilization can reduce soil N leaching compared with conventional till, no cover cropping, and full rate of N fertilization. Management practices consisting of combinations of conservation tillage, mixture of legume and nonlegume cover crops, and reduced rate of N fertilization have the potentials for sustaining crop yields, increasing soil C and N storage, and reducing soil N leaching, thereby helping to improve soil and water qualities. Economical and social analyses of such practices are needed to find whether they are cost effective and acceptable to the farmers.

  1. Effect of land tenure and stakeholders attitudes on optimization of conservation practices in agricultural watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piemonti, A. D.; Babbar-Sebens, M.; Luzar, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    Modeled watershed management plans have become valuable tools for evaluating the effectiveness and impacts of conservation practices on hydrologic processes in watersheds. In multi-objective optimization approaches, several studies have focused on maximizing physical, ecological, or economic benefits of practices in a specific location, without considering the relationship between social systems and social attitudes on the overall optimality of the practice at that location. For example, objectives that have been commonly used in spatial optimization of practices are economic costs, sediment loads, nutrient loads and pesticide loads. Though the benefits derived from these objectives are generally oriented towards community preferences, they do not represent attitudes of landowners who might operate their land differently than their neighbors (e.g. farm their own land or rent the land to someone else) and might have different social/personal drivers that motivate them to adopt the practices. In addition, a distribution of such landowners could exist in the watershed, leading to spatially varying preferences to practices. In this study we evaluated the effect of three different land tenure types on the spatial-optimization of conservation practices. To perform the optimization, we used a uniform distribution of land tenure type and a spatially varying distribution of land tenure type. Our results show that for a typical Midwestern agricultural watershed, the most optimal solutions (i.e. highest benefits for minimum economic costs) found were for a uniform distribution of landowners who operate their own land. When a different land-tenure was used for the watershed, the optimized alternatives did not change significantly for nitrates reduction benefits and sediment reduction benefits, but were attained at economic costs much higher than the costs of the landowner who farms her/his own land. For example, landowners who rent to cash-renters would have to spend ~120

  2. Japanese consumer preferences for milk certified with the good agricultural practice(GAP) label.

    PubMed

    Aizaki, Hideo; Nanseki, Teruaki; Zhou, Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Japanese consumers' valuation of a good agricultural practice (GAP) label on packaged milk and investigated the effect of detailed GAP information on valuation. A total of 624 Japanese consumers were asked to select their most preferred milk through an online survey. The milk was assumed to have three attributes: the GAP label, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points certification, and price. The results showed that consumers' valuation of GAP was significantly positive. Although providing additional GAP information to a respondent who was aware of GAP and what it means had a positive effect on the consumers' valuation of GAP, provision of this information had no effect if the respondent knew about GAP either moderately or slightly, and had a negative effect if the respondent did not know about GAP at all. To increase broad consumer awareness and valuation of GAP, it is important to provide GAP information according to the requirements of consumers.

  3. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación

    2013-04-01

    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  4. Comparison of soil bacterial communities under diverse agricultural land management and crop production practices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tiehang; Chellemi, Dan O; Graham, Jim H; Martin, Kendall J; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2008-02-01

    The composition and structure of bacterial communities were examined in soil subjected to a range of diverse agricultural land management and crop production practices. Length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) of bacterial DNA extracted from soil was used to generate amplicon profiles that were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Five land management programs were initiated in July 2000: conventional, organic, continuous removal of vegetation (disk fallow), undisturbed (weed fallow), and bahiagrass pasture (Paspalum notatum var Argentine). Similar levels in the diversity of bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons were detected in soil samples collected from organically and conventionally managed plots 3 and 4 years after initiation of land management programs, whereas significantly lower levels of diversity were observed in samples collected from bahiagrass pasture. Differences in diversity were attributed to effects on how the relative abundance of individual amplicons were distributed (evenness) and not on the total numbers of bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons detected (richness). Similar levels of diversity were detected among all land management programs in soil samples collected after successive years of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivation. A different trend was observed after a multivariate examination of the similarities in genetic composition among soil bacterial communities. After 3 years of land management, similarities in genetic composition of soil bacterial communities were observed in plots where disturbance was minimized (bahiagrass and weed fallow). The genetic compositions in plots managed organically were similar to each other and distinct from bacterial communities in other land management programs. After successive years of tomato cultivation and damage from two major hurricanes, only the composition of soil bacterial communities within organically managed plots continued to maintain a high degree of similarity

  5. Perceptions and Practices of Georgia Guidance Counselors Regarding Agricultural Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, James; Herren, Ray V.

    1995-01-01

    In Georgia high schools with agriculture programs, responses from 133 of 170 guidance counselors indicated that most felt agriculture had benefits. Those who perceived their schools' programs to be of high quality supported agriculture's relevance for college-bound students and were more likely to place students in agriculture programs. As a…

  6. Effectiveness of conservation agriculture practices on soil erosion processes in semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikwari, Emmanuel; Mhaka, Luke; Gwandu, Tariro; Chipangura, Tafadzwa; Misi Manyanga, Amos; Sabastian Matsenyengwa, Nyasha; Rabesiranana, Naivo; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    - The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) in soil erosion and redistribution studies has gained popularity since the late 1980s. In Zimbabwe, soil erosion research was mostly based on conventional methods which included the use of erosion plots for quantitative measurements and erosion models for predicting soil losses. Only limited investigation to explore the possibility of using Caesium-137 (Cs-137) has been reported in the early 1990s for undisturbed and cultivated lands in Zimbabwe. In this study, the Cs-137 technique was applied to assess the impact of soil conservation practices on soil losses and to develop strategies and support effective policies that help farmers in Zimbabwe for sustainable land management. The study was carried out at the Makoholi research station 30 km north of the Masvingo region which is located 260 km south of Harare. The area is semi-arid and the study site comprises coarse loamy sands, gleyic lixisols. The conservation agriculture (CA) practices used within the area since 1988 include (i) direct seeding (DS) with mulch, (ii) CA basins with mulch, and (iii) 18 years direct seeding, left fallow for seven years and turned into conventional tillage since 2012 (DS/F/C). The Cs-137 reference inventory was established at 214 ± 16 Bq/m2. The mean inventories for DS, CA basins and DS/F/C were 195, 190 and 214 Bq/m2 respectively. Using the conversion Mass Balance Model 2 on the Cs-137 data obtained along transects for each of the practices, gross erosion rates were found to be 7.5, 7.3 and 2.6 t/ha/yr for direct seeding, CA basins and the DS/F/C while the net erosion rates were found to be 3.8, 4.6 and 0 t/ha/yr respectively. Sediment delivery ratios were 50%, 63% and 2% in the respective order. These preliminary results showed the effectiveness of DS over CA basins in erosion control. The efficiency of fallowing in controlling excessive soil loss was significant in the plot that started as DS for 18 years but left fallow for 7

  7. Water and Agricultural-Chemical Transport in a Midwestern, Tile-Drained Watershed: Implications for Conservation Practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.; Stone, Wesley W.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Wilson, John T.

    2007-01-01

    The study of agricultural chemicals is one of five national priority topics being addressed by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in its second decade of studies, which began in 2001. Seven watersheds across the Nation were selected for the NAWQA agricultural-chemical topical study. The watersheds selected represent a range of agricultural settings - with varying crop types and agricultural practices related to tillage, irrigation, artificial drainage, and chemical use - as well as a range of landscapes with different geology, soils, topography, climate, and hydrology (Capel and others, 2004). Chemicals selected for study include nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and about 50 commonly used pesticides. This study design leads to an improved understanding of many factors that can affect the movement of water and chemicals in different agricultural settings. Information from these studies will help with decision making related to chemical use, conservation, and other farming practices that are used to reduce runoff of agricultural chemicals and sediment from fields (Capel and others, 2004). This Fact Sheet highlights the results of the NAWQA agricultural chemical study in the Leary Weber Ditch Watershed in Hancock County, Indiana. This watershed was selected to represent a tile-drained, corn and soybean, humid area typical in the Midwest.

  8. Water quality and agricultural practices: the case study of southern Massaciuccoli reclaimed land (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Cannavò, Silvia; Guidi, Massimo; Risaliti, Rosalba; Rossetto, Rudy; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    Owing to increasing anthropogenic impacts, lagoons and wetlands are being exposed to environmental degradation. Therefore, the sustainable management of these environmental resources is a fundamental issue to maintain either the ecosystems and the human activity. The Massaciuccoli Lake is a coastal lake of fresh to brackish water surrounded by a marsh, which drains a total catchment of about 114 km2. Large part of the basin has been reclaimed since 1930 by means of pumping stations forcing water from the drained areas into the lake. The system is characterized by: high complexity of the hydrological setting; subsidence of the peaty soils in the reclaimed area (2 to 3 m in 70 years), that left the lake perched; reclaimed land currently devoted mainly to conventional agriculture (e.g.: maize monoculture) along with some industrial sites, two sewage treatment plants and some relevant urban settlements; social conflicts among different land users because of the impact on water quality and quantity. The interaction between such a fragile natural system and human activities leads to an altered ecological status mainly due to eutrophication and water salinisation. Hence, the present work aims at identifying and assessing the sources of nutrients (phosphorous in particular) into the lake, and characterising land use and some socio-economic aspects focusing on agricultural systems, in order to set up suitable mitigation measures. Water quantity and quality in the most intensively cultivated sub-catchment, placed 0.5 to 3 m under m.s.l. were monitored in order to underlain the interaction between water and its nutrient load. Questionnaires and interviews to farmers were conducted to obtain information about agricultural practices, farm management, risks and constraints for farming activities. The available information about the natural system and land use were collected and organised in a GIS system: a conceptual model of surface water hydrodinamics was build up and 14

  9. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    . However, these growth benefits subsequently diminished over time. Insignificant growth benefits were observed for lucerne. The analysis of the literature and our own work indicates that it is difficult to account for all the possible variables where research is used to inform land management practices. Assisting farmers to conduct localised research in cooperative ventures is likely to bring about the best outcomes where site-specific research directly informs land management practices. 1. Michael T. Rose, Antonio F. Patti, Karen R. Little, Alicia L. Brown, W. Roy Jackson, Timothy R. Cavagnaro, A Meta-Analysis and Review of Plant-Growth Response to Humic Substances: Practical Implications for Agriculture, Advances in Agronomy, 2013, 124, 37-89

  10. Changes in Soil Microbial Community Structure Influenced by Agricultural Management Practices in a Mediterranean Agro-Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Zornoza, Raul; Scow, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain): residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage. PMID:24260409

  11. Changes in soil microbial community structure influenced by agricultural management practices in a mediterranean agro-ecosystem.

    PubMed

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Zornoza, Raul; Cerdà, Artemi; Scow, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain): residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage.

  12. Interdependence of soil and agricultural practice in a two - year phytoremediation in situ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia; Onyeike, Eugene; Frac, Magdalena; Iwo, Godknows

    2016-04-01

    A two - year plant - based soil clean - up was carried out at a crude oil spill agricultural site in a Niger Delta community in Nigeria to access further clean - up potentials of Cymbopogon citratus. Applied diagnostic ratios identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs. Up to 90.8% sequestration was obtained for carcinogenic PAHs especially Benz (a) pyrene in a 2 - phase manner. A community level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to differentiate spatial and temporal changes in the soil microbial communities. In relation to pollution, soil conditioning notably decreased the lag times and showed mixed effects for colour development rates, maximum absorbance and the overall community pattern. For rate and utilization of different carbon substrates in BIOLOG wells, after day 3, in comparison to control soil communities, contamination with hydrocarbons and associated types increased amines and amides consumption. Consumption of carbohydrates in all polluted and unamended regimes decreased markedlyin comparison to those cultivated with C. citratus. We found a direct relationship between cellulose breakdown, measurable with B-glucosidase activity, organic matter content and CO2 realease within all soils in the present study. Organic amendment rendered most studied contaminants unavailable for uptake in preference to inorganic fertilizer in both study years. Generally, phytoremediation improved significantly the microbial community activity and thus would promote ecosystem restoration in relation to most patronised techniques. Supplementation with required nutrients, in a long - term design would present many ecological benefits. Keywords: Agricultural soils; Recovery; Hydrocarbon pollution; Ecology; Management practice.

  13. Soil organic carbon fractionation for improving agricultural soil quality diagnosis in different management practices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigalet, Sylvain; Chartin, Caroline; Kruger, Inken; Carnol, Monique; Van Oost, Kristof; van Wesemael, Bas

    2016-04-01

    Preserving ecosystem functions of soil organic matter (SOM) in soils is a key challenge. The need for an efficient diagnosis of SOM state in agricultural soils is a priority in order to facilitate the detection of changes in soil quality as a result of changes in management practices. The nature of SOM is complex and cannot readily be monitored due to the heterogeneity of its components. Assessment of the SOM level dynamics, typically characterized as the bulk soil organic carbon (SOC), can be refined by taking into account carbon pools with different turnover rates and stability. Fractionating bulk SOC in meaningful soil organic fractions helps to better diagnose SOC status. By separating carbon associated with clay and fine silt particles (stable carbon with slow turnover rate) and carbon non-associated with this fraction (labile and intermediate carbon with higher turnover rates), effects of management can be detected more efficiently at different spatial and temporal scales. Until now, most work on SOC fractionation has focused on small spatial scales along management or time gradients. The present case study focuses on SOC fractionation applied in order to refine the interpretation of organic matter turnover and SOC sequestration for regional units in Wallonia with comparable climate, management and, to a certain extent, soil conditions. In each unit, random samples from specific land uses are analyzed in order to assess the Normal Operative Ranges (NOR) of SOC fraction contents for each unit and land use combination. Thus, SOC levels of the different fractions of a specific field in a given unit can be compared to its corresponding NOR. It will help to better diagnose agricultural soil quality in terms of organic carbon compared to a bulk SOC diagnosis.

  14. Influence of Voluntary Coffee Certifications on Cooperatives' Advisory Services and Agricultural Practices of Smallholder Farmers in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Anna; Kraus, Eva; Sibelet, Nicole; Bosselmann, Aske Skovmand; Faure, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores how voluntary certifications influence the way cooperatives provide advisory services to their members and the influence of these services on agricultural practices. Design/Methodology/Approach: Case studies were conducted in four representative Costa Rican cooperatives interviewing twenty interviewed cooperative…

  15. The Role of Agricultural Education and Extension in Influencing Best Practice for Managing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, E. J.; Hennessy, T.; Cullinan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of agricultural education and extension in influencing the adoption of best practice with regard to herd-level mastitis management. Design/Methodology/Approach: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of herd health with regard to mastitis and is negatively related to productivity and profitability. Panel data…

  16. Agricultural conservation planning framework: 1. Developing multi-practice watershed planning scenarios and assessing nutrient reduction potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We show that spatial data on soils, land use, and high-resolution topography, combined with knowledge of conservation practice effectiveness, can be leveraged to identify and assess alternatives to reduce nutrient discharge from small (HUC12) agricultural watersheds. Databases comprising soil attrib...

  17. Estimating the effects of agricultural conservation practices on phosphorus loads in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin (MARB) is important in terms of both the national economy and the nutrients discharged to the basin and the Gulf of Mexico. Conservation practices are installed on cropland to reduce the nutrient losses. A recent study by the Conservation Effec...

  18. Sustainable agricultural practices: energy inputs and outputs, pesticide, fertilizer and greenhouse gas management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The food security issue was addressed by the development of "modern agriculture" in the last century. But food safety issues and environment degradation were the consequences suffered as a result. Climate change has been recognized as the result of release of stored energy in fossil fuel into the atmosphere. Homogeneous crop varieties, machinery, pesticides and fertilizers are the foundation of uniform commodities in modern agriculture. Fossil fuels are used to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides as well as the energy source for agricultural machinery, thus characterizes modern agriculture. Bio-fuel production and the possibility of the agriculture system as a form of energy input are discussed.

  19. Refining Operational Practice for Controlling Introduced European Rabbits on Agricultural Lands in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Latham, A. David M.; Latham, M. Cecilia; Nugent, Graham; Smith, James; Warburton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pose a major threat to agricultural production and conservation values in several countries. In New Zealand, population control via poisoning is a frontline method for limiting rabbit damage, with large areas commonly treated using the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate (‘1080’) delivered in bait via aerial dispersal. However, this method is expensive and the high application rates of the active ingredient cause public antipathy towards it. To guide reductions in cost and toxin usage, we evaluated the economics and efficacy of rabbit control using an experimental approach of sowing 1080-bait in strips instead of the commonly-used broadcast sowing method (i.e. complete coverage). Over a 4-year period we studied aerial delivery of 0.02% 1080 on diced carrot bait over ~3500 ha of rabbit-prone land in the North and South islands. In each case, experimental sowing via strip patterns using 10–15 kg of bait per hectare was compared with the current best practice of aerial broadcast sowing at 30–35 kg/ha. Operational kill rates exceeded 87% in all but one case and averaged 93–94% across a total of 19 treatment replicates under comparable conditions; there was no statistical difference in overall efficacy observed between the two sowing methods. We project that strip-sowing could reduce by two thirds the amount of active 1080 applied per hectare in aerial control operations against rabbits, both reducing the non-target poisoning risk and promoting cost savings to farming operations. These results indicate that, similarly to the recently-highlighted benefits of adopting strip-sowing for poison control of introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, aerial strip-sowing of toxic bait could also be considered a best practice method for rabbit control in pest control policy. PMID:27341209

  20. The impact of agricultural practices on shallow groundwater in the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, S.K.; Sendlein, L.V.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    To study the effects of agricultural practices on the groundwater quality of the Inner Bluegrass Region of Kentucky, a large representative row crop and livestock production operation was chosen. Located in southeastern Bourbon County, the study area encompasses a 1,400 acre watershed underlain by limestones and shales of the Ordovician age Lexington Limestone Formation. Sampling and testing of surface water, ephemeral, and perennial spring waters began in the area in October, 1989. At crop and pasture micro-sites within the study area, nests containing porous-cup lysimeters and monitoring wells were installed prior to the 1992 growing season. Samples from the nest locations were analyzed for Nitrate-N, triazines, metolochlor, carbofuran, alachlor, and 2,4-D. While only ten per cent of the total samples from the study area showed triazine or Nitrate-N concentrations in excess of EPA limits, greater than 80 per cent of the samples showed concentrations of triazines above detection limits, and greater than 70 per cent of the samples contained concentrations of Nitrate-N above detection limits. Occurrences of detectable concentrations of triazines and Nitrate-N were more frequent at crop-site nests, than at pasture-site nests. Nests at both the crop and pasture sites indicated dilution of Nitrate-N and triazine concentrations with depth.

  1. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    PubMed Central

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  2. Utah farm owner/operators' safety practices and risk awareness regarding confined space work in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pate, M L; Merryweather, A S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe current safety practices and risk awareness associated with confined spaces in agriculture among Utah farm owner/operators. There were 399 farm owner/operators in the sample. The final response rate was 82.2%. The typical farm owner/operator in this study was male, between the ages of 50 and 59, with some education beyond high school. Grain and dairy production comprised 48.7% of the operations responding to the survey. A majority (50.2%) of respondents reported having entered a confined space without an observer waiting from the outside. All but 9.5% of the respondents indicated that they had no written emergency response plan in the event of a confined space emergency involving an entrant. Only 49.1% of farm owner/operators perceived entering a grain bin while unloading as a high risk for fatal injury. More research is needed to determine the farmers' knowledge of the variety of hazards associated with confined space work. Few farm owner/operators reported using accessible safety equipment. A limited number of respondents indicated having access to gas monitors, lifeline and harness systems, or ventilation blowers with flexible ducting. This may be associated with the costs of the equipment, or lack of awareness of the need for specific safety equipment.

  3. Integrated resource management: Moving from rhetoric to practice in Australian agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, J.A.; Johnson, A.K.L.

    2000-03-01

    Implementing the concept of sustainability through integrated approaches to natural resource management poses enormous challenges for both the rural communities and government agencies concerned. This paper reviews the underlying rhetoric of sustainable agricultural systems and the integrated resource management paradigm and identifies some of the challenges being experienced in translating this rhetoric into practice. A relatively recently implemented community-based integrated catchment management (ICM) process in a rural community in northeast Australia is examined in terms of some of the lessons learned that may be relevant to other similar integrated resource management (IRM) processes. It reveals a pragmatic, opportunistic, and evolving implementation process based on adaptive learning rather than a more traditional rational planning approach. Some essential characteristics of a community-based IRM process are identified, including fostering communication; providing a structure that fosters cooperation and facilities coordination among community, industry, and government agencies; the integration of IRM principles into local government planning schemes; and an emergent strategic approach to IRM program implementation. The authors conclude by identifying some essential characteristics of an IRM process that can assist a community to adapt to, and manage change for, sustainable resource use.

  4. Ancient lipids reveal continuity in culinary practices across the transition to agriculture in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Oliver E.; Steele, Val J.; Fischer, Anders; Hartz, Sönke; Andersen, Søren H.; Donohoe, Paul; Glykou, Aikaterini; Saul, Hayley; Jones, D. Martin; Koch, Eva; Heron, Carl P.

