Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural bioterrorism protection

  1. 75 FR 44724 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List; Reorganization of the Select Agent and Toxin List AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... regarding the list of select agents and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to animal...

  2. 76 FR 77914 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List; Amendments to the Select Agent and Toxin Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant... reopening the comment period for our proposed rule that would amend and republish the list of select...

  3. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  4. In the Event of Bioterrorism: Protecting Families from Deadly Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share In the Event of Bioterrorism: Protecting Families from Deadly Diseases Page ... exposure. Talking to Children about Bioterrorism In the event of bioterrorism, knowing how to talk to your ...

  5. Agricultural Bioterrorism: A Federal Strategy to Meet the Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    economic chaos that can result from an outbreak—intentional or otherwise. Floyd P. Horn Director for Food, Agriculture, and Water Security Office of...BIOTERRORISM, BIOWARFARE, AND NATIONAL SECURITY 3 and fish; applied as a contaminant of food or drinking water ; dissemi- nated as an aerosol; or... water or food as a vector for biological contaminants or pathogens is complicated by the fact that agents would be diluted in water ; potable water is

  6. Bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Kortepeter, M G; Cieslak, T J; Eitzen, E M

    2001-01-01

    Although biological agents have been used in warfare for centuries, several events in the past decade have raised concerns that they could be used for terrorism. Revelations about the sophisticated biological-weapons programs of the former Soviet Union and Iraq have heightened concern that countries with offensive-research programs, including those that sponsor international terrorism, might assist in the proliferation of agents, culturing capability, and dissemination techniques, and might benefit in these undertakings from the availability of skilled laboratory technicians. Release of sarin nerve agent in the Tokyo subway system in 1995 by the Aum Shinrikyo cult demonstrated that in the future terrorists might select unconventional weapons. Certain properties of biological pathogens may make them the ideal terrorist weapon, including 1) ease of procurement, 2) simplicity of production in large quantities at minimal expense, 3) ease of dissemination with low technology, and 4) potential to overwhelm the medical system with large numbers of casualties. Dissemination of a biological agent would be silent, and the incubation period allows a perpetrator to escape to great distances from the area of release before the first ill persons seek medical care. Countermeasures include intelligence gathering, physical protection, and detection systems. Medical countermeasures include laboratory diagnostics, vaccines, and medications for prophylaxis and treatment. Public health, medical, and environmental health personnel need to have a heightened awareness, through education, about the threat from biological agents.

  7. Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is aimed at reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning and injury among agricultural workers and pesticide handlers. It places specific requirements on employers of such workers.

  8. Difficulties associated with the development and licensing of vaccines for protection against bio-warfare and bio-terrorism.

    PubMed

    Langford, M J; Myers, R C

    2002-01-01

    Today there is an increasing need to license vaccines for the protection of individuals against bio-warfare and bio-terrorism. While the need is apparent, the actual road to developing, producing and licensing such vaccines successfully is as yet undefined. Bio-defence vaccine candidates may come from several sources. They may come from vaccines that were previously licensed but are no longer in production, vaccines that are currently in an IND status, vaccines currently licensed in foreign countries, and newer vaccines currently under development. The issues that apply to the development and licensing of these vaccines can be defined by currently accepted standards for manufacture, and the requirement to demonstrate safety and efficacy to a level that gives the scientific and medical community, regulatory agencies, users and the public at large confidence. Requirements for manufacturing and demonstration of safety will be consistent with vaccines being developed for traditional purposes. However, demonstration of efficacy will be more difficult. Because field trials for these vaccines are generally not feasible and the conduct of human challenge studies is generally considered unethical, the demonstration of efficacy will need to be based on existing efficacy data, a thorough understanding of both the disease's pathogenesis and mechanism of protection, the ability to identify surrogate markers for efficacy, and the use of the proposed FDA "animal rule".

  9. Towards an internet civil defence against bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E; Sauer, F; Dearwater, S; Sekikawa, A; Sa, E R; Aaron, D; Shubnikov, E

    2001-09-01

    Approaches towards the public-health prevention of bioterrorism are too little, and too late. New information-based approaches could yield better homeland protection. An internet civil defence is presented where millions of eyes could help to identify suspected cases of bioterrorism, with the internet used to report, confirm, and prevent outbreaks.

  10. Emergency response and disease control--a discussion of alternative objectives for zoning in the age of agricultural bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Fonda A

    2007-01-01

    Emergency planning activities in most developed countries have increased as a result of such events as the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and the emergence of the highly pathogenic Asian strain of avian influenza, H5N1. The threat of terrorist activities, combined with advances in science and technology, have resulted in an expanded spectrum of threat for humans, animals, plants and the environment. It is possible that an attack or disease incursion could be so catastrophic and devastating that the resources to combat it would be rapidly overwhelmed. In these cases, it may be necessary to develop an alternative strategy. The author discusses the concept of protective zoning. Protective zoning is a strategy to salvage or protect a smaller segment of an agriculture sector or geographic area when resources are insufficient to protect the entire sector or area. This change in orientation will be extremely controversial and the exact criteria to determine when the situation warrants a change in objective, as well as the precise activities to be performed, must be determined by all stakeholders well in advance. Changes to other activities in current emergency plans may be required. The impact on the recovery phase plans will be significant.

  11. Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & Training Related Bioterrorism Resources Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin) Brucella species ( ...

  12. 76 FR 61227 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Federal life sciences, public health, law enforcement, security, and intelligence communities. These... products or ingestion of contaminated milk, artificial insemination, and inhalation of infectious aerosols..., but to the those who are ``reasonably suspected by any Federal law enforcement or intelligence...

