Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural biotechnology research

  1. Social Science Research on Biotechnology and Agriculture: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttel, Frederick H.

    1989-01-01

    Examines trends in social science research on biotechnology and agriculture. Discusses role of private industry's biotechnology "hype" in defining social science research policy in universities. Suggests that widespread promotion of biotechnology as "revolutionary" contributed to lack of academic scrutiny. Examines social…

  2. Considerations for conducting research in agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Anthony M

    2003-06-01

    Science has shown its increased vulnerability because of two recent high-profile articles published in major journals on corn produced through biotechnology: a laboratory report suggesting profound consequences to monarch butterfly populations due to Bt corn pollen and a report suggesting transgenic introgression into Mexican maize. While both studies have been widely regarded as having flawed methodology, publishing these studies has created great consternation in the scientific community, regulatory agencies and the general public. There are roles and responsibilities of scientists, scientific journals, the public media, public agencies, and those who oppose or advocate a specific technology, and serious consequences when those roles and responsibilities go awry. Modern communication may exacerbate the flow of misinformation and easily lead to a decline in public confidence about biotechnology and science. However, common sense tells us that scientific inquiry and the publication and reporting of results should be performed with high standards of ethical behavior, regardless of one's personal perspective on agricultural biotechnology.

  3. Biotechnology research in Nigeria: A socio-economic analysis of the organication of agricultural research system's response to biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Duru, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    Many agricultural development experts and social scientists argue that a lack of appropriate technology was a limiting factor in the efforts by developing countries to expand their agricultural productivity. Biotechnology is now advanced as a technology that could meet these needs. Agricultural and social scientists maintain that the new biotechnology, if realistically applied, could assist a developing nation such as Nigeria to solve its agricultural problems. But one concern is the private character of biotechnology which limits its transferability to the LDCs. This situation will impose unusual constraints on national agricultural development programs and increase dependence if national research capability is weak. The basic finding of this field research was that the Nigerian national agricultural research system was weak, which meant that the potentials and promises of biotechnology will elude the country's desire to improve its agriculture in the immediate future. The primary weakness rested in inadequate funding and infrastructural deficiencies.

  4. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  5. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  6. Recent progress in agricultural biotechnology and opportunities for contract research and development.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, P P; Fedec, P

    1999-01-01

    The global market for agriculture products and agriculture-based value-added products is undergoing change as the top players in agriculture and agricultural biotechnology face increased consolidation and ultimately form alliances in development, production and marketing. Transgenic plants for human consumption and industrial applications are entering the marketplace. Novel, genetically engineered, plant-based organisms (GMO) designed for resistance to herbicides, pesticides and environmental stress or for the production of valuable chemicals, pharmaceuticals and vaccines are available. A growing demand for bioprocessing, test production, scale-up or providing data for registration has created new opportunities for contract research and development (CR&D) firms.

  7. Popular misconceptions: agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McHughen, Alan; Wager, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Agricultural biotechnology, especially genetic engineering or genetic modification (GM), is a topic of considerable controversy worldwide. The public debate is fraught with polarized views and opinions, some are held with religious zeal. Unfortunately, it is also marked with much ignorance and misinformation. Here we explore some popular misconceptions encountered in the public debate.

  8. Biotechnology: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Biotechnology Research Efforts. Briefing Report. To the Chairman, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Information pertaining to biotechnology research that was funded in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is presented in this report. Findings obtained from state agricultural experimental stations and colleges of veterinary medicine are discussed in 11 appendices. These include: (1) information on USDA's biotechnology…

  9. Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

  10. Advanced agricultural biotechnologies and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Thomas A

    2002-05-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies are anchored to a scientific paradigm rooted in experimental biology, whereas sustainable agriculture rests on a biological paradigm that is best described as ecological. Both biotechnology and sustainable agriculture are associated with particular social science paradigms: biotechnology has its foundation in neoclassical economics, but sustainability is framed by an emerging community-centered, problem-solving perspective. Fundamentally, biotechnology and neoclassical economics are reductionist in nature. Sustainability and community problem-solving, however, are nonreductionist. Given these differences, we might see the development of two rather distinct systems of food production in the near future.

  11. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  12. Agricultural biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dookun, A

    2001-01-01

    After a slow start many developing countries are now investing in agricultural biotechnology. Although these countries face several constraints, efforts are being made to promote biotechnology that requires high investment with long term returns. A number of donor agencies are providing incentives to stimulate biotechnology in the developing countries. There is however a major debate towards the development of biotechnology, especially genetically modified organisms, in the developing countries and there is a need for them to address biosafety issues and proper monitoring systems. The concern of intellectual property rights is a major issue in the developing countries in order to have access to the technologies that are often owned by multinational corporations in the industrialized countries.

  13. The costly benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Apel, Andrew

    2010-11-30

    Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the benefits which accrue to providers of agricultural biotechnology, technology providers actually benefit from this opposition. If these barriers to biotechnology were removed, subsistence farmers still would not represent a lucrative market for improved seed. The sum of all interests involved ensures that subsistence farmers are systematically denied access to agricultural biotechnology.

  14. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  15. Beyond knowledge transfer: The social construction of autonomous academic science in university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscotti, Dina Louise

    Autonomy is a social product. Although some might view autonomy as the absence of social interference in individual action, it is in fact produced through social institutions. It enables social actors to act; it is the justification for the allocation of enormous public resources into institutions classified as "public" or "nonprofit;" it can lead to innovation; and, significantly, it is key to the public acceptance of new technologies. In this dissertation, I analyze the social construction of autonomy for academic science in U.S. university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations. University-industry relationships (UIRs) are a site of concern about the influence of commercial interests on academic science. Agricultural biotechnology is a contentious technology that has prompted questions about the ecological and public health implications of genetically-modified plants and animals. It has also spurred awareness of the industrialization of agriculture and accelerating corporate control of the global food system. Through analysis of in-depth interviews with over 200 scientists and administrators from nine U.S. research universities and thirty agricultural biotechnology companies, I find that both the academy and industry have a vested interest in the social construction of the academy as an autonomous space from which claims to objective, disinterested scientific knowledge can be made. These claims influence government regulation, as well as grower and public acceptance of agricultural biotechnology products. I argue that the social production of autonomy for academic science can be observed in narratives and practices related to: (1) the framing of when, how and why academic scientists collaborate with industry, (2) the meanings ascribed to and the uses deemed appropriate for industry monies in academic research, and (3) the dissemination of research results into the public domain through publications and patents. These narratives and practices

  16. Research needs to improve agricultural productivity and food quality, with emphasis on biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jennifer A

    2002-11-01

    Research into agricultural productivity, especially for crops in the developing world, should include resistance to plant viruses, fungi and the parasitic weed Striga. It must also include research into the development of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-expressing crops. Drought- and heat-tolerant crops, and those that can combat the problems of soil deficiencies, are required, and vaccine production in plants should be a high priority. Research into food quality should include the equivalent of "golden rice" in maize, the enhancement of the production of phytosterols and improved qualities of vegetable oils.

  17. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21) for a 2- year period. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Committee Purpose: USDA supports the responsible development and application of biotechnology within...

  18. 77 FR 48948 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The notice...

  19. Biotechnology in Agriculture. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Dennis R.; Rehberger, Thomas

    This curriculum guide is designed to help teachers to present a course that emphasizes the interrelationship of science and technology and the impact of this technology on agriculture and agricultural products. The guide contains six units that each contain some or all of the following basic components of a unit of instruction: objective sheet,…

  20. Industry Perceptions of University-Industry Relationships Related to Agricultural Biotechnology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenna, Leland L.; Welsh, Rick; Lacy, William B.; Biscotti, Dina

    2007-01-01

    Following a rise in university-industry relationships (UIRs), scholars began questioning the efficacy of those relationships, as well as whether industry and university research interests and integrity are being compromised. Although many of these studies focus on the university, few examine the perspectives of industry participants. We conducted…

  1. How Japanese students reason about agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Fumi; Macer, Darryl

    2004-10-01

    Many have claimed that education of the ethical issues raised by biotechnology is essential in universities, but there is little knowledge of its effectiveness. The focus of this paper is to investigate how university students assess the information given in class to make their own value judgments and decisions relating to issues of agricultural biotechnology, especially over genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Analysis of homework reports related with agricultural biotechnology after identification of key concepts and ideas in each student report is presented. The ideas were sorted into different categories. The ideas were compared with those in the reading materials using the same categories. These categories included: concern about affects on humans, affects on the environment, developing countries and starvation, trust in industry, responsibility of scientists, risk perception, media influence, need for (international) organizations or third parties, and information dissemination. What was consistent through the different years was that more than half of the students took a "neutral" position. A report was scored as "neutral" when the report included both the positive and negative side of an issue, or when the student could not make a definite decision about the use of GMOs and GM food. While it may be more difficult to defend a strong ''for" or "against" position, some students used logical arguments successfully in doing so. Sample comments are presented to depict how Japanese students see agricultural technology, and how they value its application, with comparisons to the general social attitudes towards biotechnology.

  2. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here.

  3. Agricultural biotechnology and its contribution to the global knowledge economy.

    PubMed

    Aerni, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    The theory of neoclassical welfare economics largely shaped international and national agricultural policies during the Cold War period. It treated technology as an exogenous factor that could boost agricultural productivity but not necessarily sustainable agriculture. New growth theory, the economic theory of the new knowledge economy, treats technological change as endogenous and argues that intangible assets such as human capital and knowledge are the drivers of sustainable economic development. In this context, the combined use of agricultural biotechnology and information technology has a great potential, not just to boost economic growth but also to empower people in developing countries and improve the sustainable management of natural resources. This article outlines the major ideas behind new growth theory and explains why agricultural economists and agricultural policy-makers still tend to stick to old welfare economics. Finally, the article uses the case of the Cassava Biotechnology Network (CBN) to illustrate an example of how new growth theory can be applied in the fight against poverty. CBN is a successful interdisciplinary crop research network that makes use of the new knowledge economy to produce new goods that empower the poor and improve the productivity and nutritional quality of cassava. It shows that the potential benefits of agricultural biotechnology go far beyond the already known productivity increases and pesticide use reductions of existing GM crops.

  4. 76 FR 14895 - Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Agricultural Research Service Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...: Notice of request for nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES:...

  5. BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with EPA's mission to minimize risks to human health and to safeguard ecological integrity, the EPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) is committed to assessing and mitigating any risk posed by biotechnology-derived crops. Consequently, ...

  6. Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have enabled the field of plant biology to move forward in great leaps and bounds. In particular, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology, plant genomics and crop science have brought about a paradigm shift of thought regarding the manner by which plants can be utilized both in agriculture and in medicine. Besides the more well known improvements in agronomic traits of crops such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, plants can now be associated with topics as diverse as biofuel production, phytoremediation, the improvement of nutritional qualities in edible plants, the identification of compounds for medicinal purposes in plants and the use of plants as therapeutic protein production platforms. This diversification of plant science has been accompanied by the great abundance of new patents issued in these fields and, as many of these inventions approach commercial realization, the subsequent increase in agriculturally-based industries. While this review chapter is written primarily for plant scientists who have great interest in the new directions being taken with respect to applications in agricultural biotechnology, those in other disciplines, such as medical researchers, environmental scientists and engineers, may find significant value in reading this article as well. The review attempts to provide an overview of the most recent patents issued for plant biotechnology with respect to both agriculture and medicine. The chapter concludes with the proposal that the combined driving forces of climate change, as well as the ever increasing needs for clean energy and food security will play a pivotal role in leading the direction for applied plant biotechnology research in the future.

  7. Governing nanobiotechnology: lessons from agricultural biotechnology regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robbin S.

    2011-04-01

    This article uses lessons from biotechnology to help inform the design of oversight for nanobiotechnology. Those lessons suggest the following: first, oversight needs to be broadly defined, encompassing not just regulatory findings around safety and efficacy, but also public understanding and acceptance of the technology and its products. Second, the intensity of scrutiny and review should reflect not just risks but also perceptions of risk. Finally, a global marketplace argues for uniform standards or commercially practical solutions to differences in standards. One way of designing oversight to achieve these purposes is to think about it in three phases—precaution, prudence, and promotion. Precaution comes early in the technology or product's development and reflects real and perceived uncertainties. Prudence governs when risks and hazards have been identified, containment approaches established, and benefits broadly defined. Transparency and public participation rise to the fore. The promotional phase moves toward shaping public understanding and acceptance and involves marketing issues rather than safety ones. This flexible, three-phase approach to oversight would have avoided some of the early regulatory problems with agricultural biotechnology. It also would have led to a more risk-adjusted pathway to regulatory approval. Furthermore, it would avoid some of the arbitrary, disruptive marketing issues that have arisen.

  8. Current and Future Leaders' Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Miller, Rene P.

    2009-01-01

    Were elected state FFA officers' attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology significantly different from elected Texas legislators' attitudes about the same topic? The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed in agricultural biotechnology perceptions or information source preferences when compared by leadership status:…

  9. Evaluation of protein safety in the context of agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Bryan; Astwood, James D; Cunny, Helen; Conn, Robin Eichen; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Macintosh, Susan; Meyer, Linda S; Privalle, Laura; Gao, Yong; Mattsson, Joel; Levine, Marci

    2008-05-01

    One component of the safety assessment of agricultural products produced through biotechnology is evaluation of the safety of newly expressed proteins. The ILSI International Food Biotechnology Committee has developed a scientifically based two-tiered, weight-of-evidence strategy to assess the safety of novel proteins used in the context of agricultural biotechnology. Recommendations draw upon knowledge of the biological and chemical characteristics of proteins and testing methods for evaluating potential intrinsic hazards of chemicals. Tier I (potential hazard identification) includes an assessment of the biological function or mode of action and intended application of the protein, history of safe use, comparison of the amino acid sequence of the protein to other proteins, as well as the biochemical and physico-chemical properties of the proteins. Studies outlined in Tier II (hazard characterization) are conducted when the results from Tier I are not sufficient to allow a determination of safety (reasonable certainty of no harm) on a case-by-case basis. These studies may include acute and repeated dose toxicology studies and hypothesis-based testing. The application of these guidelines is presented using examples of transgenic proteins applied for agricultural input and output traits in genetically modified crops along with recommendations for future research considerations related to protein safety assessment.

  10. Challenges facing European agriculture and possible biotechnological solutions.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès; Harwood, Wendy; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Sági, László; Hundleby, Penelope; Badea, Elena Marcela; Rosca, Ioan; Cruz, Gabriela; Salema Fevereiro, Manuel Pedro; Marfà Riera, Victoria; Jansson, Stefan; Morandini, Piero; Bojinov, Bojin; Cetiner, Selim; Custers, René; Schrader, Uwe; Jacobsen, Hans-Joerg; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Boisron, Audrey; Kuntz, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Agriculture faces many challenges to maximize yields while it is required to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner. In the present study, we analyze the major agricultural challenges identified by European farmers (primarily related to biotic stresses) in 13 countries, namely Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, UK and Turkey, for nine major crops (barley, beet, grapevine, maize, oilseed rape, olive, potato, sunflower and wheat). Most biotic stresses (BSs) are related to fungi or insects, but viral diseases, bacterial diseases and even parasitic plants have an important impact on yield and harvest quality. We examine how these challenges have been addressed by public and private research sectors, using either conventional breeding, marker-assisted selection, transgenesis, cisgenesis, RNAi technology or mutagenesis. Both national surveys and scientific literature analysis followed by text mining were employed to evaluate genetic engineering (GE) and non-GE approaches. This is the first report of text mining of the scientific literature on plant breeding and agricultural biotechnology research. For the nine major crops in Europe, 128 BS challenges were identified with 40% of these addressed neither in the scientific literature nor in recent European public research programs. We found evidence that the private sector was addressing only a few of these "neglected" challenges. Consequently, there are considerable gaps between farmer's needs and current breeding and biotechnology research. We also provide evidence that the current political situation in certain European countries is an impediment to GE research in order to address these agricultural challenges in the future. This study should also contribute to the decision-making process on future pertinent international consortia to fill the identified research gaps.

  11. Agricultural Communications Students' Awareness and Perceptions of Biotechnology Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Dunsford, Deborah W.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural communications students (n=330) from 11 universities were most aware of biotechnology effects on food, less aware of effects on health and the environment. They were somewhat accepting of genetic modifications for plants, not humans. Sources of biotechnology knowledge were science classes, labs, and university professors' beliefs.…

  12. Agricultural biotechnology and smallholder farmers in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Vivienne M; Ferroni, Marco

    2012-04-01

    Agricultural biotechnology holds much potential to contribute towards crop productivity gains and crop improvement for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Over 14 million smallholder farmers are already benefiting from biotech crops such as cotton and maize in China, India and other Asian, African and Central/South American countries. Molecular breeding can accelerate crop improvement timescales and enable greater use of diversity of gene sources. Little impact has been realized to date with fruits and vegetables because of development timescales for molecular breeding and development and regulatory costs and political considerations facing biotech crops in many countries. Constraints to the development and adoption of technology-based solutions to reduce yield gaps need to be overcome. Full integration with broader commercial considerations such as farmer access to seed distribution systems that facilitate dissemination of improved varieties and functioning markets for produce are critical for the benefits of agricultural biotechnology to be fully realized by smallholders. Public-private partnerships offer opportunities to catalyze new approaches and investment while accelerating integrated research and development and commercial supply chain-based solutions.

  13. Biotechnology: Applications in Agriculture. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevils, Aaron

    This curriculum guide incorporates the needed components to aid agriculture teachers in the implementation of the Vocational Instructional Management System in biotechnology: applications in agriculture. The guide begins with a list of the competencies/objectives found in the six units; list of references and materials; list of materials and…

  14. Agricultural Biotechnology Technician. National Voluntary Occupational Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Future Farmers of America Foundation, Madison, WI.

    The skill standards in this document were developed as a result of meetings between representatives of the agricultural industry and educational institutions to determine the skills and educational preparation required of an agricultural biotechnology technician, verified by technicians working in laboratories, greenhouses, animal facilities, and…

  15. Biotechnology: An Assessment of Agricultural Science Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…

  16. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-09-10

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p < 0.001) and most students have learned some definitions and examples of biotechnology. There was a positive correlation between biotechnology knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology for current students who study Advanced Biology (AB). However, for current students who did not study AB, there was a negative correlation.The attitude results showed that students today expressed less favorable opinions toward agricultural biotechnology (p < 0.001) despite studying AB or not. However, there is no significant difference between students today and 18 years ago in opinions towards medical biotechnology. In addition, current students showed a greater concern involving environmental risks than former students. Interestingly, the high school curriculum did affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016.

  17. Essential Features of Responsible Governance of Agricultural Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Sarah; Gillund, Frøydis; van Hove, Lilian; Wickson, Fern

    2016-05-01

    Agricultural biotechnology continues to generate considerable controversy. We argue that to address this controversy, serious changes to governance are needed. The new wave of genomic tools and products (e.g., CRISPR, gene drives, RNAi, synthetic biology, and genetically modified [GM] insects and fish), provide a particularly useful opportunity to reflect on and revise agricultural biotechnology governance. In response, we present five essential features to advance more socially responsible forms of governance. In presenting these, we hope to stimulate further debate and action towards improved forms of governance, particularly as these new genomic tools and products continue to emerge.

  18. Essential Features of Responsible Governance of Agricultural Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sarah; Wickson, Fern

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology continues to generate considerable controversy. We argue that to address this controversy, serious changes to governance are needed. The new wave of genomic tools and products (e.g., CRISPR, gene drives, RNAi, synthetic biology, and genetically modified [GM] insects and fish), provide a particularly useful opportunity to reflect on and revise agricultural biotechnology governance. In response, we present five essential features to advance more socially responsible forms of governance. In presenting these, we hope to stimulate further debate and action towards improved forms of governance, particularly as these new genomic tools and products continue to emerge. PMID:27144921

  19. Agriculture Breaks New Ground. How Biotechnology and Regrowing Materials Are Being Used in the Federal Republic of Germany. Sonderdienst Special Report SO1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Fritz; Born, Sigrid

    This document provides an overview of the major research priorities of biotechnology and the use of what is known as "regrowing raw materials" in agriculture in the Federal Republic of Germany. Following an introduction, section 2 addresses biotechnology in agriculture, including biotechnology and genetic engineering, the significance of…

  20. Environmental biotechnology research: an overview.

    PubMed

    Spain, J C

    1994-05-01

    Cleanup and treatment of hazardous wastes incur major operational costs for the U.S. Air Force. Bioremediation can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional technologies for a wide range of natural organic compounds such as jet fuel. Bioventing and natural attenuation are emerging as treatments of choice in many instances. Synthetic organic chemicals are much more resistant to biodegradation. However, recent advances in biotechnology allow the development of strains able to use nitro- and chloro-substituted organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. Current basic research is focused on expanding the range of synthetic chemicals amenable to biodegradation. At the same time, development of appropriate bioreactors and models for scale up are essential for practical application of the technology.

  1. Factors Influencing the Intent of North Carolina Agricultural Educators To Adopt Agricultural Biotechnology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth; Kirby, Barbara; Flowers, Jim

    2002-01-01

    North Carolina secondary agriculture teachers (n=126) recognized the benefits of integrating biotechnology. Funding, equipment, and teacher knowledge were the greatest barriers to integration. Those most likely to teach biotechnology have some training and believe that the state-adopted integration course fulfills their curriculum needs. (Contains…

  2. Factors Related to the Intent of Agricultural Educators To Adopt Integrated Agricultural Biotechnology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth; Kirby, Barbara; Flowers, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Recent legislation encourages the integration of academic content in agricultural education. In North Carolina, high school agricultural education programs can now choose to offer a state adopted integrated biotechnology curriculum. Empirical evidence was needed to identify and describe factors related to the intent of agricultural educators to…

  3. Biotechnology and the developing world. Finding ways to bridge the agricultural technology gap.

    PubMed

    Platais, K W; Collinson, M P

    1992-03-01

    Biotechnology is a controversial subject that involves a range of scientific principles from basic tissue culture to genetic manipulation. Proponents include private sector capitalists, public sector researchers, and developing nation governments. Opponents include environmental organizations and social organizations involved in protecting the rights of developing nations. Biotechnology is being presented as the next step after the Green Revolution and the only way that the people of the developing world will be able to feed themselves in the next half century. Research by industrialized nations world wide total an estimated $11 billion with 66% being contributed by the private sector. Biotechnology represents somewhat of a dilemma. Since the majority of the work is being done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater than that of public welfare or safety. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is one public sector group that is concerned about this problem. The countries of the developing world fall into 2 categories in relation to use of biotechnology: (1) those that have the potential to adapt imported biotechnologies to local conditions; (2) those that have little or no applied research capacity to effectively use biotechnologies. Currently only Brazil, China, India, and Thailand belong in the 1st category, all other developing countries fall into the 2nd. CGIAR believes it can help in 2 ways: (1) it can provide a bridge for needed information and germplasm between developed and developing countries; (2) it can help to ensure that the agricultural needs of developing countries are not lost. In 1990 CGIAR's plant and animal biotechnology research totaled $14.5 million which was less than 5% of the total CGIAR budget. Networking and institutions building are areas that CGIAR focuses on in an attempt to increase its affect

  4. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry,...

  5. Agricultural biotechnology and the UK public.

    PubMed

    Moses, Vivian

    2002-09-01

    It might be an exaggeration to claim that UK agriculture is in a state of crisis, but it is certainly a time for decisions. Uncertainties abound: the implications of growing free trade; a steady reduction in subsidies; the ongoing drift of people to towns and what some regard as the stranglehold of retailers both on food prices and on what the farmer gets. To all of this has to be added the backwash of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and the advent of new technologies, especially those based on modern genetics.

  6. Developments in biotechnological research in Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Kubicek, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Austria is a small European country with a small number of universities and biotechnological industries, but with great efforts in the implementation of environmental consciousness and corresponding legal standards. This review attempts to describe the biotechnological landscape of Austria, thereby focusing on the highlights in research by industry, universities, and research laboratories, as published during 1990 to early 1995. These will include microbial metabolite (organic acids, antibiotics) and biopolymer (polyhydroxibutyrate, S-layers) production; enzyme (cellulases, hemicellulases, ligninases) technology and biocatalysis; environmental biotechnology; plant breeding and plant protection; mammalian cell products; fermenter design; and bioprocess engineering. 234 refs.

  7. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: the potentials, opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari

    2014-07-03

    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops.

  8. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: The potentials, opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari

    2014-01-01

    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops. PMID:25437237

  9. The integrated web service and genome database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changkug; Park, Dongsuk; Seol, Youngjoo; Hahn, Jangho

    2011-01-01

    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information from 1,039,823 records mapped to rice, Arabidopsis, and Chinese cabbage.

  10. The use of GMOs (genetically modified organisms): agricultural biotechnology or agricultural biopolitics?

    PubMed

    Nuti, Marco; Felici, Cristiana; Agnolucci, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies embrace a large array of conventional and modern technologies, spanning from composting organic by-products of agriculture to innovative improvement of quality traits of about twenty out of the mostly cultivated plants. In EU a rather restrictive legislative framework has been installed for GMOs, requiring a risk assessment disproportionate with respect to conventional agriculture and organic farming products. The latter are far from being proved safe for human and animal health, and for the environment. Biotechnology of GMOs has been overtaken by biopolitics. On one side there are biotechnological challenges to be tackled, on another side there is plenty of ground for biopolitical decisions about GMOs. Perhaps the era of harsh confrontation could be fruitfully replaced by sensible cooperation, in order to get a sustainable agricultural development.

  11. The advent of biotechnology and technology transfer in agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Postlewait, A.; Zilberman, D.; Parker, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    One of the keys to the success of American agriculture has been continuous waves of innovation, starting with mechanical innovations in the nineteenth century and continuing into the present with chemical and biological innovations (modern fertilizers and pesticides, high yield varieties of corn and wheat). Technological success resulted not only from new discoveries, but also from the capacity to translate new knowledge into practical innovations. Innovations helped generate an industrial infrastructure capable of both producing the new technology cheaply and effectively, and building a marketing and education network for its diffusion. The capacity for quick transfer of technology from the source of knowledge (universities) to technology producers (industry) and users (farmers) has been instrumental in the technological progress of agriculture. Mechanisms for technology transfer have changed over time as the nature of agriculture and the new technologies has changed. At present agriculture faces a new wave of technological innovation associated with biotechnology and genetic engineering. This paper investigates so that institutions can efficiently accommodate the transfer of new knowledge for biotechnology in agriculture.

  12. Development of agricultural biotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess the safety of genetically modified crops in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Amir; Malboobi, Mohammad A; Esmailzadeh, Nasrin S

    2007-01-01

    Rapid progress in the application of biotechnological methodologies and development of genetically modified crops in Iran necessitated intensive efforts to establish proper organizations and prepare required rules and regulations at the national level to ensure safe application of biotechnology in all pertinent aspects. Practically, preparation of a national biotechnology strategic plan in the country coincided with development of a national biosafety framework that was the basis for the drafted biosafety law. Although biosafety measures were observed by researchers voluntarily, the establishment of national biosafety organizations since the year 2000 built a great capacity to deal with biosafety issues in the present and future time, particularly with respect to food and agricultural biotechnology.

  13. Priorities for Research in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Guerrero, Luis; Sutphin, H. Dean

    1990-01-01

    Twenty agricultural education experts identified research topics and categories, which were then rated by 34 research experts (92 percent) and 49 department heads (79 percent). Highest ratings went to biotechnology, high technology, and agribusiness; agricultural education curriculum; and long-term impact and cost effectiveness of agricultural…

  14. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  15. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    PubMed

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  16. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Agricultural and food biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Christine; Earl, Robert

    2006-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that agricultural and food biotechnology techniques can enhance the quality, safety, nutritional value, and variety of food available for human consumption and increase the efficiency of food production, food processing, food distribution, and environmental and waste management. The American Dietetic Association encourages the government, food manufacturers, food commodity groups, and qualified food and nutrition professionals to work together to inform consumers about this new technology and encourage the availability of these products in the marketplace.

  17. European Union research and innovation perspectives on biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Danuta; Claxton, John; Economidis, Ioannis; Högel, Jens; Venturi, Piero; Aguilar, Alfredo

    2011-12-20

    "Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and Biotechnology" is one of 10 thematic areas in the Cooperation programme of the European Union's 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities (FP7). With a budget of nearly €2 billion for the period 2007-2013, its objective is to foster the development of a European Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) by bringing together science, industry and other stakeholders that produce, manage or otherwise exploit biological resources. Biotechnology plays an important role in addressing social, environmental and economic challenges and it is recognised as a key enabling technology in the transition to a green, low carbon and resource-efficient economy. Biotechnologies for non-health applications have received a considerable attention in FP7 and to date 61 projects on industrial, marine, plant, environmental and emerging biotechnologies have been supported with a contribution of €262.8 million from the European Commission (EC). This article presents an outlook of the research, technological development and demonstration activities in biotechnology currently supported in FP7 within the Cooperation programme, including a brief overview of the policy context.

  18. Biotechnology international conference. Biotech research proves a draw in Canada.

    PubMed

    Moffat, A S

    2000-06-30

    TORONTO, CANADADespite protests from Greenpeace members, some of whom dressed up as "corn fakes" to show their opposition to genetically modified organisms, more than 500 industrial and academic researchers, lawyers, and business people from about 25 countries gathered here from 5 to 8 June for the third biennial Agricultural Biotechnology International Conference. Highlights of the meeting included reports of progress toward making plants that resist nematode pests or stresses such as salt, frost, and drought.

  19. Biotechnology Facility: An ISS Microgravity Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will support several facilities dedicated to scientific research. One such facility, the Biotechnology Facility (BTF), is sponsored by the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Division (MSAD) and developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The BTF is scheduled for delivery to the ISS via Space Shuttle in April 2005. The purpose of the BTF is to provide: (1) the support structure and integration capabilities for the individual modules in which biotechnology experiments will be performed, (2) the capability for human-tended, repetitive, long-duration biotechnology experiments, and (3) opportunities to perform repetitive experiments in a short period by allowing continuous access to microgravity. The MSAD has identified cell culture and tissue engineering, protein crystal growth, and fundamentals of biotechnology as areas that contain promising opportunities for significant advancements through low-gravity experiments. The focus of this coordinated ground- and space-based research program is the use of the low-gravity environment of space to conduct fundamental investigations leading to major advances in the understanding of basic and applied biotechnology. Results from planned investigations can be used in applications ranging from rational drug design and testing, cancer diagnosis and treatments and tissue engineering leading to replacement tissues.