    2011-01-01

    Farming transformed societies globally. Yet, despite more than a century of research, there is little consensus on the speed or completeness of this fundamental change and, consequently, on its principal drivers. For Northern Europe, the debate has often centered on the rich archaeological record of the Western Baltic, but even here it is unclear how quickly or completely people abandoned wild terrestrial and marine resources after the introduction of domesticated plants and animals at ∼4000 calibrated years B.C. Ceramic containers are found ubiquitously on these sites and contain remarkably well-preserved lipids derived from the original use of the vessel. Reconstructing culinary practices from this ceramic record can contribute to longstanding debates concerning the origins of farming. Here we present data on the molecular and isotopic characteristics of lipids extracted from 133 ceramic vessels and 100 carbonized surface residues dating to immediately before and after the first evidence of domesticated animals and plants in the Western Baltic. The presence of specific lipid biomarkers, notably ω-(o-alkylphenyl)alkanoic acids, and the isotopic composition of individual n-alkanoic acids clearly show that a significant proportion (∼20%) of ceramic vessels with lipids preserved continued to be used for processing marine and freshwater resources across the transition to agriculture in this region. Although changes in pottery use are immediately evident, our data challenge the popular notions that economies were completely transformed with the arrival of farming and that Neolithic pottery was exclusively associated with produce from domesticated animals and plants. PMID:22025697

  5. Ancient lipids reveal continuity in culinary practices across the transition to agriculture in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Steele, Val J; Fischer, Anders; Hartz, Sönke; Andersen, Søren H; Donohoe, Paul; Glykou, Aikaterini; Saul, Hayley; Jones, D Martin; Koch, Eva; Heron, Carl P

    2011-11-01

    Farming transformed societies globally. Yet, despite more than a century of research, there is little consensus on the speed or completeness of this fundamental change and, consequently, on its principal drivers. For Northern Europe, the debate has often centered on the rich archaeological record of the Western Baltic, but even here it is unclear how quickly or completely people abandoned wild terrestrial and marine resources after the introduction of domesticated plants and animals at ∼4000 calibrated years B.C. Ceramic containers are found ubiquitously on these sites and contain remarkably well-preserved lipids derived from the original use of the vessel. Reconstructing culinary practices from this ceramic record can contribute to longstanding debates concerning the origins of farming. Here we present data on the molecular and isotopic characteristics of lipids extracted from 133 ceramic vessels and 100 carbonized surface residues dating to immediately before and after the first evidence of domesticated animals and plants in the Western Baltic. The presence of specific lipid biomarkers, notably ω-(o-alkylphenyl)alkanoic acids, and the isotopic composition of individual n-alkanoic acids clearly show that a significant proportion (∼20%) of ceramic vessels with lipids preserved continued to be used for processing marine and freshwater resources across the transition to agriculture in this region. Although changes in pottery use are immediately evident, our data challenge the popular notions that economies were completely transformed with the arrival of farming and that Neolithic pottery was exclusively associated with produce from domesticated animals and plants.

  6. Understanding the relative influence of climatic variations and agricultural management practices on crop yields at the US county level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, G.; Zhang, X.; Huang, M.; Yang, Q.; Rafique, R.; Asrar, G.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Crop yields are largely determined by climate variations and agricultural management practices, such as irrigation, fertilization and residue management. Understanding the role of these factors in regulating crop yield variations is not only important for improved crop yield production, but also equally valuable for future crop yield prediction and food security assessments. Recently, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented and evaluated for simulating corn, soybean and cereals at coarse aerial resolutions of 2 degrees (2000x2000 km). To better understand the underlying mechanisms controlling yield variations, we implemented and validated the agricultural version of CLM (CLM-crop) at a 0.125 degree resolution over the Conterminous United States (CONUS). We conducted a suite of numerical experiments to untangle the relative influence of climatic variations (temperature, precipitation, and radiation) and agricultural management practices on yield variations for the past 30 years at the US county level. Preliminary results show that the model with default parameter settings captures well the temporal variations in crop yields, as compared with the actual yield reported by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). However, the magnitude of simulated crop yields is substantially higher, especially in the Mid-western US. We find that improved characterization of fertilizers and irrigation practices is key to model performance. Retrospectively (1979-2012), crop yields are more sensitive to changes in climate factors (such as temperature) than to changes in crop management practices. The results of this study advances understanding of the dominant factors in regulating the crop yield variations at the county level, which is essential for credible prediction of crop yields in a changing climate, under different agricultural management practices.

  7. Public Progress, Data Management and the Land Grant Mission: A Survey of Agriculture Researchers' Practices and Attitudes at Two Land-Grant Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Peter; Eaker, Christopher; Swauger, Shea; Davis, Miriam L. E. Steiner

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a survey about data management practices and attitudes sent to agriculture researchers and extension personnel at the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture (UTIA) and the College of Agricultural Sciences and Warner College of Natural Resources at Colorado State University. Results confirm agriculture…

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity influenced by different agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mar Alguacil, Maria; Torrecillas, Emma; Garcia-Orenes, Fuensanta; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldan, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study a field experiment was performed at the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera Experimental Station (eastern Spain) to assess the influence during a 6-yr period of different agricultural practices on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The management practices included residual herbicide use, ploughing, ploughing + oats, addition of oat straw mulch and a control (land abandonment). Adjacent soil under natural vegetation was used as a reference for local, high-quality soil and as a control for comparison with the agricultural soils under different management practices. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Thirty-six different phylotypes were identified, which were grouped in four families: Glomeraceae, Paraglomeraceae, Ambisporaceae and Claroideoglomeraceae. The first results showed significant differences in the distribution of the AMF phylotypes as consequence of the difference between agricultural management practices. Thus, the lowest diversity was observed for the plot that was treated with herbicide. The management practices including ploughing and ploughing + oats had similar AMF diversity. Oat straw mulching yielded the highest number of different AMF sequence types and showed the highest diversity index. Thus, this treatment could be more suitable in sustainable soil use and therefore protection of biodiversity.

  9. Linking agricultural practices, mycorrhizal fungi, and traits mediating plant-insect interactions.

    PubMed

    Barber, Nicholas A; Kiers, E Toby; Theis, Nina; Hazzard, Ruth V; Adler, Lynn S

    2013-10-01

    Agricultural management has profound effects on soil communities. Activities such as fertilizer inputs can modify the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities, which form important symbioses with the roots of most crop plants. Intensive conventional agricultural management may select for less mutualistic AMF with reduced benefits to host plants compared to organic management, but these differences are poorly understood. AMF are generally evaluated based on their direct growth effects on plants. However, mycorrhizal colonization also may alter plant traits such as tissue nutrients, defensive chemistry, or floral traits, which mediate important plant-insect interactions like herbivory and pollination. To determine the effect of AMF from different farming practices on plant performance and traits that putatively mediate species interactions, we performed a greenhouse study by inoculating Cucumis sativus (cucumber, Cucurbitaceae) with AMF from conventional farms, organic farms, and a commercial AMF inoculum. We measured growth and a suite of plant traits hypothesized to be important predictors of herbivore resistance and pollinator attraction. Several leaf and root traits and flower production were significantly affected by AMF inoculum. Both conventional and organic AMF reduced leaf P content but increased Na content compared to control and commercial AMF. Leaf defenses were unaffected by AMF treatments, but conventional AMF increased root cucurbitacin C, the primary defensive chemical of C. sativus, compared to organic AMF. These effects may have important consequences for herbivore preference and population dynamics. AMF from both organic and conventional farms decreased flower production relative to commercial and control treatments, which may reduce pollinator attraction and plant reproduction. AMF from both farm types also reduced seed germination, but effects on plant growth were limited. Our results suggest that studies only considering AMF

  10. ISO 14 001 at the farm level: analysis of five methods for evaluating the environmental impact of agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Galan, M B; Peschard, D; Boizard, H

    2007-02-01

    Faced with society's increasing expectations, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) review considers environmental management to be an ever more critical criterion in the allocation of farm subsidies. With the goal of evaluating the environmental friendliness of farm practices, France's agricultural research and extension services have built a range of agricultural/environmental diagnostic tools over recent years. The objective of the present paper is to compare the five tools most frequently used in France: IDEA, DIAGE, DIALECTE, DIALOGUE and INDIGO. All the tools have the same purpose: evaluation of the impact of farm practices on the environment via indicators and monitoring of farm management practices. When tested on a sample of large-scale farms in Picardie, the five tools sometimes produced completely different results: for a given farm, the most supposedly significant environmental impacts depend on the tool used. These results lead to differing environmental management plans and raise the question of the methods' pertinence. An analysis grid of diagnostic tools aimed at specifying their field of validity, limits and relevance was drawn up. The resulting comparative analysis enables to define each tool's domain of validity and allows to suggest lines of thought for developing more relevant tools for (i) evaluating a farm's environmental performance and (ii) helping farmers to develop a plan for improving practices within the framework of an environmental management system.

  11. Ecology and behavior of Anopheles arabiensis in relation to agricultural practices in central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Beier, John C; Blackshear, Millon; Wauna, James; Sang, Rosemary; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2013-09-01

    Ecological changes associated with anthropogenic ecosystem disturbances can influence human risk of exposure to malaria and other vector-borne infectious diseases. This study in Mwea, Kenya, investigated the pattern of insecticide use in irrigated and nonirrigated agroecosystems and association with the density, survival, and blood-feeding behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis. The parity rates of adult An. arabiensis from randomly selected houses were determined by examining their ovaries for tracheal distension, and polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the host blood meals. In addition, structured questionnaires were used to generate data on insecticide use. Anopheles arabiensis densities were highest in irrigated rice agroecosystems, intermediate in irrigated French beans agroecosystems, and lowest in the nonirrigated agroecosystem. Anopheles arabiensis adult survivorship was significantly lower in irrigated rice agroecosystems than in irrigated French beans agroecosystems. The human blood index (HBI) was significantly higher in the nonirrigated agroecosystem compared to irrigated agroecosystems. Moreover, there was marked variation in HBI among villages in irrigated agroecosystems with significantly lower HBI in Kangichiri and Mathangauta compared to Kiuria, Karima, and Kangai. The proportion of mosquitoes with mixed blood meals varied among villages ranging from 0.25 in Kangichiri to 0.83 in Kiuria. Sumithion, dimethoate, and alpha cypermethrin were the most commonly used insecticides. The 1st was used mostly in irrigated rice agroecosystems, and the last 2 were used mostly in irrigated French beans agroecosystems. These findings indicate that agricultural practices may influence the ecology and behavior of malaria vectors and ultimately the risk of malaria transmission.

  12. Agricultural practices and residual corn during spring crane and waterfowl migration in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Anteau, M.J.; Bishop, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) is a major spring-staging area for migratory birds. Over 6 million ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) stage there en route to tundra, boreal forest, and prairie breeding habitats, storing nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming primarily corn remaining in fields after harvest (hereafter residual corn). In springs 2005-2007, we measured residual corn density in randomly selected harvested cornfields during early (n=188) and late migration (n=143) periods. We estimated the mean density of residual corn for the CPRV and examined the influence of agricultural practices (post-harvest field management) and migration period on residual corn density. During the early migration period, residual corn density was greater in idle harvested fields than any other treatments of fields (42%, 48%, 53%, and 92% more than grazed, grazed and mulched, mulched, and tilled fields, respectively). Depletion of residual corn from early to late migration did not differ among post-harvest treatments but was greatest during the year when overall corn density was lowest (2006). Geometric mean early-migration residual corn density for the CPRV in 2005-2007 (42.4 kg/ha; 95% CI=35.2-51.5 kg/ha) was markedly lower than previously published estimates, indicating that there has been a decrease in abundance of residual corn available to waterfowl during spring staging. Increases in harvest efficiency have been implicated as a cause for decreasing corn densities since the 1970s. However, our data show that post-harvest management of cornfields also can substantially influence the density of residual corn remaining in fields during spring migration. Thus, managers may be able to influence abundance of high-energy foods for spring-staging migratory birds in the CPRV through programs that influence post-harvest management of cornfields. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  13. Practice and Reflection on Interactive Three-Dimensional Teaching System in Agricultural and Forestry Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the new curriculum was implemented, Sichuan Agricultural University that is characterized by agricultural science has conducted ideological and political teaching reform, explored a basic route to integrate scientific outlook on development into theoretical teaching and initially formed a human-oriented interactive three-dimensional…

  14. Conceptualizations of water security in the agricultural sector: Perceptions, practices, and paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekian, Atefe; Hayati, Dariush; Aarts, Noelle

    2017-01-01

    Conceptions of agricultural water security are conditioned by larger understandings of being and reality. It is still unclear what such understandings mean for perspectives on water security in general and on causes and solutions related to perceived water security risks and problems in agricultural sector in particular. Based on a systematic literature review, three conceptualizations of water security, related to different paradigms, are presented. Also the consequences of such conceptualizations for determining research objectives, research activities, and research outcomes on agricultural water security are discussed. The results showed that agricultural water security from a positivist paradigm referred to tangible and measurable water-related hazards and threats, such as floods and droughts, pollution, and so forth. A constructivist approach to agricultural water security, constituted by a process of interaction and negotiation, pointed at perceptions of water security of farmers and other stakeholders involved in agricultural sector. A critical approach to agricultural water security focused on the processes of securing vulnerable farmers and others from wider political, social, and natural impediments to sufficient water supplies. The conclusions of the study suggest that paradigms, underlying approaches should be expressed, clarified, and related to one another in order to find optimal and complementary ways to study water security issues in agricultural sector.

  15. Multifunctional Agriculture in Policy and Practice? A Comparative Analysis of Norway and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorkhaug, Hilde; Richards, Carol Ann

    2008-01-01

    Ideals of productivist agriculture in the Western world have faded as the unintended consequences of intensive agriculture and pastoralism have contributed to rural decline and environmental problems. In Norway and Australia, there has been an increasing acceptance of the equal importance of social and environmental sustainability as well as…

  16. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Agricultural Practices; Kampong Bukit Kapar, Selangor, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesson, Lynn L.

    The focus of this study was to procure data about adoption behavior of Malaysian smallholders (farmers) that would be useful in the instructional program in extension education at the College of Agriculture, Malaysia. Students interviewed 76 persons in a rural village of two hundred families, all engaged in agriculture. The major sources of income…

  17. Monitoring the Effect of Wetland Conservation Practices in an Agricultural Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the substantial effect of agriculture on the extent and ability of wetlands to function, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) serves a key role in wetland conservation and restoration. The USDA has implemented several different conservation programs (e.g., the Wetland Reserve Program) wi...

  18. Using Perceived Differences in Views of Agricultural Water Use to Inform Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Taylor, Melissa R.; Lamm, Kevan W.

    2016-01-01

    Water use has become increasingly contentious as the population grows and water resources become scarcer. Recent media coverage of agricultural water use has brought negative attention potentially influencing public and decision makers' attitudes towards agriculture. Negative perceptions could result in uninformed decisions being made that impact…

  19. Evaluating Best Management Practices and Correlations Between Culture and Molecular Data at a Cattle Feeding Operation and Nearby Stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will include: Evaluate the performance of an infiltration basin and constructed wetland in a cattle-feeding operation (culture data only); Examine the correlation between culture data and qPCR measurements at two different research sites; Describe the relationship b...

  20. Evaluation of four structural best management practices for highway runoff in Beaufort and Colleton Counties, South Carolina, 2005–2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Kevin J.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2008-01-01

    In general, the four BMPs were not successful at significantly reducing fecal bacteria, nutrients, and total organic carbon (including associated properties of biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand). Three of the four BMPs significantly lowered oil and grease concentrations before the stormwater discharged from the outlet. Additionally, only one BMP was effective at reducing all total and particulate

  1. Effluent monitoring at a bleached kraft mill: directions for best management practices for eliminating effects on fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Martel, Pierre H; Kovacs, Tibor G; O'connor, Brian I; Semeniuk, Sharon; Hewitt, L Mark; Maclatchy, Deborah L; McMaster, Mark E; Parrott, Joanne L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2011-01-01

    A long-term monitoring study was conducted on effluents from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill located in Eastern Canada. The study was designed to gain insights into temporal effluent variability with respect to fish reproduction as it related to production upsets, mill restarts and conditions affecting biological treatment performance. Final effluent quality was monitored between February 2007 and May 2009 using biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, resin and fatty acids, a gas chromatographic profiling index, and the presence of methyl substituted 2-cyclopentenones. Selected effluent samples were evaluated for effects on fish reproduction (egg production) using a shortened version of the adult fathead minnow reproductive test. The events relating to negative effects on fish reproduction were upsets of the pulping liquor recovery system resulting in black liquor losses, operational upsets of the hardwood line resulting in the loss of oxygen delignification filtrates, and conditions that reduced the performance of biological treatment (e.g., mill shutdown and low ambient temperatures). The reductions in egg production observed in fathead minnow were associated with biochemical oxygen demand values > 20 mg/L, GC profiling indices > 1.2 and the presence of methyl-substituted 2-cyclopentenones at concentrations > 100 μg/L. This study demonstrated the importance of both in-plant measures for controlling the loss of organics as well as the optimum operation of biological effluent treatment for eliminating effluent-related effects on fish reproduction (egg production) in the laboratory.

  2. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    The Exchange, formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES), is a joint military activity and the U.S. Department of Defense?s (DOD) oldest and largest retailer. The Exchange is taking a leadership role in water efficiency improvements in their commercial kitchens by integrating water efficiency concepts into the organization?s overall sustainability plan and objectives.

  3. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  4. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  5. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  6. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  7. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  8. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  9. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) at the Small Watershed Scale

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been numerous studies of the water quantity and quality functions of stormwater BMPs at the site scale, but relatively few assessments at the watershed scale. This presentation will present an overview and initial results of projects to evaluate the effectiveness of g...

  10. Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites: Best Management Practice Case Study #12 - Laboratory/Medical Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Blakley, H.

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) built a successful water conservation program and reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories. The projects highlighted in this case study demonstrate EPA's ability to reduce water use in laboratory and medical equipment by implementing vacuum pump and steam sterilizer replacements and retrofits. Due to the success of the initial vacuum pump and steam sterilizer projects described here, EPA is implementing similar projects at several laboratories throughout the nation.

  11. IMPACT OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON WATER QUALITY OF TWO SMALL WATERSHEDS IN INDIANA: ROLE OF SPATIAL SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transport and fate of sediments and nutrients within watersheds have important implications for water quality and water resources. Water quality issues often arise because sediments serve as carriers for various pollutants such as nutrients, pathogens, and toxic substances. The C...

  12. Suggested Planting Guidelines - Best Management Practices for Revegetation of Actively Used Training Lands in the Northeastern United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Carex squarrosa Common name Canada wildrye riverbank wildrye Virginia wildrye broom sedge fox sedge squarrose sedge Fertility Requirement...Fringed brome 5 236,000 27 Fox sedge 2 1,297,000 60 Fowl bluegrass7 2 1,900,000 87 Autumn bentgrass8 1 8,000,000 184 435 Carex scoparia (Optional...yes  Ecological‐bridge suitability:    Additional notes:  Slightly toxic  ERDC/CRREL TR-12-10 90 Broom  sedge   Carex  scoparia Photo by Robert H

  13. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan Implemented at an Outdoor Rifle Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    Facilities Criteria Office , Ms . Barbara Nelson of the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, and Mr. Robert Byrne of the Wildlife Management...EVALUATION CTF THb EFFg r Tlx/g/Q £SS or A AT A/.) WTpQQ/e, ZiFLG £AMQR Graduate; Program Director (Date) COPY: Office of...Quality Division are thanked for their assistance. Mr. Greg Schirf of the Navy’s Ordnance Environmental Support Office , Mr. Bill Gibbings of the Naval

  14. Effects of best-management practices in Otter Creek in the Sheboygan River Priority Watershed, Wisconsin, 1990-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven R.; Walker, John F.; Wang, Lizhu; Horwatich, Judy A.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2005-01-01

    Habitat and fish data were collected each year of the study to track the effects of BMPs on stream habitat and fish communities. Final trend analysis was performed using habitat quality index scores, an index of biotic integrity, and some of the originally measured fish and habitat variables. Habitat was improved for stream segments that had either natural riparian buffer or where streambank fencing was installed, but not at the station where the riparian area was pasture and no streambank fencing was installed. The results also suggest that BMP implementation in Otter Creek substantially modified fish community structure, but the overall community quality was not improved.

  15. Procedures and best management practices for genetically engineered traits in USDA/ARS germplasm and breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two decades have passed since the commercialization in the U. S. of crops with genetically engineered (GE) traits. Today more than 80% of corn, soybean, canola, sugar beet and cotton acreage in the United States is planted to transgenic cultivars, but concerns exist regarding how best to manage the ...

  16. Pollution Prevention and Best Management Practices Plan for State Waste Discharge Permits ST-4508 - ST-4509 and ST-4510

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    On December 23, 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE 91NM- 177 (Consent Order). The Consent Order lists regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams on the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-216, State Waste Discharge Permit Program, or WAC 173-21 8, Washington Underground Injection Control Program, where applicable. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column are categorized in the Consent Order as follows: Phase I Streams; Phase II Streams; and Miscellaneous Streams. Phase I and Phase II Streams are addressed in two reports: Plan and Schedule to Discontinue Disposal of Contaminated Liquids into the Soil Column at the Hanford Site (DOE-RL 1987), and Annual Status of the Report of the Plan and schedule to Discontinue Disposal of Contaminated Liquids into the Soil Column at the Hanford Site (WHC-EP-0196-1). There originally were 33 Phase I and Phase II Streams; however, some streams have been eliminated. Miscellaneous streams are those liquid effluent streams discharged to the ground that arc not categorized as Phase I or Phase II Streams. Source waters of miscellaneous streams originate directly from the Columbia River, from treated Columbia River water, or from groundwater and demineralized water. Miscellaneous streams result primarily from source water used in processes such as cooling, hydrotesting, and steam generation. Miscellaneous streams also occur through the use of these source waters for maintenance and construction activities such as draining, flushing, and washing. Miscellaneous streams discharging to the soil column on the Hanford Site were subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the Consent Order (DE 91NM-177). The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Streams (DOE/RL-93-94) provides for the disposition of miscellaneous streams to satisfy one of the Consent Order Section 6 requirements. Additional commitments established in the plan and schedule (Activity 6.2.3,6.2.4, and 6.2.6) were to submit WAC 173-216 Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit applications for hydrotest, maintenance, and Construction waste water, cooling water and condensate, and storm water discharges. Activity 6.2.5 required the submittal of a WAC 173-216 Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit application for surface water discharges from coal ramp washdown, vehicle washing, and safety shower discharges. However, through stream elimination and through permitting streams under existing Categorical Permits, Ecology agreed to eliminate the requirements under activity 6.2.5.