  13. 77 FR 61055 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... potential of each select agent or toxin to be misused to adversely affect human, plant, or animal health... adversely affect human, plant, or animal health, and amend the regulations in order to add definitions and... use or other factors. Comments received as a result of the ANPR were used in order to inform...

  14. Emerging Infections and Bioterrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Human immune response differs 235 EFFECTIVENESS OF BIOTERRORISM AGENTS How effective can these bioterrorism agents be? Most scenarios involve...and reemerging viruses Viruses Date Genus New Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) 1986 herpesvirus Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) 1990 herpesvirus GS viruses...hepatitis) 1994 Flavivirus Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) 1995 herpesvirus Reemerging Cocoa swollen shoot Badnavirus Dengue Bunyavirus Ebola Flavivirus

  15. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  16. Environmental Protection Tools in Agricultural Management Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacka, Agnieszka; Taszakowski, Jaroslaw; Janus, Jaroslaw; Bozek, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    Land consolidation is a fundamental instrument for agricultural management. It facilitates comprehensive changes in the agricultural, social, and ecological domains. Consolidation and post-consolidation development-related investments are an opportunity to improve living conditions in rural areas, and simultaneously ensure its positive impact on the environment. One of the primary goals of consolidation, directly specified in the Act on land consolidation, is to improve farming conditions. In Poland, consolidation is possible due to EU funds: RDP 2007-2013 and RDP 2014-2020. In order for individual villages to be granted EU funds for consolidation and post-consolidation development under the Rural Development Programme 2014-2020, their consolidation has to implement actions with positive impact on the environment and the landscape. The goal of this paper is to analyse documentation in the form of assumptions for a land consolidation project enclosed to an RDP 2014-2020 grant application and project information sheets as the basis for environmental impact assessment in the context of detailed presentation of environmental protection solutions that ensure a positive impact of the project on the environment and landscape. The detailed study involved 9 villages in the Malopolskie Voivodeship, which applied for EU grants for land consolidation in the current financial perspective. The paper specifies the existing state of the analysed villages as regards the natural environment, lists agricultural management instruments that have a positive impact on the environment, and demonstrates that planning of actions aimed at environmental protection is a necessary element of assumptions for land consolidation projects.

  17. Bioterrorism: Health sector alertness

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Violet N.

    2013-01-01

    The global events of the last two decades indicate that the threat of biological warfare is not a myth, but a harsh reality. The successive outbreaks caused by newly recognized and resurgent pathogens and the risk that high-consequence pathogens might be used as bioterrorism agents amply demonstrate the need to enhance capacity in clinical and public health management of highly infectious diseases. This review article provides a concise overview of bioterrorism, the agents used, and measures to counteract it, with a relevant note on India's current scenario of surveillance systems, laboratory response network, and the need for preparedness. PMID:23633831

  18. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  19. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  20. Our first line of defense against bioterrorism part 2.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Roy L

    2002-05-01

    In March, Part 1 of this two-part series examined the challenges with identifying bioterrorism-specifically the anthrax outbreak. Part 2 explains what's being done to equip America's health care providers to recognize and respond to future attacks, while protecting the public.

  1. Evaluation of an Online Bioterrorism Continuing Medical Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casebeer, Linda; Andolsek, Kathryn; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Green, Joseph; Weissman, Norman; Pryor, Erica; Zheng, Shimin; Terndrup, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Much of the international community has an increased awareness of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear threats and the need for physicians to rapidly acquire new knowledge and skills in order to protect the public's health. The present study evaluated the educational effectiveness of an online bioterrorism continuing medical…

  2. Smallpox and bioterrorism.

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    Smallpox was declared to be eradicated on 8 May 1980, during the Thirty-third World Health Assembly. However, concerns about the possible use of the virus as a weapon of bioterrorism have increased in recent years. Governments have responded by initiating selective vaccination programmes and other public health measures. This review uses historical data from 20th century outbreaks to assess the risks to current populations (which have declining immunity) from a deliberate release of virus. The data presented supports the conclusion of a previous reviewer (Mack) that "smallpox cannot be said to live up to its reputation. Far from being a quick-footed menace, it has appeared as a plodding nuisance with more bark than bite." Its R value (the average number of secondary cases infected by a primary case) is lower than that for measles, human parvovirus, chickenpox, mumps, rubella, and poliomyelitis; only the value for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is lower. Like SARS, close person-to-person contact is required for effective spread of the disease, and exposure to the virus in hospitals has played an important role in transmission for both viruses. In the present paper the dangers of mass vaccination are emphasized, along with the importance of case isolation, contact tracing, and quarantine of close contacts for outbreak control. The need for rapid diagnosis and the continued importance of maintaining a network of electron microscopes for this purpose are also highlighted. PMID:14758439

  3. Optimizing carbon storage and biodiversity protection in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Wheeler, Charlotte; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2014-07-01