  20. The role of biotechnology for agricultural sustainability in Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jennifer A

    2008-02-27

    Sub-Saharan Africa could have a shortfall of nearly 90Mt of cereals by the year 2025 if current agricultural practices are maintained. Biotechnology is one of the ways to improve agricultural production. Insect-resistant varieties of maize and cotton suitable for the subcontinent have been identified as already having a significant impact. Virus-resistant crops are under development. These include maize resistant to the African endemic maize streak virus and cassava resistant to African cassava mosaic virus. Parasitic weeds such as Striga attack the roots of crops such as maize, millet, sorghum and upland rice. Field trials in Kenya using a variety of maize resistant to a herbicide have proven very successful. Drought-tolerant crops are also under development as are improved varieties of local African crops such as bananas, cassava, sorghum and sweet potatoes.

  1. Reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions: role of biotechnology, organic systems, and consumer behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All agricultural systems have environmental and societal costs and benefits that should be objectively quantified before recommending specific management practices. Agricultural biotechnology, which takes advantage of genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), along with organic cropping systems, econ...

  2. Polymerase chain reaction technology as analytical tool in agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Markus; Shillito, Raymond; Giroux, Randal; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Charlton, Stacy; Pinero, David; Song, Ping

    2005-01-01

    The agricultural biotechnology industry applies polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology at numerous points in product development. Commodity and food companies as well as third-party diagnostic testing companies also rely on PCR technology for a number of purposes. The primary use of the technology is to verify the presence or absence of genetically modified (GM) material in a product or to quantify the amount of GM material present in a product. This article describes the fundamental elements of PCR analysis and its application to the testing of grains. The document highlights the many areas to which attention must be paid in order to produce reliable test results. These include sample preparation, method validation, choice of appropriate reference materials, and biological and instrumental sources of error. The article also discusses issues related to the analysis of different matrixes and the effect they may have on the accuracy of the PCR analytical results.

  3. Current challenges and future perspectives of plant and agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Moshelion, Menachem; Altman, Arie

    2015-06-01

    Advances in understanding plant biology, novel genetic resources, genome modification, and omics technologies generate new solutions for food security and novel biomaterials production under changing environmental conditions. New gene and germplasm candidates that are anticipated to lead to improved crop yields and other plant traits under stress have to pass long development phases based on trial and error using large-scale field evaluation. Therefore, quantitative, objective, and automated screening methods combined with decision-making algorithms are likely to have many advantages, enabling rapid screening of the most promising crop lines at an early stage followed by final mandatory field experiments. The combination of novel molecular tools, screening technologies, and economic evaluation should become the main goal of the plant biotechnological revolution in agriculture.

  4. Clover Biotechnology Research at FAPRU

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Randy Dinkins (USDA-ARS-FAPRU) is conducting research to determine the utility of using the Medicago Affymetrix Genechip for use with red clover (Trifolium pretense). The Medicago Affymetrix Genechip contains approximately 51,000 probe sets that are derived from Medicago truncatula, 1,800 from Medi...

  5. Research on orchid biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Yang, Ya-Ping; Hsu, Yi-Chin; Chuang, Yu-Chen; Shih, Hsing-Hui; Chen, Wen-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2011-09-01

    Orchidaceae constitute one of the largest families of angiosperms. They are one of the most ecological and evolutionary significant plants and have successfully colonized almost every habitat on earth. Because of the significance of plant biology, market needs and the current level of breeding technologies, basic research into orchid biology and the application of biotechnology in the orchid industry are continually endearing scientists to orchids in Taiwan. In this introductory review, we give an overview of the research activities in orchid biology and biotechnology, including the status of genomics, transformation technology, flowering regulation, molecular regulatory mechanisms of floral development, scent production and color presentation. This information will provide a broad scope for study of orchid biology and serve as a starting point for uncovering the mysteries of orchid evolution.

  6. Students' Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in Agriculture Biotechnology but Not in Medical Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and…

  7. RNAi technologies in agricultural biotechnology: The Toxicology Forum 40th Annual Summer Meeting.

    PubMed

    Sherman, James H; Munyikwa, Tichafa; Chan, Stephen Y; Petrick, Jay S; Witwer, Kenneth W; Choudhuri, Supratim

    2015-11-01

    During the 40th Annual Meeting of The Toxicology Forum, the current and potential future science, regulations, and politics of agricultural biotechnology were presented and discussed. The meeting session described herein focused on the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) in agriculture. The general process by which RNAi works, currently registered RNAi-based plant traits, example RNAi-based traits in development, potential use of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) as topically applied pesticide active ingredients, research related to the safety of RNAi, biological barriers to ingested dsRNA, recent regulatory RNAi science reviews, and regulatory considerations related to the use of RNAi in agriculture were discussed. Participants generally agreed that the current regulatory framework is robust and appropriate for evaluating the safety of RNAi employed in agricultural biotechnology and were also supportive of the use of RNAi to develop improved crop traits. However, as with any emerging technology, the potential range of future products, potential future regulatory frameworks, and public acceptance of the technology will continue to evolve. As such, continuing dialogue was encouraged to promote education of consumers and science-based regulations.

  8. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  9. Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vranken, Nancy S., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The field of biotechnology, and specifically recombinant DNA technology, is transforming the way that many feel about the nature and purposes of biology. This newsletter annual supplement contains several articles addressing the topic of biotechnology and the importance that the topic should be given in science classes. James D. Watson's article,…

  10. Agricultural Science Teachers' Barriers, Roles, and Information Source Preferences for Teaching Biotechnology Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Diana L.; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Roberts, T. Grady; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine barriers, roles, and information source preferences for teaching agricultural biotechnology topics. Agricultural science teachers were described primarily as 37 year-old males who had taught for 12 years, had bachelor's degrees, and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. Equipment was perceived as the…

  11. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  12. Management strategies for agricultural biotechnology in small countries. A case study of Israel.

    PubMed

    Shalhevet, S; Haruvy, N; Spharim, I

    2001-11-01

    Agricultural biotechnology is concentrated in four major countries. This paper suggests strategies for developing it in small countries, based on analysis of the world trends and the characteristics of small countries. Israel is presented as a specific case study. The main relevant trends are domination by big companies, consumer concerns on genetically modified foods, and focusing on consumer benefits and specific market niches. Small countries' disadvantages include companies that are too small to benefit fully from research, difficulty in raising funds, lack of infrastructures and experienced management personnel, and public sector research organizations that are unsuitable for commercializing research. The recommended strategies include: developing a large number of low-volume products and small market niches, forming partnerships with intermediaries (such as food companies), specializing in intermediate products (such as the seed or the gene patent), and conducting market research and cost-benefit analysis in advance. Additional strategies include developing benefits that are unique to genetically modified foods and focusing on benefits specifically for consumers who accept genetically modified foods, rather than on benefits for the average consumer. A national representative organization could buy and rent out expensive equipment, finance specific projects in return for the commercial rights, and perform collective marketing research and marketing. Israel has the advantages of a successful agricultural sector and complementary scientific research, and should focus on those fruits, vegetables, and flowers for which it already has the experience and infrastructure.

  13. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  14. Land-Grant University-Industry Relationships in Biotechnology: A Comparison with the Non-Land-Grant Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, James; Kenney, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Presents study of industrial involvement in biotechnology research, comparing faculty surveys from land-grant colleges of agriculture and nonagricultural research universities. Agricultural biotechnologists report higher industrial involvement and more optimism about it. Industrial funding levels shown as significant factor in activities and…

  15. Biotechnologies for the management of genetic resources for food and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lidder, Preetmoninder; Sonnino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the land area under agriculture has declined as also has the rate of growth in agricultural productivity while the demand for food continues to escalate. The world population now stands at 7 billion and is expected to reach 9 billion in 2045. A broad range of agricultural genetic diversity needs to be available and utilized in order to feed this growing population. Climate change is an added threat to biodiversity that will significantly impact genetic resources for food and agriculture (GRFA) and food production. There is no simple, all-encompassing solution to the challenges of increasing productivity while conserving genetic diversity. Sustainable management of GRFA requires a multipronged approach, and as outlined in the paper, biotechnologies can provide powerful tools for the management of GRFA. These tools vary in complexity from those that are relatively simple to those that are more sophisticated. Further, advances in biotechnologies are occurring at a rapid pace and provide novel opportunities for more effective and efficient management of GRFA. Biotechnology applications must be integrated with ongoing conventional breeding and development programs in order to succeed. Additionally, the generation, adaptation, and adoption of biotechnologies require a consistent level of financial and human resources and appropriate policies need to be in place. These issues were also recognized by Member States at the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies for Developing Countries (ABDC-10), which took place in March 2010 in Mexico. At the end of the conference, the Member States reached a number of key conclusions, agreeing, inter alia, that developing countries should significantly increase sustained investments in capacity building and the development and use of biotechnologies to maintain the natural resource base; that effective and enabling national biotechnology policies and science-based regulatory frameworks can

  16. Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries and their possible contribution to food security.

    PubMed

    Ruane, John; Sonnino, Andrea

    2011-12-20

    Latest FAO figures indicate that an estimated 925 million people are undernourished in 2010, representing almost 16% of the population in developing countries. Looking to the future, there are also major challenges ahead from the rapidly changing socio-economic environment (increasing world population and urbanisation, and dietary changes) and climate change. Promoting agriculture in developing countries is the key to achieving food security, and it is essential to act in four ways: to increase investment in agriculture, broaden access to food, improve governance of global trade, and increase productivity while conserving natural resources. To enable the fourth action, the suite of technological options for farmers should be as broad as possible, including agricultural biotechnologies. Agricultural biotechnologies represent a broad range of technologies used in food and agriculture for the genetic improvement of plant varieties and animal populations, characterisation and conservation of genetic resources, diagnosis of plant or animal diseases and other purposes. Discussions about agricultural biotechnology have been dominated by the continuing controversy surrounding genetic modification and its resulting products, genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The polarised debate has led to non-GMO biotechnologies being overshadowed, often hindering their development and application. Extensive documentation from the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries (ABDC-10), that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 1-4 March 2010, gave a very good overview of the many ways that different agricultural biotechnologies are being used to increase productivity and conserve natural resources in the crop, livestock, fishery, forestry and agro-industry sectors in developing countries. The conference brought together about 300 policy-makers, scientists and representatives of intergovernmental and international non

  17. The Omics Revolution in Agricultural Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Agrochemicals Division cosponsored the 13th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held as part of the 248th National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society in San Francisco, CA, USA, August 10–14, 2014. The topic of the Congress was Crop, Environment, and Public Health Protection; Technologies for a Changing World. Over 1000 delegates participated in the Congress with interactive scientific programming in nine major topic areas including the challenges and opportunities of agricultural biotechnology. Plenary speakers addressed global issues related to the Congress theme prior to the daily technical sessions. The plenary lecture addressing the challenges and opportunities that omic technologies provide agricultural research is presented here. The plenary lecture provided the diverse audience with information on a complex subject to stimulate research ideas and provide a glimpse of the impact of omics on agricultural research. PMID:26468989

  18. The Omics Revolution in Agricultural Research.

    PubMed

    Van Emon, Jeanette M

    2016-01-13

    The Agrochemicals Division cosponsored the 13th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held as part of the 248th National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society in San Francisco, CA, USA, August 10-14, 2014. The topic of the Congress was Crop, Environment, and Public Health Protection; Technologies for a Changing World. Over 1000 delegates participated in the Congress with interactive scientific programming in nine major topic areas including the challenges and opportunities of agricultural biotechnology. Plenary speakers addressed global issues related to the Congress theme prior to the daily technical sessions. The plenary lecture addressing the challenges and opportunities that omic technologies provide agricultural research is presented here. The plenary lecture provided the diverse audience with information on a complex subject to stimulate research ideas and provide a glimpse of the impact of omics on agricultural research.

  19. Induction Strategies that Work: Keeping Agricultural, Health and Biotechnology Career Development Beginning Teachers in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Barbara M.; LeBude, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 27 agriculture, 13 biotechnology, and 44 health occupations teachers found that fewer than half experienced adequate materials, facilities, and continuing education reimbursement during induction. Better retention strategies matching teachers' stages of concern were needed during the first five years of teaching. (SK)

  20. Towards personalized agriculture: what chemical genomics can bring to plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Michael E; McCourt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the dominant drug paradigm in which compounds were developed to "fit all," new models focused around personalized medicine are appearing in which treatments are developed and customized for individual patients. The agricultural biotechnology industry (Ag-biotech) should also think about these new personalized models. For example, most common herbicides are generic in action, which led to the development of genetically modified crops to add specificity. The ease and accessibility of modern genomic analysis, when wedded to accessible large chemical space, should facilitate the discovery of chemicals that are more selective in their utility. Is it possible to develop species-selective herbicides and growth regulators? More generally put, is plant research at a stage where chemicals can be developed that streamline plant development and growth to various environments? We believe the advent of chemical genomics now opens up these and other opportunities to "personalize" agriculture. Furthermore, chemical genomics does not necessarily require genetically tractable plant models, which in principle should allow quick translation to practical applications. For this to happen, however, will require collaboration between the Ag-biotech industry and academic labs for early stage research and development, a situation that has proven very fruitful for Big Pharma.

  1. Towards personalized agriculture: what chemical genomics can bring to plant biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Michael E.; McCourt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the dominant drug paradigm in which compounds were developed to “fit all,” new models focused around personalized medicine are appearing in which treatments are developed and customized for individual patients. The agricultural biotechnology industry (Ag-biotech) should also think about these new personalized models. For example, most common herbicides are generic in action, which led to the development of genetically modified crops to add specificity. The ease and accessibility of modern genomic analysis, when wedded to accessible large chemical space, should facilitate the discovery of chemicals that are more selective in their utility. Is it possible to develop species-selective herbicides and growth regulators? More generally put, is plant research at a stage where chemicals can be developed that streamline plant development and growth to various environments? We believe the advent of chemical genomics now opens up these and other opportunities to “personalize” agriculture. Furthermore, chemical genomics does not necessarily require genetically tractable plant models, which in principle should allow quick translation to practical applications. For this to happen, however, will require collaboration between the Ag-biotech industry and academic labs for early stage research and development, a situation that has proven very fruitful for Big Pharma. PMID:25183965

  2. Biotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    consumer confidence in the food regulatory system, providing consumers greater choice about what they eat and build confidence in GM products.92 The...Gruere, “Mandatory Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods : Does it Really Provide Consumer Choice ?” AgBio Forum 6 no. 1&2 (2003), <http... Food and Biotechnology, “Is Labeling GM Foods an Effective Means of Facilitating Choices for Consumers?” AgBiotech Buzz: Labeling GM Foods , 2 issue 8

  3. Immunoassay as an analytical tool in agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Grothaus, G David; Bandla, Murali; Currier, Thomas; Giroux, Randal; Jenkins, G Ronald; Lipp, Markus; Shan, Guomin; Stave, James W; Pantella, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    Immunoassays for biotechnology engineered proteins are used by AgBiotech companies at numerous points in product development and by feed and food suppliers for compliance and contractual purposes. Although AgBiotech companies use the technology during product development and seed production, other stakeholders from the food and feed supply chains, such as commodity, food, and feed companies, as well as third-party diagnostic testing companies, also rely on immunoassays for a number of purposes. The primary use of immunoassays is to verify the presence or absence of genetically modified (GM) material in a product or to quantify the amount of GM material present in a product. This article describes the fundamental elements of GM analysis using immunoassays and especially its application to the testing of grains. The 2 most commonly used formats are lateral flow devices (LFD) and plate-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The main applications of both formats are discussed in general, and the benefits and drawbacks are discussed in detail. The document highlights the many areas to which attention must be paid in order to produce reliable test results. These include sample preparation, method validation, choice of appropriate reference materials, and biological and instrumental sources of error. The article also discusses issues related to the analysis of different matrixes and the effects they may have on the accuracy of the immunoassays.

  4. An intellectual property sharing initiative in agricultural biotechnology: development of broadly accessible technologies for plant transformation.

    PubMed

    Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Boettiger, Sara; Figueroa-Balderas, Rosa; Bird, Sara; Geoola, Josef N; Zamora, Pablo; Alandete-Saez, Monica; Bennett, Alan B

    2012-06-01

    The Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA) was founded in 2004 by the Rockefeller Foundation in response to concerns that public investments in agricultural biotechnology benefiting developing countries were facing delays, high transaction costs and lack of access to important technologies due to intellectual property right (IPR) issues. From its inception, PIPRA has worked broadly to support a wide range of research in the public sector, in specialty and minor acreage crops as well as crops important to food security in developing countries. In this paper, we review PIPRA's work, discussing the failures, successes, and lessons learned during its years of operation. To address public sector's limited freedom-to-operate, or legal access to third-party rights, in the area of plant transformation, we describe PIPRA's patent 'pool' approach to develop open-access technologies for plant transformation which consolidate patent and tangible property rights in marker-free vector systems. The plant transformation system has been licensed and deployed for both commercial and humanitarian applications in the United States (US) and Africa, respectively.

  5. Putting concerns about nature in context: the case of agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about nature are playing increasingly prominent roles in a variety of social debates, including medical biotechnology, environmental protection, and agricultural biotechnology. These concerns are often simply rejected as incoherent: critics argue that there is no good account for how natural states of affairs can have moral value, and that the concept of "nature" is too multifarious and vague to be deployed in moral argument anyway. When these concerns are defended, they are frequently formulated as strong claims that make implausible ontological commitments and that ignore the linkages between these different debates. Agricultural biotechnology provides an especially challenging case study for evaluating concerns about nature. I offer a qualified defense that recognizes these concerns as conceptually linked, attends to social context at appropriate points, and overcomes the charges of incoherence. This defense supports a restrained treatment of concerns about nature in public policy: public policy can neither endorse nor dismiss them. In the case of agricultural biotechnology, this stance probably mandates some form of labeling.

  6. Integrating Interdisciplinary Research-Based Experiences in Biotechnology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Rupa S.; Wales, Melinda E.

    2012-01-01

    The increasingly interdisciplinary nature of today's scientific research is leading to the transformation of undergraduate education. In addressing these needs, the University of Houston's College of Technology has developed a new interdisciplinary research-based biotechnology laboratory curriculum. Using the pesticide degrading bacterium,…

  7. The Neoliberal University and Agricultural Biotechnology: Reports from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peekhaus, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Following in the footsteps of a variety of previous research that elaborates on the current state of affairs in academia, this article sets out the argument that neoliberalism and its corresponding iterations of science and technology and research funding policies in this country have implications for the types of knowledge that can be generated…

  8. The regulation of agricultural biotechnology: science shows a better way.

    PubMed

    Miller, Henry I

    2010-11-30

    National and international regulation of recombinant DNA-modified, or 'genetically engineered' (also referred to as 'genetically modified' or GM), organisms is unscientific and illogical, a lamentable illustration of the maxim that bad science makes bad law. Instead of regulatory scrutiny that is proportional to risk, the degree of oversight is actually inversely proportional to risk. The current approach to regulation, which captures for case-by-case review organisms to be field tested or commercialized according to the techniques used to construct them rather than their properties, flies in the face of scientific consensus. This approach has been costly in terms of economic losses and human suffering. The poorest of the poor have suffered the most because of hugely inflated development costs of genetically engineered plants and food. A model for regulation of field trials known as the 'Stanford Model' is designed to assess risks of new agricultural introductions - whether or not the organisms are genetically engineered, and independent of the genetic modification techniques employed. It offers a scientific, rational, risk-based basis for field trial regulations. Using this sort of model for regulatory review would not only better protect human health and the environment, but would also permit more expeditious development and more widespread use of new plants and seeds.

  9. Agricultural biotechnology. Monsanto donates its share of golden rice.

    PubMed

    Normile, D

    2000-08-11

    Monsanto Co. has agreed to provide royalty-free licenses to speed up work on a genetically modified rice that could alleviate vitamin A deficiency around the world. Researchers welcomed last week's announcement, but warn that a thicket of intellectual property claims surrounds the technology and that significant legal hurdles remain before the rice can become widely available to farmers in developing countries.

  10. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the

  11. Justifying a presumption of restraint in animal biotechnology research.

    PubMed

    Fiester, Autumn

    2008-06-01

    Articulating the public's widespread unease about animal biotechnology has not been easy, and the first attempts have not been able to provide an effective tool for navigating the moral permissibility of this research. Because these moral intuitions have been difficult to cash out, they have been belittled as representing nothing more than fear or confusion. But there are sound philosophical reasons supporting the public's opposition to animal biotechnology and these arguments justify a default position of resistance I call the Presumption of Restraint. The Presumption of Restraint constitutes a justificatory process that sets out the criteria for permitting or rejecting individual biotechnology projects. This Presumption of Restraint can be overridden by compelling arguments that speak to a project's moral and scientific merit. This strategy creates a middle-of-the-road stance that can embrace particular projects, while rejecting others. The Presumption of Restraint can also serve as a model for assessing moral permissibility in other areas of technological innovation.

  12. Biotechnology of algae: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, V.; Warmbrodt, R.D.; Young, A.T.

    1993-02-04

    The use of algae in biotechnology research and in the biotechnology industry is significant. Algae play critical roles as bioreactors for the production of food, chemicals, and fuels. They are becoming extremely important in the development of solar energy technology and in biodegradation and bioremediation programs, and their importance in the ever-expanding domestic and international aquaculture industry cannot be over-emphasized. The bibliography has been sub-divided into several sections representing the major efforts in algal biotechnology research. The first section represents literature of a general nature followed by sections on the specific topics of culture, gene expression and sequencing information, products and product development, and bioremediation and biodegradation. The citations included in the bibliography were taken from the NAL AGRICOLA database and from BIOSIS Previews.

  13. Global unbalance in seaweed production, research effort and biotechnology markets.

    PubMed

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical

  14. Science and Policy Issues: A Report of Citizen Concerns and Recommendations for American Agricultural Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Two areas which will have far reaching consequences for the future of United States agriculture are discussed: (1) biotechnology; and (2) critical economic research in world trade and commodity supply management. Topics in the first area include: controversies related to biotechnology; the relative importance of health, safety, and environmental…

  15. 78 FR 23885 - Agricultural Research Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service..., Agricultural Research Service, intends to grant to Headwall Photonics, Inc. of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, an... published Notice, the Agricultural Research Service receives written evidence and argument which...

  16. Food and agricultural biotechnology: a summary and analysis of ethical concerns.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul B; Hannah, William

    2008-01-01

    The range of social and ethical concerns that have been raised in connection with food and agricultural biotechnology is exceedingly broad. Many of these deal with risks and possible outcomes that are not unique to crops or animals developed using recombinant DNA. Food safety, animal welfare, socio-economic and environmental impacts, as well as shifts in power relations or access to technology raise concerns that might be generalized to many technologies. These aspects of the controversy over biotechnology are analyzed below as elements of general technological ethics, and key norms or values pertinent to each of these categories are specified in some detail. However, a number of special concerns unique to the use of rDNA in manipulating plant and animal genomes have been raised, and these are reviewed as well. The chapter concludes by reviewing two broad policy strategies for responding to the issues, one involving labels and consumer consent, the other applying the precautionary principle.

  17. Agricultural biotechnology for crop improvement in a variable climate: hope or hype?

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Bansal, Kailash C; Aggarwal, Pramod K; Datta, Swapan K; Craufurd, Peter Q

    2011-07-01

    Developing crops that are better adapted to abiotic stresses is important for food production in many parts of the world today. Anticipated changes in climate and its variability, particularly extreme temperatures and changes in rainfall, are expected to make crop improvement even more crucial for food production. Here, we review two key biotechnology approaches, molecular breeding and genetic engineering, and their integration with conventional breeding to develop crops that are more tolerant of abiotic stresses. In addition to a multidisciplinary approach, we also examine some constraints that need to be overcome to realize the full potential of agricultural biotechnology for sustainable crop production to meet the demands of a projected world population of nine billion in 2050.

  18. Microbial resource research infrastructure (MIRRI): infrastructure to foster academic research and biotechnological innovation.

    PubMed

    Schüngel, Manuela; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2015-01-01

    The coordinated collaboration between public culture collections within the MIRRI infrastructure will support research and development in the field of academic as well as industrial biotechnology. Researchers working with microorganisms using the envisioned MIRRI portal will have facilitated access to microbial resources, associated data and expertise. By addressing the users' specific needs MIRRI will provide the basis for biotechnological innovation in Europe.

  19. Britain's genetically modified crop controversies: the Agriculture and Environment Biotechnology Commission and the negotiation of 'uncertainty'.

    PubMed

    Grove-White, Robin

    2006-01-01

    The genetically modified crop controversies in Britain between 1997 and 2004 involved tensions surrounding the role of science in policy. The author of the paper was a member of the Agriculture and Environment Biotechnology Commission, a novel government advisory body created in 2000, which played a central role in negotiating new policy frameworks. The commission was also a key influence in the creation and execution of the three-pronged official 'GM dialogue' in 2002 and 2003. New understandings of 'uncertainty', both scientific and social, emerged as a result. The outcomes have relevance for the future political handling of other technological fields, including human genetics.

  20. Biotechnology tools in agriculture: recent patents involving soybean, corn and sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Daiane; Nakahata, Adriana M; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Alonso, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    The technological opportunities opened up by biotechnology in agriculture are diverse, including plant breeding, the partial or total relief of pesticides chemicals usage, the improvement of soil fertility, the improvement of the quality attributes of various foods. Specifically, various tricks of biotechnology can be used for higher seed yield, resistance to diseases and insects, better stems and roots, tolerance to drought and heat, and better agronomic quality. A number of recent works considerably widen the potential of plant biotechnology where transformation methods and studies of molecular genomics have been described. For example, transformation techniques and search for new selectable markers involving biolistic technique, gene transfer technique using the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, selection technique based on the use of mannose, utilization of genes promoting endogenous hormone production under the control of chemical stimulants, further more, engineering the nuclear genome without antibiotic resistance genes and engineering the plastid genome. We are presenting in this paper some of the recent patents on methods and techniques involving genes coding proteins and breeding techniques with possible agronomic applicability on crops economically important, such as soybean, corn and sugarcane.

  1. Plant protection and growth stimulation by microorganisms: biotechnological applications of Bacilli in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Alejandro; Romero, Diego; de Vicente, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    The increasing demand for a steady, healthy food supply requires an efficient control of the major pests and plant diseases. Current management practices are based largely on the application of synthetic pesticides. The excessive use of agrochemicals has caused serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is a growing demand for new and safer methods to replace or at least supplement the existing control strategies. Biological control, that is, the use of natural antagonists to combat pests or plant diseases has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides. The Bacilli offer a number of advantages for their application in agricultural biotechnology. Several Bacillus-based products have been marketed as microbial pesticides, fungicides or fertilisers. Bacillus-based biopesticides are widely used in conventional agriculture, by contrast, implementation of Bacillus-based biofungicides and biofertilizers is still a pending issue.

  2. Transgenic proteins in agricultural biotechnology: The toxicology forum 40th annual summer meeting.

    PubMed

    Sherman, James H; Choudhuri, Supratim; Vicini, John L

    2015-12-01

    During the 40th Annual Meeting of The Toxicology Forum, the current and potential future science, regulations, and politics of agricultural biotechnology were presented and discussed. The range of current commercial crops and commercial crop traits related to transgenic proteins were reviewed and example crop traits discussed, including insecticidal resistance conferred by Bt proteins and the development of nutritionally enhanced food such as Golden Rice. The existing regulatory framework in the USA, with an emphasis on US FDA's role in evaluating the safety of genetically engineered crops under the regulatory umbrella of the FD&C Act was reviewed. Consideration was given to the polarized politics surrounding agricultural biotechnology, the rise of open access journals, and the influence of the internet and social media in shaping public opinion. Numerous questions related to misconceptions regarding current products and regulations were discussed, highlighting the need for more scientists to take an active role in public discourse to facilitate public acceptance and adoption of new technologies and to enable science-based regulations.

  3. Chinese public understanding of the use of agricultural biotechnology--a case study from Zhejiang Province of China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Lan

    2006-04-01

    This study explores the Chinese public's perceptions of, and attitudes to, agriculture and food applications of biotechnology; and investigates the effect of socio-demographic factors on attitudes. A questionnaire survey and interviews were used in an attempt to combine quantitative analysis with qualitative review. The main finding of this study is that the Chinese population has a superficial, optimistic attitude to agricultural biotechnology; and that, in accordance with public attitudes, a cautious policy, with obligatory labelling, should be adopted. The study reveals that education is the factor among socio-demographic variables with the strongest impact on public attitudes. Higher education leads to a more positive evaluation of GM (genetically modified) foods and applications of biotechnology with respect to usefulness, moral acceptability, and suitability for encouragement. In addition, public attitudinal differences depend significantly on area of residence. Compared with their more urban compatriots, members of the public in less developed areas of China have more optimistic attitudes, perceive more benefits, and are more risk tolerant in relation to GM foods and agricultural biotechnology. Finally we obtained a very high rate of "don't know" answers to our survey questions. This suggests that many people do not have settled attitudes, and correspondingly, that the overall public attitude to agricultural biotechnology and GM foods in China is at present somewhat unstable.

  4. Application of agricultural biotechnology to improve food nutrition and healthcare products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Samuel S M

    2008-01-01

    Crop plants provide essential food nutrients to humans and livestock, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals and vitamins, directly or indirectly. The level and composition of food nutrients vary significantly in different food crops. As a result, plant foods are often deficient in certain nutrient components. Relying on a single food crop as source of nutrients thus will not achieve a balanced diet and results in malnutrition and deficiency diseases, especially in the developing countries, due mainly to poverty. The development and application of biotechnology offers opportunities and novel possibilities to enhance the nutritional quality of crops, particularly when the necessary genetic variability is not available. While initial emphasis of agricultural biotechnology has been placed on input traits of crops such as herbicide tolerance, insect resistance and virus resistance, increasing effort and promising proof-of-concept products have been made in output traits including enhancing the nutritional quality of crops since 1990s. Advancements in plant transformation and transgene expression also allow the use of plants as bioreactors to produce a variety of bio-products at large scale and low cost. Many proof-of-concept plant-derived healthcare products have been generated and several commercialized.

  5. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development.