  17. Framework for Placement of Best Management Practices in Urban Watersheds to Protect Source Waters and Meet Water Quality Goals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will support program offices in stormwater management evaluations and cost-optimization for meeting municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) and total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements. The framework is designed for application to TMDL watershed planning for...

  18. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control. (a) Applicability. This section applies to direct and indirect discharging pulp, paper, and... shutdowns. (5) Mill: The owner or operator of a direct or indirect discharging pulp, paper, or paperboard... equipment items repaired during the next maintenance outage; (iii) Identification of conditions under...

  19. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) Applicability. This section applies to direct and indirect discharging pulp, paper, and... shutdowns. (5) Mill: The owner or operator of a direct or indirect discharging pulp, paper, or paperboard... equipment items repaired during the next maintenance outage; (iii) Identification of conditions under...

  20. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... control. (a) Applicability. This section applies to direct and indirect discharging pulp, paper, and... shutdowns. (5) Mill: The owner or operator of a direct or indirect discharging pulp, paper, or paperboard... equipment items repaired during the next maintenance outage; (iii) Identification of conditions under...

  1. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Applicability. This section applies to direct and indirect discharging pulp, paper, and... shutdowns. (5) Mill: The owner or operator of a direct or indirect discharging pulp, paper, or paperboard... equipment items repaired during the next maintenance outage; (iii) Identification of conditions under...

  2. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control. (a) Applicability. This section applies to direct and indirect discharging pulp, paper, and... shutdowns. (5) Mill: The owner or operator of a direct or indirect discharging pulp, paper, or paperboard... equipment items repaired during the next maintenance outage; (iii) Identification of conditions under...

  3. SUSTAIN – A Framework for Placement of Best Management Practices in Urban Watersheds to Protect Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for water quality management and flow abatement techniques in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale, decision-support framework that is based on cost optimization is needed to support gov...

  4. Traditional agricultural practices enable sustainable remediation of highly polluted soils in Southern Spain for cultivation of food crops.

    PubMed

    Madejón, P; Barba-Brioso, C; Lepp, N W; Fernández-Caliani, J C

    2011-07-01

    This study relates elemental content of a range of edible crops grown in soils severely polluted by metals and metalloids as affected by traditional smallholder management practices. Five agricultural plots close to a sulfidic waste dump were monitored. Soil analysis demonstrated elevated concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn that were greatly in excess of maximum statutory limits for agricultural soils in the studied region. The main vegetables (lettuce, chard, onion, potatoes) and lemon, together with their associated soils, were measured for elemental content. Extractable soil element concentrations were very low. There were differences in elemental accumulation between crops, but none exceeded statutory concentrations in edible parts. Soil-plant transfer factors were uniformly low for all elements and crops. It is concluded that traditional soil management practices (annual liming and application of animal manures) have created conditions for sustainable long-term safety use, with potential for multiple end-use, of these highly polluted soils.

  5. Effect of Agricultural Practices on Hydrology and Water Chemistry in a Small Irrigated Catchment, Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    The role of irrigation and artificial drainage in the hydrologic cycle and the transport of solutes in a small agricultural catchment in central Washington's Yakima Valley were explored using hydrologic, chemical, isotopic, age-dating, and mineralogical data from several environmental compartments, including stream water, ground water, overland flow, and streambed pore water. A conceptual understanding of catchment hydrology and solute transport was developed and an inverse end-member mixing analysis was used to further explore the effects of agriculture in this small catchment. The median concentrations of major solutes and nitrates were similar for the single field site and for the catchment outflow site, indicating that the net effects of transport processes for these constituents were similar at both scales. However, concentrations of nutrients were different at the two sites, suggesting that field-scale variations in agricultural practices as well as nearstream and instream biochemical processes are important components of agricultural chemical transformation and transport in this catchment. This work indicates that irrigation coupled with artificial drainage networks may exacerbate the ecological effects of agricultural runoff by increasing direct connectivity between fields and streams and minimizing potentially mitigating effects (denitrification and dilution, for example) of longer subsurface pathways.

  6. Integrating social identity theory and the theory of planned behaviour to explain decisions to engage in sustainable agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Kelly S; Terry, Deborah J; Masser, Barbara M; Hogg, Michael A

    2008-03-01

    The present research integrates core aspects of social identity theory with the theory of planned behaviour to investigate factors influencing engagement in sustainable agricultural practices. Using a two-wave prospective design, two studies were conducted with samples of farmers (N = 609 and N = 259, respectively). At Time 1, a questionnaire survey assessed theory of planned behaviour variables in relation to engaging in riparian zone management (a sustainable agricultural practice). In addition, intergroup perceptions (i.e. relations between rural and urban groups), group norms and group identification were assessed. At Time 2, self-reported behaviour was measured. There was support for the integrated model across both studies. As predicted, past behaviour, attitudes and perceived behavioural control were significant predictors of intentions, and intentions significantly predicted self-reported behaviour. Group norms and intergroup perceptions were also significant predictors of intentions providing support for the inclusion of social identity concepts in the theory of planned behaviour. More supportive group norms were associated with higher intentions, especially for high-group identifiers. In contrast, more negative intergroup perceptions were associated with lower intentions and, unexpectedly, this effect only emerged for low-group identifiers. This suggests that in the context of decisions to engage in riparian zone management, an important sustainable agricultural practice, high identifiers are influenced predominantly by in-group rather than out-group considerations, whereas low identifiers may attend to cues from both the in-group and the out-group when making their decisions.

  7. Landuse and agricultural management practice web-service (LAMPS) for agroecosystem modeling and conservation planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroecosystem models and conservation planning tools require spatially and temporally explicit input data about agricultural management operations. The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service is developing a Land Management and Operation Database (LMOD) which contains potential model input, howe...

  8. Water Quality Response to Changes in Agricultural Land Use Practices at Headwater Streams in Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Poorly managed agricultural watersheds may be one of the most important contributors to high levels of bacterial and sediment loadings in surface waters. We investigated two cattle farms with differing management schemes to compare how physicochemical and meteorological parameter...

  9. Trade-off between water pollution prevention, agriculture profit, and farmer practice--an optimization methodology for discussion on land-use adjustment in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information.

  10. Location and agricultural practices influence spring use of harvested cornfields by cranes and geese in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Bishop, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes) stop in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska to store nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming corn remaining in fields after harvest. We examined factors that influence use of cornfields by cranes and geese (all mid-continent species combined; e.g., Anser, Chen, and Branta spp.) because it is a key step to efficient conservation planning aimed at ensuring that adequate food resources are available to migratory birds stopping in the CPRV. Distance to night-time roost site, segment of the CPRV (west to east), and agricultural practices (post-harvest treatment of cornfields: idle, grazed, mulched, mulched and grazed, and tilled) were the most important and influential variables in our models for geese and cranes. Probability of cornfield use by geese and cranes decreased with increasing distance from the closest potential roosting site. The use of cornfields by geese increased with the density of corn present there during the early migration period, but field use by cranes appeared not to be influenced by early migration corn density. However, probability of cornfield use by cranes did increase with the amount of wet grassland habitat within 4.8 km of the field. Geese were most likely to use fields that were tilled and least likely to use fields that were mulched and grazed. Cranes were most likely to use fields that were mulched and least likely to use fields that were tilled, but grazing appeared not to influence the likelihood of field use by cranes. Geese were more likely to use cornfields in western segments of the CPRV, but cranes were more likely to use cornfields in eastern segments. Our data suggest that managers could favor crane use of fields and reduce direct competition with geese by reducing fall and spring tilling and increasing mulching. Moreover, crane conservation efforts would be most beneficial if they were focused in the eastern portions

  11. Location and agricultural practices influence spring use of harvested cornfields by cranes and geese in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Sherfy, M.H.; Bishop, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes) stop in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska to store nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming corn remaining in fields after harvest. We examined factors that influence use of cornfields by cranes and geese (all mid-continent species combined; e.g., Anser, Chen, and Branta spp.) because it is a key step to efficient conservation planning aimed at ensuring that adequate food resources are available to migratory birds stopping in the CPRV. Distance to night-time roost site, segment of the CPRV (west to east), and agricultural practices (post-harvest treatment of cornfields: idle, grazed, mulched, mulched and grazed, and tilled) were the most important and influential variables in our models for geese and cranes. Probability of cornfield use by geese and cranes decreased with increasing distance from the closest potential roosting site. The use of cornfields by geese increased with the density of corn present there during the early migration period, but field use by cranes appeared not to be influenced by early migration corn density. However, probability of cornfield use by cranes did increase with the amount of wet grassland habitat within 4.8 km of the field. Geese were most likely to use fields that were tilled and least likely to use fields that were mulched and grazed. Cranes were most likely to use fields that were mulched and least likely to use fields that were tilled, but grazing appeared not to influence the likelihood of field use by cranes. Geese were more likely to use cornfields in western segments of the CPRV, but cranes were more likely to use cornfields in eastern segments. Our data suggest that managers could favor crane use of fields and reduce direct competition with geese by reducing fall and spring tilling and increasing mulching. Moreover, crane conservation efforts would be most beneficial if they were focused in the eastern portions

  12. Vineyard weeds control practices impact on surface water transfers: using numerical tracer experiment coupled to a distributed hydrological model to manage agricultural practices spatial arrangements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, F.; Moussa, R.

    2009-04-01

    In rural basins, agricultural landscape management highly influences water and pollutants transfers. Landuse, agricultural practices and their spatial arrangements are at issue. Hydrological model are widely used to explore impacts of anthropogenic influences on experimental catchments. But planning all spatial arrangements leads to a possible cases count which cannot be considered. On the basis of the recent « numerical experiment » approach, we propose a « numerical tracer function » which had to be coupled to a distributed rainfall-runoff model. This function simulate the transfer of a virtual tracer successively spread on each distributed unit inside the catchment. It allows to rank hydrological spatial units according to their hydrological contribution to the surface flows, particularly at the catchment outlet. It was used with the distributed model MHYDAS in an agricultural context. The case study concerns the experimental Roujan vine-growing catchment (1km², south of France) studied since 1992. In this Mediterranean context, we focus on the soil hydraulic conductivity distributed parameter because it highly depends on weed control practices (chemical weeding induces a lot more runoff than mechanical weeding). We checked model sensitivity analysis to soil hydraulic conductivity spatial arrangement on runoff coefficient, peak discharge and catchment lag-time. Results show (i) the use of the tracer function is more efficient than a random approach to improve sensitivity to spatial arrangements from point of view of simulated discharge range, (ii) the first factor explaining hydrological simulations variability was practices area ratio, (iii) variability induced by practices spatial arrangements was significant on runoff coefficient and peak discharge for balanced practices area ratio and on lag-time for low area ratio of chemical weeding practices. From the actual situation on the experimental Roujan catchment (40% of tilled and 60% of non tilled vineyard

  13. Heavy agricultural workloads and low crop diversity are strong barriers to improving child feeding practices in the Bolivian Andes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew D; Cruz Agudo, Yesmina; Galway, Lindsay; Bentley, Jeffery; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2012-11-01

    Most nutrition initiatives to date aimed at improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) have emphasized addressing knowledge gaps through behavior change messaging with less focus on addressing the underlying environmental barriers that may shape these behaviors. This research integrates an analysis of longitudinal dietary data with qualitative data on barriers to improved child feeding to identify the nature and extent of the barriers caregivers face to improving IYCF practices in a farming region of the Bolivian Andes, and to determine the relative influence of these barriers on caregivers' abilities to improve IYCF practices. Sixty-nine caregivers were selected from a sample of 331 households that participated in a longitudinal survey assessing changes in IYCF practices among caregivers with children aged 0-36 months from March 2009 to March 2010. Forty-nine barriers within 12 categories of barriers were identified through semi-structured interviews with the 69 caregivers. The most frequently reported barriers were those related to women's time dedicated to agricultural labor, the limited diversity of household agricultural production, and lack of support for child feeding from spouses and mothers-in-law. In multivariate analyses controlling for several variables that could potentially influence IYCF practices, these barriers were negatively associated with changes to the diversity of child diets, child dietary energy intake, and child meal frequency. While knowledge gaps and individual-level influences affected IYCF practices, physical and social caregiving environments in this region of Bolivia were even more important. Behavior change communication alone will likely not address the social and environmental barriers to improved child feeding that often prevent translation of improved knowledge into action. Particularly in rural regions, agriculture may strongly influence child feeding, not only indirectly through household food security, but also directly

  14. Heavy agricultural workloads and low crop diversity are strong barriers to improving child feeding practices in the Bolivian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew D; Agudo, Yesmina Cruz; Galway, Lindsay; Bentley, Jeffery; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Most nutrition initiatives to date aimed at improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) have emphasized addressing knowledge gaps through behavior change messaging with less focus on addressing the underlying environmental barriers that may shape these behaviors. This research integrates an analysis of longitudinal dietary data with qualitative data on barriers to improved child feeding to identify the nature and extent of the barriers caregivers face to improving IYCF practices in a farming region of the Bolivian Andes, and to determine the relative influence of these barriers on caregivers’ abilities to improve IYCF practices. Sixty-nine caregivers were selected from a sample of 331 households that participated in a longitudinal survey assessing changes in IYCF practices among caregivers with children aged 0–36 months from March 2009 to March 2010. Forty-nine barriers within 12 categories of barriers were identified through semi-structured interviews with the 69 caregivers. The most frequently reported barriers were those related to women’s time dedicated to agricultural labor, the limited diversity of household agricultural production, and lack of support for child feeding from spouses and mothers-in-law. In multivariate analyses controlling for several variables that could potentially influence IYCF practices, these barriers were negatively associated with changes to the diversity of child diets, child dietary energy intake, and child meal frequency. While knowledge gaps and individual-level influences affected IYCF practices, physical and social caregiving environments in this region of Bolivia were even more important. Behavior change communication alone will likely not address the social and environmental barriers to improved child feeding that often prevent translation of improved knowledge into action. Particularly in rural regions, agriculture may strongly influence child feeding, not only indirectly through household food security, but also

  15. Estimating Changes in Soil Organic Carbon Under Selected Agriculture Residue and Fertilizer Management Practices with the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Song, J.

    2010-12-01

    Bioenergy from biofuels is becoming an increasingly important component of renewable energy, but generating biofuels from primarily agricultural resources can put tremendous strain on land and water resources, including impacts on soil carbon storage. In order to evaluate the influence of cultivation on the terrestrial carbon cycle, we have integrated agriculture representation into the coupled carbon-nitrogen Community Land Model (CLM-CN) framework through the addition of three new plant functional types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The new model, CLM-Crop is validated against observations from two AmeriFlux sites for carbon fluxes. We estimate changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) through several model simulations which include different land use scenarios with agriculture distributions for the years 1990, 2000, and crops simulated as grassland, as well as changing management practices such as fertilizer and residue. We consider changes in SOC from no fertilizer vs. current fertilizer inputs and three different post-harvest leaf and stem residue returns, which compare current residue amounts of 30-40% with a high residue return of 90% and a low residue return of 10%. Our results indicate that agriculture disturbance has a significant impact on SOC, the largest impact as a result of small residue returns. The model simulates US soils have lost 15% of the total SOC since intensive cultivation began, but increasing the residue returned can decrease this loss by 5%. When grassland is converted to agriculture, local soils are estimated to lose 50-60% of the total SOC stored. Our results demonstrate the significance cultivation has on SOC storage and the role management practices have on the carbon cycle.

  16. Associations between conservation practices and ecology: ecological responses of agricultural streams and lakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP) Watershed Assessment Study goals are to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practices at the watershed scale. Currently, a critical knowledge gap exists in linking conservation practices and their ecological effects on aquatic ecosy...

  17. Agricultural anaerobic digestion power plants in Ireland and Germany: policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Auer, Agathe; Vande Burgt, Nathan H; Abram, Florence; Barry, Gerald; Fenton, Owen; Markey, Bryan K; Nolan, Stephen; Richards, Karl; Bolton, Declan; De Waal, Theo; Gordon, Stephen V; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Whyte, Paul; Zintl, Annetta

    2017-02-01

    The process of anaerobic digestion (AD) is valued as a carbon-neutral energy source, while simultaneously treating organic waste, making it safer for disposal or use as a fertilizer on agricultural land. The AD process in many European nations, such as Germany, has grown from use of small, localized digesters to the operation of large-scale treatment facilities, which contribute significantly to national renewable energy quotas. However, these large AD plants are costly to run and demand intensive farming of energy crops for feedstock. Current policy in Germany has transitioned to support funding for smaller digesters, while also limiting the use of energy crops. AD within Ireland, as a new technology, is affected by ambiguous governmental policies concerning waste and energy. A clear governmental strategy supporting on-site AD processing of agricultural waste will significantly reduce Ireland's carbon footprint, improve the safety and bioavailability of agricultural waste, and provide an indigenous renewable energy source. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Assessment of alternative land management practices using hydrological simulation and a decision support tool: Arborea agricultural region, Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cau, P.; Paniconi, C.

    2007-11-01

    Quantifying the impact of land use on water supply and quality is a primary focus of environmental management. In this work we apply a semidistributed hydrological model (SWAT) to predict the impact of different land management practices on water and agricultural chemical yield over a long period of time for a study site situated in the Arborea region of central Sardinia, Italy. The physical processes associated with water movement, crop growth, and nutrient cycling are directly modeled by SWAT. The model simulations are used to identify indicators that reflect critical processes related to the integrity and sustainability of the ecosystem. Specifically we focus on stream quality and quantity indicators associated with anthropogenic and natural sources of pollution. A multicriteria decision support system is then used to develop the analysis matrix where water quality and quantity indicators for the rivers, lagoons, and soil are combined with socio-economic variables. The DSS is used to assess four options involving alternative watersheds designated for intensive agriculture and dairy farming and the use or not of treated wastewater for irrigation. Our analysis suggests that of the four options, the most widely acceptable consists in the transfer of intensive agricultural practices to the larger watershed, which is less vulnerable, in tandem with wastewater reuse, which rates highly due to water scarcity in this region of the Mediterranean. More generally, the work demonstrates how both qualitative and quantitative methods and information can assist decision making in complex settings.

  19. Impact of agricultural practices on runoff and glyphosate peaks in a small vineyard catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Audrey; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; Landry, David; Sourice, Stéphane; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Ballouche, Aziz

    2013-04-01

    other presented parameters. Moreover, those coefficients seem not governed by meteorological variability but directly linked with agricultural practices and in particular with tillage, not realised in 2009 as started in 2011 but increased in surface and number in 2012. To conlude, results show that whereas glyphosate concentrations decrease while the percentage of weeded areas increases, erosion increases. In order to confirm those results, the project is now focusing on glyphosate's sorption on unstable soil's particles. Acknowledgments This research has been funded by the BVVITI Regional project of the Contrat Regional Bassin Versant and Contrat Territorial supported by the Region Pays-de-la-Loire and the Water Agency Loire-Bretagne, as by the winegrower profession with FranceAgriMer, InterLoire and by the French Institute of vine and wine. We are grateful to the farmers and we specially acknowledge the municipality of Rochefort-sur-Loire.

  20. Effects of conservation practices on phosphorus loss reduction from an Indiana agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses from agricultural lands have caused serious eutrophication problems, particularly in Lake Erie. However, techniques that can effectively reduce total and soluble phosphorus losses from croplands and drainage channels can be difficult to implement and gauge. This modeling study was ...

  1. Impact of conservation land management practices on soil microbial function in an agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) involves removing agricultural land from production and replanting with native vegetation for the purpose of reducing agriculture’s impact on the environment. In 2002, part of the Beasley Lake watershed in the Mississippi Delta was enrolled in CRP. In ad...

  2. The Impact of Crop, Pest, and Agricultural Management Practices on Mycotoxin Contamination of Field Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by several fungal genera which occur in a wide variety of agricultural commodities worldwide. Health issues and economic losses due to mycotoxin contamination occur at all stages of the food and feed production process. Mycotoxigenic fungi...

  3. SUNY College of Agriculture and Technology at Morrisville: Selected Financial Management Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    This audit report of the State University of New York (SUNY) College of Agriculture and Technology at Morrisville addresses the question of whether the college management has established an effective system of internal control over its revenue, equipment, and student work-study payroll. The audit makes a number of observations and conclusions.…

  4. Effects of agricultural conservation practices on N loads in the Mississippi-Atchafalya River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modeling framework consisting of a farm-scale model, Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX); a watershedscale model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT); and databases was used in the Conservation Effects Assessment Project to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practi...

  5. Assessing the importance of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of pesticides in agriculture, their potential to be transported beyond the intended target, and their possible risk to human and environmental health has been of public concern for many years. We utilized 5 years of field data from 3 vegetable production systems to evaluate the ability of ag...

  6. Agricultural Management Practices Explain Variation in Global Yield Gaps of Major Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, N. D.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The continued expansion and intensification of agriculture are key drivers of global environmental change. Meeting a doubling of food demand in the next half-century will further induce environmental change, requiring either large cropland expansion into carbon- and biodiversity-rich tropical forests or increasing yields on existing croplands. Closing the “yield gaps” between the most and least productive farmers on current agricultural lands is a necessary and major step towards preserving natural ecosystems and meeting future food demand. Here we use global climate, soils, and cropland datasets to quantify yield gaps for major crops using equal-area climate analogs. Consistent with previous studies, we find large yield gaps for many crops in Eastern Europe, tropical Africa, and parts of Mexico. To analyze the drivers of yield gaps, we collected sub-national agricultural management data and built a global dataset of fertilizer application rates for over 160 crops. We constructed empirical crop yield models for each climate analog using the global management information for 17 major crops. We find that our climate-specific models explain a substantial amount of the global variation in yields. These models could be widely applied to identify management changes needed to close yield gaps, analyze the environmental impacts of agricultural intensification, and identify climate change adaptation techniques.