    With the rapidly expanding ecological footprint of agriculture, the design of farmed landscapes will play an increasingly important role for both carbon storage and biodiversity protection. Carbon and biodiversity can be enhanced by integrating natural habitats into agricultural lands, but a key question is whether benefits are maximized by including many small features throughout the landscape ('land-sharing' agriculture) or a few large contiguous blocks alongside intensive farmland ('land-sparing' agriculture). In this study, we are the first to integrate carbon storage alongside multi-taxa biodiversity assessments to compare land-sparing and land-sharing frameworks. We do so by sampling carbon stocks and biodiversity (birds and dung beetles) in landscapes containing agriculture and forest within the Colombian Chocó-Andes, a zone of high global conservation priority. We show that woodland fragments embedded within a matrix of cattle pasture hold less carbon per unit area than contiguous primary or advanced secondary forests (>15 years). Farmland sites also support less diverse bird and dung beetle communities than contiguous forests, even when farmland retains high levels of woodland habitat cover. Landscape simulations based on these data suggest that land-sparing strategies would be more beneficial for both carbon storage and biodiversity than land-sharing strategies across a range of production levels. Biodiversity benefits of land-sparing are predicted to be similar whether spared lands protect primary or advanced secondary forests, owing to the close similarity of bird and dung beetle communities between the two forest classes. Land-sparing schemes that encourage the protection and regeneration of natural forest blocks thus provide a synergy between carbon and biodiversity conservation, and represent a promising strategy for reducing the negative impacts of agriculture on tropical ecosystems. However, further studies examining a wider range of ecosystem

  4. Identification of the factors that govern the ability of therapeutic antibodies to provide postchallenge protection against botulinum toxin: a model for assessing postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against agents of bioterrorism and biological warfare.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleem, Fetweh H; Nasser, Zidoon; Olson, Rebecca M; Cao, Linsen; Simpson, Lance L

    2011-08-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are one of the major classes of medical countermeasures that can provide protection against potential bioweapons such as botulinum toxin. Although a broad array of antibodies are being evaluated for their ability to neutralize the toxin, there is little information that defines the circumstances under which these antibodies can be used. In the present study, an effort was made to quantify the temporal factors that govern therapeutic antibody use in a postchallenge scenario. Experiments were done involving inhalation administration of toxin to mice, intravenous administration to mice, and direct application to murine phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. As part of this study, several pharmacokinetic characteristics of botulinum toxin and neutralizing antibodies were measured. The core observation that emerged from the work was that the window of opportunity within which postchallenge administration of antibodies exerted a beneficial effect increased as the challenge dose of toxin decreased. The critical factor in establishing the window of opportunity was the amount of time needed for fractional redistribution of a neuroparalytic quantum of toxin from the extraneuronal space to the intraneuronal space. This redistribution event was a dose-dependent phenomenon. It is likely that the approach used to identify the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of antibodies against botulinum toxin can be used to assess the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against any agent of bioterrorism or biological warfare.

  5. Agricultural Bioterrorism What Challenges and Actions Remain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-10

    Midwest annually produces more than 80 million cattle, hogs, sheep, goats and bison and is more economically exposed to the threat of agroterrorism...pestis (plaque), Francisella tularensis (tularemia), Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Brucella suis ( brucellosis ), and

  6. Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    strain, there is an increased likelihood that the virus will be expressed as a much more severe form of the disease , dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHS...Emerging Infectious Diseases B-3: Presentation: The Global Resurgence of Epidemic Dengue / Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever B-4: Presentation: Joint Clinical... Diseases ", BioTerrorism Preparedness: Clinical Trials in Infectious Disease , June 15-18, 2004, Bangkok, Thailand. (See Appendix B-2) 15 APPENDIX A THE DENGUE

  7. Biodefense and Bioterrorism

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cause disease, spread, or resist medical treatment. Biological agents spread through the air, water, or in ... viruses, plague, or smallpox could be used as biological agents. Biodefense uses medical measures to protect people ...

  8. Efficiency of personal protective equipment used in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Meirelles, Luiz Antônio; Veiga, Marcelo Motta; de Castro Moura Duarte, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Despite the practical importance of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), both in production and in consumption, it is observed a main problem regarding the quality of many PPE�s used in Brazil. This study found a gap between the state of the art and the state of prevailing practices in the design of PPE�s, which main consequences affect the health of workers who use PPE in agriculture activities. The results of this study identified legal constraints of this occurrence, involving the validation of PPE designed for isolate agents, without the analysis of relevant activities and without prototypes experiments in more frequent use situation.

  9. Land-Sparing Agriculture Best Protects Avian Phylogenetic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Gilroy, James J; Thomas, Gavin H; Uribe, Claudia A Medina; Haugaasen, Torbjørn

    2015-09-21

    The conversion of natural habitats to farmland is a major driver of the global extinction crisis. Two strategies are promoted to mitigate the impacts of agricultural expansion on biodiversity: land sharing integrates wildlife-friendly habitats within farmland landscapes, and land sparing intensifies farming to allow the offset of natural reserves. A key question is which strategy would protect the most phylogenetic diversity--the total evolutionary history shared across all species within a community. Conserving phylogenetic diversity decreases the chance of losing unique phenotypic and ecological traits and provides benefits for ecosystem function and stability. Focusing on birds in the threatened Chocó-Andes hotspot of endemism, we tested the relative benefits of each strategy for retaining phylogenetic diversity in tropical cloud forest landscapes threatened by cattle pastures. Using landscape simulations, we find that land sharing would protect lower community-level phylogenetic diversity than land sparing and that with increasing distance from forest (from 500 to >1,500 m), land sharing is increasingly inferior to land sparing. Isolation from forest also leads to the loss of more evolutionarily distinct species from communities within land-sharing landscapes, which can be avoided with effective land sparing. Land-sharing policies that promote the integration of small-scale wildlife-friendly habitats might be of limited benefit without the simultaneous protection of larger blocks of natural habitat, which is most likely to be achieved via land-sparing measures.