  6. Development of an agricultural biotechnology crop product: testing from discovery to commercialization.

    PubMed

    Privalle, Laura S; Chen, Jingwen; Clapper, Gina; Hunst, Penny; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Zhong, Cathy X

    2012-10-17

    "Genetically modified" (GM) or "biotech" crops have been the most rapidly adopted agricultural technology in recent years. The development of a GM crop encompasses trait identification, gene isolation, plant cell transformation, plant regeneration, efficacy evaluation, commercial event identification, safety evaluation, and finally commercial authorization. This is a lengthy, complex, and resource-intensive process. Crops produced through biotechnology are the most highly studied food or food component consumed. Before commercialization, these products are shown to be as safe as conventional crops with respect to feed, food, and the environment. This paper describes this global process and the various analytical tests that must accompany the product during the course of development, throughout its market life, and beyond.

  7. Present and potential applications of cellulases in agriculture, biotechnology, and bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Phitsuwan, Paripok; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Kyu, Khin Lay; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2013-03-01

    Cellulase (CEL) presently constitutes a major group of industrial enzyme based on its diverse ranges of utilization. Apart from such current and well-established applications-as in cotton processing, paper recycling, detergent formulation, juice extraction, and animal feed additives-their uses in agricultural biotechnology and bioenergy have been exploited. Supplementation of CELs to accelerate decomposition of plant residues in soil results in improved soil fertility. So far, applying CELs/antagonistic cellulolytic fungi to crops has shown to promote plant growth performance, including enhanced seed germination and protective effects. Their actions are believed mainly to trigger plant defense mechanisms and/or to act as biocontrol agents that mediate disease suppression. However, the exact interaction between the enzymes/fungi and plants has not been clearly elucidated. Under mild conditions, removal of plant cell wall polysaccharides by CELs for protoplast preparation results in reduced protoplast damage and increased viability and yields. CELs have recently shown great potential in enzyme aid extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials before selective extraction through enhancing release of target molecules, especially those associated with the wall matrix. To date, attempts have been made to formulate CEL preparation for cellulosic-based bioethanol production. The high cost of CELs has created a bottleneck, resulting in an uneconomic production process. The utilization of low-cost carbohydrates, strain improvement, and gene manipulations has been alternatively aimed at reducing the cost of CEL production. In this review, we focus on and discuss current knowledge of CELs and their applications in agriculture, biotechnology, and bioenergy.

  8. Stakeholder attitudes toward the risks and benefits of agricultural biotechnology in developing countries: a comparison between Mexico and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Aerni, Philipp

    2002-12-01

    Public perceptions and political debates regarding the risks and benefits of agricultural biotechnology are well documented in industrialized countries. Yet, hardly any surveys have been conducted in developing countries. The following study aims to contribute to a better understanding of stakeholder attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology in developing countries. For this purpose, stakeholder representatives in the public debates in Mexico and the Philippines were asked to complete two nearly identical questionnaires on the risks and benefits of agricultural biotechnology. A comparison of stakeholder attitudes in the Philippines and Mexico is interesting because it shows how the different political systems, cultural and ecological backgrounds, and the regional context of food and agriculture influence perceptions. In general, the results of the surveys indicate that the participants in both countries consider genetic engineering to be an important tool to address agricultural, nutritional, and environmental problems, and they do not regard transgenic foods as risky for consumers. However, they are concerned about the potential impact of such transgenic crops on their countries' rich biological diversity and do not believe that national biosafety guidelines will be implemented properly. Although the surveys show that stakeholder attitudes in the Philippines and Mexico are quite similar, they also highlight significant differences in perception often related to cultural and political aspects.

  9. Development of biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Ghose, T K; Bisaria, V S

    2000-01-01

    India has embarked upon a very ambitious program in biotechnology with a view to harnessing its available human and unlimited biodiversity resources. It has mainly been a government sponsored effort with very little private industry participation in investment. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) established under the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1986 was the major instrument of action to bring together most talents, material resources, and budgetary provisions. It began sponsoring research in molecular biology, agricultural and medical sciences, plant and animal tissue culture, biofertilizers and biopesticides, environment, human genetics, microbial technology, and bioprocess engineering, etc. The establishment of a number of world class bioscience research institutes and provision of large research grants to some existing universities helped in developing specialized centres of biotechnology. Besides DBT, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), also under the Ministry of S&T, sponsors research at universities working in the basic areas of life sciences. Ministry of Education's most pioneering effort was instrumental in the creation of Biochemical Engineering Research Centre at IIT Delhi with substantial assistance from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland to make available state-of-the-art infrastructure for education, training, and research in biochemical engineering and biotechnology in 1974. This initiative catalysed biotechnology training and research at many institutions a few years later. With a brief introduction, the major thrust areas of biotechnology development in India have been reviewed in this India Paper which include education and training, agricultural biotechnology, biofertilizers and biopesticides, tissue culture for tree and woody species, medicinal and aromatic plants, biodiversity conservation and environment, vaccine development, animal, aquaculture, seri and food biotechnology, microbial

  10. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry, food manufacturers, state government, consumer and community development groups,...

  11. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry, food manufacturers, state government, consumer and...

  12. New directions at TVA with special reference to agricultural research

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.J.; Rylant, K.E.

    1994-03-01

    Public Support for the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) fertilizer research and development program in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, ended in fiscal year 1993. TVA`s research center at Muscle Shoals, formerly known as the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center, is now the TVA Environmental Research Center. Efforts at the Center have diversified to include research and support areas of Agricultural Research and Practices, Atmospheric Sciences, Biotechnology, Waste Management, and Remediation, Environmental Site Remediation, Support Services, Environmental Management, and Technology Transfer. ``We`re building on the expertise and success of our earlier research and focusing our new projects on emerging problems of the 21st century,`` TVA`s Chairman Craven Crowell said in prepared remarks to Congress on March 2, 1994. Agricultural Research in TVA has been aligned with corporate objectives to develop solutions to environmental problems of regional, national and international significance because the agency`s business incorporates a broad mix of responsibilities, including power generation, navigation, flood control, shoreline management, recreation, environmental research, and economic development. Agricultural strategies for watershed protection lie at the core of TVA`s new agricultural research agenda. The major influences for this agenda are TVA`s direct stewardship responsibilities for the 60,000 miles of streams that feed the 652-mile-long Tennessee River; the 11,000 miles of shoreline; and 470,000 acres of TVA-managed public land.

  13. 76 FR 3150 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines...: The NIH Guidelines currently require that recombinant DNA experiments designed to create...

  14. 75 FR 42114 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Action Under the NIH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH... transgenic rodents by recombinant DNA technology must be registered with the Institutional...

  15. Challenges for global agricultural research.

    PubMed

    Blake, R O

    1992-03-01

    The Green Revolution of the 60s can not be expected to continue to feed the world as its population continues to grow. Innovations in plant varieties, chemical inputs, and irrigation did result in more food; however, the cost of this innovation was loss of soil and fertility, poisoning of ground water, waterlogging, and salination of fields. If the world's food production system is to be sustainable and environmentally safe as well as capable of producing 50% more food in the next 20 years, then a lot of research must still be done. Now, instead of 2 international research centers, there are 17. All these centers are operated under the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Another 12 center are currently being set up or cooperating with CGIAR. The scientists are also being asked to develop cost and labor effective ways to improve the soil and conserve water. This change of priorities has come about partly from external pressure, but mostly from: the realization that agricultural productivity must continue to grow at unprecedented rates for the next 4 decades; chemical inputs are often to expensive, unavailable, or dangerous, there is very little room for expanding irrigation; national /agricultural research and extension centers have become underfunded, overly politicized, and ineffective; developing countries can not rely solely upon their fertile land to feed their people, they must bring marginal land into production. To accomplish all this, the World Bank must take a leadership role. It is the only organization with enough money and political power to effectively bring everyone together.

  16. Perspectives of biotechnologies based on dormancy phenomenon for space researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V.; Sychev, V.; Layus, D.; Levinsky, M.; Novikova, N.; Zakhodnova, T.

    Long term space missions will require a renewable source of food and an efficient method to recycle oxygen Plants especially aquatic micro algae provide an obvious solution to these problems However long duration plant growth and reproduction in space that is necessary for transportation of a control ecological life support system CELSS from Earth to other planets are problematic The introduction of heterotrophs in space CELSS is a more formidable problem as the absence of gravity creates additional difficulties for their life Dormancy phenomenon protected a great many animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years This phenomenon can be quite perspective as a tool to overcome difficulties with CELSS transportation in space missions Cryptobiotic stages of microbes fungi unicellular algae and protists can survive in open space conditions that is important for interplanetary quarantine and biological security inside spacecraft Searching for life outside the Earth at such planet like Mars with extremely variable environment should be oriented on dormancy as crucial phases of a life cycle in such organisms Five major research programs aimed on study dormancy phenomenon for exobiology purposes and creation of new biotechnologies are discussed List of species candidate components of CELSS with dormancy in their life cycle used in space experiments at the Russian segment of International Space Station now includes 26 species from bacteria to fish The

  17. The application of biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, He-Ping; Li, Jin-Cai; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dian-Lei; Huang, Peng; Nie, Jiu-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Breeding is not only an important area of medicinal plants research but also the foundation for the superior varieties acquirement of medicinal plants. The rise of modern biotechnology provides good opportunities and new means for medicinal plants breeding research in China. Biotechnology shows its technical advantages and new development prospects in breeding of new medicinal plants varieties with high and stable yield, good quality, as well as stress-resistance. In this paper, we describe recent advances, problems, and development prospects about the application of modern biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

  18. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry, food manufacturers, state government, consumer and community development groups, as... Commerce, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of State, the...

  19. Enzyme research and applications in biotechnological intensification of biogas production.

    PubMed

    Parawira, Wilson

    2012-06-01

    Biogas technology provides an alternative source of energy to fossil fuels in many parts of the world. Using local resources such as agricultural crop remains, municipal solid wastes, market wastes and animal waste, energy (biogas), and manure are derived by anaerobic digestion. The hydrolysis process, where the complex insoluble organic materials are hydrolysed by extracellular enzymes, is a rate-limiting step for anaerobic digestion of high-solid organic solid wastes. Biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis are areas in need of drastic improvement for economic production of biogas from complex organic matter such as lignocellulosic material and sewage sludge. Despite development of pretreatment techniques, sugar release from complex biomass still remains an expensive and slow step, perhaps the most critical in the overall process. This paper gives an updated review of the biotechnological advances to improve biogas production by microbial enzymatic hydrolysis of different complex organic matter for converting them into fermentable structures. A number of authors have reported significant improvement in biogas production when crude and commercial enzymes are used in the pretreatment of complex organic matter. There have been studies on the improvement of biogas production from lignocellulolytic materials, one of the largest and renewable sources of energy on earth, after pretreatment with cellulases and cellulase-producing microorganisms. Lipids (characterised as oil, grease, fat, and free long chain fatty acids, LCFA) are a major organic compound in wastewater generated from the food processing industries and have been considered very difficult to convert into biogas. Improved methane yield has been reported in the literature when these lipid-rich wastewaters are pretreated with lipases and lipase-producing microorganisms. The enzymatic treatment of mixed sludge by added enzymes prior to anaerobic digestion has been shown to result in improved degradation of the

  20. Biotechnological research and development for biomass conversion to chemicals and fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villet, R.

    1980-08-01

    Revitalization of the older fermentation industry and development of biotechnology largely based on lignocellulose are proposed. Specific research projects are outlined in these two areas and also for the following: microbial formation of hydrocarbons; methane from anaerobic digestion; lignin; methanol. For cellulose conversion to ethanol the relative merits using added cellulases or, alternatively, direct fermentation with anaerobic thermophiles, are discussed. In selecting suitable feedstocks for biotechnological processes there is a need to use a production extraction conversion system as a basis for evaluation.

  1. Autophagy: from basic research to its application in food biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Cebollero, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process by which the cytoplasm is sequestered into double-membrane vesicles and delivered to the lysosome/vacuole for breaking down and recycling of the low molecular weight degradation products. The isolation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of many of the genes involved in autophagy constituted a milestone in understanding the molecular bases of this pathway. The identification of ortholog genes in other eukaryotic models revealed that the mechanism of autophagy is conserved among all eukaryotes. This pathway has been shown to be involved in a growing number of physiological processes and conversely, its deregulation may contribute to the development of several diseases. Recent reports have also shown that autophagy may play an important role in biotechnological processes related with the food industry. In this review we discuss current knowledge of the molecular mechanism of autophagy, including some applied aspects of autophagy in the field of food biotechnology.

  2. 76 FR 62816 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines... recombinant DNA research. OBA is also specifying the risk group for several viruses not previously listed...

  3. 76 FR 44339 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines... attenuated strains of bacteria and viruses that are frequently used in recombinant DNA research. OBA is...

  4. The Challenge in Teaching Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, F.; Aubusson, P.

    2004-08-01

    Agriculture, industry and medicine are being altered by new biotechnologies. Biotechnology education is important because todays students and citizens will make decisions about the development and application of these new molecular biologies. This article reports an investigation of the teaching of biotechnology in an Australian state, New South Wales (NSW). In NSW few students were electing to answer examination questions related to biotechnology, suggesting that few students were studying the topic. This study looks at why electives relating to biotechnology are chosen or not chosen by students and teachers, with the intention of developing a greater understanding of the requirements for provision of a successful unit of study in this subject. Data was obtained through a survey of secondary science teachers, interviews with teachers and two case studies of the teaching of a biotechnology unit. Teachers reported a range of obstacles to the teaching of biotechnology including the difficulty of the subject matter and a lack of practical work that was suited to the content of the teaching unit. If biotechnology is worth learning in school science, then further research is needed to identify ways to promote the effective teaching of this topic, which teachers regard as important for, and interesting to, students but which most teachers choose not to teach.

  5. Biotechnological research and development for biomass conversion to chemicals and fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Villet, R.

    1980-08-01

    It is likely that a growing need to produce chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will stimulate the development of biotechnology as a commerical enterprise of considerable potential. The purpose of the analysis and the development structure that could lead to establishing this new technology are presented. Two general goals are recommended: (i) in the near term, to revive the older fermentation industry and, by the addition of sophisticated technology, to make it competitive; (ii) in the longer term, to develop a new biotechnology largely based on lignocellulose. Specific research projects are outlined in these two areas and also for the following: microbial formation of hydrocarbons; methane from anaerobic digestion; lignin; methanol. For cellulose conversion to ethanol the relative merits of using added cellulases or, alternatively, direct fermentation with anaerobic thermophiles, are discussed. In selecting suitable feedstocks for biotechnological processes there is a need to use a production-extraction-conversion system as a basis for evaluation. An effective research workforce for developing biotechnology must be pluridisciplinary. The strategy adopted at the Solar Energy Research Institute is to design the Biotechnology Branch as an integrated set of three Groups: Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics; Microbiology; Chemical and Biochemical Engineering.

  6. Crop biotechnology. Where now?

    PubMed

    Miflin, B J

    2000-05-01

    Nature Biotechnology organized a conference in London on Agobiotech 99: Biotechnology and World Agriculture (November 14-16, 1999). The conference focused entirely on crop biotechnology and covered both societal and scientific aspects. Below is an account of the more important issues raised by the speakers and the audience.

  7. Biotechnology: Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airozo, Diana; Warmbrodt, Robert D.

    Biotechnology is the latest in a series of technological innovations that have revolutionized the fields of agriculture and the health sciences; however, there are concerns with this technology. This document is designed to help foster dialogue with emphasis on education and the development of a public understanding of the principals involved in…

  8. Long-Term Farm Policy to Succeed the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 (Research, Extension, and Teaching). Part 5. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Departmental Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (June 6, 7, 12, and 13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This congressional hearing is the fifth of five volumes examining various aspects of agricultural research, extension, and teaching as a prelude to determining what changes are to be made in Title XIV of the farm bill. Focuses are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) biotechnology program plans and regulatory concerns and the public benefits…

  9. University-Industry Research Relationships in Biotechnology: Implications for the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents an analysis of a survey of University-Industry Research Relationships (UIRR) in biotechnology that involved over 1200 university faculty. Findings indicated that researchers with industrial support published at higher rates, patented more frequently, participated in more administrative and professional activities, and earned more than…

  10. 75 FR 69687 - Office of Biotechnology Activities Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... of Biotechnology Activities Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines) ACTION: Notice of consideration of proposed...- vector system may be certified only after review by the NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC)...

  11. 76 FR 27653 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines... Kluyveromyces lactis as a host-vector 1 system has been reviewed by the NIH ] Recombinant DNA Advisory...

  12. Agricultural biology in the 3rd millennium: nutritional food security & specialty crops through sustainable agriculture and biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food security and agricultural sustainability are of prime concern in the world today in light of the increasing trends in population growth in most parts of the globe excepting Europe. The need to develop capacity to produce more to feed more people is complicated since the arable land is decreasin...

  13. Founders hope new venture-capital fund will spur medical, biotechnology research

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    Lack of a coherent industrial strategy and venture capital have hindered scientific researchers in Canada, but the Canadian Medical Discoveries Fund (CMDF) Inc. hopes to change that. Under the leadership of Dr. Henry Friesen, president of the Medical Research Council of Canada, and Dr. Calvin Stiller, head of the multiorgan transplant unit at University Hospital, London, Ont., the new fund proposes to invest in promising medical and biotechnology research companies in Canada. The research council's peerreview system gives the new fund scientific credibility.

  14. 76 FR 68126 - Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics; Notice of the Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... United States Department of Agriculture announces two meetings of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology... the Secretary of Agriculture on topics related to the use of biotechnology in agriculture....

  15. 75 FR 31795 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA... ] under Section III-A-1 of the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH... the NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee has been deferred at the request of the...

  16. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  17. Ascendancy of agricultural biotechnology in the Australian political mainstream coexists with technology criticism by a vocal-minority.

    PubMed

    Tribe, David

    2014-07-03

    Australia is a federation of States. This political structure necessitates collaborative arrangements between Australian governments to harmonize national regulation of gene technology and food standards. Extensive political negotiation among institutions of federal government has managed regulation of GM crops and food. Well-developed human resources in Australian government provided numerous policy documents facilitating a transparent political process. Workable legislation has been devised in the face of criticisms of gene technology though the political process. Conflicts between potential disruptions to food commodity trade by precautionary proposals for environmental protection were one cause of political tensions, and differences in policy priorities at regional political levels versus national and international forums for negotiation were another. Australian policy outcomes on GM crops reflect (a) strong economic self-interest in innovative and productive farming, (b) reliance on global agricultural market reforms through the Cairns trade group and the WTO, and (c) the importance of Codex Alimentarius and WTO instruments SPS and TBT. Precautionary frameworks for GM food safety assurance that are inconsistent with WTO obligations were avoided in legislation. Since 2008 the 2 major parties, Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberals appear to have reached a workable consensus at the Federal policy level about an important role for agricultural biotechnology in Australia's economic future.

  18. Ascendancy of agricultural biotechnology in the Australian political mainstream coexists with technology criticism by a vocal-minority

    PubMed Central

    Tribe, David

    2014-01-01

    Australia is a federation of States. This political structure necessitates collaborative arrangements between Australian governments to harmonize national regulation of gene technology and food standards. Extensive political negotiation among institutions of federal government has managed regulation of GM crops and food. Well-developed human resources in Australian government provided numerous policy documents facilitating a transparent political process. Workable legislation has been devised in the face of criticisms of gene technology though the political process. Conflicts between potential disruptions to food commodity trade by precautionary proposals for environmental protection were one cause of political tensions, and differences in policy priorities at regional political levels versus national and international forums for negotiation were another. Australian policy outcomes on GM crops reflect (a) strong economic self-interest in innovative and productive farming, (b) reliance on global agricultural market reforms through the Cairns trade group and the WTO, and (c) the importance of Codex Alimentarius and WTO instruments SPS and TBT. Precautionary frameworks for GM food safety assurance that are inconsistent with WTO obligations were avoided in legislation. Since 2008 the 2 major parties, Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberals appear to have reached a workable consensus at the Federal policy level about an important role for agricultural biotechnology in Australia's economic future. PMID:25437242

  19. Antimicrobial peptide production and plant-based expression systems for medical and agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Holaskova, Edita; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Oz, M Tufan

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are vital components of the innate immune system of nearly all living organisms. They generally act in the first line of defense against various pathogenic bacteria, parasites, enveloped viruses and fungi. These low molecular mass peptides are considered prospective therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum rapid activity, low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and unique mode of action which hinders emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition to medical use, AMPs can also be employed for development of innovative approaches for plant protection in agriculture. Conferred disease resistance by AMPs might help us surmount losses in yield, quality and safety of agricultural products due to plant pathogens. Heterologous expression in plant-based systems, also called plant molecular farming, offers cost-effective large-scale production which is regarded as one of the most important factors for clinical or agricultural use of AMPs. This review presents various types of AMPs as well as plant-based platforms ranging from cell suspensions to whole plants employed for peptide production. Although AMP production in plants holds great promises for medicine and agriculture, specific technical limitations regarding product yield, function and stability still remain. Additionally, establishment of particular stable expression systems employing plants or plant tissues generally requires extended time scale for platform development compared to certain other heterologous systems. Therefore, fast and promising tools for evaluation of plant-based expression strategies and assessment of function and stability of the heterologously produced AMPs are critical for molecular farming and plant protection.

  20. The use of yeast genetic diversity for agricultural and biotechnological applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many yeasts have been shown to be effective for biocontrol of field, greenhouse, and storage diseases of agricultural crops. Yeasts are generally regarded as safe for a wide variety of applications and some species establish large populations on leaf and fruit surfaces, resulting in disease control ...

  1. The use of yeast genetic diversity for agricultural and biotechnological applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many types of yeast have been shown to be effective for biocontrol of field, greenhouse, and storage diseases of agricultural crops. Yeasts are generally regarded as safe for a wide variety of applications and some species establish large populations on leaf and fruit surfaces, resulting in disease ...

  2. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy.

  3. Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

  4. Gaps in agricultural climate adaptation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Debra

    2016-05-01

    The value of the social sciences to climate change research is well recognized, but notable gaps remain in the literature on adaptation in agriculture. Contributions focus on farmer behaviour, with important research regarding gender, social networks and institutions remaining under-represented.

  5. [First South american network of biomedical research. Education and biotechnology for health].

    PubMed

    Perone, Marcelo J; Velázquez, Graciela; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Chamorro, Gustavo; Coluchi, Norma; Pirmez, Claude; Savino, Wilson; Barbeito, Luis; Arzt, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    It is in our interest, in this brief manuscript, to report the creation of the first program of regional integration of a network of research institutes in Biomedicine belonging to members of the MERCOSUR countries. We discuss some of the foundations that gave sustenance to its creation and its objectives in the medium and long term. In addition, we consider the potential of the results of this program in the fields of applied medical research, education and biotechnology.

  6. USDA-Agricultural Research Service Irrigation Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ARS irrigation research program at the Delta Center is part of the USDA-ARS Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research Unit located at Columbia, Missouri. It began in 2000 with cooperative research between ARS scientists at Columbia and Delta Center faculty. By 2003 the program had expanded eno...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We hav processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture gas shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal ...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We have processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture has shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal...

  9. Microgravity as a research tool to improve US agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bula, R. J.; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2000-01-01

    Crop production and utilization are undergoing significant modifications and improvements that emanate from adaptation of recently developed plant biotechnologies. Several innovative technologies will impact US agriculture in the next century. One of these is the transfer of desirable genes from organisms to economically important crop species in a way that cannot be accomplished with traditional plant breeding techniques. Such plant genetic engineering offers opportunities to improve crop species for a number of characteristics as well as use as source materials for specific medical and industrial applications. Although plant genetic engineering is having an impact on development of new crop cultivars, several major constraints limit the application of this technology to selected crop species and genotypes. Consequently, gene transfer systems that overcome these constraints would greatly enhance development of new crop materials. If results of a recent gene transfer experiment conducted in microgravity during a Space Shuttle mission are confirmed, and with the availability of the International Space Station as a permanent space facility, commercial plant transformation activity in microgravity could become a new research tool to improve US agriculture. .

  10. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  11. Developing Tomorrow's Decision-Makers: Opportunities for Biotechnology Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Annette; Nichols, Kim; Kanasa, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Globally, science curricula have been described as outdated, and students perceive school science as lacking in relevance. Declines in senior secondary and tertiary student participation in science indicate an urgent need for change if we are to sustain future scientific research and development, and perhaps more importantly, to equip students…

  12. USDA Agricultural Research at Penn State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The building directly across from the Creamery, the one you've probably never been in or even thought about much? That federal building has been there since 1936, when this part of campus was all agricultural fields and not much else. Back then it held the U.S. Regional Pasture Research Laboratory, ...

  13. Research careers for microbiologists in the USDA Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) employees microbiologists in a wide variety of diverse positions. This includes work involving animal health, infectious diseases and food safety. Various agencies within the USDA are responsible for monit...

  14. Gene Silencing in Crustaceans: From Basic Research to Biotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Sagi, Amir; Manor, Rivka; Ventura, Tomer

    2013-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) is gaining momentum for crustaceans, both in basic research and for commercial development. RNAi has proven instrumental in a growing number of crustacean species, revealing the functionality of novel crustacean genes essential among others to development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. Extensive studies have also been done on silencing of viral transcripts in crustaceans, contributing to the understanding of the defense mechanisms of crustaceans and strategies employed by viruses to overcome these. The first practical use of gene silencing in aquaculture industry has been recently achieved, through manipulation of a crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland hormone. This review summarizes the advancements in the use of RNAi in crustaceans, and assesses the advantages of this method, as well as the current hurdles that hinder its large-scale practice. PMID:24705266

  15. 2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Prange, C

    2003-03-01

    LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

  16. The use of stem cells in biomedical research. Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) position statement.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    On March 22, 1999, Carl B. Feldbaum, President of the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), submitted comments to the National Bioethics Advisory Committee (NBAC) in response to their request for comments on stem cell research. In the statement submitted to Harold Shapiro, PhD (Chair, NBAC), Mr. Feldbaum made clear that BIO members want to ensure that the promise of new therapies and cures from research using stem cells is realized in a responsible and ethical way. In addition, all BIO members are committed to ensuring that every avenue of promising research can be responsibly explored to improve the health of individuals living with currently intractable diseases.

  17. Resistance to agricultural biotechnology: the importance of distinguishing between weak and strong public attitudes.

    PubMed

    Aerni, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Empirical research shows that European governments and retailers are unlikely to be directly punished by taxpayers and consumers if they move away from their anti-GMO positions and policies. However, it is ultimately not the weak attitudes of taxpayers and consumers that matter to governments and retailers but the strong attitudes of the noisy anti-biotech movement. (Image: Highway signs: ©maxmitzu - Fotolia.com; woman and balance: ©lassedesignen - Fotolia.com).

  18. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  19. Towards a more open debate about values in decision-making on agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Sanvido, Olivier; Tait, Joyce; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory decision-making over the use of products of new technology aims to be based on science-based risk assessment. In some jurisdictions, decision-making about the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) plants is blocked supposedly because of scientific uncertainty about risks to the environment. However, disagreement about the acceptability of risks is primarily a dispute over normative values, which is not resolvable through natural sciences. Natural sciences may improve the quality and relevance of the scientific information used to support environmental risk assessments and make scientific uncertainties explicit, but offer little to resolve differences about values. Decisions about cultivating GM plants will thus not necessarily be eased by performing more research to reduce scientific uncertainty in environmental risk assessments, but by clarifying the debate over values. We suggest several approaches to reveal values in decision-making: (1) clarifying policy objectives; (2) determining what constitutes environmental harm; (3) making explicit the factual and normative premises on which risk assessments are based; (4) better demarcating environmental risk assessment studies from ecological research; (5) weighing the potential for environmental benefits (i.e., opportunities) as well as the potential for environmental harms (i.e., risks); and (6) expanding participation in the risk governance of GM plants. Recognising and openly debating differences about values will not remove controversy about the cultivation of GM plants. However, by revealing what is truly in dispute, debates about values will clarify decision-making criteria.

  20. The Role of Public Opinion in Shaping Trajectories of Agricultural Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Malyska, Aleksandra; Bolla, Robert; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    Science and technology are not autonomous entities and research trajectories are largely influenced by public opinion. The role of political decisions becomes especially evident in light of rapidly developing new breeding techniques (NBTs) and other genome editing methods for crop improvement. Decisions on how those new techniques should be regulated may not be based entirely on scientific rationale, and even if it is decided that crops produced by NBTs do not fall under the umbrella of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), their commercialization is by no means certain at this time. If and when adopted regulations do not comply with the public's perception of risks, policy makers will find themselves under pressure to ban or restrict the use of the respective products.

  1. Metabolomics, a Powerful Tool for Agricultural Research

    PubMed Central

    Tian, He; Lam, Sin Man; Shui, Guanghou

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics, which is based mainly on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas-chromatography (GC) or liquid-chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) analytical technologies to systematically acquire the qualitative and quantitative information of low-molecular-mass endogenous metabolites, provides a direct snapshot of the physiological condition in biological samples. As complements to transcriptomics and proteomics, it has played pivotal roles in agricultural and food science research. In this review, we discuss the capacities of NMR, GC/LC-MS in the acquisition of plant metabolome, and address the potential promise and diverse applications of metabolomics, particularly lipidomics, to investigate the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana, a primary plant model for agricultural research, to environmental stressors including heat, freezing, drought, and salinity. PMID:27869667

  2. Expediting Agriculture Through Science Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Fincher, Stephen Lee [R-TN-8

    2011-05-26

    06/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Cell biology and biotechnology research for exploration of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellis, N.; North, R.

    Health risks generated by human long exposure to radiation, microgravity, and unknown factors in the planetary environment are the major unresolved issues for human space exploration. A complete characterization of human and other biological systems adaptation processes to long-duration space missions is necessary for the development of countermeasures. The utilization of cell and engineered tissue cultures in space research and exploration complements research in human, animal, and plant subjects. We can bring a small number of humans, animals, or plants to the ISS, Moon, and Mars. However, we can investigate millions of their cells during these missions. Furthermore, many experiments can not be performed on humans, e.g. radiation exposure, cardiac muscle. Cells from critical tissues and tissue constructs per se are excellent subjects for experiments that address underlying mechanisms important to countermeasures. The development of cell tissue engineered for replacement, implantation of biomaterial to induce tissue regeneration (e.g. absorbable collagen matrix for guiding tissue regeneration in periodontal surgery), and immunoisolation (e.g. biopolymer coating on transplanted tissues to ward off immunological rejection) are good examples of cell research and biotechnology applications. NASA Cell Biology and Biotechnology research include Bone/Muscle and Cardiovascular cell culture and tissue engineering; Environmental Health and Life Support Systems; Immune System; Radiation; Gravity Thresholds ; and Advanced Biotechnology Development to increase the understanding of animal and plant cell adaptive behavior when exposed to space, and to advance technologies that facilitates exploration. Cell systems can be used to investigate processes related to food, microbial proliferation, waste management, biofilms and biomaterials. The NASA Cell Science Program has the advantage of conducting research in microgravity based on significantly small resources, and the ability to

  4. Microgravity: New opportunities to facilitate biotechnology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Terry; Todd, Paul; Stodieck, Louis S.