  7. Adult Education Philosophies Practiced by Agricultural Education Teachers in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Harry N.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Wright, Crystal B.; Lawrence, Layle D.; Odell, Kerry S.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 118 of 314 secondary agriculture teachers indicated that three-fourths teach adults; about two-thirds identified with the progressive education philosophy, 21% with behaviorism; nearly half had no formal training in teaching adults. Effect size results suggest they may not have clearly defined adult education philosophies. (Contains…

  8. Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: The need for sustainable and efficient practices

    PubMed Central

    Tilman, David

    1999-01-01

    The recent intensification of agriculture, and the prospects of future intensification, will have major detrimental impacts on the nonagricultural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of the world. The doubling of agricultural food production during the past 35 years was associated with a 6.87-fold increase in nitrogen fertilization, a 3.48-fold increase in phosphorus fertilization, a 1.68-fold increase in the amount of irrigated cropland, and a 1.1-fold increase in land in cultivation. Based on a simple linear extension of past trends, the anticipated next doubling of global food production would be associated with approximately 3-fold increases in nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates, a doubling of the irrigated land area, and an 18% increase in cropland. These projected changes would have dramatic impacts on the diversity, composition, and functioning of the remaining natural ecosystems of the world, and on their ability to provide society with a variety of essential ecosystem services. The largest impacts would be on freshwater and marine ecosystems, which would be greatly eutrophied by high rates of nitrogen and phosphorus release from agricultural fields. Aquatic nutrient eutrophication can lead to loss of biodiversity, outbreaks of nuisance species, shifts in the structure of food chains, and impairment of fisheries. Because of aerial redistribution of various forms of nitrogen, agricultural intensification also would eutrophy many natural terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases. These detrimental environmental impacts of agriculture can be minimized only if there is much more efficient use and recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus in agroecosystems. PMID:10339530

  9. Development of the Land-use and Agricultural Management Practice web-Service (LAMPS) for generating crop rotations in space and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroecosystem models and conservation planning tools require spatially and temporally explicit input data about agricultural management operations. The Land-use and Agricultural Management Practices web-Service (LAMPS) provides crop rotation and management information for user-specified areas within...

  10. Removal of Nitrogen and Pathogens in Agricultural or Urban Channles using Engineered Streambeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, J. E.; Herzog, S.; Higgins, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Treating non-point source pollution is one of our greatest challenges in environmental hydrology. Previous efforts in agricultural or urban settings have focused on removing sources or implementing distributed best management practices (BMPs) throughout a watershed. However, for stream pollution, the most efficient point of treatment would be within the stream itself, which integrates flows from the entire watershed. Engineered streambed modifications in urban or agricultural streams and constructed channels have the potential to mitigate nonpoint source pollution. Geomedia designed to treat water pollutants and achieve an optimal residence time via hydraulic conductivity modifications are termed biohydrochemical enhancement structures for stream water treatment (BEST). BEST modules can efficiently drive interchange, attenuating nutrients and pathogens (and can be designed to remove other pollutants such as phosphorus, metals or trace organics). Numerical models, combined with data from bench-top and 2D experiments, demonstrate effective contaminant removal potential for practical applications. Nitrogen and pathogens could be attenuated within a series of BEST on the order of 50 m of stream length, and at a favorable cost compared to traditional BMPs, suggesting that BEST could be an effective best management practice for constructed stormwater channels (particularly outlets of detention ponds) or channels carrying irrigation return flows. New results from a constructed stream demonstrate the real-world applicability of the BEST system.

  11. Perceptions of risk, stressors, and locus of control influence intentions to practice safety behaviors in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Elkind, Pamela Dee

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that a combination of factors including risk perceptions, locus of control, and chronic stress influences farmers' intentions to behave safely. To demonstrate how these intervening variables influence behavioral intentions, results of 16 empirical research projects are superimposed upon an extensive literature review. Analyses include data collected from 3165 respondents via survey questionnaires, couple and key informant interviews, quasi-experimental evaluation instruments, and focus group dialogue. Using Ajzen's framework, this multilayered research process yields a wealth of both qualitative and quantitative data to support the argument. The results suggest that information alone will not affect behavior. Only when chronic stressors from occupational and structural processes are alleviated and coping mechanisms introduced, the political economy of farming improves, and farm populations perceive that they are in control of their work environment will meaningful reduction in agricultural injuries and agricultural-related disease be possible.

  12. The contribution of arbusclar mycorrhizal fungi to the success or failure of agricultural practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Good farming practices are conducted for a variety of reasons. Farmers now include management practices such as over wintering cover crops, reduced tillage, and crop rotation with the goals of reducing soil erosion, managing nutrient availability, building soil organic matter, controlling weeds, an...

  13. Plant available silicon in South-east Asian rice paddy soils - relevance of agricultural practice and of abiotic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marxen, A.; Klotzbücher, T.; Vetterlein, D.; Jahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Background Silicon (Si) plays a crucial role in rice production. Si content of rice plants exceeds the content of other major nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. Recent studies showed that in some environments external supply of Si can enhance the growth of rice plants. Rice plants express specific Si transporters to absorb Si from soil solutions in form of silicic acid, which precipitates in tissue cells forming amorphous silica bodies, called phytoliths. The phytoliths are returned to soils with plant residues. They might be a main source of plant available silicic acid in soils. Aims In this study we assess the effects of rice paddy cultivation on the stocks of `reactive` Si fractions in mineral topsoils of rice paddy fields in contrasting landscapes. The `reactive` Si fractions are presumed to determine the release of plant-available silicic acid in soils. We consider the relevance of abiotic factors (mineral assemblage; soil weathering status) and agricultural practice for these fractions. Agricultural practices, which were assumed to affect the stocks of `reactive` Si were (i) the usage of different rice varieties (which might differ in Si demand), (ii) straw residue management (i.e., whether straw residues are returned to the fields or removed and used e.g. as fodder), and (iii) yield level and number of crops per year. Material and methods Soils (top horizon of about 0-20 cm depth) were sampled from rice paddy fields in 2 mountainous and 5 lowland landscapes of contrasting geologic conditions in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ten paddy fields were sampled per landscape. The rice paddy management within landscapes differed when different farmers and/or communities managed the fields. We analysed the following fractions of `reactive` Si in the soils: acetate-extractable Si (dissolved and easily exchangeable Si), phosphate-extractable Si (adsorbed Si), oxalate extractable Si (Si associated with poorly-ordered sesquioxides), NaOH extractable Si

  14. Key to GHG fluxes from organic soils: site characteristics, agricultural practices or water table management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemeyer, Bärbel

    2015-04-01

    Drained peatlands are hotspots of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agriculture is the major land use type for peatlands in Germany and other European countries, but strongly varies in its intensity regarding the groundwater level and the agricultural management. Although the mean annual water table depth is sometimes proposed as an overall predictor for GHG emissions, there is a strong variability of its effects on different peatlands. Furthermore, re-wetting measures generally decrease carbon dioxide emissions, but may strongly increase methane emissions. We synthesized 250 annual GHG budgets for 120 different sites in 13 German peatlands. Carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange and ecosystem respiration), nitrous oxide and methane fluxes were measured with transparent and opaque manual chambers. Land management ranged from very intensive use with arable land or grassland with up to five cuts per year to partially or completely re-wetted peatlands. Besides the GHG fluxes, biomass yield, fertilisation, groundwater level, climatic data, vegetation composition and soil properties were measured. Overall, we found a large variability of the total GHG budget ranging from small uptakes to extremely high emissions (> 70 t CO2-equivalents/(ha yr)). At nearly all sites, carbon dioxide was the major component of the GHG budget. Site conditions, especially the nitrogen content of the unsaturated zone and the intra-annual water level distribution, controlled the GHG emissions of the agricultural sites. Although these factors are influenced by natural conditions (peat type, regional hydrology), they could be modified by an improved water management. Agricultural management such as the number of cuts had only a minor influence on the GHG budgets. At the level of individual peatlands, higher water levels always decreased carbon dioxide emissions. In nearly all cases, the trade-off between reduced carbon dioxide and increased methane emissions turned out in favour of the re

  15. Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries. Practical applications for rural physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Zejda, J E; McDuffie, H H; Dosman, J A

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies document that work in the agricultural sector is associated with many occupational health hazards. Exposure to organic dusts and airborne microorganisms and their toxins may lead to respiratory disorders. The burden of exposure-related chronic bronchitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic-dust toxic syndrome, and chronic airflow limitation can be diminished by appropriate preventive measures. The contribution of exposures to agricultural chemicals to cancers and neurodegenerative disorders is being investigated. Some studies document that farmers and those in related industries are at higher risk for the development of cancer of the stomach, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chronic encephalopathy and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are being studied in relation to agricultural chemicals. The possible carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity of pesticides emphasize the need to promote the safe use of chemicals. Another area for health promotion programs is disabling injuries and traumatic deaths. Farm accidents are important because of their frequent occurrence among young people and disturbing fatality rates. Other health issues of concern in these industries include skin diseases, hearing loss, and stress. PMID:8470386

  16. Compliance with the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) work practice recommendations for youth working with large animals.

    PubMed

    Asti, L; Canan, B D; Heaney, C; Ashida, S; Renick, K; Xiang, H; Stallones, L; Jepsen, S D; Crawford, J M; Wilkins, J R

    2011-01-01

    The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to reduce the risk of childhood agricultural injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate compliance with NAGCAT-recommended work practices (WPs) when youth work with large animals. On a daily basis, over a period of 10 weeks, youth self-reported the number of minutes they worked with a large animal and whether they followed the associated NAGCAT WP guidelines. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare boys to girls and to consider the effect of factors such as youth age, farm residence status, and selected parental characteristics. A high proportion of youth exhibited relatively low compliance for most of the five WPs evaluated. Respirators were rarely worn, but checking for people and obstacles in the area while working with large animals was commonly reported. In general, boys, especially the older boys, exhibited higher compliance than did girls. The results of our study demonstrate, in general, that youth are not following recommended NAGCAT WPs when working with large animals, identifying an area in agricultural safety and health requiring focused attention.

  17. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  18. Influence of Agricultural Practices on Micrometerological Spatial Variations at Local and Regional Scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfers significantly influence interactions and feedbacks between vegetation and boundary layer in relation with plant phenology and water status. The current study focused on linking micrometeorological conditions to cultural practices at the local and regional scales ...

  19. INFLUENCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES ON MICROMETEOROLOGICAL SPATIAL VARIATIONS AT THE LOCAL AND REGIONAL SCALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil - vegetation - atmosphere transfers significantly influence interactions and feedbacks between vegetation and boundary layer, in relation with plant phenology and water status. The current study focused on linking micrometeorological conditions to cultural practices at the local and regional sc...

  20. Knowledge, perceptions and practices of farming communities on linkages between malaria and agriculture in Mvomero District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mboera, Leonard E G; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Senkoro, Kesheni P; Rumisha, Susan F; Mlozi, Malongo R S; Mayala, Benjamin K

    2010-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine knowledge, perceptions and practices of farming communities on linkages between agriculture and malaria in Mvomero District in Tanzania. A total of 661 adult males and females were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Most respondents (85.6%) were engaged in crop production. Significantly, a larger proportion (55.2%) of the respondents had primary school education (P<0.001). Majority (88.2%) respondents described malaria as the most important public health problem. However, only 48.2% of the respondents had high knowledge of malaria. The level of knowledge on malaria was associated with level of education of the respondent. Those who had attended at least primary school education were more knowledgeable that those without formal education. A significantly larger proportion (67%) of the respondents experienced most malaria episodes during the rainy season (P<0.001). Respondents with low knowledge on malaria experienced 2.3 times more malaria cases in their households than those with higher knowledge. Respondents with low knowledge preferred to seek care from health facilities (OR: 7.28) than those with high knowledge (OR: 0.15). Rice farming was significantly associated with malaria transmission compared to either maize or sugarcane farming (P<0.001). Cattle, sheep and goats were the domestic animals most frequently incriminated to create aquatic habitats for mosquito breeding. Householders with formal education (OR: 4.6, CI: 1.33-15.89, P-value=0.016) and higher knowledge (OR: 1.7, CI: 1.15-2.55, P-value=0.008) reported to incur large losses when having a malaria case than those without education/low knowledge. Majority (60.2%) of the respondent owned at least an insecticide treated mosquito net (ITN). Respondents with higher knowledge of malaria were likely to own at least an ITN than those with low knowledge (P<0.001). In conclusion, the knowledge on malaria and its linkage with agriculture among farming

  1. Short-term soil loss by eolian erosion in response to different rain-fed agricultural practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Smadar; Katra, Itzhak; Zaady, Eli

    2016-04-01

    Eolian (wind) erosion is a widespread process and a major form of soil degradation in arid and semi-arid regions. The present study examined changes in soil properties and eolian soil loss at a field scale in response to different soil treatments in two rain-fed agricultural practices. Field experiments with a boundary-layer wind tunnel and soil analysis were used to obtain the data. Two practices with different soil treatments (after harvest), mechanical tillage and stubble grazing intensities, were applied in the fallow phase of the rotation (dry season). The mechanical tillage and the stubble grazing had an immediate and direct effects on soil aggregation but not on the soil texture, and the contents of soil water, organic matter, and CaCO3. Higher erosion rates, that was measured as fluxes of total eolian sediment and particulate matter <10 μm (PM10), were recorded under mechanical tillage and grazing intensities compared with the undisturbed topsoil of the control plots. The erosion rates were higher in grazing plots than in tillage plots. The calculated soil fluxes in this study indicate potentially rapid soil degradation due to loss of fine particles by wind. The finding may have implications for long-term management of agricultural soils in semi-arid areas.

  2. Monitoring changes in soil organic carbon pools, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur under different agricultural management practices in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Verma, Bibhash C; Datta, Siba Prasad; Rattan, Raj K; Singh, Anil K

    2010-12-01

    Soil organic matter not only affects sustainability of agricultural ecosystems, but also extremely important in maintaining overall quality of environment as soil contains a significant part of global carbon stock. Hence, we attempted to assess the influence of different tillage and nutrient management practices on various stabilized and active soil organic carbon pools, and their contribution to the extractable nitrogen phosphorus and sulfur. Our study confined to the assessment of impact of agricultural management practices on the soil organic carbon pools and extractable nutrients under three important cropping systems, viz. soybean-wheat, maize-wheat, and rice-wheat. Results indicated that there was marginal improvement in Walkley and Black content in soil under integrated and organic nutrient management treatments in soybean-wheat, maize-wheat, and rice-wheat after completion of four cropping cycles. Improvement in stabilized pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) was not proportional to the applied amount of organic manures. While, labile pools of SOC were increased with the increase in amount of added manures. Apparently, green manure (Sesbania) was more effective in enhancing the lability of SOC as compared to farmyard manure and crop residues. The KMnO(4)-oxidizable SOC proved to be more sensitive and consistent as an index of labile pool of SOC compared to microbial biomass carbon. Under different cropping sequences, labile fractions of soil organic carbon exerted consistent positive effect on the extractable nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in soil.

  3. A hydro-sedimentary modelling system for flash flood propagation and hazard estimation under different agricultural practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourgialas, N. N.; Karatzas, G. P.

    2013-10-01

    A modelling system for the estimation of flash flood flow characteristics and sediment transport is developed in this study. The system comprises of three components: (a) a modelling framework based on the hydrological model HSPF, (b) the hydrodynamic module of the hydraulic model MIKE 11 (quasi-2-D), and (c) the advection-dispersion module of MIKE 11 as a sediment transport model. An important parameter in hydraulic modelling is the Manning's coefficient, an indicator of the channel resistance which is directly depended on riparian vegetation changes. Riparian vegetation effect on flood propagation parameters such as water depth (inundation), discharge, flow velocity, and sediment transport load is investigated in this study. Based on the obtained results, when the weed cutting percentage is increased, the flood wave depth decreases while flow discharge, velocity and sediment transport load increase. The proposed modelling system is used to evaluate and illustrate the flood hazard for different cutting riparian vegetation scenarios. For the estimation of flood hazard, a combination of the flood propagation characteristics of water depth, flow velocity and sediment load was used. Next, an optimal selection of the most appropriate agricultural cutting practices of riparian vegetation was performed. Ultimately, the model results obtained for different agricultural cutting practice scenarios can be employed to create flood protection measures for flood prone areas. The proposed methodology was applied to the downstream part of a small mediterranean river basin in Crete, Greece.

  4. A hydro-sedimentary modeling system for flash flood propagation and hazard estimation under different agricultural practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourgialas, N. N.; Karatzas, G. P.

    2014-03-01

    A modeling system for the estimation of flash flood flow velocity and sediment transport is developed in this study. The system comprises three components: (a) a modeling framework based on the hydrological model HSPF, (b) the hydrodynamic module of the hydraulic model MIKE 11 (quasi-2-D), and (c) the advection-dispersion module of MIKE 11 as a sediment transport model. An important parameter in hydraulic modeling is the Manning's coefficient, an indicator of the channel resistance which is directly dependent on riparian vegetation changes. Riparian vegetation's effect on flood propagation parameters such as water depth (inundation), discharge, flow velocity, and sediment transport load is investigated in this study. Based on the obtained results, when the weed-cutting percentage is increased, the flood wave depth decreases while flow discharge, velocity and sediment transport load increase. The proposed modeling system is used to evaluate and illustrate the flood hazard for different riparian vegetation cutting scenarios. For the estimation of flood hazard, a combination of the flood propagation characteristics of water depth, flow velocity and sediment load was used. Next, a well-balanced selection of the most appropriate agricultural cutting practices of riparian vegetation was performed. Ultimately, the model results obtained for different agricultural cutting practice scenarios can be employed to create flood protection measures for flood-prone areas. The proposed methodology was applied to the downstream part of a small Mediterranean river basin in Crete, Greece.

  5. Simulated crop yield in response to changes in climate and agricultural practices: results from a simple process based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldararu, S.; Smith, M. J.; Purves, D.; Emmott, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture will, in the future, be faced with two main challenges: climate change and an increase in global food demand driven by an increase in population and changes in consumption habits. To be able to predict both the impacts of changes in climate on crop yields and the changes in agricultural practices necessary to respond to such impacts we currently need to improve our understanding of crop responses to climate and the predictive capability of our models. Ideally, what we would have at our disposal is a modelling tool which, given certain climatic conditions and agricultural practices, can predict the growth pattern and final yield of any of the major crops across the globe. We present a simple, process-based crop growth model based on the assumption that plants allocate above- and below-ground biomass to maintain overall carbon optimality and that, to maintain this optimality, the reproductive stage begins at peak nitrogen uptake. The model includes responses to available light, water, temperature and carbon dioxide concentration as well as nitrogen fertilisation and irrigation. The model is data constrained at two sites, the Yaqui Valley, Mexico for wheat and the Southern Great Plains flux site for maize and soybean, using a robust combination of space-based vegetation data (including data from the MODIS and Landsat TM and ETM+ instruments), as well as ground-based biomass and yield measurements. We show a number of climate response scenarios, including increases in temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations as well as responses to irrigation and fertiliser application.

  6. Using social marketing to address barriers and motivators to agricultural safety and health best practices.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Aaron M; Murphy, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the "cons" or "costs" of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the "pros," "benefits," or "influencing factors" of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

  7. Use of multispectral Ikonos imagery for discriminating between conventional and conservation agricultural tillage practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vina, Andres; Peters, Albert J.; Ji, Lei

    2003-01-01

    There is a global concern about the increase in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One method being discussed to encourage greenhouse gas mitigation efforts is based on a trading system whereby carbon emitters can buy effective mitigation efforts from farmers implementing conservation tillage practices. These practices sequester carbon from the atmosphere, and such a trading system would require a low-cost and accurate method of verification. Remote sensing technology can offer such a verification technique. This paper is focused on the use of standard image processing procedures applied to a multispectral Ikonos image, to determine whether it is possible to validate that farmers have complied with agreements to implement conservation tillage practices. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed in order to isolate image variance in cropped fields. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) statistical procedures were used to evaluate the capability of each Ikonos band and each principal component to discriminate between conventional and conservation tillage practices. A logistic regression model was implemented on the principal component most effective in discriminating between conventional and conservation tillage, in order to produce a map of the probability of conventional tillage. The Ikonos imagery, in combination with ground-reference information, proved to be a useful tool for verification of conservation tillage practices.