  10. Pathogenic rickettsiae as bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abdu F

    2007-07-15

    Because of their unique biological characteristics, such as environmental stability, small size, aerosol transmission, persistence in infected hosts, low infectious dose, and high associated morbidity and mortality, Rickettsia prowazekii and Coxiella burnetii have been weaponized. These biological attributes would make the pathogenic rickettsiae desirable bioterrorism agents. However, production of highly purified, virulent, weapon-quality rickettsiae is a daunting task that requires expertise and elaborate, state-of-the art laboratory procedures to retain rickettsial survival and virulence. Another drawback to developing rickettsial pathogens as biological weapons is their lack of direct transmission from host to host and the availability of very effective therapeutic countermeasures against these obligate intracellular bacteria.

  11. Bioterrorism and the Fermi Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    We proffer a contemporary solution to the so-called Fermi Paradox, which is concerned with conflict between Copernicanism and the apparent paucity of evidence for intelligent alien civilizations. In particular, we argue that every community of organisms that reaches its space-faring age will (1) almost immediately use its rocket-building computers to reverse-engineer its genetic chemistry and (2) self-destruct when some individual uses said technology to design an omnicidal pathogen. We discuss some of the possible approaches to prevention with regard to Homo sapiens' vulnerability to bioterrorism, particularly on a short-term basis.

  12. 75 FR 32306 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 46 Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection Eligibility AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... Commodities Act (PACA) was enacted in 1930 to promote fair trading in the marketing of fresh and frozen...

  13. Petition for Rulemaking to Amend Agricultural Worker Protection Standard Effective Date

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This petition from the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture and the American Farm Bureau Federation, dated December 21, 2016, asks that the Agency amend the Agricultural Worker Protection Standard by postponing the effective date.

  14. Terraced agriculture protects soil from erosion: Case studies in Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabesiranana, Naivo; Rasolonirina, Martin; Fanantenansoa Solonjara, Asivelo; Nomenjanahary Ravoson, Heritiana; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    - Soil degradation is a major concern in Madagascar but quantitative information is not widely available. Due to its impact on the sustainability of agricultural production, there is a clear need to acquire data on the extent and magnitude of soil erosion/sedimentation under various agricultural practices in order to promote effective conservation strategies. Caesium-137 and 210Pbex fallout radionuclides (FRNs) possess particular characteristics that make them effective soil tracers for erosion studies. After fallout, 137Cs and 210Pbex are rapidly adsorbed onto fine soil particles. But to date, combined use of these FRNs has never been used to document soil erosion in Madagascar. The study area is located 40 km east of Antananarivo, in Madagascar highlands. Two adjacent cultivated fields have been selected (i.e. a sloped field and a terraced field) as well as an undisturbed reference site in the vicinity of these agricultural fields. Soil samples were collected along downslope transects using motorized corer. The 137Cs and 210Pb gamma analysis were performed at the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucléaires (INSTN-Madagascar) using a high resolution and low background N-type HPGe detector. Results showed that at the terraced field, 137Cs and 210Pbex inventories reached 145 Bq/m2 to 280 Bq/m2 and 2141 Bq/m2 to 4253 Bq/m2, respectively. At the sloped field, the 137Cs and 210Pbex inventories values ranged from 110 Bq/m2 to 280 Bq/m2 and from 2026 Bq/m2 to 4110 Bq/m2, respectively. The net soil erosion determined for the sloped field were 9.6 t/ha/y and 7.2 t/ha/y for 137Cs and 210Pbex methods, respectively. In contrast, at the terraced field, the net soil erosion rates reached only 3.4 t/ha/y and 3.8 t/ha/y, respectively. The preliminary results of this research highlighted that terraced agricultural practice provides an efficient solution to protect soil resources of the Malagasy highlands.

  15. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    PubMed

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

  16. Bioterrorism: Implications for the Clinical Microbiologist

    PubMed Central

    Klietmann, Wolfgang F.; Ruoff, Kathryn L.

    2001-01-01

    The specter of bioterrorism has captured the attention of government and military officials, scientists, and the general public. Compared to other sectors of the population, clinical microbiologists are more directly impacted by concerns about bioterrorism. This review focuses on the role envisioned for clinical laboratories in response to a bioterrorist event. The microbiology and clinical aspects of the biological agents thought to be the most likely tools of bioterrorists are presented. The historical background of the problem of bioterrorism and an overview of current U.S. preparedness planning, with an emphasis on the roles of health care professionals, are also included. PMID:11292643

  17. LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advent of deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has furnished guidelines for microbiological...

  18. Protecting young workers in agriculture: participation in tractor certification training.

    PubMed

    Heaney, C A; Wilkins, J R; Dellinger, W; McGonigle, H; Elliott, M; Bean, T L; Jepsen, S D

    2006-08-01

    Tractor-related injuries among youth are an important public health problem. The major objectives of this study were to (1) provide a rigorous estimate of the number of youth operating tractors in Ohio and (2) assess the extent to which these youth are participating in federally mandated tractor safety training. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by approximately 4,000 students ages 14 or 15 years who were enrolled in a stratified cluster sample of 99 Ohio schools. Almost one-third of the youth (30%) reported having operated tractors, with 19% having operated a tractor on a farm not owned by a parent or guardian. More than half of the youth (52%) reported having operated a tractor and/or other hazardous machinery, with 25% having operated the machinery on a farm not owned or operated by a parent or guardian. Extrapolating from 4-H records and Ohio census data, fewer than 1% of the youth who are operating tractors or other hazardous machinery have participated in tractor certification training. Increasing participation in mandated training may be an important step in protecting the health of our nation's young agricultural workers.