    1996-03-01

    New opportunities exist to use the microgravity environment to facilitate biotechnology development. BioServe Space Technologies Center for the Commercial Development of Space offers access to microgravity environments for companies who wish to perform research or develop products in three specific life-science fields: Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research, Biotechnology and Bioprocessing Research, and Agricultural and Environmental Research. Examples of each include physiological testing of new pharmaceutical countermeasures against symptoms that are exaggerated in space flight, crystallization and testing of novel, precompetitive biopharmaceutical substances in a convection-free environment, and closed life-support system product development.

  5. "FACILS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology" (hereafter "FACILS") presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research

    SciTech Connect

    Methe, Barbara

    2016-02-03

    As we enter the 21st century, the sustainability of the biosphere is a global challenge that can best be met with a global response. This includes how we train and promote our next generation of research scientists in the emerging arenas of genome-enabled biology and a bio-based economy. It is this fundamental issue that formed the motivation for designing and conducting a shortcourse entitled “FACILIS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology” (hereafter “FACILIS”) presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research. This WG was established in 1994 under the umbrella of the US-EC Task Force on Biotechnology Research, a transatlantic collaborative group overseen by the US Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the EC. The Environmental Biotechnology Working Group maintains several goals, including establishing research links between scientists in EU countries and the US and fostering the careers of junior scientists from both sides of the Atlantic to the global nature of scientific cooperation. To that end, a shortcourse was held at the University of Milan in Italy on July 12-25 2014 organized around cross-cutting themes of genomic science and designed to attract a stellar group of interdisciplinary early carrier researchers. A total of 22 students, 10 from the US and 12 from the EU participated. The course provided them with hands-on experience with the latest scientific methods in genomics and bioinformatics; using a format that combines lectures, laboratory research and field work with the final goal to enable researchers to finally turn data into knowledge.

  6. The Challenge in Teaching Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, F.; Aubusson, P.

    2004-01-01

    Agriculture, industry and medicine are being altered by new biotechnologies. Biotechnology education is important because today's students and citizens will make decisions about the development and application of these new molecular biologies. This article reports an investigation of the teaching of biotechnology in an Australian state, New South…

  7. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    PubMed

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be comparable to their nontransgenic counterparts and safe . The crops upon which GM development are based are generally considered safe.

  8. Post-harvest entomology research in the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.

    PubMed

    Throne, James E; Hallman, Guy J; Johnson, Judy A; Follett, Peter A

    2003-01-01

    This is a review of current post-harvest entomology research conducted by the Agricultural Research Service, the research branch of the US Department of Agriculture. The review covers both durable and perishable commodities. Research on biochemistry, genetics, physiology, monitoring and control of insects infesting stored grain, dried fruits and nuts, and processed commodities is reviewed. Research on development of quarantine treatments, particularly for fruit flies, is also reviewed, including research on thermal and irradiation treatments and a discussion of risk management for quarantine pests. Two areas of research are covered more extensively: a project to map the genome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the use of near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hidden infestations in grain, quantification of insect fragments in food, determination of quality in dried fruits, identification of insect species and age-grading insects. Future research directions are identified.

  9. Recent research efforts in the area of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Poster session papers

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A.; Grohmann, K.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.

  10. Recent research efforts in the area of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Poster session papers

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A. ); Grohmann, K. )

    1992-01-01

    This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.

  11. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  12. The 5th World Congress of chemical engineering: Technologies critical to a changing World. Volume II: Agriculture, food biotechnology biomedical electric power process safety

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Volume 2 of the proceedings from the 5th World Congress of Chemical Engineering covers four major topic areas from which papers were selected for the database: Agriculture, Food; Biotechnology; Electric Power, and Process Safety. Pertinent subtopics include: Renewable Resource Engineering; Special Processes in the Food Industry; Advances in Metabolite Production; Advances in Fermentation and Cell Culture Engineering; Coal and Nuclear Central Station Power Plants; Large Natural Gas Fired Power Stations; Distributed Generation; Potential Impact of Biomass Energy; and Chemical Hazards in Plant Design. 29 papers were selected from Volume 1 for the database.

  13. Improving value assessment of high-risk, high-reward biotechnology research: the role of 'thick tails'.

    PubMed

    Casault, Sébastien; Groen, Aard J; Linton, Jonathan D

    2014-03-25

    This paper presents work toward improving the efficacy of financial models that describe the unique nature of biotechnology firms. We show that using a 'thick tailed' power law distribution to describe the behavior of the value of biotechnology R&D used in a Real Options Pricing model is significantly more accurate than the traditionally used Gaussian approach. A study of 287 North-American biotechnology firms gives insights into common problems faced by investors, managers and other stakeholders when using traditional techniques to calculate the commercial value of R&D. This is important because specific quantitative tools to assess the value of high-risk, high-reward R&D do not currently exist. This often leads to an undervaluation of biotechnology R&D and R&D intensive biotechnology firms. For example, the widely used Net Present Value (NPV) method assumes a fixed risk ignoring management flexibility and the changing environment. However, Real Options Pricing models assume that commercial returns from R&D investments are described by a normal random walk. A normal random walk model eliminates the possibility of drastic changes to the marketplace resulting from the introduction of revolutionary products and/or services. It is possible to better understand and manage biotechnology research projects and portfolios using a model that more accurately considers large non-Gaussian price fluctuations with thick tails, which recognize the unusually large risks and opportunities associated with Biotechnology R&D. Our empirical data show that opportunity overcompensates for the downside risk making biotechnology R&D statistically more valuable than other Gaussian options investments, which may otherwise appear to offer a similar combination of risk and return.

  14. Arthropod genomics research in the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: Current impacts and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the intramural research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which employs scientists to conduct basic and applied research aimed to develop and transfer solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority and to ensure food...

  15. Public perceptions of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McHughen, Alan

    2007-09-01

    The very term 'Biotechnology' elicits a range of emotions, from wonder and awe to downright fear and hostility. This is especially true among non-scientists, particularly in respect of agricultural and food biotechnology. These emotions indicate just how poorly understood agricultural biotechnology is and the need for accurate, dispassionate information in the public sphere to allow a rational public debate on the actual, as opposed to the perceived, risks and benefits of agricultural biotechnology. This review considers first the current state of public knowledge on agricultural biotechnology, and then explores some of the popular misperceptions and logical inconsistencies in both Europe and North America. I then consider the problem of widespread scientific illiteracy, and the role of the popular media in instilling and perpetuating misperceptions. The impact of inappropriate efforts to provide 'balance' in a news story, and of belief systems and faith also impinges on public scientific illiteracy. Getting away from the abstract, we explore a more concrete example of the contrasting approach to agricultural biotechnology adoption between Europe and North America, in considering divergent approaches to enabling coexistence in farming practices. I then question who benefits from agricultural biotechnology. Is it only the big companies, or is it society at large--and the environment--also deriving some benefit? Finally, a crucial aspect in such a technologically complex issue, ordinary and intelligent non-scientifically trained consumers cannot be expected to learn the intricacies of the technology to enable a personal choice to support or reject biotechnology products. The only reasonable and pragmatic alternative is to place trust in someone to provide honest advice. But who, working in the public interest, is best suited to provide informed and accessible, but objective, advice to wary consumers?

  16. Viewing Agricultural Education Research through a Qualitative Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Kim E.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Agricultural Education has primarily published research that uses quantitative research methods. Perhaps this is due partly to the lack of a qualitative research conceptual framework to guide our profession. Most researchers in agricultural education were academically prepared to conduct empirical research. Those who are in the…

  17. Who Talks to Whom in Malawi's Agricultural Research Information Network?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapila, Mariam A. T. J.; Yauney, Jason; Thangata, Paul; Droppelmann, Klaus; Mazunda, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The sector-wide approach currently dominates as the strategy for developing the agricultural sector of many African countries. Although recognised that collaborative agricultural research is vital in ensuring success of sector-wide agricultural development strategies; there have been few efforts to understand the dynamics of national…

  18. Research Report. Teenagers and Biotechnology: A Survey of Understanding and Opinion in Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Barrie; Kinderlerer, Julian; Beyleveld, Deryck

    1998-01-01

    Describes British teenagers' (n=138) knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward biotechnology with particular reference to food production. Concludes that more than half the teenagers were familiar with the term "biotechnology," but most lacked detailed knowledge of the subject. Teens rated formal schooling in science as an important…

  19. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA).

    PubMed

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y

    2011-09-01

    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology.

  20. Organisation of biotechnological information into knowledge.

    PubMed

    Boh, B

    1996-09-01

    The success of biotechnological research, development and marketing depends to a large extent on the international transfer of information and on the ability to organise biotechnology information into knowledge. To increase the efficiency of information-based approaches, an information strategy has been developed and consists of the following stages: definition of the problem, its structure and sub-problems; acquisition of data by targeted processing of computer-supported bibliographic, numeric, textual and graphic databases; analysis of data and building of specialized in-house information systems; information processing for structuring data into systems, recognition of trends and patterns of knowledge, particularly by information synthesis using the concept of information density; design of research hypotheses; testing hypotheses in the laboratory and/or pilot plant; repeated evaluation and optimization of hypotheses by information methods and testing them by further laboratory work. The information approaches are illustrated by examples from the university-industry joint projects in biotechnology, biochemistry and agriculture.

  1. The bioterrorism threat and dual-use biotechnological research: an Israeli perspective.

    PubMed

    Friedman, David; Rager-Zisman, Bracha; Bibi, Eitan; Keynan, Alex

    2010-03-01

    Israel has a long history of concern with chemical and biological threats, since several hostile states in the Middle East are likely to possess such weapons. The Twin-Tower terrorist attacks and Anthrax envelope scares of 2001 were a watershed for public perceptions of the threat of unconventional terror in general and of biological terror in particular. New advances in biotechnology will only increase the ability of terrorists to exploit the burgeoning availability of related information to develop ever-more destructive bioweapons. Many areas of modern biological research are unavoidably dual-use by nature. They thus have a great potential for both help and harm; and facilitating the former while preventing the latter remains a serious challenge to researchers and governments alike. This article addresses how Israel might best (1) prevent hostile elements from obtaining, from Israel's biological research system, materials, information and technologies that might facilitate their carrying out a biological attack, while (2) continuing to promote academic openness, excellence and other hallmarks of that system. This important and sensitive issue was assessed by a special national committee, and their recommendations are presented and discussed. One particularly innovative element is the restructuring and use of Israel's extensive biosafety system to also address biosecurity goals, with minimal disruption or delay.

  2. To amend the Agricultural Adjustment Act to exclude raisins from agricultural marketing orders.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Radel, Trey [R-FL-19

    2013-07-25

    08/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Quantitative Theoretical and Conceptual Framework Use in Agricultural Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchel, Tracy; Ball, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this philosophical paper was to articulate the disciplinary tenets for consideration when using theory in agricultural education quantitative research. The paper clarified terminology around the concept of theory in social sciences and introduced inaccuracies of theory use in agricultural education quantitative research. Finally,…

  4. Innovation in biotechnology: moving from academic research to product development--the case of biosensors.

    PubMed

    Siontorou, Christina G; Batzias, Fragiskos A

    2010-06-01

    The fast pace of technological change in the biotechnology industry and the market demands require continuous innovation, which, owing to the science base of the sector, derives from academic research through a transformation process that converts science-oriented knowledge to marketable products. There appear to be some inherent difficulties in transforming directly the knowledge output of academic research to industrial use. The purpose of this article is to examine certain transition mechanisms from monodisciplinary academic isolation (curiosity-driven and internal-worth innovation) to university-industry alliances (market-driven and public-worth innovation) through inter-organizational multidisciplinary collaboration and contextualize the analysis with the case of biosensors. While the majority of literature on the subject studies the channels of knowledge transfer as determinants of alliance success (transferor/transferee interactions), either from the university side (science base) or the industry side (market base), this article focuses on the transferable (technology base) and how it can be strategically modeled and managed by the industry to promote innovation. Based on the valuable lessons learnt from the biosensor paradigm, the authors argue that strategic industry choices deal primarily with the best stage/point to intersect and seize the university output, implanting the required element of marketability that will transform an idea to a viable application. The authors present a methodological approach for accelerating the knowledge transfer from the university to industry aiming at the effective transition of science to products through a business model reconfiguration.

  5. Job Prospects for Agricultural Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the career outlook for agricultural engineers. Explains that the number of bachelor degrees awarded yearly continues to drop, and that the traditional industries that hire agricultural engineers are employing fewer each year. Suggests that future opportunities exist in the areas of information technology, biotechnology, and research. (TW)

  6. Overview of Mosquito Research Programs at the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), a U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service laboratory, was established in World War II to produce products to protect military personnel against insect vector of disease. Currently the mission of CMAVE is ...

  7. On Teaching Biotechnology in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dan C.; Kemp, Michael C.; Hall, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    One study surveyed 187 Kentucky teachers (36% agriculture, 32% science, 32% technology education); they rated importance of content organizers, topics, transferable skills, and delivery methods for biotechnology. A second study received responses from 70 of 150 teachers; 45 thought science teachers or an integrated team should teach biotechnology;…

  8. Engineering plastid genomes: methods, tools, and applications in basic research and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bock, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The small bacterial-type genome of the plastid (chloroplast) can be engineered by genetic transformation, generating cells and plants with transgenic plastid genomes, also referred to as transplastomic plants. The transformation process relies on homologous recombination, thereby facilitating the site-specific alteration of endogenous plastid genes as well as the precisely targeted insertion of foreign genes into the plastid DNA. The technology has been used extensively to analyze chloroplast gene functions and study plastid gene expression at all levels in vivo. Over the years, a large toolbox has been assembled that is now nearly comparable to the techniques available for plant nuclear transformation and that has enabled new applications of transplastomic technology in basic and applied research. This review describes the state of the art in engineering the plastid genomes of algae and land plants (Embryophyta). It provides an overview of the existing tools for plastid genome engineering, discusses current technological limitations, and highlights selected applications that demonstrate the immense potential of chloroplast transformation in several key areas of plant biotechnology.

  9. A RESEARCH STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNICIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JENSEN, BRUCE F.

    QUESTIONNAIRES WERE MAILED TO 297 BUSINESS FIRMS TO DETERMINE THE CHARACTER OF THE WORK FORCE, THE TURNOVER OR OPENINGS ANNUALLY, THE JOB QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED TO FILL THE JOBS, AND THE TRAINING PROGRAMS NEEDED TO PREPARE STUDENTS FOR THE OCCUPATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES, GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES, AND FARMS IN THE COLLEGE OF THE SEQUOIAS…

  10. Blastobotrys (Arxula) adeninivorans: a promising alternative yeast for biotechnology and basic research.

    PubMed

    Malak, Anna; Baronian, Kim; Kunze, Gotthard

    2016-10-01

    Blastobotrys adeninivorans (syn. Arxula adeninivorans) is a non-conventional, non-pathogenic, imperfect, haploid yeast, belonging to the subphylum Saccharomycotina, which has to date received comparatively little attention from researchers. It possesses unusual properties such as thermo- and osmotolerance, and a broad substrate spectrum. Depending on the cultivation temperature B. (A.) adeninivorans exhibits different morphological forms and various post-translational modifications and protein expression properties that are strongly correlated with the morphology. The genome has been completely sequenced and, in addition, there is a well-developed transformation/expression platform, which makes rapid, simple gene manipulations possible. This yeast species is a very good host for homologous and heterologous gene expression and is also a useful gene donor. Blastobotrys (A.) adeninivorans is able to use a very wide range of substrates as carbon and/or nitrogen sources and is an interesting organism owing to the presence of many metabolic pathways, for example degradation of n-butanol, purines and tannin. In addition, its unusual properties and robustness make it a useful bio-component for whole cell biosensors. There are currently a number of products on the market produced by B. (A.) adeninivorans and further investigation may contribute further innovative solutions for current challenges that exist in the biotechnology industry. Additionally it may become a useful alternative to existing commercial yeast strains and as a model organism in research. In this review we present information relevant to the exploitation of B. (A.) adeninivorans in research and industrial settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. BIOFAC-An investment in space infrastructure for biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.

    2000-01-01

    During the last half century, biotechnology has contributed to the development of many important new and useful products that have improved our quality of life. To a large extent, these contributions are attributable to advances in cellular and molecular biology that can be traced to the discovery of DNA. What began as a science involved with manipulations of whole organisms has transcended into an ability to influence organisms at the cellular and molecular levels with greater speed, flexibility and precision than ever before. This has produced significantly improved pharmaceutical, textile, diagnostic, and environmental products, to name just a few. Early in this new century, biotechnology research is expected to literally explode with exciting new and promising opportunities. More importantly, biotechnology research in the low gravity environment of space is expected to play a significant part in this biotechnology revolution by expediting the discovery of important new medical, agricultural and environmental products. .

  12. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research in application technology for pest management.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A; Thomson, S J

    2003-01-01

    A research summary is presented that emphasizes ARS achievements in application technology over the past 2-3 years. Research focused on the improvement of agricultural pesticide application is important from the standpoint of crop protection as well as environmental safety. Application technology research is being actively pursued within the ARS, with a primary focus on application system development, drift management, efficacy enhancement and remote sensing. Research on application systems has included sensor-controlled hooded sprayers, new approaches to direct chemical injection, and aerial electrostatic sprayers. For aerial application, great improvements in on-board flow controllers permit accurate field application of chemicals. Aircraft parameters such as boom position and spray release height are being altered to determine their effect on drift. Other drift management research has focused on testing of low-drift nozzles, evaluation of pulsed spray technologies and evaluation of drift control adjuvants. Research on the use of air curtain sprayers in orchards, air-assist sprayers for row crops and vegetables, and air deflectors on aircraft has documented improvements in application efficacy. Research has shown that the fate of applied chemicals is influenced by soil properties, and this has implications for herbicide efficacy and dissipation in the environment. Remote sensing systems are being used to target areas in the field where pests are present so that spray can be directed to only those areas. Soil and crop conditions influence propensity for weeds and insects to proliferate in any given field area. Research has indicated distinct field patterns favorable for weed growth and insect concentration, which can provide further assistance for targeted spraying.

  13. Industrial biotechnology: tools and applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weng Lin; Zhao, Huimin

    2009-12-01

    Industrial biotechnology involves the use of enzymes and microorganisms to produce value-added chemicals from renewable sources. Because of its association with reduced energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation, industrial biotechnology is a rapidly growing field. Here we highlight a variety of important tools for industrial biotechnology, including protein engineering, metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, systems biology, and downstream processing. In addition, we show how these tools have been successfully applied in several case studies, including the production of 1, 3-propanediol, lactic acid, and biofuels. It is expected that industrial biotechnology will be increasingly adopted by chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and agricultural industries.

  14. Challenges of climate change: omics-based biology of saffron plants and organic agricultural biotechnology for sustainable saffron production.

    PubMed

    Husaini, Amjad M

    2014-01-01

    Kashmir Valley is a major saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) growing area of the world, second only to Iran in terms of production. In Kashmir, saffron is grown on uplands (termed in the local language as "Karewas"), which are lacustrine deposits located at an altitude of 1585 to 1677 m above mean sea level (amsl), under temperate climatic conditions. Kashmir, despite being one of the oldest historical saffron-producing areas, faces a rapid decline of saffron industry. Among many other factors responsible for decline of saffron industry the preponderance of erratic rainfalls and drought-like situation have become major challenges imposed by climate change. Saffron has a limited coverage area as it is grown as a 'niche crop' and is a recognized "geographical indication," growing under a narrow microclimatic condition. As such it has become a victim of climate change effects, which has the potential of jeopardizing the livelihood of thousands of farmers and traders associated with it. The paper discusses the potential and actual impact of climate change process on saffron cultivation in Kashmir; and the biotechnological measures to address these issues.

  15. 75 FR 12171 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, Room 3901, South Building, United States Department of... United States Department of Agriculture announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Notice of the National Agricultural Research,...

  16. 75 FR 61692 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, Room 3901 South Building, United States...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Notice of the National Agricultural Research,...

  17. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  18. Benefits of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.; Dyer, James E.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 identified the benefits of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs, including agriculture knowledge and positive work attitudes. Classroom, SAE, and Future Farmers of America complemented each other. The research base is state specific and fragmented and lacks cohesiveness. (SK)

  19. Identification of Emerging Science Competencies in Agriculture. Vocational Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. School of Vocational Education.

    A research project identified new and emerging science concepts that should be taught in high school vocational agriculture. Agricultural scientists on an advisory panel identified the emerging science concepts. The majority were in the areas of plant science and animal science. Animal science was completely reorganized with greater emphasis on…

  20. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  1. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  2. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  3. The yin and yang of yeast: biodiversity research and systems biology as complementary forces driving innovation in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ian N; Oliver, Stephen G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this article is to review how yeast has contributed to contemporary biotechnology and to seek underlying principles relevant to its future exploitation for human benefit. Recent advances in systems biology combined with new knowledge of genome diversity promise to make yeast the eukaryotic workhorse of choice for production of everything from probiotics and pharmaceuticals to fuels and chemicals. The ability to engineer new capabilities through introduction of controlled diversity based on a complete understanding of genome complexity and metabolic flux is key. Here, we briefly summarise the history that has led to these apparently simple organisms being employed in such a broad range of commercial applications. Subsequently, we discuss the likely consequences of current yeast research for the future of biotechnological innovation.

  4. Factoids, factettes and fallacies: the problem of crossover research in the analysis of consumer responses to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Philip; Topping, David

    2010-12-31

    A sound appreciation of the factors governing community acceptance of innovation in biotechnology is crucially important to the ability of biotechnology to deliver solutions to problems of socio-economic and public health importance. However, much of the research on consumer acceptance has been carried out by individuals with formal expertise in fields other than the analysis of human behaviour. This crossover research results in a body of work that is based substantially on a relatively naïve, untutored approach to human behavioural science rather than on a thorough grounding in the subject. This paper describes, with examples, the potential for fundamental conceptual and methodological deficiencies to give rise to apparently plausible but misguided conclusions about consumer attitudes and behaviour and how they could be influenced. It is argued that, for biotechnological innovations to achieve their full potential for benefit, the appraisal of consumer and community reactions should be conducted using the same methodological standards and scientific rigour as those used to generate the innovations themselves.

  5. Working Towards Disease Resistance in Peanuts Through Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistant cultivars are the most desirable approach to disease control in agriculture. Early and late leaf spot are the most important foliar diseases of peanut worldwide. Significant progress for leaf spot resistance in peanut can be achieved through biotechnology. The National Peanut Research ...

  6. (Workshop on Willow Breeding and Biotechnology Development Activities)

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, P.A.

    1988-10-12

    P.A. Layton attended a workshop on Willow Breeding and Biotechnology Development Activities,'' which was organized by the International Energy Agency/Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA) Task II. The traveler spent 1 d prior to the meeting to visit scientists and administrators of Shell Research Limited. Physiology and Biological Chemistry Division to discus their interest in biomass production research as well as their other research interests in tissue culture, biotechnology, and management of forests and agricultural crops that are pertinent to the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biomass Production program.

  7. Reporting and Interpreting Effect Size in Quantitative Agricultural Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotrlik, Joe W.; Williams, Heather A.; Jabor, M. Khata

    2011-01-01

    The Journal of Agricultural Education (JAE) requires authors to follow the guidelines stated in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association [APA] (2009) in preparing research manuscripts, and to utilize accepted research and statistical methods in conducting quantitative research studies. The APA recommends the reporting of…

  8. 76 FR 62755 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, United States Department of Agriculture..., and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education,...

  9. Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to

  10. From germ cell preservation to regenerative medicine: an exciting research career in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wilmut, Ian

    2014-02-01

    Collection, manipulation, assessment, and storage of mammalian gametes, embryos, and stem cells are providing important opportunities in agriculture, research, and medicine. Semen and embryo freezing in livestock are used in breeding schemes, especially in cattle and for international trade, with no risk of spreading disease. In human medicine, they are used in treatment of infertility. Usually, knowledge gained in one species is applicable in the others. In one exception, some ruminant embryos cultured according to protocols used in human in vitro fertilization become unusually large offspring. This is due to disturbances in expression of imprinted genes. The nuclear transfer procedure developed at the Roslin Institute is being used to make genetic modifications in livestock to either direct production of biomedical proteins, create animal models of human disease, or enhance animal health and productivity. Human pluripotent cells are being used in Edinburgh to identify drugs to treat degenerative diseases.

  11. Sustaining the Earth's watersheds, agricultural research data system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS water resources program has developed a web-based data system, STEWARDS: Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data System to support research that encompasses a broad range of topics such as water quality, hydrology, conservation, land use, and soils. The data syst...

  12. Rhetorical Structure of Research Articles in Agricultural Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Huimin; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Although the rhetorical structure of research articles (RA) has been extensively examined from individual sections to complete IMRD sections regarding different disciplines, no research has been addressed to the overall rhetorical structure of RAs as a whole entity in the field of agricultural science. In this study, we analyzed 45 agricultural…

  13. Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leslie

    Plant scientists and science policymakers from government, private companies, and universities met at a convocation on the genetic engineering of plants. During the convocation, researchers described some of the ways genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems. Policymakers delineated and debated changes in research funding…

  14. Agricultural weed research: a critique and two proposals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two broad aims drive weed science research: improved management and improved understanding of weed biology and ecology. In recent years, agricultural weed research addressing these two aims has effectively split into separate sub-disciplines despite repeated calls for greater integration. While some...

  15. A Study of Research Utilization Processes in British Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, R.L.

    This study, done in England and Wales, was a first step in developing a model or set of models for describing processes by which agricultural research findings are put into practice. It was decided that the model should be based on actual instances of transmission and use of research. Models by the author and by others were used in developing…

  16. Cultural impacts on public perceptions of agricultural biotechnology: A comparison of South Korea and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nader, Richard Harrison

    According to Millar (1996), the gulf between science and society is growing. Technologies are tools cultures develop to solve society's problems. The rapid dispersion of science and technology across cultural borders through trade, technology transfer and exchange, increasingly requires people in different cultures to make choices about accepting or rejecting artifacts of science and technology such as genetically modified (GM) foods, which originate primarily from the United States. These issues challenge policy makers and scientists to account for the affects of different cultural perspectives on controversial scientific issues. Given the controversy across cultures over acceptance or rejection of genetically modified (GM) foods, GM foods are an excellent example with which to begin to reveal how culture impacts public perceptions of the risk and benefits of science and technology in different societies. This research will: (1) Define public awareness and understanding of science, specifically GM foods; (2) Examine culture's impact on knowledge, including different cultural approaches to research; and (3) Compare recent findings of a bi-national public opinion survey on GM comparing in South Korea and the United States. The proposed research outlines two research questions: (1) How and in what ways do South Koreans and Americans differ in their opinions about GMOs? This question is important for gathering current points of contrast about how the two cultures may differ; and (2) What role does culture play on opinion formation about GM foods? Through grounded theory, the researcher will investigate how cultural differences help explain opinion on public perceptions of GM foods. Is it possible to identify common cultural factors that impact public perceptions of GM foods between South Koreans and Americans? The study will utilize both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Higher education is a major producer of new science and technology. The study is

  17. Research in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Annual AAAE Eastern Regional Research Conference (55th, Baltimore, MD, July 6, 2001). Volume 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Harry N., Jr., Ed.

    These proceedings contain eight papers presented at the meeting, each followed by a critique. Major areas studied are home schooling, incorporating agriscience and biotechnology in agricultural education, part-time employment by agricultural education teachers, 4-H, attitudes of Agricultural Science Institute participants, client satisfaction, and…

  18. Biotechnology, Industry Study, Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    materials. Transcending multiple disciplines to include healthcare, manufacturing , agriculture, energy, life sciences, pharmaceuticals, chemistry...applications, including using yeast to make bread, bacteria to derive yogurt , and molds to make cheeses.4 Early biotechnology endeavors included...suppliers, food manufacturing , transportation, retail grocers, and food service providers. Protecting Agriculture and Public Health The

  19. Biotechnology Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    principles of biotechnology to improve their daily lives by fermenting fruit, making bread using yeast, and making yogurt from milk. Biotechnology has...license additional egg-based influenza vaccine manufacturers to increase domestic vaccine manufacturing capacity and accelerate efforts to develop...of suppliers. The US government is the primary or sole buyer of certain vaccines. Not long ago the dwindling number of manufacturers and continuing

  20. Societal and Commercial Issues Affecting the Future of Biotechnology in the United States: A Survey of Researchers' Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabino, Isaac

    A 1995 survey of 1,257 U.S. recombinant DNA researchers assessed how they view outside factors affecting their work, including public and media attention; regulation; funding; international competition; commercialization of research and university/industry collaboration; health care reform efforts; and patenting laws and policies. Generally, respondents view public attention as having had positive effects on biotechnology progress, but they are concerned about the decrease in R&D funding, especially from government; the loss of scientific openness and basic-research quality caused by academic/industrial collaboration; international competition, particularly from Japan and Germany; overly stringent regulations that control R&D processes rather than products; inefficient regulatory agencies focused on irrelevant criteria; and threats to basic biomedical research from the short-term cost focus of managed-care companies.

  1. 76 FR 13124 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research..., United States Department of Agriculture, STOP 0321, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20250...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Notice of the National Agricultural Research,...

  2. Research in Agricultural Education Programs Beyond High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Edgar, Ed.; Copa, George, Ed.

    Concentrating on research in agricultural programs beyond the high schools, this 1970 Central Region conference report includes material applicable to area vocational technical schools, junior and community colleges, and continuing education for beginning and adult farmers. Each of these groups developed a list of interests, needs, and problems…

  3. USU research helps agriculture enter the space age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.

    1987-01-01

    Research at the Utah State University College of Agriculture that is relevant to the space life sciences is reviewed. Specific programs detailed are gravitropism of dicot stems, maximization of wheat yields for use in space exploration, and plant development processes in wheat in microgravity.