  8. The Impact of Micro-Teaching on the Teaching Practice Performance of Undergraduate Agricultural Education Students in College of Education, Azare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa'ad, Tata Umar; Sabo, Shehu; Abdullahi, Aliyu Dahuwa

    2015-01-01

    Micro-teaching and teaching practices are two integral parts of teacher education programme. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of micro-teaching on the teaching practice of the undergraduate Agricultural Education Students admitted in 2012/2013 Academic session in College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. The 400 level…

  9. Identifying, monitoring and implementing "sustainable" agricultural practices for smallholder farmers over large geographic areas in India and Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.; Nair, D.; Esteves, T.; Rudek, J.; Thu Ha, T.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small-holder farms (size <1 acre) in Asia and Africa. Along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and tens of thousands of farming families, we have worked actively in five states in India and two provinces in Vietnam for the last five years to understand how sustainable and climate smart farming practices can be monitored at small-holder farms. Here, any approach to monitor farming must begin by accounting for the tremendous management variability from farm to farm and also the current inability to ground-truth remote sensing data due to lack of relaible basic parameters (e.g., yields, N use, farm boundaries) which are necessary for calibrating empirical/biogeochemical models. While we continue to learn from new research, we have found that it is crucial to follow some steps if sustainable farming programs are to succeed at small-holder farms Demographic data collection and GPS plot demarcation to establish farm size and ownership Baseline nutrient, water & energy use and crop yield determination via surveys and self-reporting which are verifiable through farmer networks given the importance of peer to peer learning in the dissemination of new techniques in such landscapes "Sustainable" practice determination in consultation with local universities/NGO experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or empirical equations and establish which practices are truly "sustainable" (e.g., GHG emission reduction varies from 0-7 tCO2e/acre for different sustainable practices). Propagation of sustainable practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments after analyzing the replicability of identified farming practices in the light of local financial, cultural or socio-political barriers. We will present results from representative plots (including soil and

  10. Acidification processes and soil leaching influenced by agricultural practices revealed by strontium isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine; Aquilina, Luc; Weyer, Christina; Molénat, Jérôme; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2009-08-01

    In natural river systems, the chemical and isotopic composition of stream- and ground waters are mainly controlled by the geology and water-rock interactions. The leaching of major cations from soils has been recognized as a possible consequence of acidic deposition from atmosphere for over 30 years. Moreover, in agricultural areas, the application of physiological acid fertilizers and nitrogen fertilizers in the ammonia form may enhance the cation leaching through the soil profile into ground- and surface waters. This origin of leached cations has been studied on two small and adjacent agricultural catchments in Brittany, western France. The study catchments are drained by two first-order streams, and mainly covered with cambisoils, issued from the alteration and weathering of a granodiorite basement. Precipitations, soil water- and NH 4 acetate-leachates, separated minerals, and stream waters have been investigated. Chemical element ratios, such as Ba/Sr, Na/Sr and Ca/Sr ratios, as well as Sr isotopic ratios are used to constrain the relative contribution from potential sources of stream water elements. Based on Sr isotopic ratio and element concentration, soil water- and NH 4 acetate leaching indicates (1) a dominant manure/slurry contribution in the top soil, representing a cation concentrated pool, with low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios; (2) in subsoils, mineral dissolution is enhanced by fertilizer application, becoming the unique source of cations in the saprolite. The relatively high weathering rates encountered implies significant sources of cations which are not accessory minerals, but rather plagioclase and biotite dissolution. Stream water has a very different isotopic and chemical composition compared to soil water leaching suggesting that stream water chemistry is dominated by elements issued from mineral and rock weathering. Agriculture, by applications of chemical and organic fertilizers, can influence the export of major base cations, such as Na +. Plagioclase

  11. Goose management schemes to resolve conflicts with agriculture: Theory, practice and effects.

    PubMed

    Eythórsson, Einar; Tombre, Ingunn M; Madsen, Jesper

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, the four countries hosting the Svalbard population of pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus along its flyway launched an International Species Management Plan for the population. One of the aims was to reduce conflicts between geese and agriculture to an acceptable level. Since 2006, Norway has offered subsidies to farmers that provide refuge areas for geese on their land. We evaluate the mid-Norwegian goose management subsidy scheme, with a view to its adjustment to prevailing ecological and socio-economic parameters. The analysis indicates that the legitimacy of the scheme is highly dependent on transparency of knowledge management and accountability of management scheme to the farming community. Among farmers, as well as front-line officials, outcomes of prioritisation processes within the scheme are judged unfair when there is an evident mismatch between payments and genuine damage. We suggest how the scheme can be made more fair and responsive to ecological changes, within a framework of adaptive management.

  12. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fattyacids,sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices such as seeding rate (SR), planting date (PD), and row-type (RT: single- and twin-rows) may alter seed nutrition in soybean. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of SR and PD on soybean seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and mineral...

  13. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to inves...

  14. Colorado's AgrAbility Project's Effects on KASA and Practice Changes with Agricultural Producers and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetsch, Robert J.; Jackman, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Disability rates resulting from work-related injuries remain steadily high among farmers and ranchers. To address the gap in services within this population, USDA implemented AgrAbility nationally. Using part of Bennett's hierarchical model, the current study evaluated the KASA and practice change levels of 401 farmers and ranchers and compared…

  15. Impact of Long Farm Working Hours on Child Safety Practices in Agricultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlenga, Barbara; Pahwa, Punam; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize working hours of adult farm owner-operators and their spouses by season, and to examine associations between working hours and farm safety practices affecting children. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data collected as part of an existing study of injury and its determinants.…

  16. Watershed basin management and agriculture practices: an application case for flooding areas in Piemonte.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, G.; Franzi, L.; Valvassore, U.

    2009-04-01

    Watershed basin management in Piemonte (Italy) is a challenging issue that forces the local Authorities to a careful land planning in the frame of a sustainable economy. Different and contrasting objectives should be taken into account and balanced in order to find the best or the most "reasonable" choice under many constraints. Frequently the need for flood risk reduction and the demand for economical exploitation of floodplain areas represent the most conflicting aspects that influence watershed management politics. Actually, flood plains have been the preferred places for socio-economical activities, due to the availability of water, fertility of soil and the easiness of agricultural soil exploitation. Sometimes the bed and planform profile adjustments of a river, as a consequence of natural processes, can impede some anthropogenic activities in agriculture, such as the erosion of areas used for crops, the impossibility of water diversion, the deposition of pollutants on the ground, with effects on the economy and on the social life of local communities. In these cases watershed basin management should either balance the opposite demands, as the protection of economic activities (that implies generally canalized rivers and levees construction) and the need of favouring the river morphological stability, allowing the flooding in the inundation areas. In the paper a case study in Piemonte region (Tortona irrigation district) is shown and discussed. The effects of the Scrivia river planform adjustment on water diversion and soil erodibility force the local community and the authority of the irrigation district to ask for flood protection and river bed excavation. A mathematical model is also applied to study the effects of local river channel excavation on flood risk. Some countermeasures are also suggested to properly balance the opposite needs in the frame of a watershed basin management.

  17. Spatial multiobjective optimization of agricultural conservation practices using a SWAT model and an evolutionary algorithm.

    PubMed

    Rabotyagov, Sergey; Campbell, Todd; Valcu, Adriana; Gassman, Philip; Jha, Manoj; Schilling, Keith; Wolter, Calvin; Kling, Catherine

    2012-12-09

    Finding the cost-efficient (i.e., lowest-cost) ways of targeting conservation practice investments for the achievement of specific water quality goals across the landscape is of primary importance in watershed management. Traditional economics methods of finding the lowest-cost solution in the watershed context (e.g.,(5,12,20)) assume that off-site impacts can be accurately described as a proportion of on-site pollution generated. Such approaches are unlikely to be representative of the actual pollution process in a watershed, where the impacts of polluting sources are often determined by complex biophysical processes. The use of modern physically-based, spatially distributed hydrologic simulation models allows for a greater degree of realism in terms of process representation but requires a development of a simulation-optimization framework where the model becomes an integral part of optimization. Evolutionary algorithms appear to be a particularly useful optimization tool, able to deal with the combinatorial nature of a watershed simulation-optimization problem and allowing the use of the full water quality model. Evolutionary algorithms treat a particular spatial allocation of conservation practices in a watershed as a candidate solution and utilize sets (populations) of candidate solutions iteratively applying stochastic operators of selection, recombination, and mutation to find improvements with respect to the optimization objectives. The optimization objectives in this case are to minimize nonpoint-source pollution in the watershed, simultaneously minimizing the cost of conservation practices. A recent and expanding set of research is attempting to use similar methods and integrates water quality models with broadly defined evolutionary optimization methods(3,4,9,10,13-15,17-19,22,23,25). In this application, we demonstrate a program which follows Rabotyagov et al.'s approach and integrates a modern and commonly used SWAT water quality model(7) with a

  18. Spatial Multiobjective Optimization of Agricultural Conservation Practices using a SWAT Model and an Evolutionary Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagov, Sergey; Campbell, Todd; Valcu, Adriana; Gassman, Philip; Jha, Manoj; Schilling, Keith; Wolter, Calvin; Kling, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Finding the cost-efficient (i.e., lowest-cost) ways of targeting conservation practice investments for the achievement of specific water quality goals across the landscape is of primary importance in watershed management. Traditional economics methods of finding the lowest-cost solution in the watershed context (e.g.,5,12,20) assume that off-site impacts can be accurately described as a proportion of on-site pollution generated. Such approaches are unlikely to be representative of the actual pollution process in a watershed, where the impacts of polluting sources are often determined by complex biophysical processes. The use of modern physically-based, spatially distributed hydrologic simulation models allows for a greater degree of realism in terms of process representation but requires a development of a simulation-optimization framework where the model becomes an integral part of optimization. Evolutionary algorithms appear to be a particularly useful optimization tool, able to deal with the combinatorial nature of a watershed simulation-optimization problem and allowing the use of the full water quality model. Evolutionary algorithms treat a particular spatial allocation of conservation practices in a watershed as a candidate solution and utilize sets (populations) of candidate solutions iteratively applying stochastic operators of selection, recombination, and mutation to find improvements with respect to the optimization objectives. The optimization objectives in this case are to minimize nonpoint-source pollution in the watershed, simultaneously minimizing the cost of conservation practices. A recent and expanding set of research is attempting to use similar methods and integrates water quality models with broadly defined evolutionary optimization methods3,4,9,10,13-15,17-19,22,23,25. In this application, we demonstrate a program which follows Rabotyagov et al.'s approach and integrates a modern and commonly used SWAT water quality model7 with a

  19. Conservation agriculture practices to enhance soil organic in Lombardy plain (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perego, Alessia; Giussani, Andrea; Corsi, Stefano; Tosini, Andrea; Acutis, Marco

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that conservation agriculture (CA) determines a long-term increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in cropland. The present study aimed to estimate the amount of SOC stored in soil of Lombardy plain (Northern Italy) following the change from tillage agriculture (TA) to CA by using crop ARMOSA crop over 23 years (1989-2011). The territorial analysis was performed at agrarian region scale (AR) after identification of the representative crops rotation and soil types. The land use information were data available at cadastral scale and referred to 5 years (from 2007 to 2011). The meteorological data (i.e. maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation) were measured at 14 monitoring stations. Solar radiation was estimated using the equation of the Bristow and Campbell model (1994). A spatial interpolation method was used to extend the meteorological data throughout the entire plain of the region by employing Thiessen polygon method; the meteorological data of the polygon were assigned to each AR. ARMOSA was parameterized to simulate the two tillage systems. For TA and CA scenario the depth of tillage was limited to 35 and 10 cm, respectively; crop residual incorporation was not simulated under CA. In TA scenario, we used the parameters calibrated and validated by Perego et al.(2013) on a wide dataset collected at six monitoring sites in Lombardy plain. In CA, the rate of C decomposition of humified organic C was assumed to be smaller by 30% in no-tillage than in TA (Oorts et al., 2007). The model results showed a significant improve of SOC (p<0.01) from TA to CA under all the crop rotations with a potential SOC sequestration ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 t C ha-1 y-1. While soil type did not affect significantly the SOC sequestration, crop residue determined relevant increases in SOC. That was particularly evident in grain maize monoculture with or without cover crop. References: Oorts K., Garnier P., Findeling A., Mary B., Richard G., Nicolardot B

  20. Mitigation scenario analysis: modelling the impacts of changes in agricultural management practices on surface water quality at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Sam; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Increasing human pressures on the natural environment through the demand for increased agricultural productivity have exacerbated and deteriorated water quality conditions within many environments due to an unbalancing of the nutrient cycle. As a consequence, increased agricultural diffuse water pollution has resulted in elevated concentrations of nutrients within surface water and groundwater bodies. This deterioration in water quality has direct consequences for the health of aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity, human health, and the use of water as a resource for public water supply and recreation. To mitigate these potential impacts and to meet commitments under the EU Drinking Water and Water Framework Directives, there is a need to improve our understanding of the impacts that agricultural land use and management practices have on water quality. Water quality models are one of the tools available which can be used to facilitate this aim. These simplified representations of the physical environment allow a variety of changes to be simulated within a catchment, including for example changes in agricultural land use and management practices, allowing for predictions of the impacts of those measures on water quality to be developed and an assessment to be made of their effectiveness in improving conditions. The aim of this research is to apply the water quality model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to the Wensum catchment (area 650 km2), situated in the East of England, to predict the impacts of potential changes in land use and land management practices on water quality as part of a process to select those measures that in combination will have the greatest potential to improve water quality. Model calibration and validation is conducted at three sites within the catchment against observations of river discharge and nitrate and total phosphorus loads at a monthly time-step using the optimisation algorithm SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Version 2

  1. High-Resolution Biogeochemical Simulation Identifies Practical Opportunities for Bioenergy Landscape Intensification Across Diverse US Agricultural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, J.; Adler, P. R.; Evans, S.; Paustian, K.; Marx, E.; Easter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The sustainability of biofuel expansion is strongly dependent on the environmental footprint of feedstock production, including both direct impacts within feedstock-producing areas and potential leakage effects due to disruption of existing food, feed, or fiber production. Assessing and minimizing these impacts requires novel methods compared to traditional supply chain lifecycle assessment. When properly validated and applied at appropriate spatial resolutions, biogeochemical process models are useful for simulating how the productivity and soil greenhouse gas fluxes of cultivating both conventional crops and advanced feedstock crops respond across gradients of land quality and management intensity. In this work we use the DayCent model to assess the biogeochemical impacts of agricultural residue collection, establishment of perennial grasses on marginal cropland or conservation easements, and intensification of existing cropping at high spatial resolution across several real-world case study landscapes in diverse US agricultural regions. We integrate the resulting estimates of productivity, soil carbon changes, and nitrous oxide emissions with crop production budgets and lifecycle inventories, and perform a basic optimization to generate landscape cost/GHG frontiers and determine the most practical opportunities for low-impact feedstock provisioning. The optimization is constrained to assess the minimum combined impacts of residue collection, land use change, and intensification of existing agriculture necessary for the landscape to supply a commercial-scale biorefinery while maintaining exiting food, feed, and fiber production levels. These techniques can be used to assess how different feedstock provisioning strategies perform on both economic and environmental criteria, and sensitivity of performance to environmental and land use factors. The included figure shows an example feedstock cost-GHG mitigation tradeoff frontier for a commercial-scale cellulosic

  2. Bee Abundance and Nutritional Status in Relation to Grassland Management Practices in an Agricultural Landscape.

    PubMed

    Smith, Griffin W; Debinski, Diane M; Scavo, Nicole A; Lange, Corey J; Delaney, John T; Moranz, Raymond A; Miller, James R; Engle, David M; Toth, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    Grasslands provide important resources for pollinators in agricultural landscapes. Managing grasslands with fire and grazing has the potential to benefit plant and pollinator communities, though there is uncertainty about the ideal approach. We examined the relationships among burning and grazing regimes, plant communities, and Bombus species and Apis mellifera L. abundance and nutritional indicators at the Grand River Grasslands in southern Iowa and northern Missouri. Treatment regimes included burn-only, grazed-and-burned, and patch-burn graze (pastures subdivided into three temporally distinct fire patches with free access by cattle). The premise of the experimental design was that patch-burn grazing would increase habitat heterogeneity, thereby providing more diverse and abundant floral resources for pollinators. We predicted that both bee abundance and individual bee nutritional indicators (bee size and lipid content) would be positively correlated with floral resource abundance. There were no significant differences among treatments with respect to bee abundance. However, some of the specific characteristics of the plant community showed significant relationships with bee response variables. Pastures with greater abundance of floral resources had greater bee abundance but lower bee nutritional indicators. Bee nutritional variables were positively correlated with vegetation height, but, in some cases, negatively correlated with stocking rate. These results suggest grassland site characteristics such as floral resource abundance and stocking rate are of potential importance to bee pollinators and suggest avenues for further research to untangle the complex interactions between grassland management, plant responses, and bee health.

  3. Health risk in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in central Mexico: perspectives for protection.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, E; Blumenthal, U; Ruiz-Palacios, G; Bennett, S; Quigley, M

    2000-01-01

    9,435 individuals participated in a cross-sectional survey in the irrigation districts of the Mezquital Valley (central Mexico). Exposure groups were: 848 households irrigating with untreated wastewater, 544 households irrigating with the effluent from a series of interconnected reservoirs, and 928 households farming with natural rainfall. The unit of analysis was the individual, and the health outcomes included diarrhoeal diseases and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. Water quality was assessed using faecal coliforms (FC) and nematode eggs, as suggested by (WHO, 1989) for the safe use of wastewater in agriculture. Children from households irrigating with untreated wastewater (10(8) FC/100 mL and 135 nematode eggs/L) had a 33% higher risk of diarrhoeal diseases and a fivefold increase in risk of A. lumbricoides infection (OR = 5.71) compared to children from the control group, farming with rainfall. The risk of A. lumbricoides infection in older individuals was even higher (OR = 13.18). The final analysis showed that drinking unboiled water and cultivating vegetables crops were both associated with a higher risk of diarrheal diseases (OR = 1.45 and 2.00); individuals infected with A. lumbricoides infection came mostly from landless households with poorer dwellings and low standards of sanitation (OR = 2.20, 2.23, 1.72 and 1.43, respectively). These results are discussed in the context of health protection measures and policy recommendations.

  4. Parasite control in the age of drug resistance and changing agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2009-08-07

    The benefits of using antiparasitic drugs in farm animals are unquestionable. However, despite anthelmintic use as the predominant control strategy, extreme parasite infection cases are appearing in sheep and goat production; these impact productivity and have show mortality rates reaching pre-drug use levels. This was a predictable situation resulting from the loss of efficacy by all available products, particularly when some products were used as the sole intervention. The concepts of agroecology and holistic agriculture, which advocate the use of integrated management strategies, such as target selected treatment, herbal medicine, and the application of other parasite control alternatives, are not completely new, but are undergoing a resurgence because of their more sustainable appeal. The objective of this review article is to examine the problem of parasite control in the face of parasite drug resistance and to outline some strategies that may be used in parasite control programmes. Before they are accepted and recommended by the WAAVP, agroecological methods such as those listed above and described in detail herein should be validated based on scientific evidence of their efficacy for parasite control and should be tested for both host and environmental safety.

  5. Best Management of Irrigation Fertilization to Sustain Environment and High yield of Maize in the Arid land in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameh Ali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Assiut is a county in the middle of Egypt,located 600 km south of the Mediterranean Sea. Water and fertilization management experimental trails were conducted to search for the best water consumption of Maize beside the best rate and type of nitrogen fertilization to reduce nitrate pollution and reduce fertilizer and save energy. Three irrigation regimes ( 25, 50, and 75% of soil moisture depletion of the available water, SMD) were used to irrigate Corn (Maize : Zea mays L. ) variety Tri hybrid cross. Three nitrogen fertilizer sources (Urea 46.5% N; Ammonium nitrate 33.5%N and slow release nitrogen 40%N) were applied at three rates of 90; 120 and 150 kg/ Feddan (4200m2 about one Acre). The results suggested that the best management is to use the slow release fertilizer at rate of 150 kg N/ Feddan (4200m2 ) with 50% SMD the highest Maize yield with good quality and reducing the environmental hazardous. Key words: Slow release fertilizer, Nitrogen leaching; Irrigation management. Environmental protection.

  6. Assessment of alternative land management practices using hydrological simulation and a decision support tool: Arborea agricultural region, Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cau, P.; Paniconi, C.

    2007-04-01

    Quantifying the impact of land use on water supply and quality is a primary focus of environmental management. In this work we apply a semidistributed hydrological model (SWAT) to predict the impact of different land management practices on water and agricultural chemical yield for a study site situated in the Arborea region of central Sardinia, Italy. The physical processes associated with water movement, crop growth, and nutrient cycling are directly modeled by SWAT. The model simulations are used to identify indicators that reflect critical processes related to the integrity and sustainability of the ecosystem. Specifically we focus on stream quality and quantity indicators associated with anthropogenic and natural sources of pollution. A multicriteria decision support system is then used to develop the analysis matrix where water quality and quantity indicators for the rivers, lagoons, and soil are combined with socio-economic variables. The DSS is used to assess four options involving alternative watersheds designated for intensive agriculture and dairy farming and the use or not of treated wastewater for irrigation.

  7. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

    PubMed

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic

  8. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Catherine M. G. C.; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars (‘Ariane’, ‘Melrose’ and ‘Smoothee’) managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the

  9. Influence of management practices on C stabilization pathways in agricultural volcanic ash soils (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Zulimar; María Álvarez, Ana; Carral, Pilar; de Figueiredo, Tomas; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    Although C stabilization mechanisms in agricultural soils are still controversial [1], a series of overlapped pathways has been suggested [2] such as: i) insolubilization of low molecular weight precursors of soil organic matter (SOM) with reactive minerals through physical and chemical bonding, ii) selective accumulation of biosynthetic substances which are recalcitrant because of its inherent chemical composition, and iii) preservation and furter diagenetic transformation of particulate SOM entrapped within resistant microaggregates, where diffusion of soil enzymes is largely hampered. In some environments where carbohydrate and N compounds are not readily biodegraded, e.g., with water saturated micropores, an ill-known C stabilization pathway may involve the formation of Maillard's reaction products [3]. In all cases, these pathways converge in the formation of recalcitrant macromolecular substances, sharing several properties with the humic acid (HA) fraction [4]. In template forests, the selective preservation and further microbial reworking of plant biomass has been identified as a prevailing mechanism in the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM forms [5]. However, in volcanic ash soils with intense organomineral interactions, condensation reactions of low molecular weight precursors with short-range minerals may be the main mechanism [6]. In order to shed some light about the effect of agricultural management on soil C stabilization processes on volcanic ash soils, the chemical composition of HA and some structural proxies of SOM informing on its origin and potential resistance to biodegradation, were examined in 30 soils from Canary Islands (Spain) by visible, infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, elementary analysis and pyrolytic techniques. The results of multivariate treatments, suggested at least three simultaneous C stabilization biogeochemical trends: i) diagenetic alteration of plant biomacromolecules in soils receiving

  10. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-05

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  11. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Alexander, Richard B.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J.; Robertson, Dale; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  12. Adoption potential of conservation agriculture practices in sub-Saharan Africa: results from five case studies.