  19. Bioterrorism

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by bacteria. Anthrax most commonly occurs in cattle and sheep. It is rare in humans. It ... anthrax exposure.Fortunately, anthrax can be treated with antibiotics. The treatment and its success depend on the ...

  20. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  1. Protecting HVAC systems from bio-terrorism.

    PubMed

    Arterburn, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The FBI, in the wake of the September 11 attacks, issued an advisory to state and local law enforcement authorities and the public asking to remain especially alert to any unusual activities around ventilation systems. It noted that while the Bureau possessed no specific threats regarding the release of toxic chemicals into air handling systems, building owners and managers should be well-aware of the potential for contamination of such systems. This article presents recommendations of air-handling experts and associations for operators to consider.

  2. Kairos as Indeterminate Risk Management: The Pharmaceutical Industry's Response to Bioterrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. Blake

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's response to the threat of bioterrorism following 9-11 invoked the rhetorical notion of kairos as an urgent and ongoing opportunity not only to protect the nation but also to improve the industry's reputation and fortify its political power. Yet the notion of kairos as seizing an advantage--grounded in modernist…

  3. Preparedness and response to bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Spencer, R C; Lightfoot, N F

    2001-08-01

    As we enter the 21st century the threats of biological warfare and bioterrorism (so called asymmetric threats) appear to be more real than ever before. Historical evidence suggests that biological weapons have been used, with varying degrees of success, for many centuries. Despite the international agreements to ban such weapons, namely the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, there is no effective international mechanism for challenging either the development of biological weapons or their use. Advances in technology and the rise of fundamentalist terror groups combine to present a significant threat to western democracies. A timely and definitive response to this threat will require co-operation between governments on a scale never seen before. There is a need for proper planning, good communication between various health, home office, defence and intelligence agencies and sufficient financial support for a realistic state of preparedness. The Department of Health has produced guidelines for responding to real or suspected incidents and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) has produced detailed protocols to inform the actions required by microbiologists and consultants in communicable disease control. These protocols will be published on the Department of Health and PHLS web sites.

  4. Bioterrorism Preparedness: What School Counselors Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer N.; Rank, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    To ensure the safety of school-aged children and adolescents, school counselors must not ignore or deny the public health threat of bioterrorism (Henderson, 1998). Rather, school counselors must be prepared with knowledge about bioterrorism and intervention skills. Bioterrorism within the United States is a continuing threat. Because children and…

  5. Groundwater Protection through Prevention. A Curriculum for Agricultural Education in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Water is one of the natural resources vital to any agricultural system. This material was developed in support of the Iowa Agricultural Science, Technology and Marketing (ASTM) program, focusing on groundwater educational concepts related to the 1987 Iowa Groundwater Protection Act. This material was designed to assist teachers in providing…

  6. Science Publishing in the Age of Bioterrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlas, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax bioterrorism mailings, the science community and others worried that technical articles might inadvertently aid those planning acts of terrorism. Some authors asked the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) for permission to withhold critical information from…

  7. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  8. LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2002, and the subsequent deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department o...

  9. Bioterrorism and Real-World Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla

    2003-01-01

    Recent events, such as the anthrax scares and the SARS outbreak, have forced teachers to focus on issues such as disease control and bioterrorism in their own backyards. Students are aware of the current biological issues in the news and are curious about infectious diseases and the issues relating to biological warfare. In order to address the…

  10. Public health focus: effectiveness of rollover protective structures for preventing injuries associated with agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    1993-01-29

    Agriculture ranks fourth among U.S. industries for work-related fatalities (1). Fatalities associated with agricultural machinery commonly involve farm tractors, and rollover incidents (i.e., the tractor tips sideways or backward and overturns, crushing the operator) account for 46% (Minnesota) to 76% (Georgia) of all farm tractor-related fatalities (2). Annually, agricultural tractor rollovers result in approximately 132 work-related deaths among persons aged > or = 16 years* (3). This report summarizes information regarding the efficacy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of rollover protective structures (ROPS) on agricultural tractors.

  11. Protect Minnesota's Agricultural Land: Components and Activities for Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noy, Laura

    An endeavor to alert elementary teachers and students to the need to protect and conserve one of Minnesota's basic resources, soil, these supplementary instructional activities are designed for easy integration into science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, and art subject and skill areas. Each activity includes a brief description of…

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead...) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, the... accidental upset. (2) Applicability. This standard applies to wheel-type agricultural and industrial...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead...) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, the... accidental upset. (2) Applicability. This standard applies to wheel-type agricultural and industrial...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead...) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, the... accidental upset. (2) Applicability. This standard applies to wheel-type agricultural and industrial...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead...) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, the... accidental upset. (2) Applicability. This standard applies to wheel-type agricultural and industrial...

  16. Bioterrorism as a public health threat.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism, long ignored and denied, has heightened over the past few years. Recent events in Iraq, Japan, and Russia cast an ominous shadow. Two candidate agents are of special concern--smallpox and anthrax. The magnitude of the problems and the gravity of the scenarios associated with release of these organisms have been vividly portrayed by two epidemics of smallpox in Europe during the 1970s and by an accidental release of aerosolized anthrax from a Russian bioweapons facility in 1979. Efforts in the United States to deal with possible incidents involving bioweapons in the civilian sector have only recently begun and have made only limited progress. Only with substantial additional resources at the federal, state, and local levels can a credible and meaningful response be mounted. For longer-term solutions, the medical community must educate both the public and policy makers about bioterrorism and build a global consensus condemning its use. PMID:9716981

  17. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  18. Bioterrorism and Smallpox: Policies, Practices, and Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackelprang, Romel W.; Mackelprang, Romel D.; Thirkill, Ashley D.