  4. Undergraduate Research in Agriculture: Constructivism and the Scholarship of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splan, Rebecca K.; Porr, C. A. Shea; Broyles, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Experiential learning is a hallmark of undergraduate education programs in the agricultural sciences, and is aligned with constructivist learning theory. This interpretivist qualitative study used historical research methodology to analyze the epistemological underpinnings of constructivism and explore the construct's relationship to undergraduate…

  5. The Global Research Alliance on agricultural greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases was proposed by New Zealand at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP) in Copenhagen in 2009 and developed in partnership with the United States. This alliance now includes 32 member count...

  6. Agricultural Research Needs and Priorities as Perceived by West Virginia Vocational Agriculture Teachers and County Extension Agents. Miscellaneous Publication 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalamira, Lucas R.; Lawrence, Layle D.

    Data were obtained in 1982 from 196 vocational agriculture teachers and 48 county agricultural extension agents identifying specific problems in West Virginia's agriculture that were most in need of research solutions. Multiflora rose eradication, coping with high production costs and interest rates, and improving state level funding for extension…

  7. Biotechnology Research Requirements for Aeronautical Systems through the Year 2000. Volume 2. Proceedings of Biotechnology Research Requirements Study Session, 4-8 January 1982

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-30

    motion stimuli are minimized. c. Approach (1) Basic research - The neurophysiological processes underlying the development of the motion sickness...experimental animals and would employ conventional neurophysiological , neuropharmacological and histochemical techniques. Initial assessments of new...Facilities Initial studies should be carried out in a conventional laboratory by staff experienced in relevant neurophysiologic and neurophar- macologic

  8. U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Mahantango Creek Watershed, Pennsylvania, United States: long-term precipitation database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A long-term precipitation database has been developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit (PSWMRU) to support intensive hydrologic and water quality research within WE-38, a 7.3 km**2 experimental watershed loca...

  9. Bacteriophages and their implications on future biotechnology: a review.

    PubMed

    Haq, Irshad Ul; Chaudhry, Waqas Nasir; Akhtar, Maha Nadeem; Andleeb, Saadia; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2012-01-10

    Recently it has been recognized that bacteriophages, the natural predators of bacteria can be used efficiently in modern biotechnology. They have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics for many antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. Phages can be used as biocontrol agents in agriculture and petroleum industry. Moreover phages are used as vehicles for vaccines both DNA and protein, for the detection of pathogenic bacterial strain, as display system for many proteins and antibodies. Bacteriophages are diverse group of viruses which are easily manipulated and therefore they have potential uses in biotechnology, research, and therapeutics. The aim of this review article is to enable the wide range of researchers, scientists, and biotechnologist who are putting phages into practice, to accelerate the progress and development in the field of biotechnology.

  10. Bacteriophages and their implications on future biotechnology: a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recently it has been recognized that bacteriophages, the natural predators of bacteria can be used efficiently in modern biotechnology. They have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics for many antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. Phages can be used as biocontrol agents in agriculture and petroleum industry. Moreover phages are used as vehicles for vaccines both DNA and protein, for the detection of pathogenic bacterial strain, as display system for many proteins and antibodies. Bacteriophages are diverse group of viruses which are easily manipulated and therefore they have potential uses in biotechnology, research, and therapeutics. The aim of this review article is to enable the wide range of researchers, scientists, and biotechnologist who are putting phages into practice, to accelerate the progress and development in the field of biotechnology. PMID:22234269

  11. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wink, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods.

  12. Recent advances in Cannabis sativa research: biosynthetic studies and its potential in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Taura, Futoshi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2007-08-01

    Cannabinoids, consisting of alkylresorcinol and monoterpene groups, are the unique secondary metabolites that are found only in Cannabis sativa. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabichromene (CBC) are well known cannabinoids and their pharmacological properties have been extensively studied. Recently, biosynthetic pathways of these cannabinoids have been successfully established. Several biosynthetic enzymes including geranylpyrophosphate:olivetolate geranyltransferase, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) synthase and cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) synthase have been purified from young rapidly expanding leaves of C. sativa. In addition, molecular cloning, characterization and localization of THCA synthase have been recently reported. THCA and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), its substrate, were shown to be apoptosis-inducing agents that might play a role in plant defense. Transgenic tobacco hairy roots expressing THCA synthase can produce THCA upon feeding of CBGA. These results open the way for biotechnological production of cannabinoids in the future.

  13. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  14. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  15. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  16. 78 FR 14071 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Department of Agriculture announces the appointments made by the Secretary of Agriculture... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA....

  17. Ethical review of health-related biotechnology research in Africa: a role for the Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN).

    PubMed

    Petros, B

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews the status of nature and functions of the Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN) a voluntary organization, founded in 2001 by leading members of the African health research and bioethics communities, with the aim of enhancing ethical awareness in Africa, in general, and building ethical clearance capacity in all African countries in particular. PABIN, with a membership drawn from more than 20 African countries is a member of the forum of the WHO/TDR Strategic Initiative for Developing Capacity in Ethical Review (SIDCER). PABIN works closely with its sister forums in Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and North America as well as other continental and international organizations that promote bioethics in health research. PABIN has conducted three conferences and several seminars in collaboration with continental and international partners on subjects of ethical concerns in Africa. Strategically, PABIN aims at assisting in the development of competent in-country bioethics review systems in all African countries. Notable among the contemporary issues that is on the PABIN agenda is addressing the repercussions of the active pursuit by pharmaceutical and other commercial interests from the Western developed countries to conduct all sorts of clinical biomedical trials on African populations before marketing such biotechnological products and services. This drive has brought with it highly controversial ethical issues at a time when both technical and organizational capacity are lacking in much of Africa to address the ethical concerns that are arising from some health-related researches. PABIN seeks to assure that the expected health and social benefits derivable from biotechnology are reaped in accordance with internationally accepted norms.

  18. Biotechnology Works!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby G.; Spenciner, Loraine

    There have been few initiatives addressing the improvement of science education for students with disabilities. Funded by the National Science Foundation, Biotechnology Works is a summer institute in immunology and genetics for students with disabilities, high school science teachers, and high school counselors. During the 1998 summer session,…

  19. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    PubMed

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  20. Relevance of chemistry to white biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Munishwar N; Raghava, Smita

    2007-06-20

    White biotechnology is a fast emerging area that concerns itself with the use of biotechnological approaches in the production of bulk and fine chemicals, biofuels, and agricultural products. It is a truly multidisciplinary area and further progress depends critically on the role of chemists. This article outlines the emerging contours of white biotechnology and encourages chemists to take up some of the challenges that this area has thrown up.

  1. 77 FR 7565 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture published a document in...

  2. 78 FR 25691 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research..., United States Department of Agriculture, STOP 0321, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20250...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural...

  3. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  4. Career opportunities for college graduates with the Agricultural Research Service Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service is the principal scientific research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. This agency employs more than 7,600 people working at various locations in the United States and U.S. territories. Careers for new scientists span a variety of disciplines such as c...

  5. Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Curtis D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the role of schools of pharmacy in (1) preparing future practitioners to assimilate and shape the impact of biotechnology; (2) establish graduate and research programs to enhance and apply products of biotechnology; and (3) identify manpower needs to fully realize potential advances caused by biotechnology. (DB)

  6. Research priorities for harnessing plant microbiomes in sustainable agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Soman, Chinmay; Wagner, Maggie R.; Friesen, Maren L.; Kremer, James; Bennett, Alison; Morsy, Mustafa; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Leach, Jan E.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding a growing world population amidst climate change requires optimizing the reliability, resource use, and environmental impacts of food production. One way to assist in achieving these goals is to integrate beneficial plant microbiomes—i.e., those enhancing plant growth, nutrient use efficiency, abiotic stress tolerance, and disease resistance—into agricultural production. This integration will require a large-scale effort among academic researchers, industry researchers, and farmers to understand and manage plant-microbiome interactions in the context of modern agricultural systems. Here, we identify priorities for research in this area: (1) develop model host–microbiome systems for crop plants and non-crop plants with associated microbial culture collections and reference genomes, (2) define core microbiomes and metagenomes in these model systems, (3) elucidate the rules of synthetic, functionally programmable microbiome assembly, (4) determine functional mechanisms of plant-microbiome interactions, and (5) characterize and refine plant genotype-by-environment-by-microbiome-by-management interactions. Meeting these goals should accelerate our ability to design and implement effective agricultural microbiome manipulations and management strategies, which, in turn, will pay dividends for both the consumers and producers of the world food supply. PMID:28350798

  7. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  8. Agricultural Research Service research highlights in remote sensing for calendar year 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The AR research mission in remote sensing is to develop the basic understanding of the soil plant animal atmosphere continuum in agricultural ecosystems and to determine when remotely sensed data can be used to provide information about these agricultural ecosystems. A brief statement of the significant results of each project is given. A list of 1980 publication and location contacts is also given.

  9. Organic Research Activities of the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic research is a vital and ongoing part of the overall ARS research portfolio and occurs at approximately 20 % of ARS research locations across the United States. The vision for ARS organic agriculture research is to help the organic industry overcome the challenges it faces related to producti...

  10. Proceedings of the Symposium on Research in Biology and Biotechnology in Developing Countries (National University of Singapore, November 2-4, 1983). Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, A. N., Ed.

    These proceedings of a symposium designed to increase public awareness of current research in biology and biotechnology include: welcoming addresses by Chau Sian Eng and S. Radhakrishna; an opening address by Tay Eng Soon; five papers; four abstracts; summary; symposium program; and list of participants. The five papers are: (1) "The Role of…

  11. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  12. Two Decades of Agricultural Literacy Research: A Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovar, Kristin A.; Ball, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and synthesize research related to agricultural literacy since the publication of Understanding Agriculture--New Directions for Education (1988). The researchers sought to determine where agricultural literacy research was published, which populations were targeted, the purpose of the research, and…

  13. Metamorphosis of cisgenic insect resistance research in the transgenic crop era

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biotechnological revolution has forever changed agricultural research and crop production worldwide. Commercial agriculture now includes plants that produce enhanced yield and quality, survival in hostile environmental conditions, manufacture and express defensive toxins, and yield grains with ...

  14. An Overview of NASA Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    Biotechnology research at NASA has comprised three separate areas; cell science and tissue culture, separations methods, and macromolecular crystal growth. This presentation will primarily focus on the macromolecular crystal growth.

  15. Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moo-Young, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Describes the biochemical engineering and industrial biotechnology programs of the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada). Provides descriptions of graduate courses, along with a sample of current research activities. Includes a discussion of the programs' mechanisms for technology transfer. (TW)

  16. Research in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Eastern Region Agricultural Education Research Conference (43rd, Mystic, Connecticut, May 4-6, 1989). Volume 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannebach, Alfred J., Comp.; Bowen, Blannie E., Comp.

    This document contains 10 papers selected for presentation at a research conference on agricultural education. The titles are as follows: "Agriculture Students and Their Problem Solving Skills" (Rollins); "Agriculture Students' Preferred Styles of Learning" (Rollins); "Identification of Curricular Strategies for Enhancing…

  17. Plant biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jikun; Rozelle, Scott; Pray, Carl; Wang, Qinfang

    2002-01-25

    A survey of China's plant biotechnologists shows that China is developing the largest plant biotechnology capacity outside of North America. The list of genetically modified plant technologies in trials, including rice, wheat, potatoes, and peanuts, is impressive and differs from those being worked on in other countries. Poor farmers in China are cultivating more area of genetically modified plants than are small farmers in any other developing country. A survey of agricultural producers in China demonstrates that Bacillus thuringiensis cotton adoption increases production efficiency and improves farmer health.

  18. 78 FR 27977 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... receive NIH funding for recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid research, then these sites should already... not receive NIH funding for recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid research. In this situation, because... the site does not receive funding from NIH for recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid research....

  19. Theme: The Role of Science in the Agricultural Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen theme articles discuss integration of science and agriculture, the role of science in agricultural education, biotechnology, agriscience in Tennessee and West Virginia, agriscience and program survival, modernization of agricultural education curriculum, agriscience and service learning, and biotechnology websites. (SK)

  20. Biotechnology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome.

  1. Environmental protection: applying the precautionary principle and proactive regulation to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Robert H

    2008-08-01

    Biotechnology is a broad field encompassing diverse disciplines from agriculture to zoology. Advances in research are occurring at a rapid pace, and applications that have broad implications socially, economically, ecologically and politically are emerging. Along with notable benefits, environmental consequences that affect core quality-of-life issues for present and future generations are materializing. The precautionary principle should be applied to biotechnology research, activities and products, and a strengthened, enforceable and proactive regulatory framework is needed. The environmental impacts of agriculture, aquaculture, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and even pharmaceuticals are raising public concerns and demonstrate the need for guidance from a variety of social, economic and scientific disciplines to insure the benefits of biotechnology are enjoyed without unacceptable and irreversible environmental costs.

  2. Managing agricultural greenhouse gases: Coordinated agricultural research through GRACEnet to address our changing climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global climate change presents numerous challenges to agriculture. Concurrent efforts to mitigate agricultural contributions to climate change while adapting to its projected consequences will be essential to ensure long-term sustainability and food security. To facilitate successful responses to ...

  3. 76 FR 78225 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Notice of Appointment of Members to the National... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, the United States Department of Agriculture announces the appointments made by the Secretary of Agriculture to the 8 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research,...

  4. State responses to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  5. Inducible gene expression systems and plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giandomenico; Karali, Marianthi

    2009-01-01

    Plant biotechnology relies heavily on the genetic manipulation of crops. Almost invariantly, the gene of interest is expressed in a constitutive fashion, although this may not be strictly necessary for several applications. Currently, there are several regulatable expression systems for the temporal, spatial and quantitative control of transgene activity. These molecular switches are based on components derived from different organisms, which range from viruses to higher eukaryotes. Many inducible systems have been designed for fundamental and applied research and since their initial development, they have become increasingly popular in plant molecular biology. This review covers a broad number of inducible expression systems examining their properties and relevance for plant biotechnology in its various guises, from molecular breeding to pharmaceutical and industrial applications. For each system, we examine some advantages and limitations, also in relation to the strategy on which they rely. Besides being necessary to control useful genes that may negatively affect crop yield and quality, we discuss that inducible systems can be also used to increase public acceptance of GMOs, reducing some of the most common concerns. Finally, we suggest some directions and future developments for their further diffusion in agriculture and biotechnology.

  6. Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that specialty crops are a vital part of agriculture in the United States, that the Committee on Agriculture should propose funding for programs that support specialty crops priorities, and that legislation should be passed that includes funding reflecting specialty crops as a growing and important part of United States agriculture.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. DelBene, Suzan K. [D-WA-1

    2013-04-25

    05/03/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Biotechnology apprenticeship for secondary-level students: teaching advanced cell culture techniques for research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer R; Kotur, Mark S; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors.

  8. Midstream modulation in biotechnology industry: redefining what is 'part of the job' of researchers in industry.

    PubMed

    Flipse, Steven M; van der Sanden, Maarten C A; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    In response to an increasing amount of policy papers stressing the need for integrating social and ethical aspects in Research and Development (R&D) practices, science studies scholars have conducted integrative research and experiments with science and innovation actors. One widely employed integration method is Midstream Modulation (MM), in which an 'embedded humanist' interacts in regular meetings with researchers to engage them with the social and ethical aspects of their work. While the possibility of using MM to enhance critical reflection has been demonstrated in academic settings, few attempts have been made to examine its appropriateness in industry. This paper describes the outcomes of a case study aiming to find out firstly whether MM can effectively be deployed to encourage and facilitate researchers to actively include social and ethical aspects in their daily R&D practice, and secondly to what extent the integration activities could form an integral part of the engaged industrial researchers' professional activities. Our data show that after MM, researchers display increased reflexive awareness on the social and ethical aspects of their work and acknowledge the relevance and utility of such aspects on their daily practice. Also, all participants considered actively reflecting on social and ethical aspects to be part of their work. Future research on the role of MM in industrial settings could focus on how to embed social and ethical integration as a regular part of innovation practice. We suggest that one possibility would be through aligning social and ethical aspects with innovation Key Performance Indicators.

  9. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors. PMID:12587031

  10. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by qualitycontrol failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen ex-pressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  11. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  12. Applications of UAV imagery for agricultural and environmental research at the USDA Southeast Watershed Research Lab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ARS is the USDA's in-house scientific research agency, whose mission is to conduct research to "develop and transfer solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority..." This includes enhancing the natural resource base and the environment, a dimension of particular relevance to the ...

  13. Biobased products research at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research by our group at the NCAUR has concerned the research and development of biobased products, most of which are derived from the residues produced during agricultural processing. These include: novel sophorolipids from yeast as natural emulsifiers and surfactants for certified organic...

  14. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wusheng; Yuan, Joshua S; Stewart, C Neal

    2013-11-01

    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  15. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, WS; Yuan, JS; Stewart, CN

    2013-10-09

    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  16. Peak Performance...Reaching for Excellence in Agricultural Education Research. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (22nd, Denver, Colorado, December 1, 1995). Volume XXII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J., Ed.; Schumacher, Leon G., Ed.

    The theme of this conference reflects the continuing need to conduct and report research that addresses significant problems and issues in Agricultural Education. Selected research papers are as follows: "Opportunities and Obstacles for Distance Education in Agricultural Education (AE)" (Murphy, Terry); "Faculty Needs Associated with Agricultural…

  17. Human molecular genetics research at the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Falaschi, P A

    1997-01-01

    The ICGEB started its activity in 1987 as a special project of UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) and operates now as a fully autonomous International Organization, of which 40 countries are members at present. The mandate of ICGEB is to become a Centre of excellence for research and training in modern biology addressed to the needs of the developing world. The ICGEB consists of two main laboratories, one in Trieste (where the direction of the Centre is also located) and one in New Delhi, plus a network of 30 Affiliated Centres. The Centre operates through: 1) specific research programs of hish scientific content at the Trieste and New Delhi laboratories; 2) long term training through post-doctoral and pre-doctoral fellowships; 3) short term training; 4) collaborative research program, through which the Centre finances research projects of major impact to the need of the Member States; 5) scientific services, namely consultation for scientific programs, distribution of reagents and a bioinformatics network particularly geared to the human genome research. The research on human molecular genetics in particularly active in the Trieste Component and concerns the study at the molecular level of several genes important for human health: control of DNA replication, response to infectious diseases, cardiocirculatory diseases, cystic fibrosis and cancer. The methodologies for developing new diagnostic methods and for developing gene therapy protocols are actively pursued. Through these programs, the member countries have access to state-of-the-art technologies anf know-how essential for the development of the molecular approaches to medicine brought forward by the study of the human genome.

  18. Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Central Region Annual Research Conference (44th, Chicago, Illinois, February 24-25, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The following papers are included: "Focusing Agricultural Education Research" (Williams); "A Time Series Analysis of Agricultural Education Student Teachers' Perceptions of Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Competencies" (Schumacher, Johnson); "Determination of the Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Inservice Needs of Missouri…

  19. Workshop proceedings: challenges and opportunities in evaluating protein allergenicity across biotechnology industries.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Nicola J; Ghantous, Hanan N; Ladics, Gregory S; House, Robert V; Gendel, Steven M; Hastings, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    A workshop entitled "Challenges and Opportunities in Evaluating Protein Allergenicity across Biotechnology Industries" was held at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology (SOT) in San Francisco, California. The workshop was sponsored by the Biotechnology Specialty Section of SOT and was designed to present the science-based approaches used in biotechnology industries to evaluate and regulate protein allergenicity. A panel of experts from industry and government highlighted the allergenicity testing requirements and research in the agricultural, pharmaceutical/biopharma, and vaccine biotechnology industries and addressed challenges and opportunities for advancing the science of protein allergenicity. The main learning from the workshop was that immunoglobulin E-mediated allergenicity of biotechnology-derived products is difficult to assess without human data. The approaches currently being used to evaluate potential for allergenicity across biotechnology industries are very different and range from bioinformatics, in vitro serology, in vivo animal testing, in vitro and in vivo functional assays, and "biosimilar" assessments (ie, biotherapeutic equivalents to innovator products). The challenge remains with regard to the different or lack of regulatory requirements for allergenicity testing across industries, but the novel approaches being used with bioinformatics and biosimilars may lead to opportunities in the future to collaborate across biotechnology industries.

  20. Explaining Strengthening Mechanisms, Institutional Orientations and Problematic Challenges of University Agricultural Research in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifzadeh, Aboulghasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

    2009-01-01

    According to empirical evidence and noted implications of sustainable agricultural development as a systemic and multi-actor process, integration of the research function of higher agricultural education in Iranian agricultural research systems seems to be an ongoing and considerable necessity. With the aim of identification and analysis of…

  1. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  2. Millennium III Challenges: A Major Role for Agricultural Research/Extension/Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) ad hoc Committee on Federal Support for Agricultural Research, Extension and Education suggests solutions to major challenges in agricultural research. Three new realities provide a powerful rationale for major new investment in agriculture: dramatic…

  3. Research Libraries and the Dissemination of Information in Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucker, Jay K.

    1985-01-01

    Research libraries play essential role in the dissemination of both bibliographic and numerical information, including acquisition, processing, cataloging, retrieval, and document delivery. Most functions have been affected dramatically by application of the computer and library services at Massachusetts Institute of Technology that have evolved…

  4. Developing Digital Courseware for a Virtual Nano-Biotechnology Laboratory: A Design-Based Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Chen, Tzy-Ling; Lin, Weijane; Sheen, Horn-Jiunn

    2014-01-01

    This paper first reviews applications of multimedia in engineering education, especially in laboratory learning. It then illustrates a model and accreditation criteria adopted for developing a specific set of nanotechnology laboratory courseware and reports the design-based research approach used in designing and developing the e-learning…

  5. Rebuilding Hawaii’s Anthurium germplasm collection for cultivar and species preservation, breeding, and biotechnological research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthurium is the third most important floriculture crop in Hawaii, grown mainly as a cut flower. The University of Hawaii (UH) has a well-established anthurium breeding program since 1950, with a germplasm collection assembled from backyard growers, hobbyists, researchers and collection trips from c...

  6. Certified organic farming research and demonstration project by Oklahoma State University and USDA's Agricultural Research Service at Lane, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003, Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory received organic certification for 8 acres at the Lane Agricultural Center, Lane, OK. The certified organic land was used to develop a cooperative project with a diversity of a...

  7. DNA polymerases as useful reagents for biotechnology – the history of developmental research in the field

    PubMed Central

    Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2014-01-01

    DNA polymerase is a ubiquitous enzyme that synthesizes complementary DNA strands according to the template DNA in living cells. Multiple enzymes have been identified from each organism, and the shared functions of these enzymes have been investigated. In addition to their fundamental role in maintaining genome integrity during replication and repair, DNA polymerases are widely used for DNA manipulation in vitro, including DNA cloning, sequencing, labeling, mutagenesis, and other purposes. The fundamental ability of DNA polymerases to synthesize a deoxyribonucleotide chain is conserved. However, the more specific properties, including processivity, fidelity (synthesis accuracy), and substrate nucleotide selectivity, differ among the enzymes. The distinctive properties of each DNA polymerase may lead to the potential development of unique reagents, and therefore searching for novel DNA polymerase has been one of the major focuses in this research field. In addition, protein engineering techniques to create mutant or artificial DNA polymerases have been successfully developing powerful DNA polymerases, suitable for specific purposes among the many kinds of DNA manipulations. Thermostable DNA polymerases are especially important for PCR-related techniques in molecular biology. In this review, we summarize the history of the research on developing thermostable DNA polymerases as reagents for genetic manipulation and discuss the future of this research field. PMID:25221550

  8. Biotechnology advances: a perspective on the diagnosis and research of Rabies Virus.

    PubMed

    Silva, S R; Katz, I S S; Mori, E; Carnieli, P; Vieira, L F P; Batista, H B C R; Chaves, L B; Scheffer, K C

    2013-07-01

    Rabies is a widespread zoonotic disease responsible for approximately 55,000 human deaths/year. The direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) and the mouse inoculation test (MIT) used for rabies diagnosis, have high sensitivity and specificity, but are expensive and time-consuming. These disadvantages and the identification of new strains of the virus encourage the use of new techniques that are rapid, sensitive, specific and economical for the detection and research of the Rabies Virus (RABV). Real-time RT-PCR, phylogeographic analysis, proteomic assays and DNA recombinant technology have been used in research laboratories. Together, these techniques are effective on samples with low virus titers in the study of molecular epidemiology or in the identification of new disease markers, thus improving the performance of biological assays. In this context, modern advances in molecular technology are now beginning to complement more traditional approaches and promise to revolutionize the diagnosis of rabies. This brief review presents some of the recent molecular tools used for RABV analysis, with emphasis on rabies diagnosis and research.

  9. The impact of industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2006-01-01

    In this review, the impact of industrial (or "white") biotechnology can have on our society and economy is discussed. An overview is given of industrial biotechnology and its applications in a number of product categories ranging from food ingredients, vitamins, bio-colorants, solvents, plastics and biofuels. The use of fossil resources is compared with renewable resources as the preferred feedstock for industrial biotechnology. A brief discussion is also given of the expected changes in society and technology, ranging from the shift in the supply of resources, the growing need for efficiency and sustainability of the production systems, changing consumer perception and behaviour and changing agricultural systems and practices. Many of these changes are expected to speed up the transition from a fossil-based to a bio-based economy and society.

  10. Innovations in information management to enhance agriculture: A research perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information management should be the cornerstone for innovative agricultural systems; however, the challenge remains on how to utilize all of the components to enhance agriculture. The enhancement of agriculture is often considered from only a yield perspective. This is an important factor and effo...

  11. [The embryonic stem cells research. Example of biotechnology progress under extra-scientific pressure].

    PubMed

    Gámez Escalona, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to isolate, cultivate, preserve, characterize and differentiate Human Embryonic Stem Cells (ES) discovered by James Thomson and his colleagues in 1998 was a milestone in the history of Stem Cell Research. Immediately after this discovery many speculations were made about the therapeutic possibilities of ES, motivated by ideological, political and economic aspects. The episode made clear the lack of scientific rationality and ethics when assessing realities as meaningful as those of human embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization techniques (IVF) or human eggs. Therapeutic Cloning as a promise to produce ″tailored″ Stem Cells reported by Hwang and his team in 2004, ended up being a scandal within the scientific community. The technical difficulties and ethical controversies that arose from obtaining ES were insurmountable. In 2010 only two clinical trials were reported using these cells. Those trials were abandoned in late 2011 arguing financial reasons. The discovery of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPS) in 2006 in mice and in 2007 in humans, represented the possibility of obtaining pluripotent stem cells without the need to destroy embryos. Today, the absence of clinical trials using ES, caused by financial difficulties as a result of its ineffectiveness, anticipates that the use of ES will be limited to certain experimental controls. Probably, the main contribution of Embryonic Stem Cells will be the understanding that biomedical research should follow an ethically and rationally based rigorous method that cannot be ignore.

  12. Biotechnology as an intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Adler, R G

    1984-04-27

    Recent advances in biotechnology have created many public policy and legal issues, one of the most significant of which is the treatment of biotechnological industrial products, particularly under the patent system. Patents represent one of several types of intellectual property; their ownership confers the right to exclude others from benefitting from the tangible products of a proprietary subject matter. Intellectual property law and its protections will play a major role in the rate at which biotechnology develops in the United States. In this article biotechnological intellectual property issues are reviewed in the context of their underlying legal requirements. The implications of other factors, such as international competition, research funding, and gene ownership, are also considered.

  13. Sliding-cavity fluid contactors in low-gravity fluids, materials, and biotechnology research.

    PubMed

    Todd, Paul; Vellinger, John C; Sengupta, Shramik; Sportiello, Michael G; Greenberg, Alan R; Krantz, William B

    2002-10-01

    The well-known method of sliding-cavity fluid contactors used by Gosting for diffusion measurements and by Tiselius in electrophoresis has found considerable use in low-gravity research. To date, sliding-cavity contactors have been used in liquid diffusion experiments, interfacial transport experiments, biomolecular crystal growth, biphasic extraction, multistage extraction, microencapsulation, seed germination, invertebrate development, and thin-film casting. Sliding-cavity technology has several advantages for spaceflight: it is simple, it accommodates small samples, samples can be fully enclosed, phases can be combined, multiple samples can be processed at high sample density, real-time observations can be made, and mixed and diffused samples can be compared. An analysis of the transport phenomena that govern the sliding-cavity method is offered. During sliding of one liquid over another flow rates between 0.001 and 0.1m/sec are developed, giving Reynolds numbers in the range 0.1-100. Assuming no slip at liquid-solid boundaries shear rates are of the order 1sec(-1). The measured consequence is the transfer of 2-5% of the content of a cavity to the opposite cavity. In the absence of gravity, buoyancy-driven transport is assumed absent. Transport processes are limited to (1) molecular diffusion, in which reactants diffuse toward one another at rates that depend on their diffusion coefficient and concentration gradient (Fick's second law), (2) solutocapillary (Marangoni) flow driven by surface-tension gradients, (3) capillary flow (drop spreading) at liquid-solid three-phase lines leading to immiscible phase demixing, and (4) vapor-phase diffusive mass transfer in evaporative processes. Quantitative treatment of these phenomena has been accomplished over the past few years in low-gravity research in space and on aircraft.

  14. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  15. Pennsylvania's 1982 Abstracts of Research in Agricultural Education. Teacher Education Research Series, Volume 24, Number l.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Edgar Paul, Comp.

    This document consists of abstracts of research and development activities of 29 studies completed in Pennsylvania during the period from January 1 to December 31, 1982. Included in the collection are abstracts of 21 masters theses and eight doctoral theses. Various topics pertaining to agricultural education are covered, including the…

  16. To amend the Export Apple Act to permit the export of apples to Canada in bulk bins without certification by the Department of Agriculture.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Owens, William L. [D-NY-21

    2013-03-20

    04/02/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Attaining Excellence in the 80's. Research in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (14th, Las Vegas, Nevada, December 4, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannebach, Alfred J., Comp.