    PubMed

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Schuler, Johannes; Uthes, Sandra; Zander, Peter; Traore, Karim; Gama, Mphatso-S; Nyagumbo, Isaiah; Triomphe, Bernard; Sieber, Stefan; Corbeels, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reported benefits of conservation agriculture (CA), its wider up-scaling in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remained fairly limited. This paper shows how a newly developed qualitative expert assessment approach for CA adoption (QAToCA) was applied to determine its adoption potential in SSA. CA adoption potential is not a predictor of observed adoption rates. Instead, our aim was to systematically check relevant factors that may be influencing its adoption. QAToCA delivers an assessment of how suitable conditions "and thus the likelihood for CA adoption" are. Results show that the high CA adoption potentials exhibited by the Malawi and Zambia case relate mostly to positive institutional factors. On the other hand, the low adoption potential of the Zimbabwe case, in spite of observed higher estimates, is attributed mainly to unstable and less secured market conditions for CA. In the case of Southern Burkina Faso, the potential for CA adoption is determined to be high, and this assessment deviates from lower observed figures. This is attributed mainly to strong competition of CA and livestock for residues in this region. Lastly, the high adoption potential found in Northern Burkina Faso is explained mainly by the fact that farmers here have no alternative other than to adopt the locally adapted CA system-Zaï farming. Results of this assessment should help promoters of CA in the given regions to reflect on their activities and to eventually adjust or redesign them based on a more explicit understanding of where problems and opportunities are found.

  13. Predictors of blood lead levels in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, E; Villanueva, J; Sanin, L H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether the agricultural use of untreated wastewater (i.e. crop irrigation) was associated with elevated blood lead levels in a farming population in the Mezquital Valley and which risk factors, other than exposure to untreated wastewater, were associated with elevated blood lead levels, lead levels were measured in venous blood obtained from 735 individuals. Blood samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Food habits and dietary intake were gathered by interview, using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The average blood lead level was 7.8 microg/dL (SD 4.66 microg/dL; range 1.2-36.7 microg/dL). 23% of the study population had blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dL. The use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) was significantly associated with elevated lead levels (p = < 0.001). Other significant variables included age, gender (males), and non-farming-related occupations (e.g., technicians, factory workers). p = 0.005, 0.08, and 0.001, respectively. When the analysis was stratified by the use of LGC for food preparation, an inverse relationship between higher daily calcium intake and blood lead level was detected (beta = - 0.040, p = < 0.05). Thus, blood lead levels were positively associated with the use of LGC. Calcium intake showed a protective effect, maybe by decreasing absorption of lead in the gastrointestinal tract. No association between occupational exposure to untreated wastewater or crop consumption and blood lead levels was detected. Further environmental and health surveillance is recommended.

  14. Adoption Potential of Conservation Agriculture Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa: Results from Five Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Schuler, Johannes; Uthes, Sandra; Zander, Peter; Traore, Karim; Gama, Mphatso-S.; Nyagumbo, Isaiah; Triomphe, Bernard; Sieber, Stefan; Corbeels, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reported benefits of conservation agriculture (CA), its wider up-scaling in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remained fairly limited. This paper shows how a newly developed qualitative expert assessment approach for CA adoption (QAToCA) was applied to determine its adoption potential in SSA. CA adoption potential is not a predictor of observed adoption rates. Instead, our aim was to systematically check relevant factors that may be influencing its adoption. QAToCA delivers an assessment of how suitable conditions "and thus the likelihood for CA adoption" are. Results show that the high CA adoption potentials exhibited by the Malawi and Zambia case relate mostly to positive institutional factors. On the other hand, the low adoption potential of the Zimbabwe case, in spite of observed higher estimates, is attributed mainly to unstable and less secured market conditions for CA. In the case of Southern Burkina Faso, the potential for CA adoption is determined to be high, and this assessment deviates from lower observed figures. This is attributed mainly to strong competition of CA and livestock for residues in this region. Lastly, the high adoption potential found in Northern Burkina Faso is explained mainly by the fact that farmers here have no alternative other than to adopt the locally adapted CA system—Zaï farming. Results of this assessment should help promoters of CA in the given regions to reflect on their activities and to eventually adjust or redesign them based on a more explicit understanding of where problems and opportunities are found.

  15. Patterns and processes of nutrient transfers from land to water: a catchment approach to evaluate Good Agricultural Practice in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, P.-E.; Melland, A. R.; Shortle, G.; Wall, D.; Mechan, S.; Buckley, C.; Fealy, R.; Jordan, P.

    2009-04-01

    grassland soils; areas where arable production represents a significant landuse; and catchments on productive and unproductive aquifers. The catchments were identified using a GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis with objective criteria that included landuse data (including agricultural and settlement statistics) combined with soils and geology data to evaluate the risk of P and N loss. Shortlisted catchments were then finalised using practical criteria based on the potential for hydrometry and hydrochemistry research. In each catchment, a conceptual model approach is being used to hypothesize the sources, seasonal mobilisation and pathways of nutrients and water through the soil/subsoil system and transfer into surface and ground water systems to stratify each catchment experimental design. Knowledge of the nutrient management of each catchment farm and resulting soil fertility will be used to monitor the sources of agricultural N and P. Environmental soil nutrient tests will provide baselines and checks on the potential for mobilisation. Areas of high soil fertility that are coincident with high surface or sub-surface hydrological connectivity will be monitored for subsequent nutrient transfer. Other potential nutrient source loads within the catchments, such as rural waste-water treatment plants and domestic septic systems, will be factored in as non-agricultural sources. Similarly, the potential for farmyard transfers will also be assessed. The net balance of nutrient transfer at the catchment outlets will be monitored using a high resolution method that is coincident with hydrometric measurements to ensure that there is a full understanding of the inter-dependence between point and diffuse nutrient transfers and hydrodynamics. This source to transfer approach is highly appropriate and a move towards inductive understanding of nutrient use and export in river catchments - the scale at which policies for water resources management will be assessed under the WFD. The

  16. Effects of Land Management Practices on Cold Region Hydrological Processes in an Agricultural Prairie Basin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, T. H.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.; Baulch, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation tillage including zero and reduced tillage, crop rotation and upstream reservoirs are commonly implemented as beneficial management practices (BMPs) in the Canadian Prairies. However, their effects are strongly dependent on interactions with cold region hydrological processes, such as wind redistribution of snow, snowmelt, infiltration to frozen soils and evaporation, due to strong coupling between land surface characteristics and hydrology. These interactions are poorly understood and few studies have investigated them using a physically-based modeling framework. In this study, we deploy a physically-based, semi-distributed cold regions hydrological model (CRHM) to investigate the impacts of land management practices in the South Tobacco Creek Basin (STC) which forms part of the Red River Basin in southern Manitoba, Canada. The STC (~73 km2) is set in a gently rolling landscape of low relief (~200 m). Detailed field data such as crop type, tillage practices, crop residue and planting and harvesting dates are available from 1995 and are used to parameterize the model. While the majority of parameters are specified a priori, we have manually calibrated roughness and initial soil water storage parameters to compare the simulations with runoff observations at multiple scales (upstream catchment, mid-basin gauge and outlet gauge) and snow observations during 2000-2001 water year. The calibrated model based on the 2000-2001 period is further evaluated over the 2001-2011 period, which includes high inter-annual variability. The results suggest good agreement between observations and simulations and provide insight into hydrological controls. Snowmelt runoff is a major contributor to streamflow while the contribution of summer rainfall runoff is highly variable. The evaporative fraction is high during dry years (2002-2004) indicating a vertical flux controlled mass balance while the runoff fraction dominates during wet years (2005-2011), suggesting overland

  17. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H. Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K.; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m-2. The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m-2), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions. PMID:25741347

  18. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K; Reddy, Krishna N

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m(-2). The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m(-2)), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions.

  19. Effects of agricultural practices and vadose zone stratigraphy on nitrate concentration in ground water in Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Townsend, M.A.; Sleezer, R.O.; Macko, S.A.; ,

    1996-01-01

    Differences in nitrate-N concentrations in,around water in Kansas can be explained by variations in agricultural practices and vadose-zone stratigraphy. In northwestern Kansas, past use of a local stream for tailwater runoff from irrigation and high fertilizer applications for sugar-beet farming resulted in high nitrate-N concentrations (12-60 mg L-1; in both soil and ground water. Nitrogen isotope values from the soil and ground water range from +4 to +8? which is typical for a fertilizer source. In parts of south-central Kansas, the use of crop rotation and the presence of both continuous fine-textured layers and a reducing ground-water chemistry resulted in ground-water nitrate-N values of 10 mg L-1; in both soil and grounwater. Nitrogen isotope values of +3 to +7? indicate a fertilizer source. Crop rotation decreased nitrate-N values in the shallow ground water (9 m). However, deeper ground water showed increasing nitrate-N concentrations as a result of past farming practices.

  20. Bioinformatics and the allergy assessment of agricultural biotechnology products: industry practices and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Cressman, Robert F; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Herman, Rod A; Privalle, Laura; Song, Ping; Ward, Jason M; McClain, Scott

    2011-06-01

    Bioinformatic tools are being increasingly utilized to evaluate the degree of similarity between a novel protein and known allergens within the context of a larger allergy safety assessment process. Importantly, bioinformatics is not a predictive analysis that can determine if a novel protein will ''become" an allergen, but rather a tool to assess whether the protein is a known allergen or is potentially cross-reactive with an existing allergen. Bioinformatic tools are key components of the 2009 CodexAlimentarius Commission's weight-of-evidence approach, which encompasses a variety of experimental approaches for an overall assessment of the allergenic potential of a novel protein. Bioinformatic search comparisons between novel protein sequences, as well as potential novel fusion sequences derived from the genome and transgene, and known allergens are required by all regulatory agencies that assess the safety of genetically modified (GM) products. The objective of this paper is to identify opportunities for consensus in the methods of applying bioinformatics and to outline differences that impact a consistent and reliable allergy safety assessment. The bioinformatic comparison process has some critical features, which are outlined in this paper. One of them is a curated, publicly available and well-managed database with known allergenic sequences. In this paper, the best practices, scientific value, and food safety implications of bioinformatic analyses, as they are applied to GM food crops are discussed. Recommendations for conducting bioinformatic analysis on novel food proteins for potential cross-reactivity to known allergens are also put forth.

  1. Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.): Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices.

    PubMed

    Ngo Ngwe, Marie Florence Sandrine; Omokolo, Denis Ndoumou; Joly, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) consist of approximately 600 species. Presently, these species are threatened by genetic erosion due to many factors such as pest attacks and farming practices. In parallel, complex taxonomic boundaries in this genus makes it more challenging to properly address the genetic diversity of yam and manage its germplasm. As a first step toward evaluating and preserving the genetic diversity yam species, we use a phylogenetic diversity (PD) approach that has the advantage to investigate phylogenetic relationships and test hypotheses of species monophyly while alleviating to the problem of ploidy variation within and among species. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 62 accessions from 7 species from three regions of Cameroon showed that most Dioscorea sections were monophyletic, but species within sections were generally non-monophyletic. The wild species D. praehensilis and cultivated D. cayenensis were the species with the highest PD. At the opposite, D. esculenta has a low PD and future studies should focus on this species to properly address its conservation status. We also show that wild species show a stronger genetic structure than cultivated species, which potentially reflects the management of the yam germplasm by farmers. These findings show that phylogenetic diversity is a promising approach for an initial investigation of genetic diversity in a crop consisting of closely related species.

  2. Using Microbial Source Tracking to Enhance Environmental Stewardship of Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sherry; Rose, Joan; Flood, Matthew; Aw, Tiong; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Large scale agriculture relies on the application of chemical fertilizers and animal manure. It is well known that nutrients in excess of a plant's uptake and soil retention capacity can travel to nearby waterways via surface run-off and groundwater pathways, indirectly fertilizing these aquatic ecosystems. It has not yet been possible to distinguish water quality impacts of fertilizer from those derived from human and animal waste sources. However, new microbial source tracking (MST) tools allow specific identification of fecal pollution. Our objective was to examine pollution risks at the regional scale using MST, mapping and classification and regression tree analysis. We present results Bovine M2 genetic marker data from three flow regimes (baseflow, snow melt, and post-planting rain). Key landscape characteristics were related to the presence of the bovine markers and appear to be related to fate and transport. Impacts at this regional watershed scale will be discussed. Our research aims to identify the impacts of agricultural management practices on water quality by linking nutrient concentrations with fecal pollution sources. We hope that our research will provide guidance that will help improve water quality through agricultural best management practices to reduce pathogen contamination.

  3. Environmentally-friendly agricultural practices and their acceptance by smallholder farmers in China-A case study in Xinxiang County, Henan Province.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liangguo; Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-15

    Intensive agriculture with high inputs has resulted in rapid development of crop production in China, accompanied by negative environmental effects such as serious non-point source agricultural pollution. Implementation of environmentally-friendly agricultural practices can effectively prevent such pollution. However, the acceptance and adoption of such practices are related not only to associated risks and potential benefits, but also to farmers' attitudes to and knowledge of scientifically validated practices. In the presented study we surveyed views of a stratified sample of 150 smallholder farmers and 10 extension service experts from Xinxiang, a high grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. Their opinions were explored in personal interviews using a questionnaire with three sections. The first section mainly sought information on surveyed farmers' demographic characteristics like gender, age and education. The second section concerned their awareness of the environmental problems and losses of yields associated with customary over-fertilization practices, and their main concerns about new practices. The third section addressed farmers' attitudes to, and the extension service experts' professional evaluations of, five selected practices in terms of the importance of seven factors (time demands, costs, risks, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability). Acceptance indices were calculated from the responses to rank farmers' willingness to accept the five environmentally-friendly agricultural practices, and thus identify the most appropriate to promote in the study area. The results show that costs, followed by risks and observability, are the more important factors affecting farmers' decisions to adopt a practice. The results also indicate that no or minimum tillage and returning straw to the field are the most appropriate practices to promote initially at large scale in Xinxiang. The others could be popularized gradually after providing

  4. Leaching of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Diverse Soils under Various Agricultural Management Practices

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Joel V.; Karns, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    Application of animal manures to soil as crop fertilizers is an important means for recycling the nitrogen and phosphorus which the manures contain. Animal manures also contain bacteria, including many types of pathogens. Manure pathogen levels depend on the source animal, the animal's state of health, and how the manure was stored or treated before use. Rainfall may result in pathogen spread into soil by runoff from stored or unincorporated manure or by leaching through the soil profile. Steady rainfall consisting of 16.5 mm h−1 was applied to 100-mm disturbed soil cores that were treated with manure and inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain B6914. The level of B6914 in leachate was near the inoculum level each hour for 8 h, as was the level of B6914 at several soil depths after 24 h, indicating that there was a high rate of growth. Bacterial movement through three different types of soil was then compared by using disturbed (tilled) and intact (no-till) soil cores and less intense rainfall consisting of 25.4 mm on 4 consecutive days and then four more times over a 17-day period. Total B6914 levels exceeded the inoculum levels for all treatments except intact clay loam cores. B6914 levels in daily leachate samples decreased sharply with time, although the levels were more constant when intact sandy loam cores were used. The presence of manure often increased total B6914 leachate and soil levels in intact cores but had the opposite effect on disturbed soil cores. Ammonia and nitrate levels correlated with B6914 and total coliform levels in leachate. We concluded that tillage practice, soil type, and method of pathogen delivery affect but do not prevent vertical E. coli O157:H7 and coliform transport in soil and that soluble nitrogen may enhance transport. PMID:10698745

  5. Effects of agricultural land-management practices on water quality in northeastern Guilford County, North Carolina, 1985-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of different agricultural land- management practices on sediment, nutrients, and selected pesticides in surface water, and on nutrients and pesticides in ground water were studied in four small basins in the Piedmont of North Carolina. The basins included two adjacent basins in row-crop fields, a mixed land-use basin, and a forested basin. One of the row-crop fields was farmed using conservation land-management practices, including strip cropping, contour plowing, field borders, and grassed waterways. The other field was farmed using standard land- management practices, including continuous cropping, straight-row plowing, and ungrassed waterways. The sediment yield for the standard land-management basin was 2.3 times that for the conservation land-management basin, 14.1 times that for the mixed land-use basin, and 19.5 times that for the forested basin. Nutrient concentra- tions in surface water from the row-crop and mixed land-use basins were higher than those in surface water for the forested basin. Nutrient concentra- tions in soil water and ground water beneath the row-crop basins were lower than those in surface- water runoff for these basins. The lowest nutrient concentrations measured in the row-crop basins generally were in soil-water samples collected just below the root zone (3-foot depth) and in ground water. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were identified between the surface-water runoff from the standard land- management basin and that from the conservation land-management basin. Concentrations of the soil pesticides isopropalin and flumetralin were higher in the standard land-management basin than in the conservation land-management basin.

  6. Effects of agricultural land-management practices on water quality in northeastern Guilford County, North Carolina, 1985-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of selected agricultural land-management practices on water quality were assessed in a comparative study of four small basins in the Piedmont province of North Carolina. Agricultural practices, such as tillage and applications of fertilizer and pesticides, are major sources of sediment, nutrients, and pesticides in surface water, and of nutrients and pesticides in ground water. The four study basins included two adjacent row-crop fields, a mixed land-use basin, and a forested basin. One of the row-crop fields (7.4 acres) was farmed by using conservation land-management (CLM) practices, which included strip cropping, contour plowing, field borders, and grassed waterways. The other row-crop field (4.8 acres) was farmed by using standard land-management (SLM) practices, which included continuous cropping, straight-row plowing without regard to land topography, and poorly maintained waterways. The mixed land-use basin (665 acres) was monitored to compare water quality in surface water as SLM practices were converted to CLM practices during the project. The forested basin (44 acres) provided background surface-water hydrologic and chemical-quality conditions. Surface-water flow was reduced by 18 percent by CLM practices compared to surface-water flow from the SLM practices basin. The thickness of the unsaturated zone in the row-crop basins ranged from a few feet to 25 feet. Areas with thick unsaturated zones have a greater capacity to intercept and store nutrients and pesticides than do areas with thinner zones. Sediment concentrations and yields for the SLM practices basin were considerably higher than those for the other basins. The median sediment concentration in surface water for the SLM basin was 3.4 times that of the CLM basin, 8.2 times that of the mixed land-use basin, and 38.4 times that of the forested basin. The total sediment yield for the SLM basin was 2.3 times that observed for the CLM basin, 14.1 times that observed for the mixed land

  7. Water quality impact assessment of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) simulated for a regional catchment in Quebec, Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Alain N.; Hallema, Dennis W.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Savary, Stéphane; Hould Gosselin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Water quality has become a matter of increasing concern over the past four decades as a result of the intensification of agriculture, and more particularly so in Canada where agriculture has evolved into the largest non-point source of surface water pollution. The Canadian WEBs project (Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices, BMPs) was initiated in order to determine the efficiency of BMPs in improving the surface water quality of rural catchments, and the economic aspects related to their implementation on the same scale. In this contribution we use the integrated watershed modelling platform GIBSI (Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé) to evaluate the effects of various BMPs on sediment and nutrient yields and, in close relation to this, the surface water quality for the Beaurivage River catchment (718 km2) in Quebec, eastern Canada. A base scenario of the catchment is developed by calibrating the different models of the GIBSI platform, namely HYDROTEL for hydrology, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) for soil erosion, the Erosion-Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for contaminant transport and fate, and QUAL2E for stream water quality. Four BMPs were analysed: (1) vegetated riparian buffer strips, (2) precision slurry application, (3) transition of all cereal and corn fields to grassland (grassland conversion), and (4) no-tillage on corn fields. Simulations suggest that riparian buffer strips and grassland conversion are more effective in terms of phosphorus, nitrogen and sediment load reduction than precision slurry application and no-tillage on corn fields. The results furthermore indicate the need for a more profound understanding of sediment dynamics in streams and on riparian buffer strips.

  8. Implications of leading crop production practices on environmental quality and human health.

    PubMed

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Teboh, Jasper M; Eze, Peter N; Stietiya, M Hashem; Kumar, Vipan; Hendrix, James; Mascagni, Henry J; Ying, Teng; Kandakji, Tarek

    2015-03-15

    Globally, much weight is currently being placed on agriculture to provide food for the growing population as well as feedstock for the bioenergy industry. Unfortunately, the intensification of agricultural operations to satisfy these growing needs has been associated with a number of environmental and human health risks. A review of publications on the subject was conducted and emphasis was placed on articles focusing on agriculture, environment, and public health as well as their interactions. Supporting information was also gathered from publications of various agricultural and environmental agencies. Agricultural practices with potential negative implications on the environment and human health were identified broadly as: (a) utilization of biosolids and animal manures, (b) use of agricultural chemicals, (c) management of post-harvest residue, (d) irrigation, and (e) tillage operations. Soil, water, and air contamination by nutrients, heavy metals, pathogens, and pesticides, as well as air contamination by particulate matters, noxious gases, and pathogens were among the leading environmental impacts. Some of the human-health impacts identified included neurological and reproductive defects, cardiovascular risks, cancers and other diseases (of kidney, liver, lung, and skin), skin allergies, gastroenteritis, and methemoglobinemia. Continual awareness on the impacts of the reviewed agricultural practices on environmental quality and human health and the implementation of experimentally-backed best management practices in agricultural systems remain indispensable.

  9. Proceedings of the "Arthritis, Agriculture, and Rural Life: state of the art research, practices, and applications" conference, West Lafayette, Indiana, May 11-13, 2011.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kathryn E; Field, William E

    2011-10-01

    This article presents proceedings of the first national conference to assemble professionals to address the issue of arthritis in agriculture. The "Arthritis, Agriculture, and Rural Life: State of the Art Research, Practices, and Applications" conference, May 11-13, 2011, at the Purdue University Beck Agricultural Center in West Lafayette, Indiana, focused on increasing awareness and education in the prevention, effects, care, and treatment of arthritis specific to farmers. Presentations included a contextualizing keynote and sessions addressing the prevention and treatment of arthritis in agriculture, including topics such as traditional arthritis therapies, alternative treatments, assistive technology, and ergonomic techniques and modifications. Participants discussed particular issues on a field trip to several Purdue University research farms addressing ergonomics. The conference concluded with a farmer panel, where attendees heard personal stories from farmers suffering from the effects of arthritis.

  10. Mining Information form a Coupled Air Quality Model to Examine the Impacts of Agricultural Management Practices on Air and Groundwater Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attributing nitrogen (N) in the environment to emissions from agricultural management practices is difficult because of the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with N and its cascading effects across land, air and water. Such analyses are criti...