    2005-01-01

    Terrorist acts and the fear of terrorism have become a part of everyday life in the early 21st century. Among the threats most feared is bioterrorism, including the intentional release of smallpox. With the invasion of Iraq and toppling of the Saddam Hussein regime, acute bioterrorism fears have abated; however, an ongoing threat remains. This…

  19. Protected areas as biodiversity benchmarks for human impact: agriculture and the Serengeti avifauna.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A R E; Mduma, Simon A R; Arcese, Peter

    2002-12-07

    Protected areas as biodiversity benchmarks allow a separation of the direct effects of human impact on biodiversity loss from those of other environmental changes. We illustrate the use of ecological baselines with a case from the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania. We document a substantial but previously unnoted loss of bird diversity in agriculture detected by reference to the immediately adjacent native vegetation in Serengeti. The abundance of species found in agriculture was only 28% of that for the same species in native savannah. Insectivorous species feeding in the grass layer or in trees were the most reduced. Some 50% of both insectivorous and granivorous species were not recorded in agriculture, with ground-feeding and tree species most affected. Grass-layer insect abundance and diversity was much reduced in agriculture, consistent with the loss of insectivorous birds. These results indicate that many species of birds will become confined to protected areas over time. We need to determine whether existing protected areas are sufficiently large to maintain viable populations of insectivorous birds likely to become confined to them. This study highlights the essential nature of baseline areas for assessing causes of change in human-dominated systems and for developing innovative strategies to restore biodiversity.

  20. Bioterrorism, public health, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Annas, George J

    2002-01-01

    It is unnecessary and counterproductive to sacrifice basic human rights to respond to bioterrorism. Constructive public health legislation, which must be federal, cannot be carefully drafted under panic conditions. When it is, like the "model act," it will predictably rely on broad, arbitrary state authority exercised without public accountability. Public health should resist reverting to its nineteenth-century practices of forced examination and quarantine, which will simply encourage people to avoid physicians, hospitals, and public health practitioners they now trust and actively seek out in emergencies. Upholding human rights is essential to public trust and is ultimately our best defense against the threat of terrorism in the twenty-first century.

  1. Bioterrorism: a Laboratory Who Does It?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Philip A.; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire

    2014-01-01

    In October 2001, the first disseminated biological warfare attack was perpetrated on American soil. Initially, a few clinical microbiology laboratories were testing specimens from acutely ill patients and also being asked to test nasal swabs from the potentially exposed. Soon after, a significant number of clinical microbiology and public health laboratories received similar requests to test the worried well or evaluate potentially contaminated mail or environmental materials, sometimes from their own break rooms. The role of the clinical and public health microbiology laboratory in response to a select agent event or act of bioterrorism is reviewed. PMID:24648550

  2. Integrating Cost-effective Rollover Protective Structure Installation in High School Agricultural Mechanics: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Joan; Vincent, Stacy; Watson, Jennifer; Westneat, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study with three Appalachian county agricultural education programs examined the feasibility, effectiveness, and impact of integrating a cost-effective rollover protective structure (CROPS) project into high school agricultural mechanics classes. The project aimed to (1) reduce the exposure to tractor overturn hazards in three rural counties through the installation of CROPS on seven tractors within the Cumberland Plateau in the east region; (2) increase awareness in the targeted rural communities of cost-effective ROPS designs developed by the National Institution for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to encourage ROPS installations that decrease the costs of a retrofit; (3) test the feasibility of integration of CROPS construction and installations procedures into the required agricultural mechanics classes in these agricultural education programs; and (4) explore barriers to the implementation of this project in high school agricultural education programs. Eighty-two rural students and three agricultural educators participated in assembly and installation instruction. Data included hazard exposure demographic data, knowledge and awareness of CROPS plans, and pre-post knowledge of construction and assessment of final CROPS installation. Findings demonstrated the feasibility and utility of a CROPS education program in a professionally supervised secondary educational setting. The project promoted farm safety and awareness of availability and interest in the NIOSH Cost-effective ROPS plans. Seven CROPS were constructed and installed. New curriculum and knowledge measures also resulted from the work. Lessons learned and recommendations for a phase 2 implementation and further research are included.

  3. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later.

  4. Hospital bioterrorism planning and burn surge.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B; Rich, Preston B; Hultman, C Scott; Charles, Anthony G; Jones, Samuel W; Schmits, Grace L; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity.

  5. Hospital Bioterrorism Planning and Burn Surge

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B.; Rich, Preston B.; Hultman, C. Scott; Charles, Anthony G.; Jones, Samuel W.; Schmits, Grace L.; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H.; Cairns, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity. PMID:24527874

  6. Brucella as a potential agent of bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Doganay, Gizem D; Doganay, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Perception on bioterrorism has changed after the deliberate release of anthrax by the postal system in the United States of America in 2001. Potential bioterrorism agents have been reclassified based on their dissemination, expected rate of mortality, availability, stability, and ability to lead a public panic. Brucella species can be easily cultured from infected animals and human materials. Also, it can be transferred, stored and disseminated easily. An intentional contamination of food with Brucella species could pose a threat with low mortality rate. Brucella spp. is highly infectious through aerosol route, making it an attractive pathogen to be used as a potential agent for biological warfare purposes. Recently, many studies have been concentrated on appropriate sampling of Brucella spp. from environment including finding ways for its early detection and development of new decontamination procedures such as new drugs and vaccines. There are many ongoing vaccine development studies; some of which recently received patents for detection and therapy of Brucella spp. However, there is still no available vaccine for humans. In this paper, recent developments and recent patents on brucellosis are reviewed and discussed.