    Among the 36 research papers and critiques are "A Comparison of 1972 and 1980 Secondary Agricultural Education Students" (Navaratnam, Oliver); "A Day Late and a Dollar Short" (Moore); "Assessment of Preservice Preparation by Recent Graduates of Agricultural Education Programs" (Yahya, Burnett); "Characteristics and Activities of Vocational…

  18. A Study of Pupils' Conceptions and Reasoning in Connection with "Microbes", as a Contribution To Research in Biotechnology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonneaux, Laurence

    2000-01-01

    Students' conceptions about "microbes" tend to condition their understanding of biotechnology. Explores connections between the status given to diseases, a hygiene-oriented culture, layman's versus school knowledge, personal experience, socio-cultural mediation, linguistic confusions, and students' conceptions. (Contains 21 references.)…

  19. White biotechnology: ready to partner and invest in.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    It needs three factors to build an industry: market demand, product vision and capital. White biotechnology already produces high volume products such as feed additive amino acids and specialty products like enzymes for enantioselective biocatalysis. It serves large and diverse markets in the nutrition, wellness, pharmaceutical, agricultural and chemical industry. The total volume adds up to $ 50 billion worldwide. In spite of its proven track record, white biotechnology so far did not attract as much capital as red and even green biotechnology. However, the latest finance indicators confirm the continuously growing attractiveness of investment opportunities in white biotechnology. This article discusses white biotechnology's position and potential in the finance market and success factors.

  20. 76 FR 25298 - Solicitation of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics... to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. The notice... regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, mental or physical handicap, marital...

  1. 76 FR 22667 - Solicitation of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics... to fill 8 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: Deadline for Advisory Board member nominations is July 12, 2011. ADDRESSES:...

  2. Study of Factors Influencing Research Productivity of Agriculture Faculty Members in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedjazi, Yousef; Behravan, Jaleh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between individual, institutional and demographic characteristics on one hand and the research productivity of agriculture faculty members on the other. The statistical population of the research comprises 280 academic staff in agricultural faculties all over Tehran Province. The data…

  3. New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture. High-Reward Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Agriculture.

    To aid in the effort to define comprehensive long-range planning goals in bioregulation, the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) asked the Board of Agriculture of the National Research Council to undertake a study of the ARS research programs concerned with bioregulation. (For the purposes of this study bioregulation was interpreted broadly to be…

  4. 78 FR 44092 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Solicitation for membership..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. The notice was published in the Federal Register on...

  5. A RESEARCH STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RODRIGUES, DONALD F.

    QUESTIONNAIRE RETURNS FROM 103 EMPLOYERS IN AGRICULTURE AND RELATED INDUSTRIES WERE COMBINED WITH 50 INTERVIEWS WITHIN THE SAME GROUP TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY. MOST FIRMS EMPLOYED FEWER THAN 15 WORKERS ON A PERMANENT BASIS, SUPPLEMENTED BY LARGE MEMBERS OF SEASONAL WORKERS, ESPECIALLY IN THE…

  6. Integrating and Institutionalizing Lessons Learned: Reorganizing Agricultural Research and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…

  7. The Emerging Significance of Biotechnology for the Study of International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegele, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    Considers biotechnology's influence on international relations, focusing on agriculture, environmental issues, law, commerce, and biological warfare. Claims that, because biotechnology cuts across international boundaries and affects public and private interests, it necessitates the rethinking of international systems theory. Urges international…

  8. Past, present, and future industrial biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenjiang; Ji, Xiaojun; Kan, Suli; Qiao, Hongqun; Jiang, Min; Lu, Dingqiang; Wang, Jun; Huang, He; Jia, Honghua; Ouyuang, Pingkai; Ying, Hanjie

    2010-01-01

    Fossil resources, i.e. concentrated carbon from biomass, have been irrecoverably exhausted through modern industrial civilization in the last two hundred years. Serious consequences including crises in resources, environment and energy, as well as the pressing need for direct and indirect exploitation of solar energy, pose challenges to the science and technology community of today. Bioenergy, bulk chemicals, and biomaterials could be produced from renewable biomass in a biorefinery via biocatalysis. These sustainable industries will match the global mass cycle, creating a new form of civilization with new industries and agriculture driven by solar energy. Industrial biotechnology is the dynamo of a bioeconomy, leading to a new protocol for production of energy, bulk chemicals, and materials. This new mode of innovation will place the industry at center stage supported by universities and research institutes. Creativity in industrial biotechnology will be promoted and China will successfully follow the road to green modernization. China's rapid economic development and its traditional capacity in fermentation will place it in an advantageous position in the industrial biotechnology revolution. The development and current status of industrial biotechnology in China are summarized herein.

  9. Past, Present, and Future Industrial Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Ji, Xiaojun; Kan, Suli; Qiao, Hongqun; Jiang, Min; Lu, Dingqiang; Wang, Jun; Huang, He; Jia, Honghua; Ouyuang, Pingkai; Ying, Hanjie

    Fossil resources, i.e. concentrated carbon from biomass, have been irrecoverably exhausted through modern industrial civilization in the last two hundred years. Serious consequences including crises in resources, environment and energy, as well as the pressing need for direct and indirect exploitation of solar energy, pose challenges to the science and technology community of today. Bioenergy, bulk chemicals, and biomaterials could be produced from renewable biomass in a biorefinery via biocatalysis. These sustainable industries will match the global mass cycle, creating a new form of civilization with new industries and agriculture driven by solar energy. Industrial biotechnology is the dynamo of a bioeconomy, leading to a new protocol for production of energy, bulk chemicals, and materials. This new mode of innovation will place the industry at center stage supported by universities and research institutes. Creativity in industrial biotechnology will be promoted and China will successfully follow the road to green modernization. China's rapid economic development and its traditional capacity in fermentation will place it in an advantageous position in the industrial biotechnology revolution. The development and current status of industrial biotechnology in China are summarized herein.

  10. Biotechnology Computing: Information Science for the Era of Molecular Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution from classical genetics to biotechnology, an area of research involving key macromolecules in living cells, is chronicled and the current state of biotechnology is described, noting related advances in computing and clinical medicine. (MSE)

  11. "Recombinant Protein of the Day": Using Daily Student Presentations to Add Real-World Aspects to a Biotechnology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Justin F.

    2013-01-01

    To provide a realistic view of the biotechnology industry for students, a novel course focusing on recombinant proteins and their importance in medicine, pharmaceuticals, industry, scientific research, and agriculture was developed. ''Designer Proteins and Society,'' an upper-division elective, was taught in the Fall 2012 semester to 16 junior,…

  12. U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Mahantango Creek Watershed, Pennsylvania, United States: physiography and history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 420 km**2 Mahantango Creek Watershed, located within the Northern Appalachian Ridges and Valleys, is a subwatershed of the Susquehanna River Basin, which flows to Chesapeake Bay. Research on agricultural management and hydrologic processes that control nutrient loss from nonpoint sources is cond...

  13. Peer Review in Agricultural Education: Interrater Reliability of Manuscript Reviews for the 2014 National Agricultural Education Research Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Johnson, Donald M.; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed 336 peer reviews of 112 manuscripts submitted for possible presentation at the 2014 National Agricultural Education Research Conference (NAERC). There were scoring errors on 6.8% of the reviews; the most frequent errors were failure to record a score or assigning a score above the range of points possible for one or more of the…

  14. Beyond and between academia and business: How Austrian biotechnology researchers describe high-tech startup companies as spaces of knowledge production.

    PubMed

    Fochler, Maximilian

    2016-04-01

    Research and innovation policy has invested considerable effort in creating new institutional spaces at the interface of academia and business. High-tech startups founded by academic entrepreneurs have been central to these policy imaginaries. These companies offer researchers new possibilities beyond and between academia and larger industry. However, the field of science and technology studies has thus far shown only limited interest in understanding these companies as spaces of knowledge production. This article analyses how researchers working in small and medium-sized biotechnology companies in Vienna, Austria, describe the cultural characteristics of knowledge production in this particular institutional space. It traces how they relate these characteristics to other institutional spaces they have experienced in their research biographies, such as in academia or larger corporations. It shows that the reasons why researchers decide to work in biotechnology companies and how they organize their work are deeply influenced by their perception of deficiencies in the conditions for epistemic work in contemporary academia and, to a lesser degree, in industry.

  15. HEALTH AND EXPOSURE RESEARCH FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY: THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The AHS is the...

  16. ADAPTING THE FFA TO A CHANGING PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE. RESEARCH SERIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KANTER, EARL F.; BENDER, RALPH E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS NATIONAL STUDY WAS TO SUGGEST WAYS OF ADAPTING THE FUTURE FARMERS OF AMERICA (FFA) TO A CHANGING PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE THROUGH IDENTIFYING NEW PURPOSES OF THE FFA AND EVALUATING SELECTED OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES AND NATIONAL AND STATE FFA ACTIVITIES. MEMBERS OF THE UNITED STATES OFFICE OF EDUCATION, HEAD STATE…

  17. Farm animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bulfield, G

    2000-01-01

    As we enter a new millennium, the research with the greatest likely impact on both the biological sciences and the biotechnology industry will be the sequencing of the human and other genomes. Widespread interest in farm animal genomics as a method for identifying genes controlling commercially important traits started only a decade ago. Although the genomics of farm animals was relatively late to arrive on the scene compared with the genomics of crop plants, it has the advantage of being able to access the enormous amount of human genome information.

  18. Competence Challenges of Demand-Led Agricultural Research and Extension in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibwika, P.; Wals, A. E. J.; Nassuna-Musoke, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Governments and development agencies in Sub-Saharan Africa are experimenting alternative approaches within the innovation systems paradigm to enhance relevance of agricultural research and extension to the poverty eradication agenda. Uganda, for example, has recently shifted from the supply driven to demand-led agricultural research and extension.…

  19. Southern Research Conference in Agricultural Education Proceedings. (34th, Mobile, Alabama, March 23-25, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Willie J.; And Others

    These proceedings include presentations that reflect the conference's focus on reporting current research in agricultural education. Twenty-one papers are presented in six general sessions: "Future Research Needs for Improving Vocational Agriculture Teacher Education Programs" (David L. Williams); "Assessment of Competencies…

  20. Reaping the Return on Agricultural Research and Education in Virginia. Information Series 93-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, George W.; Paczkowski, Remi

    This report focuses upon the economic and other contributions that agricultural research and education have made to Virginia over the past 40 years. Agricultural research, extension, and classroom instruction contribute in the following ways to Virginia's citizens: increased supplies and reduced costs, improved competitiveness, multiplier effects…

  1. Managing Our Environment, A Report on Ways Agricultural Research Fights Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A report on the ways agricultural research attempts to fight pollution is presented in this series of articles covering some of the major challenges facing scientists and regulatory officials working in agricultural research. Improved resource management is stressed with the use of advanced technologies as the avenue to solving environmental…

  2. Sustaining the Earth's Watersheds-Agricultural Research Data System: Data development, user interaction, and operations management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To support the Agricultural Research Service’s Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in assessing USDA conservation programs and practices on soil and water quality, a publicly available web-based watershed data system, called Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data Sy...

  3. [African agriculture faced with global changes: researches and innovations based on ecological sciences].

    PubMed

    Masse, Dominique; Ndour Badiane, Yacine; Hien, Edmond; Akpo, Léonard-Élie; Assigbetsé, Komi; Bilgo, Ablassé; Diédhiou, Ibrahima; Hien, Victor; Lardy, Lydie

    2013-01-01

    In the context of environmental and socio-economic changes, the agriculture of Sub-Saharan African countries will have to ensure food security of the population, while reducing its environmental footprint. The biophysical and social systems of agricultural production are complex. Innovative agricultural practices will be based on an intensification of ecological processes that determine the functioning of the soil-plant system, farmers' fields and agro-ecosystems. This ecological engineering approach is useful to take up the challenge of Sub-Saharan agricultures in the future, as shown in researches conducted by IESOL International Joint Lab "Intensification of agricultural soils in West Africa" (ISRA, UCAD, TU, OU, INERA, IRD).

  4. Annual Southern Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education. Proceedings (36th, Williamsburg, Virginia, March 22-23, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    The following papers are included in this proceedings of a conference on agricultural education: "Misuse of Statistics" (Miller); "Significance of Doctoral Research in Agricultural Education" (Moore, Bailey, Burnett); "Identification of Science-Related Competencies Taught in Vocational Agriculture Programs in…

  5. Biotechnology touches the forest

    SciTech Connect

    Powledge, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    Both the United States and New Zealand are doing research in forest biotechnology and much of the interest is in speedy propagation from seed to mature tree. A number of propagation techniques are discussed, such as tissue culture, the culture of tissue from mature trees and somatic embryo genesis. Much of the tissue culture work has been done on radiata pine. Field testing results are considered. The aims and the advantages of forest biotechnology are discussed under the following headings. 1) Disease resistance: research is being carried out on a loblolly pine which would be resistant to fusiform rust. 2) Animal feed: some trees have been discovered to have lower lignin content and similar cellulose and hemicellulose to alfalfa. 3) Specialty chemicals: terpenes, in the tree resin, could be turned into hormones, drugs and other chemicals: the genetic system for the overall biosynthesis of terpenes has been studied. 4) Herbicide resistance. The resistance to glyphosate in poplars is being studied. In conclusion, further research into forest species, using molecular biology is considered essential.

  6. The Impact of Biotechnology upon Pharmacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speedie, Marilyn K.

    1990-01-01

    Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…

  7. Citrus Disease Research and Development Trust Fund Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Buchanan, Vern [R-FL-16

    2013-02-27

    03/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come.

  9. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    PubMed

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted.

  10. Understanding water deficit stress-induced changes in the basic metabolism of higher plants - biotechnologically and sustainably improving agriculture and the ecoenvironment in arid regions of the globe.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hong-Bo; Chu, Li-Ye; Jaleel, C Abdul; Manivannan, P; Panneerselvam, R; Shao, Ming-An

    2009-01-01

    Water is vital for plant growth, development and productivity. Permanent or temporary water deficit stress limits the growth and distribution of natural and artificial vegetation and the performance of cultivated plants (crops) more than any other environmental factor. Productive and sustainable agriculture necessitates growing plants (crops) in arid and semiarid regions with less input of precious resources such as fresh water. For a better understanding and rapid improvement of soil-water stress tolerance in these regions, especially in the water-wind eroded crossing region, it is very important to link physiological and biochemical studies to molecular work in genetically tractable model plants and important native plants, and further extending them to practical ecological restoration and efficient crop production. Although basic studies and practices aimed at improving soil water stress resistance and plant water use efficiency have been carried out for many years, the mechanisms involved at different scales are still not clear. Further understanding and manipulating soil-plant water relationships and soil-water stress tolerance at the scales of ecology, physiology and molecular biology can significantly improve plant productivity and environmental quality. Currently, post-genomics and metabolomics are very important in exploring anti-drought gene resources in various life forms, but modern agriculturally sustainable development must be combined with plant physiological measures in the field, on the basis of which post-genomics and metabolomics have further practical prospects. In this review, we discuss physiological and molecular insights and effects in basic plant metabolism, drought tolerance strategies under drought conditions in higher plants for sustainable agriculture and ecoenvironments in arid and semiarid areas of the world. We conclude that biological measures are the bases for the solutions to the issues relating to the different types of

  11. Commercial biotechnology processing on International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Hardin, Juanita R.; Lewis, Marian L.

    1998-01-01

    Commercial biotechnology processing in space has the potential to eventually exceed the $35 billion annual worldwide market generated by the current satellite communications industry (Parone 1997). The International Space Station provides the opportunity to conduct long-term, crew-tended biotechnology research in microgravity to establish the foundation for this new commercial biotechnology market. Industry, government, and academia are collaborating to establish the infrastructure needed to catalyze this biotechnology revolution that could eventually lead to production of medical and pharmaceutical products in space. The biotechnology program discussed herein is evidence of this collaborative effort, with industry involvement from Space Hardware Optimization Technology, Inc., government participation through the NASA Commercial Space program, and academic guidance from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Blending the strengths and resources of each collaborator creates a strong partnership, that offers enormous research and commercial opportunities.

  12. Cassava: constraints to production and the transfer of biotechnology to African laboratories.

    PubMed

    Bull, Simon E; Ndunguru, Joseph; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Beeching, John R; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge and technology transfer to African institutes is an important objective to help achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Plant biotechnology in particular enables innovative advances in agriculture and industry, offering new prospects to promote the integration and dissemination of improved crops and their derivatives from developing countries into local markets and the global economy. There is also the need to broaden our knowledge and understanding of cassava as a staple food crop. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vital source of calories for approximately 500 million people living in developing countries. Unfortunately, it is subject to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses that impact on production, consumption, marketability and also local and country economics. To date, improvements to cassava have been led via conventional plant breeding programmes, but with advances in molecular-assisted breeding and plant biotechnology new tools are being developed to hasten the generation of improved farmer-preferred cultivars. In this review, we report on the current constraints to cassava production and knowledge acquisition in Africa, including a case study discussing the opportunities and challenges of a technology transfer programme established between the Mikocheni Agricultural Research Institute in Tanzania and Europe-based researchers. The establishment of cassava biotechnology platform(s) should promote research capabilities in African institutions and allow scientists autonomy to adapt cassava to suit local agro-ecosystems, ultimately serving to develop a sustainable biotechnology infrastructure in African countries.

  13. A.C. Hildreth: Initiating USDA agricultural research in Cheyenne

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight months after the October, 1929 Stock Market crash, 36-year-old Aubrey Claire Hildreth resigned his position at the University of Maine Agricultural Station and left the blueberries and cranberries of Orono, Maine, to travel with his family to Cheyenne to assume the duties of Station Superinten...

  14. Mycelium reinforced agricultural fiber bio-composites: Summary of research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industry and the public sector have a growing interest in utilizing natural fibers, such as agricultural substrates, in the manufacture of components and products currently manufactured from fossil fuels. A patented process, developed by Ecovative Design, LLC (Ecovative), for growing fungal species ...

  15. Supervision of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, James E.; Williams, David L.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 found that supervised agricultural experience (SAE) teachers, students, parents, and employers value the teachers' supervisory role. Implementation practices vary widely and there are no cumulative data to guide policies and standards for SAE supervision. (SK)

  16. Emergence of the global research alliance on agricultural greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing human population pressure on the Earth is of great concern and a key reason why agricultural and natural resource sciences must be fully engaged to develop solutions for a sustainable future. Increasing population puts pressure on the demand for food, clean water, healthy soil, and a sta...

  17. Climate-smart agriculture global research agenda: science for action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) addresses the challenge of meeting the growing demand for food, fiber, or fuel, caused by population growth, changes in diet related to increases in per capita income, and the need for alternative energy sources, despite the changing climate and fewer opportunities fo...

  18. Production or Perish: Changing the Inequities of Agricultural Research Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.; Kappel, Tim

    Because of the decline of farm population and family farms, the increase in energy-intensivity, and concentration process in agriculture, a rising tide of criticism has focused on the land grant system and its role in encouraging scientific applications supporting these trends. A study was conducted to develop a strategy that would change…

  19. SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    AS A RESULT OF TWO CONFERENCES HELD IN 1963-64, INTERVIEW-TYPE SURVEYS OF EMPLOYMENT NEEDS IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES WERE CONDUCTED IN 26 STATES IN 1964. THE ANALYSIS OF THE FINDINGS RESULTED IN THIS SYNTHESIS. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ON -- (1) NUMBERS OF PEOPLE EMPLOYED, (2) PRESENT NUMBER, ESTIMATED INCREASE, OCCUPATIONAL GROUP AND LEVEL…

  20. Beyond Knowledge Transfer: The Social Construction of Autonomous Academic Science in University-Industry Agricultural Biotechnology Research Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscotti, Dina Louise

    2010-01-01

    Autonomy is a social product. Although some might view autonomy as the absence of social interference in individual action, it is in fact produced through social institutions. It enables social actors to act; it is the justification for the allocation of enormous public resources into institutions classified as "public" or "nonprofit;" it can lead…

  1. U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Mahantango Creek Watershed, Pennsylvania, United States: long-term stream discharge database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A long-term streamflow discharge database has been developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit (PSWMRU) to support intensive hydrologic and water quality research within WE-38, a 7.3 km**2 experimental watersh...

  2. U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Mahantango Creek Watershed, Pennsylvania, United States: long-term water quality database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit (PSWMRU) has developed a long-term water quality database to support water quality research within the 7.3 km**2 WE-38 experimental watershed in east-central Pennsyl...

  3. Biotechnology and food security in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Serageldin, I

    1999-07-16

    Biotechnology can contribute to future food security if it benefits sustainable small-farm agriculture in developing countries. Presently, agrobiotechnology research cites ethical, safety, and intellectual property rights issues. Protection of intellectual property rights encourages private sector investment in agrobiotechnology, but in developing countries the needs of smallholder farmers and environmental conservation are unlikely to attract private funds. Public investment will be needed, and new and imaginative public-private collaboration can make the gene revolution beneficial to developing countries. This is crucial for the well-being of today's hungry people and future generations.

  4. State FFA Officers' Confidence and Trustworthiness of Biotechnology Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.

    2007-01-01

    Are state FFA officers' awareness levels of agricultural topics reported in mass media superior to those who do not serve in leadership roles? The purpose of this study was to determine elected state FFA officers' awareness of biotechnology, and their confidence and trust of biotechnology information sources. Descriptive survey methods were used…

  5. When counting cattle is not enough: multiple perspectives in agricultural and veterinary research.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Gunnar; Schei, Vidar; Greve, Arent

    2011-01-01

    A traditional approach in agricultural and veterinary research is focussing on the biological perspective where large cattle-databases are used to analyse the dairy herd. This approach has yielded valuable insights. However, recent research indicates that this knowledge-base can be further increased by examining agricultural and veterinary challenges from other perspectives. In this paper we suggest three perspectives that may supplement the biological perspective in agricultural and veterinary research; the economic-, the managerial-, and the social perspective. We review recent studies applying or combining these perspectives and discuss how multiple perspectives may improve our understanding and ability to handle cattle-health challenges.

  6. CATIE: Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center. http://www.catie.ac.cr

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article features CATIE (Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza), a tropical agricultural research and higher education center. CATIE's mission is to be instrumental in poverty reduction and rural development in the American tropics, by promoting diversified and competitive agriculture and sustainable management of natural…

  7. Identification of Researchable Topics on International Agricultural Education. A Delphi Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.; Madou-Bangurah, Kabba

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify topics in international agricultural education considered by eight experts on agricultural education to be areas needing research. All eight (100%) of the experts completed the first-round mail questionnaire, and seven (87.5%) completed the second and third rounds. Survey category areas were as…

  8. Education and Research Related to Organic Waste Management at Agricultural Engineering Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliva, Montserrat; Bernat, Carles; Gil, Emilio; Martinez, Xavier; Pujol, Miquel; Sabate, Josep; Valero, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of the Agriculture Engineering School of Barcelona (ESAB), where undergraduate students were involved in field research experiments on organic waste use in agricultural systems. Design/methodology/approach: The paper outlines how the formation of professionals oriented to work for…

  9. Returns to Human and Research Capital, United States Agriculture, 1949-1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishelson, Gideon

    This study estimated rates of return to public investments in human and research capital (formal schooling and extension and vocational agricultural education) in the United States agricultural industry. (Southern states were excluded because of demographic and educational factors that would have biased the variables.) Output per farm was defined…

  10. RESEARCH CONFERENCE IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION (20TH, UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA, AUGUST 2-4, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAHLER, ALAN; AND OTHERS

    FIFTY-FOUR PARTICIPANTS FROM NINE STATES ATTENDED THE CONFERENCE TO DISCUSS REGIONAL RESEARCH, METHODOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS, AND NEW AREAS OF RESEARCH. TEXTS OF MAJOR SPEECHES GIVEN AT THE CONFERENCE ARE INCLUDED--"RESEARCH IN EDUCATION" BY W. K. BEGGS, "THE CHALLENGE TO SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE," BY HOWARD W. OTTOSON, "RESEARCH…

  11. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-07

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  12. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  13. Operationalizing Demand-Driven Agricultural Research: Institutional Influences in a Public and Private System of Research Planning in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees

    2009-01-01

    The trend towards demand-driven agricultural research has focused attention on the inclusion of farmers in research planning. Theoretically, this should enhance ownership and increase the applicability of research. However, in practice, several tensions emerge with regard to the operationalization of such "user-driven research planning…

  14. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., production, marketing (other than statistical and economic research but including research related to family...). (41)-(46) (47) Coordinate USDA policy and programs relating to global climate change (7 U.S.C....

  15. Policy Implications of Current Research in Agricultural Education. Central Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of Annual Meeting (29th, Columbia, Missouri, July 29-31, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia.

    Research on the following topics is presented in this publication: "Analysis of Factors Related to the Educational Plans of Iowa Vocational Agriculture Students,""Development of a Statewide System for Follow-up of Vocational Graduates that Has Implementation for Usage by Local Educational Agencies,""Factors Influencing Ninth and Tenth Grade…

  16. Antimony bioavailability: knowledge and research perspectives for sustainable agricultures.

    PubMed

    Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2015-05-30

    The increasing interest in urban agriculture highlights the crucial question of crop quality. The main objectives for environmental sustainability are a decrease in chemical inputs, a reduction in the level of pollutants, and an improvement in the soil's biological activity. Among inorganic pollutants emitted by vehicle traffic and some industrial processes in urban areas, antimony (Sb) is observed on a global scale. While this metalloid is known to be potentially toxic, it can transfer from the soil or the atmosphere to plants, and accumulate in their edible parts. Urban agriculture is developing worldwide, and could therefore increasingly expose populations to Sb. The objective of this review was in consequences to gather and interpret actual knowledge of Sb uptake and bioaccumulation by crops, to reveal investigative fields on which to focus. While there is still no legal maximal value for Sb in plants and soils, light has to be shed on its accumulation and the factors affecting it. A relative absence of data exists about the role of soil flora and fauna in the transfer, speciation and compartmentation of Sb in vegetables. Moreover, little information exists on Sb ecotoxicity for terrestrial ecosystems. A human risk assessment has finally been reviewed, with particular focus on Sb bioaccessibility.

  17. Moving GIS Research Indoors: Spatiotemporal Analysis of Agricultural Animals

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Courtney L.; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A.; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare. PMID:25098421

  18. Moving GIS research indoors: spatiotemporal analysis of agricultural animals.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Courtney L; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare.

  19. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  20. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. [Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  1. Environmentally compatible applications of biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, R.J.; Egan, M.

    1994-09-01

    Using living organisms to minimize harmful human impact on the environment is relatively recent thrust of biotechnology. Biotechnology developments are being employed as green technologies in a variety of applications that fall into the category of environmental biotechnology. The following aspects of biotechnology are discussed in this article: biosensors; bioremediation; bioleaching; natural plastics; clean fuels; pesticides; regulation of biotechnology products and processes. 58 refs.

  2. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    Research on domestic animals (cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry, horses, and aquatic species) at land grant institutions is integral to improving the global competitiveness of US animal agriculture and to resolving complex animal and human diseases. However, dwindling federal and state budgets, years of stagnant funding from USDA for the Competitive State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative (CSREES-NRI) Competitive Grants Program, significant reductions in farm animal species and in numbers at land grant institutions, and declining enrollment for graduate studies in animal science are diminishing the resources necessary to conduct research on domestic species. Consequently, recruitment of scientists who use such models to conduct research relevant to animal agriculture and biomedicine at land grant institutions is in jeopardy. Concerned stakeholders have addressed this critical problem by conducting workshops, holding a series of meetings with USDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) officials, and developing a white paper to propose solutions to obstacles impeding the use of domestic species as dual-purpose animal models for high-priority problems common to agriculture and biomedicine. In addition to shortfalls in research support and human resources, overwhelming use of mouse models in biomedicine, lack of advocacy from university administrators, long-standing cultural barriers between agriculture and human medicine, inadequate grantsmanship by animal scientists, and a scarcity of key reagents and resources are major roadblocks to progress. Solutions will require a large financial enhancement of USDA's Competitive Grants Program, educational programs geared toward explaining how research using agricultural animals benefits both animal agriculture and human health, and the development of a new mind-set in land grant institutions that fosters greater cooperation among basic and applied researchers. Recruitment of

  3. Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

  4. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage.

  5. Current United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on understanding agrochemical fate and transport to prevent and mitigate adverse environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Rice, Clifford P; Sadeghi, Ali M; Schmidt, Walter F; McCarty, Gregory W; Starr, James L; Rice, Pamela J; Angier, Jonathan T; Harman-Fetcho, J A

    2003-01-01

    Environmentally and economically viable agriculture requires a variety of cultivation practices and pest management options as no one system will be appropriate for every situation. Agrochemicals are some of the many pest control tools used in an integrated approach to pest management. They are applied with the intent of maximizing efficacy while minimizing off-site movement; however, their judicious use demands a practical knowledge of their fate and effects in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Agrochemical distribution into environmental compartments is influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the agrochemical and environmental conditions, ie soil type and structure, and meteorological conditions. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) researchers working in the area of agrochemical fate have focused on accurately describing those processes that govern the transport, degradation and bioavailability of these chemicals under conditions reflecting actual agronomic practices. Results from ARS research concerning the environmental fate and effects of agrochemicals have led to the development of science-based management practices that will protect vulnerable areas of the ecosystem. The new challenge is to identify these vulnerable areas and the temporal and spatial variations prior to use of the chemical by predicting how it will behave in environmental matrices, and using that information, predict its transport and transformation within an air- or watershed. With the development of better predictive tools and GIS (Geographic Information System)-based modeling, the risks of agricultural management systems can be assessed at the watershed and basin levels, and management strategies can be identified that minimize negative environmental impacts.

  6. Improving microalgae for biotechnology--From genetics to synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Hlavova, Monika; Turoczy, Zoltan; Bisova, Katerina

    2015-11-01

    Microalgae have traditionally been used in many biotechnological applications, where each new application required a different species or strain expressing the required properties; the challenge therefore is to isolate or develop, characterize and optimize species or strains that can express more than one specific property. In agriculture, breeding of natural variants has been successfully used for centuries to improve production traits in many existing plant and animal species. With the discovery of the concepts of classical genetics, these new ideas have been extensively used in selective breeding. However, many biotechnologically relevant algae do not possess the sexual characteristics required for traditional breeding/crossing, although they can be modified by chemical and physical mutagens. The resulting mutants are not considered as genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their cultivation is therefore not limited by legislation. On the other hand, mutants prepared by random or specific insertion of foreign DNA are considered to be GMOs. This review will compare the effects of two genetic approaches on model algal species and will summarize their advantages in basic research. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of mutagenesis to improve microalgae as a biotechnological resource, to accelerate the process from specific strain isolation to growth optimization, and discuss the production of new products. Finally, we will explore the potential of algae in synthetic biology.