  11. Lead in Urban Soils: A Real or Perceived Concern for Urban Agriculture?

    PubMed

    Brown, Sally L; Chaney, Rufus L; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M

    2016-01-01

    Urban agriculture is growing in cities across the United States. It has the potential to provide multiple benefits, including increased food security. Concerns about soil contamination in urban areas can be an impediment to urban agriculture. Lead is the most common contaminant in urban areas. In this paper, direct (soil ingestion via outdoor and indoor exposure) and indirect (consumption of food grown in Pb-contaminated soils) exposure pathways are reviewed. It is highly unlikely that urban agriculture will increase incidences of elevated blood Pb for children in urban areas. This is due to the high likelihood that agriculture will improve soils in urban areas, resulting in reduced bioavailability of soil Pb and reduced fugitive dust. Plant uptake of Pb is also typically very low. The exceptions are low-growing leafy crops where soil-splash particle contamination is more likely and expanded hypocotyl root vegetables (e.g., carrot). However, even with higher bioaccumulation factors, it is not clear that the Pb in root vegetables or any other crops will be absorbed after eating. Studies have shown limited absorption of Pb when ingested with food. Best management practices to assure minimal potential for exposure are also common practices in urban gardens. These include the use of residuals-based composts and soil amendments and attention to keeping soil out of homes. This review suggests that benefits associated with urban agriculture far outweigh any risks posed by elevated soil Pb.

  12. Modeling the effects of irrigation frequencies, initial water and nitrogen on corn yield responses for best management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competing demands for fresh water resources necessitate adaptation of limited water irrigations in agriculture. In this context, the Crop Water Production Functions (CWPF) used in limited water irrigation management need to integrate the effects of climate, initial soil water content at planting, an...

  13. [Reduction effects of agricultural management practices on non-point source pollution in a watershed in Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-Lin; Tian, Yao-Wu; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Liu, Zhi-Yan

    2010-06-01

    Taking a typical watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) as test object, the AnnAGNPS model was used to evaluate the reduction effects of different cropping, different fertilization level, conservation tillage practice (CTP), conservation reserve program (CRP), and conversion of cropland into forestland program (CCFP) on the output of agricultural non-point source pollution (NPS) in the watershed. The simulation results showed that different cropping had no significant difference in the effect of reducing sediment yield, but had significant difference in the effect of reducing phosphorus output. Fertilization level had significant effects on the outputs of total nitrogen and total phosphorus. CTP decreased the sediment yield significantly but increased the nutrient output. CRP reduced sediment yield, but had less effect in reducing nutrient output. CCFP reduced both sediment yield and nutrient output significantly. After the implementation of CCFP, the sediment yield output on the croplands with a slope greater than 10 degrees was less than 5 t x hm(-2) and the nutrient output was within the permissible limit.

  14. Escherichia coli Reduction by Bivalves in an Impaired River Impacted by Agricultural Land Use.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Niveen S; Tommerdahl, Jake P; Boehm, Alexandria B; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-10-18

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are leading causes of impaired surface waters. Innovative and environmentally appropriate best management practices are needed to reduce FIB concentrations and associated risk. This study examines the ability of the native freshwater mussel Anodonta californiensis and an invasive freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea to reduce concentrations of the FIB Escherichia coli in natural waters. Laboratory batch experiments were used to show bivalve species-specific E. coli removal capabilities and to develop a relationship between bivalve size and clearance rates. A field survey within an impaired coastal river containing both species of bivalves in an agricultural- and grazing-dominated area of the central coast of California showed a significant inverse correlation between E. coli concentration and bivalve density. An in situ field spiking and sampling study showed filtration by freshwater bivalves resulting in 1-1.5 log10 reduction of E. coli over 24 h, and calculated clearance rates ranged from 1.2 to 7.4 L hr(-1) bivalve(-1). Results of this study show the importance of freshwater bivalves for improving water quality through the removal of E. coli. While both native and invasive bivalves can reduce E. coli levels, the use of native bivalves through integration into best management practices is recommended as a way to improve water quality and protect and encourage re-establishment of native bivalve species that are in decline.

  15. Agriculture: Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  16. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  17. A specialist-generalist classification of the arable flora and its response to changes in agricultural practices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    developed in stable environments are valid in highly disturbed environments such as agro-ecosystems. The approach developed here to classify arable weeds according to the breadth of their ecological niche is robust and applicable to a wide range of organisms. It is also sensitive to disturbance regime and we show here that recent changes in agricultural practices, i.e. increased levels of disturbance have favoured the most generalist species, hence leading to biotic homogenisation in arable landscapes. PMID:20809982

  18. Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patricia D.; Gano, Kelsey A.; Davis-Richardson, Austin; Fagen, Jennie R.; Brown, Christopher T.; Giongo, Adriana; Drew, Jennifer C.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Arp, Dan J.; Camargo, Flavio A. O.; Daroub, Samira H.; Clark, Ian M.; McGrath, Steve P.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Triplett, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural land management, such as fertilization, liming, and tillage affects soil properties, including pH, organic matter content, nitrification rates, and the microbial community. Three different study sites were used to identify microorganisms that correlate with agricultural land use and to determine which factors regulate the relative abundance of the microbial signatures of the agricultural land-use. The three sites included in this study are the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA, and the Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan, USA. The effects of agricultural management on the abundance and diversity of bacteria and archaea were determined using high throughput, barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, the relative abundance of these organisms was correlated with soil features. Two groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle were highly correlated with land use at all three sites. The ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by Ca. Nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agriculture while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management. Analysis of successional plots showed that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing-archaea declined and the abundance of bradyrhizobia increased with time away from agriculture. This observation suggests that the effect of agriculture on the relative abundance of these genera is reversible. Soil pH and NH3 concentrations were positively correlated with archaeal abundance but negatively correlated with the abundance of Bradyrhizobium. The high correlations of Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium abundances with agricultural management at three long-term experiments with different edaphoclimatic conditions allowed us to suggest these two genera as signature microorganisms for agricultural land use. PMID:23641242

  19. Nitrogen loadings and environmental impacts in rice agriculture catchments in subtropical central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The severe deterioration of water quality in rice agriculture catchments challenges ecologists and hydrologists in exploring how rice agriculture affects nutrient loadings and water quality. This research observed the nitrogen (N) concentrations in stream water and groundwater in one forest and five rice agriculture catchments in subtropical central China to quantify the relationships between rice agriculture intensification, water quality of water bodies, and catchment N loadings. Our results indicate that intensive rice agriculture deteriorated stream water quality. A non-linear fitting analysis using a Boltzmann sigmoid function suggests that the concentrations and mass fluxes of ammonium-N (NH4+-N), nitrate-N (NO3--N), and total N (TN) in stream water increase with the areal proportion of rice agriculture in the catchments; however, these increases can only be detected when the areal proportions of rice agriculture in the catchments are greater than 13-30%, highlighting the importance of reasonable land use planning for managing stream water quality as well as N loadings from catchments. The factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) also suggests that rice agriculture has a potential to impose groundwater NH4+-N pollution, particularly in the soil exhausting season of July - October. And, the great N fertilizer application rates for rice cropping can increase the groundwater NO3-N and TN concentrations due to large quantities of N leaching into groundwater system beneath the paddy fields. The high N concentrations in groundwater result in strong N loadings via the base flow process. The NO3--N loadings via the base flow reaches 0.12-0.27 kg N ha-1 month-1 in the rice agriculture catchments, contributing 27.3%-36.5% of the total NO3--N loadings by the stream discharge. Therefore, the best management practices for N reduction and the smart land use planning should be applied in the rice agriculture catchments to improve water quality and mitigate N loadings.

  20. Edge-of-field research to quantify the impacts of agricultural practices on water quality in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage is needed to sustain agricultural production to meet the demands of a growing global population, but it also transports nutrients from fields to surface water bodies. The State of Ohio is facing the tremendous challenge of maintaining agricultural production while protecting the environment...

  1. From Best Practice to Best Fit: A Framework for Designing and Analyzing Pluralistic Agricultural Advisory Services Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birner, Regina; Davis, Kristin; Pender, John; Nkonya, Ephraim; Anandajayasekeram, Ponniah; Ekboir, Javier; Mbabu, Adiel; Spielman, David J.; Horna, Daniela; Benin, Samuel; Cohen, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The article provides a conceptual framework and discusses research methods for analyzing pluralistic agricultural advisory services. The framework can also assist policy-makers in identifying reform options. It addresses the following question: Which forms of providing and financing agricultural advisory services work best in which situation? The…

  2. Reducing sedimentation of depressional wetlands in agricultural landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skagen, S.K.; Melcher, C.P.; Haukos, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Depressional wetlands in agricultural landscapes are easily degraded by sediments and contaminants accumulated from their watersheds. Several best management practices can reduce transport of sediments into wetlands, including the establishment of vegetative buffers. We summarize the sources, transport dynamics, and effect of sediments, nutrients, and contaminants that threaten wetlands and the current knowledge of design and usefulness of grass buffers for protecting isolated wetlands. Buffer effectiveness is dependent on several factors, including vegetation structure, buffer width, attributes of the surrounding watershed (i.e., area, vegetative cover, slope and topography, soil type and structure, soil moisture, amount of herbicides and pesticides applied), and intensity and duration of rain events. To reduce dissolved contaminants from runoff, the water must infiltrate the soil where microbes or other processes can break down or sequester contaminants. But increasing infiltration also diminishes total water volume entering a wetland, which presents threats to wetland hydrology in semi-arid regions. Buffer effectiveness may be enhanced significantly by implementing other best management practices (e.g., conservation tillage, balancing input with nutrient requirements for livestock and crops, precision application of chemicals) in the surrounding watershed to diminish soil erosion and associated contaminant runoff. Buffers require regular maintenance to remove sediment build-up and replace damaged or over-mature vegetation. Further research is needed to establish guidelines for effective buffer width and structure, and such efforts should entail a coordinated, regional, multi-scale, multidisciplinary approach to evaluate buffer effectiveness and impacts. Direct measures in "real-world" systems and field validations of buffer-effectiveness models are crucial next steps in evaluating how grass buffers will impact the abiotic and biotic variables attributes that

  3. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  4. Phosphorus and groundwater: Establishing links between agricultural use and transport to streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Johnson, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Leaching of applied fertilizer and surface runoff of phosphorus from the soil can contribute to excess growth of algae in downstream water bodies, a condition known as eutrophication. Excessive amounts of algae in eutrophic water bodies can cause large daily changes in the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water because oxygen concentrations tend to be high during daylight hours as a result of photosynthetic activity but then decrease at night. Low concentrations of dissolved oxygen can stress or kill sensitive species living in the water. This study examined concentrations and movement of phosphorus in the soils and groundwater in five agricultural settings across the United States characterized by differences in soil geochemistry, climate, irrigation usage, and cropping systems to assess potential phosphorus movement in the soil and groundwater under common agricultural conditions. The study design included assessment of a variety of agricultural practices, especially cropping patterns and irrigation, so that the factors that contribute to phosphorus movement to groundwater, or sequestration of the phosphorus to soil could be compared and examined. This type of information could potentially be used to formulate best management practices to limit the transport of phosphorus from the agricultural fields.

  5. Mining Environmental Data from a Coupled Modelling System to Examine the Impact of Agricultural Management Practices on Groundwater and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.; Hayes, B.; Murphy, M. S.; Bash, J. O.

    2014-12-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) resulting from current agricultural management practices can leach into sources of drinking water as nitrate, increasing human health risks of 'blue baby syndrome', hypertension, and some cancers and birth defects. Nitrogen also enters the atmosphere from land surfaces forming air pollution increasing human health risks of pulmonary and cardio-vascular disease. Characterizing and attributing nitrogen from agricultural management practices is difficult due to the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with the nitrogen cascade. Coupled physical process-based models, however, present new opportunities to investigate relationships among environmental variables on new scales; particularly because they link emission sources with meteorology and the pollutant concentration ultimately found in the environment. In this study, we applied a coupled meteorology (NOAA-WRF), agricultural (USDA-EPIC) and air quality modelling system (EPA-CMAQ) to examine the impact of nitrogen inputs from corn production on ecosystem and human health and wellbeing. The coupled system accounts for the nitrogen flux between the land surface and air, and the soil surface and groundwater, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effect of management practices such as type and timing of fertilization, tilling and irrigation on both groundwater and air quality across the conterminous US. In conducting the study, we first determined expected relationships based on literature searches and then identified model variables as direct or surrogate variables. We performed extensive and methodical multi-variate regression modelling and variable selection to examine associations between agricultural management practices and environmental condition. We then applied the regression model to predict and contrast pollution levels between two corn production scenarios (Figure 1). Finally, we applied published health functions (e.g., spina bifida and cardio

  6. Drivers Impacting the Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Management Practices and Production Systems of the Northeast and Southeast U.S

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production responds to economic, social, environmental, and technological drivers operating both internal and external to the production system. These drivers influence producers’ decision making processes, and act to shape the individual production systems through modification of produ...

  7. Impact of intensive agricultural practices on drinking water quality in the Evros region (NE Greece) by GIS analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, C; Mandalos, P; Vantarakis, A

    2008-08-01

    Chemical fertilizers are used extensively in modern agriculture, in order to improve yield and productivity of agricultural products. However, nutrient leaching from agricultural soil into groundwater resources poses a major environmental and public health concern. The Evros region is one of the largest agricultural areas in Northern Greece, extending over 1.5 million acres of cultivated land. Many of its drinking water resources are of groundwater origin and lie within agricultural areas. In order to assess the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking water quality in this region, tap-water samples from 64 different locations were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrates (NO(3)(-)), nitrites (NO(2)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) and phosphate (PO(4)(-3)). These chemicals were selected based on the information that ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and inorganic phosphate were the primary fertilizers used in local crop production. NO(3)(-), SO(4)(-2) and PO(4)(-3) levels exceeding accepted values were recorded in 6.25, 4.70 and 9.38% of all sampling points, respectively. NO(2)(-) and NH(4)(+) concentrations, on the other hand, were inside the permitted range. The data generated were introduced into a geographic information system (GIS) program for computer analysis and projection maps representing afflicted areas were created. Our results indicate a profound geographic correlation in the surface distribution of primary contaminants in areas of intensified agricultural production. Thus, drinking water pollution in these areas can be attributed to excessive fertilizer use from agricultural sources.

  8. Remote Sensing of Wetland Hydrology: Implications for Water Quality Management in Agricultural Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the substantial effect of agriculture on the ability of wetlands to function, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) serves a key role in wetland conservation and restoration. In order for the USDA to allocate funds to best manage wetlands, a better understanding of wetland functioning is ...

  9. Effect of Tillage and Non-tillage Agricultural Practice on Nitrogen Losses as NO and N2O in Tropical Corn Fields at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquina, S.; Rojas, A.; Donoso, L.; Rasse, R.; Giuliante, A.; Corona, O.; Perez, T.

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of agricultural practices on NO and N2O emissions from corn fields at Northern Guárico, one of Venezuelan largest cereal production regions. Historically, the most common agricultural practice in these regions has been mono cropping. Tillage (T) and non-tillage (NT) of soils represent approximately 30 and 70% of the planted area, respectively. Comparative studies of the nitrogen losses associated with these agricultural practices are not available for these regions. This study was conducted at the farm "Tierra Nueva", Guárico State (9° 23' 33'' N, 66° 38' 30'' W) in two corn fields under tillage and non-tillage agricultural practice during the growing season (June-August 2006). A dry tropical forest, the primary ecosystem of the region, was evaluated for the same period of time. The corn and the forest fields were adjacent; therefore, they were exposed to the same meteorological conditions. The mean annual precipitation of the area is 622±97.3 mm (last 5 years). The soils are Vertisols (Typic Haplusterts). Nutrient soil concentrations (as nitrate and ammonium), water soil content and pH soil were measured in the fields for the same period of time. Soils were fertilized and planted simultaneously by a planting machine provided with a furrow opener where the fertilizer and seeds are incorporated between 0-10 cm depths. Tillage soils were fertilized on June 1st 2006 with 65 kgN/ha of NPK (13:18:16/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl), whereas non-tillage soils were fertilized the next day with 56 kgN/ha of NPK (12:25:12/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl). Second fertilization of both fields was done thirty-seven days later by broadcast adding 58 kgN/ha approximately, using nitrophosphate as fertilizer (NP 33-3: 33% N total; 16.7% N- NO3- and 16.6% N- NH4+). In general, NO and N2O soil emissions from both corn fields increased after fertilization events, and depend on water soil content and nutrient soil concentration. N2O soil emissions were 11 and 9 times larger in

  10. A short-term assessment of carbon dioxide fluxes under contrasting agricultural and soil management practices in Zimbabwe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two of the biggest problems facing humankind are feeding an exponentially growing human population and preventing the negative effects of climate change from record concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture could address both of these problems. For example, tillage and cover...

  11. The Chasm between Beliefs and Practice: A Case Study of the Epistemological Positions of Pre-Service Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Richie; Baker, Marshall A.; Goossen, Carmelita E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends in epistemological research suggest that teachers' epistemological beliefs influence the approaches he or she employs in both teaching and learning. Therefore, the purpose of this instrumental case study was to understand the initial epistemological positions of pre-service agricultural education teachers at Oklahoma State…

  12. Evaluation of Management Practices to Mitigate Pesticide Transport and Ecological Risk of Runoff from Agricultural and Turf Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly managed biotic systems such as agricultural crops and golf courses often require multiple applications of pesticides that may be transported with runoff to surrounding surface waters. Pesticides have been detected in surface waters of rural and urban watersheds invoking concern of their sour...

  13. Reforming agricultural nonpoint pollution policy in an increasingly budget-constrained environment.

    PubMed

    Shortle, James S; Ribaudo, Marc; Horan, Richard D; Blandford, David

    2012-02-07

    Agricultural nonpoint source water pollution has long been recognized as an important contributor to U.S. water quality problems and the subject of an array of local, state, and federal initiatives to reduce the problem. A "pay-the-polluter" approach to getting farmers to adopt best management practices has not succeeded in improving water quality in many impaired watersheds. With the prospects of reduced funding for the types of financial and technical assistance programs that have been the mainstay of agricultural water quality policy, alternative approaches need to be considered. Some changes to the way current conservation programs are implemented could increase their efficiency, but there are limits to how effective a purely voluntary approach can be. An alternative paradigm is the "polluter pays" approach, which has been successfully employed to reduce point source pollution. A wholesale implementation of the polluter-pays approach to agriculture is likely infeasible, but elements of the polluter-pays approach could be incorporated into agricultural water quality policy.

  14. Stormwater ponds, constructed wetlands, and other best management practices as potential breeding sites for West Nile virus vectors in Delaware during 2004.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Jack B; Anderson, Robert D; Williams, Gregory M; O'Connor, Linda; Harkins, Kevin

    2006-06-01

    We performed longitudinal surveys of mosquito larval abundance (mean mosquito larvae per dip) in 87 stormwater ponds and constructed wetland in Delaware from June to September 2004. We analyzed selected water quality factors, water depth, types of vegetation, degree of shade, and level of insect predation in relation to mosquito abundance. The 2004 season was atypical, with most ponds remaining wet for the entire summer. In terms of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors, wetlands predominantly produce Aedes vexans, culex pipiens pipiens, and Culex restuans. Retention ponds generally produced the same species as wetlands, except that Cx. p. pipiens was more abundant than Cx. restuans in retention ponds. Aedes vexans and Culex salinarius were the most abundant species to Conservation Restoration Enhancement Program ponds. Sand filters uniquely produced high numbers of Cx. restuans, Cx. p. pipiens, and Aedes japonicus japonicus, a newly invasive vector species. Site that alternately dried and flooded, mostly detention ponds, forebays of retention ponds, and some wetlands often produced Ae. vexans, an occasional WNV bridge vector species. Overall, seasonal distribution of vectors was bimodal, with peaks occurring during early and late summer. Ponds with shallow sides and heavy shade generally produced an abundance of mosquitoes, unless insect predators were abundant. Bright, sunny ponds with steep sides and little vegetation generally produced the fewest mosquitoes. The associations among mosquito species and selected vegetation types are discussed.

  15. Best Management Practices to Prevent and Control Hydrogen Sulfide and Reduced Sulfur Compound Emissions at Landfills That Dispose of Gypsum Drywall

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas can be emitted from both construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. H2S emissions may be problematic at a landfill as they can cause odor, impact surrounding communities, cause wear or dama...

  16. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water With High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program: Best Management Practice Case Study #6 - Toilets and Urinals (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding, successful sustainability program that focuses on energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. Because MSFC was built in the 1960s, most of the buildings house outdated, inefficient restroom fixtures. The facility engineering team at MSFC developed an innovative efficiency model for replacing these older toilets and urinals.

  17. Best management practices plan for installation of and monitoring at temporary Weirs at NT-4, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the installation of temporary weirs at NT-4 is to collect empirical surface water discharge data for the tributary during baseflow conditions and following rainfall events, during the spring and summer of 1997 in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Alternatives Evaluation project. The duration of surface-water monitoring activities is not planned to exceed 6 months. A minimum of four temporary weirs will be installed along the length of NT-4 in the locations indicated on Attachment A. The design specifications and locations for the weirs will be provided by the DOE prime contractor for the Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Alternatives Evaluation project. The weirs will be fabricated by the Y-12 labor forces of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES). The Environmental Compliance Organization (ECO) of LMES will perform data collection in addition to weir installation, inspection, maintenance, and removal. Flow meters that collect data at five minute intervals will be installed on each weir and visual measurements using staff gauges mounted on each weir will also be performed.

  18. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant site is currently under a Federal Facilities Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is underway to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, a treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top level command medium for Phase II and as such will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred within this document can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP). Section 1 describes the results of Phase I efforts. Section 2 describes the objectives of Phase II. Section 3 provides details of field testing. Section 4 addresses the HASP. Section 5 describes the SAP. Section 6 introduces the WMP. Environmental compliance issues are discussed in Section 7, and sediment and erosion control is addressed in Section 8. Information about the project team is provided in Section 9.

  19. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is currently under a Federal Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is under way to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, the treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top-level command medium for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study and, as such, will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred to herein can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP).