  7. Call-tracking data and the public health response to bioterrorism-related anthrax.

    PubMed

    Mott, Joshua A; Treadwell, Tracee A; Hennessy, Thomas W; Rosenberg, Paula A; Wolfe, Mitchell I; Brown, Clive M; Butler, Jay C

    2002-10-01

    After public notification of confirmed cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emergency Operations Center responded to 11,063 bioterrorism-related telephone calls from October 8 to November 11, 2001. Most calls were inquiries from the public about anthrax vaccines (58.4%), requests for general information on bioterrorism prevention (14.8%), and use of personal protective equipment (12.0%); 882 telephone calls (8.0%) were referred to the state liaison team for follow-up investigation. Of these, 226 (25.6%) included reports of either illness clinically confirmed to be compatible with anthrax or direct exposure to an environment known to be contaminated with Bacillus anthracis. The remaining 656 (74.4%) included no confirmed illness but reported exposures to "suspicious" packages or substances or the receipt of mail through a contaminated facility. Emergency response staff must handle high call volumes following suspected or actual bioterrorist attacks. Standardized health communication protocols that address contact with unknown substances, handling of suspicious mail, and clinical evaluation of suspected cases would allow more efficient follow-up investigations of clinically compatible cases in high-risk groups.

  8. Developing the 2012 national action plan for protecting children in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Barbara C; Gallagher, Susan S; Liebman, Amy K; Miller, Mary E; Marlenga, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In 1996 the US launched a National Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative, guided by an action plan generated by a 42-member multidisciplinary committee. A major update to the plan was released following the 2001 Summit on Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention. From the year 2010 through 2011 a comprehensive assessment of progress to date was conducted followed by the drafting, review and finalizing of a new action plan-"The 2012 Blueprint for Protecting Children in Agriculture." This paper briefly describes the purpose and process for generating the new action plan then provides a listing of the 7 goals and 26 strategies within the plan. These goals and strategies account for trends in childhood agricultural injuries, changes in agricultural production and the demographics of its workforce, effectiveness of interventions, and the increasing use of social media, marketing and social networking. Primary funding for this project was provided by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which continues to serve as the lead federal agency for the national initiative.

  9. Local collaborations: development and implementation of Boston's bioterrorism surveillance system.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Verna B; Gunn, Julia E; Auerbach, John; Brinsfield, Kathryn H; Dyer, K Sophia; Barry, M Anita

    2003-01-01

    The Boston Public Health Commission developed and implemented an active surveillance system for bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies. A bioterrorism Surveillance Task Force was formed with representatives from local emergency medicine, infection control, infectious diseases, public health, and emergency medical services. These local agencies worked together to develop a reliable, easy to use electronic surveillance system. Collaboration at the local level and building on existing relationships is a key component of this system. Effective follow-up systems and technology back-up plans are essential. Improved communication networks and increased bioterrorism education for clinicians and the general public have also been achieved.

  10. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.53 Protective... effectiveness of the protective system under actual dynamic conditions. This test may be omitted when: (i)...

  11. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.52 Protective frames... protective system under actual dynamic conditions. Such testing may be omitted when: (i) The analysis of...

  12. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.53 Protective... effectiveness of the protective system under actual dynamic conditions. This test may be omitted when: (i)...

  13. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.52 Protective frames... protective system under actual dynamic conditions. Such testing may be omitted when: (i) The analysis of...

  14. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.52 Protective frames... protective system under actual dynamic conditions. Such testing may be omitted when: (i) The analysis of...

  15. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.52 Protective frames... protective system under actual dynamic conditions. Such testing may be omitted when: (i) The analysis of...

  16. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.53 Protective... effectiveness of the protective system under actual dynamic conditions. This test may be omitted when: (i)...

  17. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.53 Protective... effectiveness of the protective system under actual dynamic conditions. This test may be omitted when: (i)...

  18. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.52 Protective frames... protective system under actual dynamic conditions. Such testing may be omitted when: (i) The analysis of...

  19. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.53 Protective... effectiveness of the protective system under actual dynamic conditions. This test may be omitted when: (i)...

  20. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in... STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.51 Roll-over protective structures (ROPS... tractor means a two-or four-wheel drive type vehicle, or track vehicle, of more than 20 engine...

  1. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in... STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.51 Roll-over protective structures (ROPS... tractor means a two-or four-wheel drive type vehicle, or track vehicle, of more than 20 engine...

  2. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in... STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.51 Roll-over protective structures (ROPS... tractor means a two-or four-wheel drive type vehicle, or track vehicle, of more than 20 engine...

  3. Structural strength evaluation of driver's protective structures for self-propelled agricultural machines.

    PubMed

    Molari, G; Badodi, M; Guarnieri, A; Mattetti, M

    2014-07-01

    The high number of accidents due to rollovers of agricultural machines has increased the interest of researchers and organizations for standardization in this field. In the 1960s, standards to test rollover protective structures (ROPS) for tractors were designed and approved. Similar standards were introduced in the 1990s for earth-moving machinery, but ROPS standards were not defined for self-propelled agricultural machines. In the present work, the driver's protective structures of five different categories of self-propelled agricultural machines were analyzed with the goal of introducing ROPS with a strength level in accordance with the standards used for tractors while maintaining the same shape as the existing structure. The results show a low resistance level of the present structures on the machines selected for the tests. New structures that are able to sustain the loads specified by the tractor standard are not different in design from the existing structures, but an increase of the resistance of the materials or an increase of the thickness of the mountings is necessary.