  7. Biotechnological and industrial significance of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2009-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be a rich source of novel metabolites of a great importance from a biotechnological and industrial point of view. Some cyanobacterial secondary metabolites (CSMs), exhibit toxic effects on living organisms. A diverse range of these cyanotoxins may have ecological roles as allelochemicals, and could be employed for the commercial development of compounds with applications such as algaecides, herbicides and insecticides. Recently, cyanobacteria have become an attractive source of innovative classes of pharmacologically active compounds showing interesting and exciting biological activities ranging from antibiotics, immunosuppressant, and anticancer, antiviral, antiinflammatory to proteinase-inhibiting agents. A different but not less interesting property of these microorganisms is their capacity of overcoming the toxicity of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by means of UV-absorbing/screening compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and scytonemin. These last two compounds are true 'multipurpose' secondary metabolites and considered to be natural photoprotectants. In this sense, they may be biotechnologically exploited by the cosmetic industry. Overall CSMs are striking targets in biotechnology and biomedical research, because of their potential applications in agriculture, industry, and especially in pharmaceuticals.

  8. Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. M.; Fritzsche, J.; Tkatsch, H.; Waag, F.; Karch, K.; Henze, K.; Delbeck, S.; Budde, J.

    2013-11-01

    Mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy is introduced as a versatile analytical method for characterizing liquid and solid chemicals as obtained from petrochemistry and biotechnology processes. Besides normal transmission measurements, special equipment with silver halide fiber-optic probes allowing efficient analysis based on mid-infrared attenuated total reflection, and an accessory for near-infrared diffuse reflection measurements, are presented. The latter technique can be used advantageously for powdered samples such as microalgae biomass and polysaccharides, as well as for different tissues such as meat samples. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods, which can be used for industrial process monitoring and chemical quality control applications, are discussed, and have been used in several research projects of BSc students within their degree course of bio- and nano-technologies of our University of Applied Sciences.

  9. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Hurlbert, Katy

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput.

  10. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  11. Industrial biotechnology takes off in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lex, Maurice

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnologies have the potential to significantly impact the quality of life in a sustainable society through the understanding, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, advances in agriculture and food production, and numerous industrial applications ranging from chemicals to materials including environmental protection and remediation. This article considers how the business sector will be modified by developments in the understanding of living organisms. Will the 21st century see the growth of a Bioeconomy based on applications of biotechnology as pervasive and as powerful as the information economy has been at the end of the 20th century?

  12. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream…

  13. Ohio Biotechnology Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lavonna; Bowermeister, Bob; Boudreau, Joyce

    This document, which lists the biotechnology competencies identified by representatives from biotechnology businesses and industries as well as secondary and post-secondary educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through…

  14. Advanced Manufacturing and Value-added Products from US Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villet, Ruxton H.; Child, Dennis R.; Acock, Basil

    1992-01-01

    An objective of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is to develop technology leading to a broad portfolio of value-added marketable products. Modern scientific disciplines such as chemical engineering are brought into play to develop processes for converting bulk commodities into high-margin products. To accomplish this, the extremely sophisticated processing devices which form the basis of modern biotechnology, namely, genes and enzymes, can be tailored to perform the required functions. The USDA/ARS is a leader in the development of intelligent processing equipment (IPE) for agriculture in the broadest sense. Applications of IPE are found in the production, processing, grading, and marketing aspects of agriculture. Various biotechnology applications of IPE are discussed.

  15. Research on agricultural ecology and environment analysis and modeling based on RS and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Chen, Hongfu; Wang, Mingsheng

    2009-07-01

    Analysis of agricultural ecology and environment is based on the data of agricultural resources, which are obtained by RS monitoring. The over-exploitation of farmlands will cause structural changes of the soil composition, and damage the planting environment and the agro-ecosystem. Through the research on the dynamic monitoring methods of multitemporal RS images and GIS technology, the crop growth status, crop acreage and other relevant information in agricultural production are extracted based on the monitor and analysis of the conditions of the fields and crop growth. The agro-ecological GIS platform is developed with the establishment of the agricultural resources management database, which manages spatial data, RS data and attribute data of agricultural resources. Using the RS, GIS analysis results, the reasons of agro-ecological destruction are analyzed and the evaluation methods are established. This paper puts forward the concept of utilization capacity of farmland, which describes farmland space for development and utilization that is influenced by the conditions of the land, water resources, climate, pesticides and chemical fertilizers and many other agricultural production factors. Assessment model of agricultural land use capacity is constructed with the help of Fuzzy. Assessing the utilization capacity of farmland can be helpful to agricultural production and ecological protection of farmland. This paper describes the application of the capacity evaluation model with simulated data in two aspects, namely, in evaluating the status of farmland development and utilization and in optimal planting.

  16. Central Regional Annual Research Conference in Agricultural Education Proceedings (41st, Chicago, Illinois, February 22-23, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Dept. of Agricultural and Extension Education.

    This proceedings contains 18 papers on agricultural research issues selected by panel review plus the keynote address, a conference summary, and the conference agenda. The following papers are included: "Research in Agricultural Education: Requisites for Further Progress" (Warmbrod--keynote address); "Marketing Agricultural Education" (Casey,…

  17. Equipment Request for the Belleville Agricultural Research and Education Center

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Bryan; Nehring, Jarrett; Graham, Susan; Klubek, Brian

    2013-01-13

    The funding provided by the DOE for this project was used exclusively to purchase research equipment involved with the field development and evaluation of crop production technologies and practices for energy crop production. The new equipment has been placed into service on the SIU farms and has significantly enhanced our research capacity and scope for agronomy and precision ag research to support novel seed traits or crop management strategies for improving the efficiency and productivity of corn and soybeans. More specifically, the precision ag capability of the equipment that was purchased has heightened interest by faculty and associated industry partners to develop collaborative projects. In addition, this equipment has provided SIU with a foundation to be more successful at securing competitive grants in energy crop production and precision ag data management. Furthermore, the enhanced capacity for agronomy research in the southern Illinois region has been realized and will benefit crop producers in this region by learning to improve their operations from our research outcomes.

  18. Ag Data Commons: Adding Value to Open Agricultural Research Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public access to results of federally-funded research is a new mandate for large departments of the United States government. Public access to scholarly literature from U.S. investments is straightforward, with policies and systems like PubMed Central and PubAg (http://pubag.nal.usda.gov) already im...

  19. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to soil and water conservation, engineering operations, and methods of cultivation to provide for the... U.S.C. 5821). (32) Administer a national research program on genetic resources to provide for the collection, preservation, and dissemination of genetic material important to American food and...

  20. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to soil and water conservation, engineering operations, and methods of cultivation to provide for the... U.S.C. 5821). (32) Administer a national research program on genetic resources to provide for the collection, preservation, and dissemination of genetic material important to American food and...

  1. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to soil and water conservation, engineering operations, and methods of cultivation to provide for the... U.S.C. 5821). (32) Administer a national research program on genetic resources to provide for the collection, preservation, and dissemination of genetic material important to American food and...

  2. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to soil and water conservation, engineering operations, and methods of cultivation to provide for the... U.S.C. 5821). (32) Administer a national research program on genetic resources to provide for the collection, preservation, and dissemination of genetic material important to American food and...

  3. Analysis and Interpretation of Interactions in Agricultural Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When reporting on well conducted research, a characteristic of a complete and proper manuscript is one that includes analyses and interpretations of all interactions. The purpose of this article is to provide specific guidelines on how to analyze and interpret interactions of fixed effects in resear...

  4. Biotechnology for the extractive metals industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brierley, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Biotechnology is an alternative process for the extraction of metals, the beneficiation of ores, and the recovery of metals from aqueous systems. Currently, microbial-based processes are used for leaching copper and uranium, enhancing the recovery of gold from refractory ores, and treating industrial wastewater to recover metal values. Future developments, emanating from fundamental and applied research and advances through genetic engineering, are expected to increase the use and efficiency of these biotechnological processes.

  5. Central States Annual Research Conference in Agricultural Education Proceedings (42nd, Chicago, Illinois, February 21-22, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    The following papers are included in this conference report: "Generative Themes for Research in Agricultural Education," (Copa); "Factors Associated with Participation of Iowa Young Farmers in Agricultural Extension Programs" (Martin, Omer); "Personality Characteristics of Groups of Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and…

  6. Assessment of Professional Training Programmes in International Agricultural Research Institutions: The Case of ICRAF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanjiku, Julliet; Mairura, Franklin; Place, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The following survey was undertaken in 2005 to assess the effectiveness of professional training activities in international agricultural research organizations that were undertaken between 1999 and 2002 at ICRAF (International Centre for Research in Agroforestry), now World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi. Trainees were randomly selected from…

  7. 77 FR 27013 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... ranching, food production and processing, forestry research, crop and animal science, land-grant institutions, non-land grant college or university with a historic commitment to research in the food and agricultural sciences, food retailing and marketing, rural economic development, and natural resource...

  8. Sustaining the earth's watersheds-agricultural research data system: Overview of development and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive, long-term data for watershed systems across diverse locations are essential for interdisciplinary hydrologic and ecosystem analysis and model development, calibration and validation. The USDA and Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have supported watershed research since the 1930’s w...

  9. The Transformation of Agricultural Research in France: The Introduction of the American System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castonguay, Stephane

    2005-01-01

    In 1916, French entomologist Paul Marchal published a seminal report on the contemporary state of agricultural research in the United States of America. His recommendations underlined the need for a close relationship between research and education, a factor vital to national survival in the aftermath of the Great War. This essay discusses the…

  10. MULTI-DISCIPLINARY TEAMS - A NECESSITY FOR RESEARCH IN PRECISION AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture may offer great promise for the future, but extensive additional research is required if that promise is to be realized. The research will not be easy, for few, if any, individuals have sufficiently broad training in the many disciplines (e.g. economics, engineering, crop and ...

  11. Commentary on domestic animals in agricultural and biomedical research: An endangered enterprise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the long and successful history of research on agriculturally relevant domestic animals, basic and translational research using domestic species is becoming increasingly threatened due to budgetary erosion. This funding decline is well documented in a recent article by Ireland et al., publis...

  12. Fulfilling the promise of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Rita R

    2002-11-01

    Genetic engineering has produced pharmaceuticals, disease-resistant plants, cloned animals and research and industrial products. While the comparably mature field of medical biotechnology now reveals its true potential, marine biotechnology is still in the realm of the future. As we explore the earth for new sources of natural chemicals, we now search the waters. Myriad organisms, most unknown to us, live there. Many produce compounds that can be commercialized, or the organisms themselves may be commercialized, through genetic engineering methods. For decades, scientists studied the ocean depths searching for unique molecules and organisms. But not until the early 1980s was there a synthesis uniting marine natural products, ecology, aquaculture and bioremediation research under the heading of marine biotechnology. As harvesting enough products from marine sources to produce sufficient amounts, even for study, is nearly impossible, we need to use genomics techniques to identify biologically active compounds. As we damage our oceanic ecosystems through pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing methods, opportunities to learn more about marine organisms and their commercial potential may be limited. Although governments and intergovernmental agencies are committed to funding and expanding oceanic research, more funding is needed to discover and study the ocean's vast, unplumbed resources.

  13. Tension on the Farm Fields: The Death of Traditional Agriculture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguamanam, Chidi

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the historic transitions and progressions in agricultural science, this article examines the emergence of the phenomenon of agricultural biotechnology. It identifies pivotal sites of tension between agricultural biotechnology and alternative approaches to agriculture. The article identifies two distinct sources of contemporary…

  14. Agriculture and biotechnology in Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Shigaki, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific countries are small in land mass and therefore represent one of the most fragile ecosystems. Due to the isolation of these island counties, these are home to unique species of plants and animals as well as crop varieties and landraces. Biosafety issues in the Pacific countries, therefore, require special attention to take these factors into account. The issues are shared with other small island nations such as the Caribbean countries. Although most Pacific countries do not have scientific capacity to develop genetically modified organisms (GMOs), they are inadvertently introduced from the developed world. As the countries do not have appropriate capacity to monitor the introduction and commerce of GMO's, it is imperative to establish biosafety legislation and capacity by pooling the resources within the Pacific countries.

  15. Biotechnology: Impact on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the nine key technology issues that affect the sustainability of the sugar- or bio-energy- cane industry, namely: land, fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and lately, information technology, growing the right varieties rema...

  16. United States Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service research on targeted management of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Lax, Alan R; Osbrink, Weste L A

    2003-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki is currently one of the most destructive pests in the USA. It is estimated to cost consumers over US dollars 1 billion annually for preventative and remedial treatment and to repair damage caused by this insect. The mission of the Formosan Subterranean Termite Research Unit of the Agricultural Research Service is to demonstrate the most effective existing termite management technologies, integrate them into effective management systems, and provide fundamental problem-solving research for long-term, safe, effective and environmentally friendly new technologies. This article describes the epidemiology of the pest and highlights the research accomplished by the Agricultural Research Service on area-wide management of the termite and fundamental research on its biology that might provide the basis for future management technologies. Fundamental areas that are receiving attention are termite detection, termite colony development, nutrition and foraging, and the search for biological control agents. Other fertile areas include understanding termite symbionts that may provide an additional target for control. Area-wide management of the termite by using population suppression rather than protection of individual structures has been successful; however, much remains to be done to provide long-term sustainable population control. An educational component of the program has provided reliable information to homeowners and pest-control operators that should help slow the spread of this organism and allow rapid intervention in those areas which it infests.

  17. Linking international agricultural research knowledge with action for sustainable development

    PubMed Central

    Kristjanson, Patti; Reid, Robin S.; Dickson, Nancy; Clark, William C.; Romney, Dannie; Puskur, Ranjitha; MacMillan, Susan; Grace, Delia

    2009-01-01

    We applied an innovation framework to sustainable livestock development research projects in Africa and Asia. The focus of these projects ranged from pastoral systems to poverty and ecosystems services mapping to market access by the poor to fodder and natural resource management to livestock parasite drug resistance. We found that these projects closed gaps between knowledge and action by combining different kinds of knowledge, learning, and boundary spanning approaches; by providing all partners with the same opportunities; and by building the capacity of all partners to innovate and communicate. PMID:19289830

  18. Linking international agricultural research knowledge with action for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Kristjanson, Patti; Reid, Robin S; Dickson, Nancy; Clark, William C; Romney, Dannie; Puskur, Ranjitha; Macmillan, Susan; Grace, Delia

    2009-03-31

    We applied an innovation framework to sustainable livestock development research projects in Africa and Asia. The focus of these projects ranged from pastoral systems to poverty and ecosystems services mapping to market access by the poor to fodder and natural resource management to livestock parasite drug resistance. We found that these projects closed gaps between knowledge and action by combining different kinds of knowledge, learning, and boundary spanning approaches; by providing all partners with the same opportunities; and by building the capacity of all partners to innovate and communicate.

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Central Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education (30th, Columbus, Ohio, August 3-5, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpelding, Lawrence H., Comp.

    Thirteen papers constitute the major portion of the proceedings of a conference designed to review and analyze current research, to identify research priorities, and to provide a challenge for the continuing improvement of the planning, conduct, and implementation of research in agricultural education: (1) Research in Agricultural Education from a…

  20. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of

  1. Corporate intelligence in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Persidis

    1999-05-01

    'Know thy neighbor' is a critical component of today's biotechnology practice. The industry is extremely rich in science and business information, and the pace of change is dramatic. Successful participation in biotechnology will always depend on good technology, management and money. In addition, an ingredient that needs more attention is competitive information- gathering and analysis. Competitive intelligence can be defined as actionable information that requires the ability to filter and synthesize relevant knowledge for the benefit of the company. Why is this necessary? How can it be done well? What examples are there? These are good questions that are inevitably faced by all biotechnology practitioners, and some answers are provided herein.

  2. New Directions in Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The macromolecule crystallization program within NASA is undergoing considerable pressure, particularly budgetary pressure. While it has shown some successes, they have not lived up to the expectations of others, and technological advances may rapidly overtake the natural advantages offered by crystallization in microgravity. Concomitant with the microgravity effort has been a research program to study the macromolecule crystallization process. It was believed that a better understanding of the process would lead to growth of improved crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The results of the various research efforts have been impressive in improving our understanding of macromolecule crystallization, but have not led to any improved structures. Macromolecule crystallization for structure determination is "one of", the job being unique for every protein and finished once a structure is obtained. However, the knowledge gained is not lost, but instead lays the foundation for developments in new areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this it is highly analogous to studies into small molecule crystallization, the results of which have led to our present day microelectronics-based society. We are conducting preliminary experiments into areas such as designed macromolecule crystals, macromolecule-inorganic hybrid structures, and macromolecule-based nanotechnology. In addition, our protein crystallization studies are now being directed more towards industrial and new approaches to membrane protein crystallization.

  3. International Agricultural Trade and Policy: Issues and Implications for U.S. Agriculture. Texas Agricultural Market Research Center Special Series Report No. SS-2-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gary W.

    Historical events have set the stage for the current U.S. agricultural export performance. Agricultural exports in the early 1990s were as large or larger relative to the size of the agricultural sector than at any time since. A dramatic decrease in net farm income was caused by the Great Depression (1929-1932). Following passage of the…

  4. Biotechnology, biofortification, and global health.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ross M

    2005-12-01

    Deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, and vitamin A afflict over three billion people (more than 50% of the world's population), most of them women, infants, and children in resource-poor families in the developing world. This global crisis in nutritional health is the result of dysfunctional food systems that do not consistently supply enough of these essential nutrients to meet the nutritional requirements of high-risk groups. Deficiencies of micronutrients result in increased morbidity and mortality rates, lost worker productivity, stagnated national development, permanent impairment of cognitive development in infants and children, and large economic costs and suffering to those societies affected. Because agricultural systems are the primary source of all micronutrients for all people, changes in agricultural policies and systems must be made that will ensure consistent and adequate supplies of all essential nutrients to all people. Additionally, the nutrition and health sectors must turn to agricultural interventions as a primary tool in their efforts to eliminate malnutrition from the world if they want to ensure sustainability. Biotechnological advances show great promise for improving the output of bioavailable micronutrients from agricultural systems that feed the poor. This paper reviews some of these opportunities and discusses the questions and concerns that should be raised when these technologies are used to improve the micronutrient status of vast numbers of people who are dependent on staple food crops for their sustenance. Further, important issues surrounding micronutrient bioavailability and plant food factors that affect it are discussed.

  5. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I. M.; Nawar, Ali I.; Rohila, Jai S.

    2013-01-01

    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path toward crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. PMID:23450788

  6. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I M; Nawar, Ali I; Rohila, Jai S

    2013-01-01

    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path toward crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

  7. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    Scientific assessments of agricultural air quality, including estimates of emissions and potential sequestration of greenhouse gases, are an important emerging area of environmental science that offers significant challenges to policy and regulatory authorities. Improvements are needed in measurements, modeling, emission controls, and farm operation management. Controlling emissions of gases and particulate matter from agriculture is notoriously difficult as this sector affects the most basic need of humans, i.e., food. Current policies combine an inadequate science covering a very disparate range of activities in a complex industry with social and political overlays. Moreover, agricultural emissions derive from both area and point sources. In the United States, agricultural emissions play an important role in several atmospherically mediated processes of environmental and public health concerns. These atmospheric processes affect local and regional environmental quality, including odor, particulate matter (PM) exposure, eutrophication, acidification, exposure to toxics, climate, and pathogens. Agricultural emissions also contribute to the global problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and in how they interact within the various processes and media affected. Most important in the U.S. are ammonia (where agriculture accounts for approximately 90% of total emissions), reduced sulfur (unquantified), PM25 (approximately 16%), PM110 (approximately 18%), methane (approximately 29%), nitrous oxide (approximately 72%), and odor and emissions of pathogens (both unquantified). Agriculture also consumes fossil fuels for fertilizer production and farm operations, thus emitting carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), sulfur oxides (SO(x)), and particulates. Current research priorities include the quantification of point and nonpoint sources, the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia, reduced sulfur

  8. Identification of high payoff research for more efficient applicator helicopters in agriculture and forestry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, K. T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a study of the uses of helicopters in agriculture and forestry in the United States are discussed. Comparisons with agricultural airplanes are made in terms of costs of aerial application to the growers. An analysis of cost drivers and potential improvements to helicopters that will lower costs is presented. Future trends are discussed, and recommendations for research are outlined. Operational safety hazards and accident records are examined, and problem areas are identified. Areas where research and development are needed to provide opportunities for lowering costs while increasing productivity are analyzed.

  9. From the tumor-inducing principle to plant biotechnology and its importance for society.

    PubMed

    Angenon, Geert; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Van Montagu, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue was held between the Guest Editors of the Special Issue on "Plant Transgenesis" of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. and Marc Van Montagu. Research in the group of Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell in the 1970s was essential to reveal how the phytopathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers DNA to host plants to cause crown gall disease. Knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying gene transfer, subsequently led to the development of plant transgene technology, an indispensable tool in fundamental plant research and plant improvement. In the early 1980s, Marc Van Montagu founded a start-up company, Plant Genetic Systems, which successfully developed insect-resistant plants, herbicide-tolerant plants and a hybrid seed production system based on nuclear male sterility. Even before the first transgenic plant had been produced, Marc Van Montagu realized that the less developed countries might benefit most from plant biotechnology and throughout his subsequent career, this remained a focus of his efforts. After becoming emeritus professor, he founded the Institute of Plant Biotechnology Outreach (IPBO), which aims to raise awareness of the major role that plant biotechnology can play in sustainable agricultural systems, especially in less developed countries. Marc Van Montagu has been honored with many prizes and awards, the most recent being the prestigious World Food Prize 2013. In this paper, we look to the past and present of plant biotechnology and to the promises this technology holds for the future, on the basis of the personal perspective of Marc Van Montagu.

  10. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  11. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  12. Traditional Chinese biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  13. Employment Prospects in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jerry D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is a survey of firms which hire biologists. Summarized are required knowledge, skills, qualifications, and attributes required of candidates; types of jobs being filled; and methods of finding qualified candidates. Careers in biotechnology areas are highlighted. (CW)

  14. Top ten biotechnologies for improving health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Daar, Abdallah S; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla; Martin, Douglas K; Smith, Alyna C; Nast, Shauna; Singer, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    Most research into genomics and other related biotechnologies is concerned with the priorities of industrialized nations, and yet a limited number of projects have shown that these technologies could help improve health in developing countries. To encourage the successful application of biotechnology to global health, we carried out a study in which we asked an international group of eminent scientists with expertise in global health issues to identify the top ten biotechnologies for improving health in developing countries. The results offer concrete guidance to those in a position to influence the direction of research and development, and challenge common assumptions about the relevance and affordability of biotechnology for developing countries.

  15. Improving biotechnology communication.

    PubMed

    Weitze, Marc-Denis; Pühler, Alfred

    2013-09-01

    Successful dialog between science and the public is vital for the development and introduction of new technologies. The National Academy of Science and Engineering in Germany has analysed experiences gained from controversies and communication strategies surrounding green genetic engineering and other fields of biotechnology, from a communications and social science viewpoint, as well as a historical perspective. From this, recommendations on how to communicate biotechnology in the future, with objectivity and balance, have been derived.

  16. agINFRA: a research data hub for agriculture, food and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Drakos, Andreas; Protonotarios, Vassilis; Manouselis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    The agINFRA project (www.aginfra.eu) was a European Commission funded project under the 7th Framework Programme that aimed to introduce agricultural scientific communities to the vision of open and participatory data-intensive science. agINFRA has now evolved into the European hub for data-powered research on agriculture, food and the environment, serving the research community through multiple roles. Working on enhancing the interoperability between heterogeneous data sources, the agINFRA project has left a set of grid- and cloud- based services that can be reused by future initiatives and adopted by existing ones, in order to facilitate the dissemination of agricultural research, educational and other types of data. On top of that, agINFRA provided a set of domain-specific recommendations for the publication of agri-food research outcomes. This paper discusses the concept of the agINFRA project and presents its major outcomes, as adopted by existing initiatives activated in the context of agricultural research and education. PMID:26339472

  17. The Consortium for Plant Biotechnology Research, Inc. Semi-Annual Technical Report for April 1, 2000 - September 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-02

    Scientific progress reports submitted by university researchers conducting projects funded through CPBR and metrics reports submitted by industry sponsors that provided matching funds to the projects.

  18. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research.

  19. Designing a Model for Integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the Iranian Agricultural Research System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifzadeh, Aboulqasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholam Hossein; Sharifi, Mahnoosh

    2009-01-01

    Capacity Development is needed in the Iranian Agricultural System. Integrating Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the agricultural research system is an appropriate capacity development mechanism. The appropriate application of ICTs and information such as a National Agricultural Information System requires a systemically…

  20. The 17th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Southern Research Conference in Agricultural Education (30th, Lubbock, Texas, July 21-23, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepica, M. J.; And Others

    These proceedings contain 20 presentations and reports made during the 30th Annual Research Conference in Agricultural Education in Lubbock, Texas. The keynote address on importance of research to agricultural education is followed by 16 research papers reporting on analysis of student teacher morale before and after student teaching;…

  2. Applications of cyanobacteria in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Abed, R M M; Dobretsov, S; Sudesh, K

    2009-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have gained a lot of attention in recent years because of their potential applications in biotechnology. We present an overview of the literature describing the uses of cyanobacteria in industry and services sectors and provide an outlook on the challenges and future prospects of the field of cyanobacterial biotechnology. Cyanobacteria have been identified as a rich source of biologically active compounds with antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activities. Several strains of cyanobacteria were found to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates, which can be used as a substitute for nonbiodegradable petrochemical-based plastics. Recent studies showed that oil-polluted sites are rich in cyanobacterial consortia capable of degrading oil components. Cyanobacteria within these consortia facilitated the degradation processes by providing the associated oil-degrading bacteria with the necessary oxygen, organics and fixed nitrogen. Cyanobacterial hydrogen has been considered as a very promising source of alternative energy, and has now been made commercially available. In addition to these applications, cyanobacteria are also used in aquaculture, wastewater treatment, food, fertilizers, production of secondary metabolites including exopolysaccharides, vitamins, toxins, enzymes and pharmaceuticals. Future research should focus on isolating new cyanobacterial strains producing high value products and genetically modifying existing strains to ensure maximum production of the desired products. Metagenomic libraries should be constructed to discover new functional genes that are involved in the biosynthesis of biotechnological relevant compounds. Large-scale industrial production of the cyanobacterial products requires optimization of incubation conditions and fermenter designs in order to increase productivity.

  3. Research Productivity in the "Journal of Agricultural Education" from 1996 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Amy; Goff, Sam; Roberts, T. Grady

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine research productivity in the Journal of Agricultural Education from 1996 to 2005 and explain factors that contributed to that productivity. In Volumes 37 to 46, 333 articles were published. The most productive institutions were determined by frequency of the institutional affiliation of article authors. The…

  4. Compilation of Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Questions for Discussion. 104th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This volume compiles and reprints the responses of 37 organizations to a series of questions issued by the House Committee on Agriculture in anticipation of debates concerning the Research Title of the 1995 Farm Bill due for updating and revision. The questions address some of the following topics: the role of the federal government in…

  5. 78 FR 25691 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ..., each member has represented a specific category related to farming or ranching, food production and... university with a historic commitment to research in the food and agricultural sciences, food retailing and marketing, rural economic development, and natural resource and consumer interest groups, among many...

  6. Counter-Geographies: The Campaign against Rationalisation of Agricultural Research Stations in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris; Dufty, Rae; Phillips, Samantha; Smith, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses an example of community action mounted in a rural region of New South Wales, Australia, in response to proposals by the State Government to rationalise agricultural research stations operated by the Department of Primary Industries. Informed by a Foucaultian understanding of power and the concept of governmentality,…

  7. 77 FR 11064 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Advisory Board Office, Room 3901 South Building, United States Department of Agriculture, STOP 0321, 1400.... SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App 2, the United States... advising the Department on subjects relevant to Research, Education, and Economics. An evening...

  8. Current Erosion and Sediment Research Concerns in Agricultural Watersheds in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion research programs in the USA began in earnest following events of the 1933 Dust Bowl. During the early years from the 1930s-1960s, the focus was on determining the scale and severity of this problem by making measurements on plots, field-size areas, and small agricultural watersheds. Th...

  9. The Influence of Information Technology Access on Agricultural Research in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimba, Samuel Wodi; Atinmo, Morayo Ibironke

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between accessibility to information technology and research publications among users of agricultural libraries in Nigeria. Discusses results of a questionnaire that investigated the use of electronic information resources and considers the effects of information technology and globalization on the economies of developing…

  10. Ergonomic risks and musculoskeletal disorders in production agriculture: recommendations for effective research to practice.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R; Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Banks, R J

    2010-07-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are increasingly recognized as a significant hazard of agricultural occupation. In agricultural jobs with significant physical labor, MSDs are typically the most frequently reported injury. Although not as lethal as tractor roll-overs, MSDs can result in disability, lost work time, and increased production costs. MSDs increase production costs as a result of worker absence, medical and insurance costs, decreased work capacity, and loss of employees to turnover and competition from other less physically demanding industries. This paper will provide an overview of what is currently known about MSDs in agriculture, including high-risk commodities, tasks and work practices, and the related regulatory factors and workers' compensation costs. As agricultural production practices evolve, the types of MSDs also change, as do ergonomic risk factors. One example is the previous higher rates of knee and hip arthritis identified in farmers in stanchion dairies evolving into upper extremity tendonitis, arthritis, and carpal tunnel syndrome now found in milking technicians in dairy milking parlors. This paper summarizes the presentation, "Musculoskeletal Disorders in Labor-Intensive Operations," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. The primary focus of the paper is to address current research on ergonomic solutions for MSDs in agriculture. These include improved tools, carts or equipment, as well as work practices. One of the key challenges in this area pertains to measurement, due to the fact that musculoskeletal strain is a chronic condition that can come and go, with self-reported pain as its only indicator. Alternative measurement methods will be discussed. Finally, the implementation of research into practice is reviewed, with an emphasis on best

  11. Potential biotechnological application of microalgae: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2017-02-01

    Microalgae are diverse microorganisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats with only a small fraction being cultivated for human use. Recently, interest in microalgal research has increased in the quest for alternative renewable fuels due to possible depletion of fossil fuels in the near future. However, costly downstream processing has hampered the commercialization of biofuels derived from microalgae. Several value added products of industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural relevance could be simultaneously derived from microalgae during bioenergy production. Despite these value-added products having the potential to offset the high cost of downstream processing of renewable fuels, their production has not been explored in-depth. This review presents a critical overview of the current state of biotechnological applications of microalgae for human benefit and highlights possible areas for further research and development.