  20. Regional Limits to Sequestration of Atmospheric C in Soils: Influence of Soil C Fractions and Agricultural Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, R. T.; Six, J.; Paustian, K.; Paul, E. A.

    2001-05-01

    Agricultural management has substantial effects on C output from soil, primarily through tillage, and on quantity and amount of C input to soil through residue management. The dynamics of agricultural management impacts are reasonably well understood and soil C responses are adequately predicted by a number of soil organic matter models in most systems. However, some data suggests that responses to increases in residue return do not always lead to increased soil C, as most models would predict; some soils appear to be saturated with respect to C. Therefore, models may over-predict the capacity of soils to stabilize soil C in some regions. Similarly, soil C levels may be near saturation in some systems and estimates of C sequestration potential in these systems may be too large. Conversely, soils in other regions are substantially below saturation level and could stabilize significant amounts of C in soils. The purpose of this presentation is to explore the implications of the concept of soil C saturation to identify areas (1) likely to be saturated with respect to soil C, (2) likely to become saturated with changes in agricultural management, and (3) areas far from saturation capable of stabilizing large amounts of C in soil. We compare output from a new model that explicitly accounts for limits to physical protection of soil organic matter with a more traditional soil organic matter model for a range of long-term agricultural research plots with different cultivation, rotation, and fertilization treatments. The result is a map of soils saturated with respect to C and of areas with soil C saturation deficits of varying magnitude.

  1. Spatial variation of soil salinity in the Mexicali Valley, Mexico: application of a practical method for agricultural monitoring.

    PubMed

    Judkins, Gabriel; Myint, Soe

    2012-09-01

    The degradation of irrigated lands through the process of soil salinization, or the buildup of salts in the soil, has hampered recent increases in agricultural productivity and threatens the sustainability of large-scale cultivation in critical agricultural regions of the world. Rapid detection of soil salinity on a regional basis has been identified as key for effective mitigation of such land degradation. The ability to detect regional patterns of soil salinity at an accuracy sufficient for regional-scale resource management is demonstrated using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. A case study of the Mexicali Valley of Baja California, Mexico was selected due to the region's agricultural significance and concern for future soil salinity increases. Surface soil salinity was mapped using georeferenced field measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), collected concurrently with Landsat 5 TM imagery. Correlations between EC measurements and common indices derived from the satellite imagery were used to produce a model of soil salinity through regression analysis. Landsat band 7, TNDVI, PCA 1, Tasseled Cap 3 and Tasseled Cap 5 were found to offer the most promising correlations with surface soil salinity. Generally low levels of soil salinity were detected, however, distinct areas of elevated surface salinity were detected at levels potentially impacting sensitive crops cultivated within the region. The difficulty detecting low levels of salinity and the mid-range spatial resolution of Landsat 5 TM imagery restrict the applicability of this methodology to the study of broad regional patterns of degradation most appropriate for use by regional resource managers.

  2. Spatial Variation of Soil Salinity in the Mexicali Valley, Mexico: Application of a Practical Method for Agricultural Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judkins, Gabriel; Myint, Soe

    2012-09-01

    The degradation of irrigated lands through the process of soil salinization, or the buildup of salts in the soil, has hampered recent increases in agricultural productivity and threatens the sustainability of large-scale cultivation in critical agricultural regions of the world. Rapid detection of soil salinity on a regional basis has been identified as key for effective mitigation of such land degradation. The ability to detect regional patterns of soil salinity at an accuracy sufficient for regional-scale resource management is demonstrated using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. A case study of the Mexicali Valley of Baja California, Mexico was selected due to the region's agricultural significance and concern for future soil salinity increases. Surface soil salinity was mapped using georeferenced field measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), collected concurrently with Landsat 5 TM imagery. Correlations between EC measurements and common indices derived from the satellite imagery were used to produce a model of soil salinity through regression analysis. Landsat band 7, TNDVI, PCA 1, Tasseled Cap 3 and Tasseled Cap 5 were found to offer the most promising correlations with surface soil salinity. Generally low levels of soil salinity were detected, however, distinct areas of elevated surface salinity were detected at levels potentially impacting sensitive crops cultivated within the region. The difficulty detecting low levels of salinity and the mid-range spatial resolution of Landsat 5 TM imagery restrict the applicability of this methodology to the study of broad regional patterns of degradation most appropriate for use by regional resource managers.

  3. Influence of conventional and organic agricultural practices on the phenolic content in eggplant pulp: Plant-to-plant variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer awareness, pesticide and fertilizer contaminations, and environmental concerns have resulted in increased demand for organically grown farm products. The present study evaluates the influence that organic versus conventional farming practices exert on the total phenolic content in eggplant...

  4. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  5. Sustainable Agricultural and Watershed Management in Developing Countries - An India Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliszek, A.; Vaicunas, R.; Zook, K.; Popkin, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Duke, J.; Awokuse, T.; Sims, T.; Hansen, D.; Wani, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    effectively manage these challenges. This presentation highlights: (a) the agricultural and environmental challenges facing developing countries like India; (b) the types of best management practices (BMPs) employed; (c) the impacts of the BMPs in the study watersheds; (d) the development of the online course and (e) the lessons and experiences of the students and faculty from their study visit to India.

  6. Impacts of agricultural land use on biological integrity: A causal analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riseng, C.M.; Wiley, M.J.; Black, R.W.; Munn, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural land use has often been linked to nutrient enrichment, habitat degradation, hydrologic alteration, and loss of biotic integrity in streams. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program sampled 226 stream sites located in eight agriculture-dominated study units across the United States to investigate the geographic variability and causes of agricultural impacts on stream biotic integrity. In this analysis we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to develop a national and set of regional causal models linking agricultural land use to measured instream conditions. We then examined the direct, indirect, and total effects of agriculture on biotic integrity as it acted through multiple water quality and habitat pathways. In our nation-wide model, cropland affected benthic communities by both altering structural habitats and by imposing water quality-related stresses. Regionspecific modeling demonstrated that geographic context altered the relative importance of causal pathways through which agricultural activities affected stream biotic integrity. Cropland had strong negative total effects on the invertebrate community in the national, Midwest, and Western models, but a very weak effect in the Eastern Coastal Plain model. In theWestern Arid and Eastern Coastal Plain study regions, cropland impacts were transmitted primarily through dissolved water quality contaminants, but in the Midwestern region, they were transmitted primarily through particulate components of water quality. Habitat effects were important in the Western Arid model, but negligible in the Midwest and Eastern Coastal Plain models. The relative effects of riparian forested wetlands also varied regionally, having positive effects on biotic integrity in the Eastern Coastal Plain andWestern Arid region models, but no statistically significant effect in the Midwest. These differences in response to cropland and riparian cover suggest that best management practices and

  7. Complex hydrologic changes in frequency-magnitude response due to shifting agricultural practices in the Midwestern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takbiri, Z.; Czuba, J. A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic change is occurring in many basins throughout the Midwestern U.S. not only in the mean annual streamflow but across a spectrum of magnitudes and frequencies. Disentangling the causative mechanisms responsible for these changes such as anthropogenic factors, e.g., artificial drainage to increase agricultural productivity, and climatic shifts in precipitation patterns is important for planning effective mitigation strategies. We have begun unraveling these changes in a human impacted agricultural landscape in the Midwestern U.S., specifically two subbasins of the Minnesota River Basin in Minnesota: the Redwood and Whetstone River Basins, where there has been a shift in agriculture from small grains to soybeans. This shift occurred at different times for each basin (1976 and 1991, respectively) and when soy covered about 20% of the basin area an apparent shift in the hydrologic regime also occurred as evidence by visual inspection of the hydrographs. Precisely quantifying the nature of this hydrologic regime shift however is a challenge and this work adds in this direction. Using Copulas and the joint probability distribution of daily precipitation and streamflow, we quantified a significantly higher dependence between precipitation and streamflow increments in the mid-quantiles (0.1-0.6; attributed to the artificial drainage to the stream rather than the slower infiltration and subsurface runoff) and no significant change for high quantiles (because for extreme storms the artificially fast drainage does not differ much hydrologically from the naturally fast overland flow). We further performed a multi-scale analysis of streamflow increments via wavelets to quantify the changes in the magnitude and frequency of the rising and falling limbs of hydrographs, confirming the above findings. Since precipitation changes were confirmed not to be significant, it is suggested that streamflow changes are largely driven by a change in land use and not climate in these

  8. Reductions in non-point source pollution through different management practices for an agricultural watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yaowu; Huang, Zhilin; Xiao, Wenfa

    2010-01-01

    Non-point source water pollution generated by agricultural production is considered a major environmental issue in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) of China. The Annualised Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution (AnnAGNPS) model was selected to assess the impact of the application of various management treats, including seven crops, five fertilizer levels and three-group management practice scenarios, on water quality from Heigou River Watershed in TGRA. The scenario subsets include conservation tillage practice (CTP), conservation reserve program (CRP) and conversion of cropland into forestland program (CCFP). Results indicated that tea can not be replaced by other crops because comparatively tea resulted in a higher sediment yield. CTP with no-tillage was more effective to reduce sediment yield, but could increased nutrient loss. CRP reduced sediment yield significantly, but slightly benefited on nutrient loss. CCFP reduced not only sediment yield but also the nutrient loss significantly. The conversion of cropland with a slope greater than 10 degrees into forestland was found to be the best scenario as the sediment yield export is less than 5 tons/ha and nutrient loss is within the permissible limit.

  9. Ground-water flow, geochemistry, and effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport at study sites in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, Patuxent River basin, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve water quality in Chesapeake Bay, agricultural practices are being promoted that are intended to reduce contaminant transport to the Bay. The effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport were assessed at two 10-acre study sites in the Patuxent River basin, Maryland, during 1986-92. Nitrogen load was larger in ground water than in surface runoff at both sites. At the study site in the Piedmont Province, nitrogen load in ground water decreased from 12 to 6 (lb/acre)/yr (pound per acre per year) as corn under no-till cultivation was replaced by no-till soybeans, continuous alfalfa, and contoured strip crops alternated among corn, alfalfa, and soybeans. At the study site in the Coastal Plain Province, no-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 12.55 (lb/acre)/yr, whereas conventional-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 11.51 (lb/acre)/yr.

  10. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate achievable water quality targets through implementation of beneficial management practices in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Benoy, Glenn A; Chow, Thien Lien; Daigle, Jean-Louis; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2012-01-01

    Runoff from crop production in agricultural watersheds can cause widespread soil loss and degradation of surface water quality. Beneficial management practices (BMPs) for soil conservation are often implemented as remedial measures because BMPs can reduce soil erosion and improve water quality. However, the efficacy of BMPs may be unknown because it can be affected by many factors, such as farming practices, land-use, soil type, topography, and climatic conditions. As such, it is difficult to estimate the impacts of BMPs on water quality through field experiments alone. In this research, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate achievable performance targets of water quality indicators (sediment and soluble P loadings) after implementation of combinations of selected BMPs in the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Four commonly used BMPs (flow diversion terraces [FDTs], fertilizer reductions, tillage methods, and crop rotations), were considered individually and in different combinations. At the watershed level, the best achievable sediment loading was 1.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) (89% reduction compared with default scenario), with a BMP combination of crop rotation, FDT, and no-till. The best achievable soluble P loading was 0.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (62% reduction), with a BMP combination of crop rotation and FDT and fertilizer reduction. Targets estimated through nonpoint source water quality modeling can be used to evaluate BMP implementation initiatives and provide milestones for the rehabilitation of streams and rivers in agricultural regions.

  11. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    References on best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural lands were included because certain BMPs are crucial for informing decisions about buffer design/ effectiveness and overall playa ecology. We also included various papers that increase the spectrum of time over which buffer theories and practices have evolved. An unannotated section lists references that we did not prioritize for annotation and references that may be helpful but were beyond the scope of this document. Finally, we provide notes on conversations we had with scientists, land managers, and other buffer experts whom we consulted, and their contact information. We conclude the bibliography with appendices of common and scientific names of birds and plants and acronyms used in both the bibliography. In the annotations, italicized text signifies our own editorial remarks. Readers should also note that much of the work on buffers has been designed using English units of measure rather than metrics; in most cases, their results have been converted to metrics for publication, explaining the seemingly odd or irregular buffer widths and other parameters reported.

  12. Soil and geography are more important determinants of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal communities than management practices in Swiss agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Jansa, Jan; Erb, Angela; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Smilauer, Petr; Egli, Simon

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous soil fungi, forming mutualistic symbiosis with a majority of terrestrial plant species. They are abundant in nearly all soils, less diverse than soil prokaryotes and other intensively studied soil organisms and thus are promising candidates for universal indicators of land management legacies and soil quality degradation. However, insufficient data on how the composition of indigenous AMF varies along soil and landscape gradients have hampered the definition of baselines and effect thresholds to date. Here, indigenous AMF communities in 154 agricultural soils collected across Switzerland were profiled by quantitative real-time PCR with taxon-specific markers for six widespread AMF species. To identify the key determinants of AMF community composition, the profiles were related to soil properties, land management and site geography. Our results indicate a number of well-supported dependencies between abundances of certain AMF taxa and soil properties such as pH, soil fertility and texture, and a surprising lack of effect of available soil phosphorus on the AMF community profiles. Site geography, especially the altitude and large geographical distance, strongly affected AMF communities. Unexpected was the apparent lack of a strong land management effect on the AMF communities as compared to the other predictors, which could be due to the rarity of highly intensive and unsustainable land management in Swiss agriculture. In spite of the extensive coverage of large geographical and soil gradients, we did not identify any taxon suitable as an indicator of land use among the six taxa we studied.

  13. Trend reversal of nitrate in Danish groundwater--a reflection of agricultural practices and nitrogen surpluses since 1950.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Birgitte; Thorling, Laerke; Dalgaard, Tommy; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. First, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends, and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Second, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Third, groundwater recharge CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two data sets. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s, while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark.

  14. Nitrogen Losses as N2O and NO After Non-tillage Agricultural Practice in a Tropical Corn Field at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, T. J.; Gil, J. A.; Marquina, S.; Donoso, L. E.; Trumbore, S. E.; Tyler, S. C.

    2005-12-01

    Historically, the most common agricultural practice in Northern Guárico, one of Venezuelan largest cereal production regions, has been mono cropping, with extensive tillage operations that usually causes rapid soil degradation and nitrogen losses. Alternative production systems, such as non-tillage agricultural practices, have been extensively implemented during the last few years. However, studies of the nitrogen losses associated with these alternative practices are not widely available. This study was conducted at "Fundo Tierra Nueva", Guárico State (9°23'33" N, 66° 38'30" W) in a corn field under the non-tillage agricultural practice, during the growing season June-August 2005. The soils are Vertisols (Typic Haplusterts). The area has two well defined precipitation seasons: wet (May-October) and dry (November-April). The mean annual precipitation of the area is 622±97.3 mm (last 5 years). Because the irrigation of the crop depends on precipitation, the planting is scheduled during the months of highest precipitation in June-July. We measured nitrogenous gas emissions (N2O and NO), concentrations of total nitrogen (NT), NH4+ and NO3- in soil (0-100 cm) after fertilization to estimate the nitrogen losses. We also measured CO2 emissions to evaluate the relationship of microbial respiration to the emissions of nitrogenous trace gases. Soils were fertilized with 54 kgN/ha (NPK 12:24:12, nitrogen as NH4Cl) and planted simultaneously by a planting machine provided with a furrow opener where the fertilizer and seeds are incorporated between 0-10 cm depth. Thirty days later, soils were fertilized by broadcast addition of 18 kgN/ha (as ammonium nitrate). Nitrous oxide emissions were highly dependant on the water content. Prior to fertilization N2O emissions were very low. Right after fertilization the emissions increased by a factor of 5 compared to pre-fertilization levels and increased to 100 times larger after the first heavy rain. NO emissions did not increase

  15. Ground-water flow, geochemistry, and effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport at study sites in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, Patuxent River Basin, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    1995-01-01

    The effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport were assessed at two 10-acre study sites in the Patuxent River Basin, Maryland, during 1986- 92. Nitrogen load was larger in ground water than in surface runoff at both sites. Denitrification and (or) long traveltimes of ground water at the study site in the Piedmont Province resulted in lower concentrations of nitrate than at the site in the Coastal Plain Province. The study period was brief compared to traveltimes of nitrogen in ground water of several decades. Therefore, the effects of agricultural practices were observed only in parts of both sites. At the Piedmont site, nitrate concentration in two springs was 7 mg/L (milligrams per liter) two years after corn was grown under no-till cultivation, and decreased to 3.5 mg/L during 4 years while cultivation practices and crops included no-till soybeans, continuous alfalfa, and contoured strips alternated among corn, alfalfa, and soybeans. Nitrogen load in ground water decreased from 12 to 6 (lb/acre)/yr (pounds per acre per year). At the Coastal Plain site, the concentration of nitrate in ground water decreased from 10 mg/L after soybeans were grown under no-till cultivation for 2 years, to 9 mg/L after soybeans were grown under conventional till cultivation for 3 years. No-till cultivation in 1988 resulted in a greater nitrogen load in ground water (12.55 (lbs/acre)/yr), as well as greater ground-water recharge and discharge, than conventional till cultivation in 1991 (11.51 (lbs/ acre)/yr), even though the amount and timing of precipitation for both years were similar.

  16. Assessing the mitigation potential of agricultural systems by optimization of the agricultural management: A modeling study on 8 agricultural observation sites across Europe with the process based model LandscapeDNDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Haas, Edwin; Klatt, Steffen; Kraus, David; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    for each side could result in management strategies to minimize environmental impact when such a model is used to predict best management practice on the site scale.

  17. Coherence among Different Microbial Source Tracking Markers in a Small Agricultural Stream with or without Livestock Exclusion Practices

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Graham; Brassard, Julie; Edge, Thomas A.; Gannon, Victor; Jokinen, Cassandra C.; Jones, Tineke H.; Marti, Romain; Neumann, Norman F.; Ruecker, Norma J.; Sunohara, Mark; Topp, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Over 1,400 water samples were collected biweekly over 6 years from an intermittent stream protected and unprotected from pasturing cattle. The samples were monitored for host-specific Bacteroidales markers, Cryptosporidium species/genotypes, viruses and coliphages associated with humans or animals, and bacterial zoonotic pathogens. Ruminant Bacteroidales markers did not increase within the restricted cattle access reach of the stream, whereas the ruminant Bacteroidales marker increased significantly in the unrestricted cattle access reach. Human Bacteroidales markers significantly increased downstream of homes where septic issues were documented. Wildlife Bacteroidales markers were detected downstream of the cattle exclusion practice where stream and riparian habitat was protected, but detections decreased after the unrestricted pasture, where the stream and riparian zone was unprotected from livestock. Detection of a large number of human viruses was shown to increase downstream of homes, and similar trends were observed for the human Bacteroidales marker. There was considerable interplay among biomarkers with stream flow, season, and the cattle exclusion practices. There were no to very weak associations with Bacteroidales markers and bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. Overall, discrete sample-by-sample coherence among the different microbial source tracking markers that expressed a similar microbial source was minimal, but spatial trends were physically meaningful in terms of land use (e.g., beneficial management practice) effects on sources of fecal pollution. PMID:23913430

  18. Coherence among different microbial source tracking markers in a small agricultural stream with or without livestock exclusion practices.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Graham; Brassard, Julie; Edge, Thomas A; Gannon, Victor; Jokinen, Cassandra C; Jones, Tineke H; Marti, Romain; Neumann, Norman F; Ruecker, Norma J; Sunohara, Mark; Topp, Edward; Lapen, David R

    2013-10-01

    Over 1,400 water samples were collected biweekly over 6 years from an intermittent stream protected and unprotected from pasturing cattle. The samples were monitored for host-specific Bacteroidales markers, Cryptosporidium species/genotypes, viruses and coliphages associated with humans or animals, and bacterial zoonotic pathogens. Ruminant Bacteroidales markers did not increase within the restricted cattle access reach of the stream, whereas the ruminant Bacteroidales marker increased significantly in the unrestricted cattle access reach. Human Bacteroidales markers significantly increased downstream of homes where septic issues were documented. Wildlife Bacteroidales markers were detected downstream of the cattle exclusion practice where stream and riparian habitat was protected, but detections decreased after the unrestricted pasture, where the stream and riparian zone was unprotected from livestock. Detection of a large number of human viruses was shown to increase downstream of homes, and similar trends were observed for the human Bacteroidales marker. There was considerable interplay among biomarkers with stream flow, season, and the cattle exclusion practices. There were no to very weak associations with Bacteroidales markers and bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. Overall, discrete sample-by-sample coherence among the different microbial source tracking markers that expressed a similar microbial source was minimal, but spatial trends were physically meaningful in terms of land use (e.g., beneficial management practice) effects on sources of fecal pollution.

  19. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields, and

  20. Management of unregulated agricultural nonpoint sources through water quality trading market.

    PubMed

    Mahjoobi, Emad; Sarang, Amin; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) could be an innovative policy to incentivize farmers to implement best management practices (BMPs) for their activities. This study focused on assessment of involving unregulated agricultural nonpoint sources (NPS) into the WQT market in Gharesoo watershed in the west of Iran. It also proposes a methodology to determine location-based trading ratios as well as environmental penalty cost to achieve a more well-designed market structure. Trading activities in different scenarios were described by trading volume (TV), participation rate (PR), total exchanged value (TEV), and other market parameters in order to achieve a better comparison of market performance. Results showed that, by applying NPS to the Gharesoo watershed, total phosphorous (TP) trading market could increase TV, PR, and TEV up to 11, 1.7 and 7.5 times, respectively, depending on which level of BMPs are implemented by them. Additionally, it could save 29% of the total cost of implementing a TP total maximum daily load in this watershed compared to the 'command and control' approach. Furthermore, the agricultural sector could profit by $5.49 million (or $75/ha) by choosing solutions such as terrace systems and filter strips to register into the market. This profit can be allocated to the development of new agricultural technologies.