  12. Biosafety legislation and biotechnology development gains momentum in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wafula, David; Waithaka, Michael; Komen, John; Karembu, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Opinion in Africa over the use of genetically modified crops for food has been divided, honed by more than a decade of arguments in Europe and elsewhere. Fortunately, the perceived image of a passive Africa in this game is changing rapidly with clear positions on how to harness modern biotechnology. This article examines the status of biosafety regulation across Africa, pertinent challenges and the extent to which regulation fosters or constrains the development of agricultural biotechnology.

  13. To provide for Federal research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities to enable the development of farms that are net producers of both food and energy, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Bartlett, Roscoe G. [R-MD-6

    2011-01-05

    03/03/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Ergot: from witchcraft to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Thomas; Rolke, Yvonne; Giesbert, Sabine; Tudzynski, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The ergot diseases of grasses, caused by members of the genus Claviceps, have had a severe impact on human history and agriculture, causing devastating epidemics. However, ergot alkaloids, the toxic components of Claviceps sclerotia, have been used intensively (and misused) as pharmaceutical drugs, and efficient biotechnological processes have been developed for their in vitro production. Molecular genetics has provided detailed insight into the genetic basis of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis and opened up perspectives for the design of new alkaloids and the improvement of production strains; it has also revealed the refined infection strategy of this biotrophic pathogen, opening up the way for better control. Nevertheless, Claviceps remains an important pathogen worldwide, and a source for potential new drugs for central nervous system diseases.

  15. Research priorities for the environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews the connections between environmental change, modern agricultural practices and the occurrence of infectious diseases - especially those of poverty; proposes a multi-criteria decision analysis approach to determining the key research priorities; and explores the benefits and limitations of a more systems-based approach to conceptualizing and investigating the problem. The report is the output of the Thematic Reference Group on Environment, Agriculture and Infectious Diseases of Poverty (TRG 4), part of an independent think tank of international experts, established and funded by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholder consultations. The report concludes that mitigating the outcomes on human health will require far-reaching strategies - spanning the environment, climate, agriculture, social-ecological, microbial and public-health sectors; as well as inter-disciplinary research and intersectoral action. People will also need to modify their way of thinking and engage beyond their own specialities, since the challenges are systemic and are amplified by the increasing inter-connectedness of human populations. This is one of a series of disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at www.who.int/tdr/capacity/global_report.

  16. In an interconnected world: joint research priorities for the environment, agriculture and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca; Butler, Colin D; McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-01-28

    In 2008 the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) commissioned ten think-tanks to work on disease-specific and thematic reference groups to identify top research priorities that would advance the research agenda on infectious diseases of poverty, thus contributing to improvements in human health. The first of the thematic reference group reports - on environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty - was recently released. In this article we review, from an insider perspective, the strengths and weaknesses of this thematic reference group report and highlight key messages for policy-makers, funders and researchers.

  17. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions.

  18. Characteristics of Coverage By the "Bibliography of Agriculture" of the Literature Relating to Agricultural Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Charles P.

    The report describes the results of a study of the extent and characteristics of coverage of the agricultural literature by the "Bibliography of Agriculture" (B of A). Statistical details regarding the language, national origin, form of publication, and subject coverage were derived from a sample of over 5000 citations from the 1967…

  19. Disease resistance: Molecular mechanisms and biotechnological applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue “Disease resistance: molecular mechanisms and biotechnological applications” contains 11 review articles and four original research papers. Research in the area of engineering for disease resistance continues to progress although only 10% of the transgenic plants registered for ...

  20. Is international agricultural research a global public good? The case of rice biofortification.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The status of international agricultural research as a global public good (GPG) has been widely accepted since the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. While the term was not used at the time of its creation, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) system that evolved at that time has been described as a 'prime example of the promise, performance and perils of an international approach to providing GPGs'. Contemporary literature on international agricultural research as a GPG tends to support this view and focuses on how to operationalize the concept. This paper adopts a different starting point and questions this conceptualization of the CGIAR and its outputs. It questions the appropriateness of such a 'neutral' concept to a system born of the imperatives of Cold War geopolitics, and shaped by a history of attempts to secure its relevance in a changing world. This paper draws on a multi-sited, ethnographic study of a research effort highlighted by the CGIAR as an exemplar of GPG-oriented research. Behind the ubiquitous language of GPGs, 'partnership' and 'consensus', however, new forms of exclusion and restriction are emerging within everyday practice, reproducing North-South inequalities and undermining the ability of these programmes to respond to the needs of projected beneficiaries.

  1. 7 CFR 3406.16 - Scope of a research proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., sustainable agriculture, biotechnology, agribusiness management and marketing, and aquaculture. (b... using the techniques of biotechnology. (ii) Computerized data banks of important scientific...

  2. The biotechnology innovation machine: a source of intelligent biopharmaceuticals for the pharma industry--mapping biotechnology's success.

    PubMed

    Evens, R P; Kaitin, K I

    2014-05-01

    The marriage of biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) is predicated on an evolution in technology and product innovation. It has come as a result of advances in both the science and the business practices of the biotechnology sector in the past 30 years. Biotechnology products can be thought of as "intelligent pharmaceuticals," in that they often provide novel mechanisms of action, new approaches to disease control, higher clinical success rates, improved patient care, extended patent protection, and a significant likelihood of reimbursement. Although the first biotechnology product, insulin, was approved just 32 years ago in 1982, today there are more than 200 biotechnology products commercially available. Research has expanded to include more than 900 biotechnology products in clinical trials. Pharma is substantially engaged in both the clinical development of these products and their commercialization.

  3. Academic Achievement and Personality Traits of Faculty Members of Indian Agricultural Universities: Their Effect on Teaching and Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramesh, P.; Reddy, K. M.; Rao, R. V. S.; Dhandapani, A.; Siva, G. Samba; Ramakrishna, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to assess academic achievement, teaching aptitude and research attitude of Indian agricultural universities' faculty, to predict indicators for successful teachers and researchers, and thereby enhancing the quality of higher agricultural education. Methodology: Five hundred faculty members were selected to…

  4. What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

  5. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-10-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  6. Technoeconomic evaluation of the extractive fermentation of butanol as a guide to research in this area of biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M. )

    1991-09-01

    This report represents the completion of a part of an overall project to evaluate the technical and economic status of several newly conceptualized processes for producing butanol, acetone, acetic acid, and aerobically produced specialty chemicals, which are candidates for research support. The objective of the project are to identify strengths and weaknesses in the proposed and to assist in developing an ongoing research strategy along economically relevant lines. The products to be studied presently comprise a collective US market for 10.7 billion lb valued at $2.8 billion. If their manufacturing processes were converted from petroleum feedstocks to corn, they could consume 556 million bushels. Furthermore, if ethanol could be produced at a low enough price to serve as the precursor to ethylene and butadiene, it an its derivatives could account for 159 billion lb, or 50% of the US production of 316 billion lb of synthetic organic chemicals, presently valued at $113 billion. This use would consume 3.4 billion bushels, or {approximately}45% of the corn crop. In addition, the use of butanol for diesel blends or in jet fuel blends to enhance the range of military aircraft could further increase its market.

  7. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  8. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  9. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

    2003-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated

  10. The Tropical Fruit Research Program of the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical and subtropical fruit crops are of major importance in commercial and subsistence agriculture. The globalization of the economy and the increased demand for healthy and more diverse food products have opened a large market for many of these fruit crops. Despite this fact, increased produc...

  11. [Research progress of Terahertz wave technology in quality measurement of food and agricultural products].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhan-Ke; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Ying, Yi-Bin

    2007-11-01

    The quality concern of food and agricultural products has become more and more significant. The related technologies for nondestructive measurement or quality control of food products have been the focus of many researches. Terahertz (THz) radiation, or THz wave, the least explored region of the spectrum, is the electromagnetic wave that lies between mid-infrared and microwave radiation, which has very important research and application values. THz spectroscopy and THz imaging technique are the two main applications of THz wave. During the past decade, THz waves have been used to characterize the electronic, vibrational and compositional properties of solid, liquid and gas phase materials. Recently, THz technology has gained a lot of attention of researchers in various fields from biological spectral analysis to bio-medical imaging due to its unique features compared with microwave and optical waves. In the present paper, the properties of THz wave and its uniqueness in sensing and imaging applications were discussed. The most recent researches on THz technology used in food quality control and agricultural products inspection were summarized. The prospect of this novel technology in agriculture and food industry was also discussed.

  12. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  13. Students' Biotechnology Literacy: The Pillars of STEM Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahri, Nurnadiah Mohamed; Suryawati, Evi; Osman, Kamisah

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been widely applied in various products throughout the 21st century. Malaysia selected the biotechnology sector as one of the key strategic technologies that would enable Malaysia to transform into a fully developed nation by the year 2020. However, to date, there has been very little research on the level of biotechnology…

  14. The Promise of Biotechnology...and Some Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teso, Bruna

    1982-01-01

    Discusses biotechnology in terms of its potential and the bottlenecks encountered in the course of development. Topics/issues addressed include: biotechnology definitions; research prospects; raw material constraints; co-ordination/financial support; training; industry/university conflicts; possible risks; and legal protection involving living…

  15. Biotechnology Teaching Models: What Is Their Role in Technology Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Bev

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the opportunity to teach biotechnology from a technological perspective with the introduction of technology education in New Zealand. Presents information on the professional development research project that introduces teachers to the practice of biotechnology identified in "Technology in New Zealand Curriculum". (Contains 24…

  16. The Impact of Biotechnology upon Chemistry in Pharmacy Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, James G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Applications of biotechnology to the pharmaceutical industry are examined, and its impact on the research and practical domains of medicinal and natural products chemistry is discussed. Specific curricular implications for undergraduate and graduate study in pharmacy are outlined, and suggestions for faculty development in biotechnology are made.…

  17. Biotechnology for developing countries. The case of the Central American isthmus.

    PubMed

    León, P E

    1993-12-21

    Recent developments in the fields of chemistry, molecular biology, computer science, and communications promise to transform the way that many things will be done in the near future in diverse fields of scientific R&D. Fortunately for less developed countries (LDCs) some of the technologies involved are user friendly and safe, avoiding the need for radioactive precursors, large machines, or expensive reagents. For instance, tissue culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), dideoxi-sequencing, and recombinant DNA techniques have already invaded clinical laboratories, agricultural field stations, and natural history museums, even in some developing nations. Somatic cell culture for plant biotechnology and immunologic techniques for diagnosis have had wide applications for over a decade in all countries in the Central American Isthmus. More recently, recombinant DNA techniques, including PCR, have been introduced for diagnostic purposes and research at the two largest universities in Costa Rica and at other public institutions and are also used in Guatemala and Panama. Honduras and Nicaragua are only now acquiring these technologies for diagnostic purposes. Biotechnological applications in industry seem to be lagging behind, and presently no good links exist between research laboratories and industry for advanced applications. The application of biotechnologies in environmental problems is slowly underway, with molecular studies of natural wildlife populations and primary forest trees. A major effort is needed to create safe and effective ways of dealing with environmental degradation, wastes, and byproducts of tropical agriculture and industry. The creation of the National Biodiversity Institute (INBio) in Costa Rica to elaborate an inventory of flora and fauna and to prospect for useful substances provides a unique opportunity for biotechnological applications. In addition, government policies to promote biotechnological development are supported by CONICIT (National

  18. Grassroots Strategies for Confronting Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassanein, Neva

    1993-01-01

    Describes strategies used by the Biotechnology Working Group during their efforts to influence state and local policy concerning biotechnology issues. Strategies address methods for framing the issue, educating self and others, recruiting allies, and developing citizen pressure. (MDH)

  19. Projector Center. What Is Biotechnology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Case, Christine L.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a menu designed to illustrate some classical examples of fermentation. This may be used to discuss biotechnology from a technological perspective. Other examples of biotechnology used in the foods industry are described. (CW)

  20. Current developments in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi research and its role in salinity stress alleviation: a biotechnological perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Dames, Joanna F; Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Gilbert, Jack A; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form widespread symbiotic associations with 80% of known land plants. They play a major role in plant nutrition, growth, water absorption, nutrient cycling and protection from pathogens, and as a result, contribute to ecosystem processes. Salinity stress conditions undoubtedly limit plant productivity and, therefore, the role of AMF as a biological tool for improving plant salt stress tolerance, is gaining economic importance worldwide. However, this approach requires a better understanding of how plants and AMF intimately interact with each other in saline environments and how this interaction leads to physiological changes in plants. This knowledge is important to develop sustainable strategies for successful utilization of AMF to improve plant health under a variety of stress conditions. Recent advances in the field of molecular biology, "omics" technology and advanced microscopy can provide new insight about these mechanisms of interaction between AMF and plants, as well as other microbes. This review mainly discusses the effect of salinity on AMF and plants, and role of AMF in alleviation of salinity stress including insight on methods for AMF identification. The focus remains on latest advancements in mycorrhizal research that can potentially offer an integrative understanding of the role of AMF in salinity tolerance and sustainable crop production.

  1. 21st Century Research for Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the National Agricultural Education Research Conference (27th, San Diego, California, December 6, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Greg, Ed.

    These proceedings contain 48 presentations and 15 poster abstracts. Papers include "Computer Tasks Required in Selected Undergraduate Agriculture Courses" (Johnson, Ferguson, Vokinnns, Lester); "College of Agriculture Faculty Perceptions of Electronic Technologies in Teaching" (Dooley, Murphy); "Steering Through Turbulent…

  2. Adding Value through Research in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (19th, St. Louis, Missouri, December 4, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundt, John P., Comp.

    Among 53 conference papers, are the following: "Perceptions of Administrators, Guidance Counselors, and Science Teachers Concerning Pilot Agriscience Courses" (Johnson, Newman); "Relationship of Supervised Agricultural Experience Program Participation and Student Achievement in Agricultural Education (AE)" (Cheek et al.);…

  3. The Ohio Science Workbook: Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reames, Spencer E., Comp.

    Because of the daily impact of biotechnology, it is important that students have some knowledge and experience with biotechnology in order to enable them to deal with the issues that arise as a result of its implementation. The purpose of this workbook is to assist in the efforts to expose students to the concepts of biotechnology through hands-on…

  4. Biotechnology in weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  5. TSCA Biotechnology Notifications Status

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Notifications Table lists only those submissions received under the Biotechnology Regulation, beginning in 1998. From the Table, you can link to a brief summary of select submission and, in many cases, to a fact sheet on the decision reached by OPPT.

  6. Abiraterone. Cougar Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Madan, Ravi A; Arlen, Philip M

    2006-01-01

    Abiraterone is an oral, selective, steroidal inhibitor of cytochrome P450(17alpha) being developed by Cougar Biotechnology Inc for the potential treatment of prostate cancer. Phase I clinical trials of abiraterone have been conducted and the design of phase I/II clinical trials is being finalized.

  7. Transgenic mammals and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Westphal, H

    1989-02-01

    Biotechnology has begun to realize the enormous potential of transgenic technology: mice with human genes that produce human proteins of therapeutic value in their milk, pigs that express bovine genes that help them gain weight and lose backfat, animals with engineered gene defects that mimic human genetic diseases.

  8. Biotechnology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program quide presents the biotechnology curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and lists of…

  9. Biotechnology, Ethics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental differences between current and past knowledge in the field of biotechnology mean that we now have at our disposal the means to irreversibly change what is meant by "human nature". This paper explores some of the ethical issues that accompany the (as yet tentative) attempt to increase scientific control over the human genetic code in…

  10. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  11. Biotechnology and derived products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

  12. Defining the Social Context through Agricultural Research. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (20th, Nashville, Tennessee, December 3, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Dennis C., Ed.; Bruening, Thomas H., Ed.

    Selected papers are as follows: "Agriculture, Environmental Science and the Relationship of Agriculture to Academic Courses as Perceived by 10th Grade Students" (Newsom-Stewart; Sutphin); "Factors Related to Recruitment and Retention of Ethnic Minority Youth in the Ohio 4-H Program" (Bankston, Cano); "Hispanics in Agriculture" (Nichols, Nelson);…

  13. Research in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Annual Southern Agricultural Education Research Meeting (44th, Wilmington, North Carolina, March 19-20, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim, Comp.

    The proceedings includes the following: "Evaluation of the Leadership Development of Oklahoma Agricultural Leadership Program Graduates" (Lee-Cooper, Weeks); "Model for Undergraduate Academic Programs in Agricultural Communications" (Terry, Jr. et al.); "Competencies Needed for Graduates of Agricultural Communications Programs" (Terry,…

  14. 75 FR 49357 - United States Department of Agriculture Research Misconduct Regulations for Extramural Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... includes, but is not limited to, research in economics, education, linguistics, medicine, psychology, social sciences, statistics, and research involving human subjects or animals regardless of the...

  15. Biochem-Env: a platform of biochemistry for research in environmental and agricultural sciences.

    PubMed

    Cheviron, Nathalie; Grondin, Virginie; Mougin, Christian

    2017-04-07

    Biochemical indicators are potent tools to assess ecosystem functioning under anthropic and global pressures. Nevertheless, additional work is needed to improve the methods used for the measurement of these indicators, and for a more relevant interpretation of the obtained results. To face these challenges, the platform Biochem-Env aims at providing innovative and standardized measurement protocols, as well as database and information system favoring result interpretation and opening. Its skills and tools are also offered for expertise, consulting, training, and standardization. In addition, the platform is a service of a French Research Infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems, for research in environmental and agricultural sciences.

  16. Student Content Knowledge Increases after Participation in a Hands-on Biotechnology Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Amber M.; Hanegan, Nikki L.

    2011-01-01

    Implementing biotechnology education through hands-on teaching methods should be considered by secondary biology teachers. This study is an experimental research design to examine increased student content knowledge in biotechnology after a hands-on biotechnology intervention. The teachers from both school groups participated in, Project Crawfish,…

  17. Technology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Its Instruction in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Hyuksoo; Chang, Mido

    2009-01-01

    The increased public awareness of the significance and necessity of biotechnology has encouraged educators to implement biotechnology instruction in various educational settings. One example is the great effort made by educational researchers and practitioners internationally to integrate biotechnology in technology education. Despite the gains in…

  18. [An overview on theoretic research of high efficient water use in agriculture].

    PubMed

    Du, Yaodong; Song, Lili; Liu, Zuoxin

    2003-05-01

    High efficient water use in agriculture includes water-saving irrigation and dryland farming, its core being to increase use efficiency and benefit of natural precipitation and irrigation. Each of measurement methods of field evapotranspiration has its advantages and disadvantages. Modified Penman and Penman-Monteith formulae were recommended to calculate the reference crop evapotranspiration by FAO one after another. Jensen and Blank models had a wide use in crop water production function. Recent achievements of appropriate soil moisture and lower limit of soil drought indices provided an important basis of soil physics for agricultural water supply of low quota. The influencing sequence of water stress on different physiological processes correlated with yield formation was in order of cell stretch > stoma movement > transpiration > photosynthesis > matter transfer. Non-severe drought could facilitate matter transfer. Field irrigation research has turn to deficit irrigation, regulated deficit irrigation and controlled alternative irrigation from traditional full irrigation. In the future, such researches as interfaces, soil water dynamics, biological water-saving and water stress would be deeply conducted in high efficient water use theory in agriculture.

  19. The potential for biotechnology to improve the nutritional value of cassava.

    PubMed

    Fauquet, Claude M; Taylor, Nigel

    2002-12-01

    Cassava, a starch-rich plant that has poor protein content and usually poor vitamin content, feeds about 600 million people each day. When cereals can no longer be grown because of soil fertility problems, it is often still possible to grow cassava. It is the third most important source of dietary calories in the tropics, and reliance on the crop is especially high in West and Central Africa. The International Laboratory for Tropical Agricultural Biotechnology is promoting research to improve cassava productivity and is a leader in developing genetic engineering to improve the quantitative and qualitative traits of this essential food crop.

  20. A career in government: my experiences working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural sector provides highly diverse career opportunities that include private companies, academic institutions, non-government organizations, and government agencies. One possible career path is with the Federal government which is one of the largest employers of scientists and engineers...

  1. Biotechnology: Education and Training. Special Reference Briefs Series No. SRB 96-08.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobert, Raymond

    This document, prepared by The Biotechnology Information Center at the National Agricultural Library, contains sources of information that can provide a starting point for teachers, university faculty, extension agents, and other education leaders who have an interest in biotechnology education and training. Sections include a bibliography of the…

  2. Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

    2013-01-01

    This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

  3. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (9th, St, Louis, Missouri, December 3, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Arlington, VA. Agricultural Education Div.

    These proceedings contain the texts of 29 papers presented at the ninth Annual Agricultural Education Research Meeting. During the five sessions of the conference, various areas of agricultural education were addressed, such as inservice education, job satisfaction and morale, teacher concerns, national issues, program improvement, preservice…

  4. The relationship of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding biotechnology in college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohan, Donna Elizabeth

    Biotechnology is the latest in a series of technological innovations that have revolutionized such fields as agriculture and the health sciences. However, along with the benefits of biotechnology are concerns. For biotechnology's potential to be realized, it must be accepted on public and governmental levels. Although many studies focus on adult consumer attitudes, it will be the students of today who will be the consumers and leaders of tomorrow. Therefore, this study focused on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of college students regarding biotechnology. More than 3,000 undergraduate students were surveyed from a variety of undergraduate courses at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas during the 1997-1998 academic year. Information sought included students' knowledge regarding recent applications of biotechnology, demographic information, and their agreement or disagreement with statements regarding different aspects and applications of biotechnology. This study found that despite a low awareness or knowledge of biotechnology, students were accepting of specific applications or products of biotechnology. Those applications or products viewed as beneficial without involving animals had the highest acceptance levels. A majority of the students identified mass media as their major source of biotechnology while also indicating a high level of distrust of the media. Students also indicated that biotechnology information is needed and that such information is appropriate for high school students. Relationships between knowledge and attitudes were also investigated. A greater knowledge level correlated with a more favorable view of biotechnology. In addition, relationships between demographic variables such as gender and race were investigated. Individuals who identified themselves as scientists were found more accepting of biotechnology while females in general were found less accepting. Females majoring in education were found to be the least

  5. Introduction to the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory Special Rangelands Issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Labortory (PPRL) in Logan, UT will sponsor an edition of the magazine Rangelands. This paper provides a brief history and overview of the PPRL, mission statement, research objectives by CRIS, and the disciplines involved in the research....

  6. FORT KEOGH LIVESTOCK & RANGE RESEARCH LABORATORY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-AGRICULTRAL RESEARCH SERVICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Article describes Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory to an audience of scientific researchers (i.e. ecologists) interested in the interactions among organisms and their environment. Article outlines the facilities, environment, history, and ongoing types of research. Emphasis is on...

  7. Overview of areawide programs and the program for suppression of codling moth in the western USA directed by the United States Department of Agriculture--Agricultural Research Service.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Carrol O; Faust, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    An areawide suppression program for codling moth (Cydia pomonella L) populations was initiated in 1995 in Washington, Oregon and California under the direction of the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service in cooperation with Washington State University, Oregon State University and University of California, Berkeley. Mating disruption was used to reduce the pest population while reducing and eliminating the use of organophosphate insecticides. During the 5-year program, the original 1064 hectares were expanded to 8400 hectares and from 66 grower participants to more than 400 participants. The acreage under mating disruption in the three states increased from 6000 hectares in 1994 to 54000 hectares in the year 2000.

  8. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  9. Chemogenomics and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wuster, Arthur; Madan Babu, M

    2008-05-01

    A robust knowledge of the interactions between small molecules and specific proteins aids the development of new biotechnological tools and the identification of new drug targets, and can lead to specific biological insights. Such knowledge can be obtained through chemogenomic screens. In these screens, each small molecule from a chemical library is applied to each cell type from a library of cells, and the resulting phenotypes are recorded. Chemogenomic screens have recently become very common and will continue to generate large amounts of data. The interpretation of this data will occupy biologists and chemists alike for some time to come. This review discusses methods for the acquisition and interpretation of chemogenomic data, in addition to possible applications of chemogenomics in biotechnology.

  10. Biotechnology in Sweden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and the formation developed a procedure for the continuous of butyric and acetic acid increased, production of acetone and butanol from thereby...butanol aud ace- mary reasons. Enzymes usually do not tone, formate, acetate , and formalde- operate in the concentrations normally hyde. These...Analytical ChemistrySchool of Electrical Engineering Biochemistry and Biotechnology School of Civil Engineering Cellulose TechnologyU chool of.Chemtcel

  11. 75 FR 68598 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, Tennessee State University; Category P. ``American Colleges of Veterinary... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... United States Department of Agriculture announces the appointments made by the Secretary of...

  12. Teachers' Concerns About Biotechnology Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns about biotechnology instruction and their reported practices. Consistent with the Stages of Concern framework as modified by Hord et al., we investigated teachers' awareness, informational, personal, management, consequences, collaboration, and refocusing concerns about biotechnology teaching by employing a qualitative design that allowed for the emergence of teachers' ideas. Twenty high school life science teachers attending a biotechnology institute were interviewed using an interview protocol specifically designed to target various Stages of Concern. Although the Stages of Concern framework guided the development of interview questions in order to target a wide range of concerns, data analysis employed a grounded theory approach wherein patterns emerged from teachers' own words and were constantly compared with each other to generate larger themes. Our results have potential to provide guidance for professional development providers and curriculum developers committed to supporting initial implementation of biotechnology education. Recommendations include supporting teacher development of biotechnology content knowledge; promoting strategies for obtaining, storing and managing biotechnology equipment and materials; providing opportunities for peer teaching as a means of building teacher confidence; and highlighting career opportunities in biotechnology and the intersections of biotechnology and everyday life.

  13. Impact of the agricultural research service watershed assessment studies on the conservation effects assessment project cropland national assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA initiated the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in 2002 to analyze societal and environmental benefits gained from the increased conservation program funding provided in the 2002 Farm Bill. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and...

  14. Agriculture, nutrition, and health in global development: typology and metrics for integrated interventions and research.

    PubMed

    Masters, William A; Webb, Patrick; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite rhetoric arguing that enhanced agriculture leads to improved nutrition and health, there is scant empirical evidence about potential synergies across sectors or about the mix of actions that best supports all three sectors. The geographic scale and socioeconomic nature of these interventions require integration of previously separate research methods. This paper proposes a typology of interventions and a metric of integration among them to help researchers build on each other's results, facilitating integration in methods to inform the design of multisector interventions. The typology recognizes the importance of regional effect modifiers that are not themselves subject to randomized assignment, and trade-offs in how policies and programs are implemented, evaluated, and scaled. Using this typology could facilitate methodological pluralism, helping researchers in one field use knowledge generated elsewhere, each using the most appropriate method for their situation.

  15. Agricultural Research Service research highlights in remote sensing for calendar year 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, J. C. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Selected examples of research accomplishments related to remote sensing are compiled. A brief statement is given to highlight the significant results of each research project. A list of 1981 publication and location contacts is given also. The projects cover emission and reflectance analysis, identification of crop and soil parameters, and the utilization of remote sensing data.

  16. Global and local implications of biotechnology and climate change for future food supplies.

    PubMed

    Evenson, R E

    1999-05-25

    The development of improved technology for agricultural production and its diffusion to farmers is a process requiring investment and time. A large number of studies of this process have been undertaken. The findings of these studies have been incorporated into a quantitative policy model projecting supplies of commodities (in terms of area and crop yields), equilibrium prices, and international trade volumes to the year 2020. These projections show that a "global food crisis," as would be manifested in high commodity prices, is unlikely to occur. The same projections show, however, that in many countries, "local food crisis," as manifested in low agricultural incomes and associated low food consumption in the presence of low food prices, will occur. Simulations show that delays in the diffusion of modern biotechnology research capabilities to developing countries will exacerbate local food crises. Similarly, global climate change will also exacerbate these crises, accentuating the importance of bringing strengthened research capabilities to developing countries.

  17. Ex-ante evaluation of biotechnology innovations: the case of folate biofortified rice in China.

    PubMed

    De Steur, Hans; Blancquaert, Dieter; Gellynck, Xavier; Lambert, Willy; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2012-12-01

    In order to valorize novel biotechnology innovations, there is a need to evaluate ex-ante their market potential. A case in point is biofortification, i.e. the enhancement of the micronutrient content of staple crops through conventional or genetic breeding techniques. In a recent article in Nature Biotechnology, for example, De Steur et al. (2010) demonstrated the large potential consumer health benefits of folate biofortified rice as a means to reduce folate deficiency and Neural-Tube Defects. By focusing on a Chinese high-risk region of Neural-Tube Defects, the current study defines the potential cost-effectiveness of this genetically modified crop where the need to improve folate intake levels is highest. Building on the Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) approach, both the potential health impacts and costs of its implementation are measured and benchmarked against similar innovations. The results show that this transgenic crop could be a highly cost-effective product innovation (US$ 120.34 - US$ 40.1 per DALY saved) to alleviate the large health burden of folate deficiency and reduce the prevalence of neural-tube birth defects. When compared with other biofortified crops and target regions, folate biofortified rice in China has a relatively high health impact and moderate cost-effectiveness. This research further supports the need for, and importance of ex-ante evaluation studies in order to adequately market and, thus, valorize biotechnology innovations. Although the cost-effectiveness analysis enables to illustrate the market potential of innovative agricultural biotechnology research, further research is required to address policy issues on transgenic biofortification, such as biosafety regulatory requirements.

  18. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Luiten, Esther E M; Akkerman, Ida; Koulman, Albert; Kamermans, Pauline; Reith, Hans; Barbosa, Maria J; Sipkema, Detmer; Wijffels, René H

    2003-07-01

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, (feed-)products for aquaculture and bioremediation solutions) is not the only factor to realise the commercial applications of marine biotechnology. What else is needed to exploit the promising potential of marine biotechnology and to create new industrial possibilities? In the study project 'Ocean Farming-Sustainable exploitation of marine organisms', we explore the possibilities of marine organisms to fulfill needs, such as safe and healthy food, industrial (raw) materials and renewable energy in a sustainable way. One of the three design groups is envisioning the future of strong land-based 'marine' market chains. Marine biotechnology is one of the foci of attention in this design group. This article provides a model of future-oriented thinking in which a variety of experts actively participate.

  19. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  20. Review of the third edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Sherry E

    2012-05-01

    The third edition (January 2010) of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching (the Ag Guide) was the collaborative effort of a group of 64 authors and provides a science-based reference and performance-based guidelines for institutions that use agricultural species in research and teaching. The adoption of the Ag Guide by the AAALAC Board of Trustees as a primary standard signifies its importance in the AAALAC accreditation process.