  4. Plague: from natural disease to bioterrorism

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, an enzootic vectorborne disease usually infecting rodents (rats) and fleas. Humans can become infected after being bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents. In humans, the disease usually occurs in the form of bubonic plague. In rare cases, the infection spreads to the lungs via the bloodstream and causes secondary pneumonic plague. Person-to-person transmission has been described for pneumonic plague but is rare in primary bubonic plague. Bubonic plague can usually be treated successfully with antibiotics; however, pneumonic plague develops rapidly and carries a high fatality rate despite immediate treatment with antibiotics. Plague is also recognized as a potential agent of bioterrorism. It has been used, or considered for use, as a biologic weapon on several occasions. It is important for the medical community to be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnosis, and symptoms of plague so it can deliver an appropriate and calm response should the unthinkable happen. PMID:16200159

  5. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.

    PubMed

    DeLiberto, Shelagh T; Werner, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence. As a biopesticide, AQ often meets these criteria of efficacy for the non-lethal management of agricultural depredation caused by wildlife. We summarize published applications of AQ for the protection of newly planted and maturing crops from pest birds. Conventional applications of AQ-based repellents include preplant seed treatments [e.g. corn (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum spp.), millet (Panicum spp.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), pelletized feed and forest tree species] and foliar applications for rice, sunflower, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), turf, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sweet corn and nursery, fruit and nut crops. In addition to agricultural repellent applications, AQ has also been used to treat toxicants for the protection of non-target birds. Few studies have demonstrated AQ repellency in mammals, including wild boar (Sus scrofa, L.), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, Mitchill), black-tailed prairie dogs (Cyomys ludovicainus, Ord.), common voles (Microtus arvalis, Pallas), house mice (Mus musculus, L.), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami, Thomas) and black rats (Rattus rattus L.). Natural sources of AQ and its derivatives have also been identified as insecticides and insect repellents. As a natural or synthetic biopesticide, AQ

  6. The Role of Practical Advice in Bioterrorism News Coverage.

    PubMed

    Swain, Kristen Alley

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of crisis advice appearing in US news coverage of the 2001 anthrax attacks. Coverage of any crisis can spark public outrage, including fear, speculation, and contradictory or confusing evidence, especially when the stories do not contain practical advice. Five coders analyzed 833 news stories from 272 major US newspapers, the Associated Press, National Public Radio, and 4 major US television networks. Practical advice appeared in only a quarter of the stories, even though practical advice for self-protection was mentioned 3 times more often than the vague advice that simply advised people not to panic. Public health officials provided the most practical advice, while scientists provided the least practical advice. Stories containing practical advice also provided more elucidating information, explaining why the threat was low, reducible, treatable, and detectable. Over the 3 phases of the anthrax crisis, an inverse relationship appeared between the amount of news coverage containing practical advice compared to "outrage rhetoric." Stories mentioned practical advice more often during the post-impact phase than earlier in the crisis. Elucidating, explanatory advice emphasized actions, risk comparisons, and tradeoffs. The findings indicate that when journalists use credible sources to provide practical advice and avoid speculation, their coverage can prevent the spread of misinformation and confusion during a bioterror attack. Also, journalists should provide context and sourcing when discussing advice during the outbreak and impact phases of the crisis, because these explanations could counteract outrage and threat distortion.

  7. Protected areas and agricultural expansion: Biodiversity conservation versus economic growth in the Southeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Mayra Cristina Prado de; Mello, Kaline de; Toppa, Rogério Hartung

    2017-03-01

    The conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural land and urban areas plays a threat to the protected areas and the natural ecosystems conservation. The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the agricultural expansion and its impact on the landscape spatial and temporal patterns in a buffer zone of a protected area located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The land use and land cover were mapped between 1971 and 2008 and landscape metrics were calculated to provide a spatiotemporal analysis of the forest structure and the expansion of the croplands. The results showed that the landscape patterns were affected by the economic cycles. The predominant crop surrounding the protected area is sugar cane, which increased by 39% during this period, followed by citrus. This landscape change is connected to the Brazilian oil crisis in 1973. The rapid expansion of sugar cane was largely driven by Brazil's biofuel program, the "Proálcool" (pro-alcohol), a project in 1975 that mixed ethanol with gas for automotive fuel. The forest loss occurred mainly between 1971 and 1988, decreasing the forest cover from 17% in 1971 to 12.7% in 2008. Most of the forest patches are smaller than 50 ha and has low connectivity. Throughout the years, the fragments in the buffer zone have become smaller and with an elongated shape, and the park has become isolated. This forest fragmentation process and the predominance of monoculture lands in the buffer zone threaten the protected areas, and can represent a barrier for these areas to provide the effective biodiversity conservation. The measures proposed are necessary to ensure the capability of this ecosystem to sustain its original biodiversity.

  8. Integrating EPA's agriculture and water grant programs: A comparison of 16 programs that protect the water resource from agricultural contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The document provides background information on EPA's Agriculture and Water Integration Project, summarizes and compares specific program elements, and outlines the Agency's plans for grant guidances and programs related to agricultural contamination of the water resource over the next few years.

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1002 - Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for wheel-type agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known...; Overhead Protection § 1926.1002 Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for... this section is to set forth requirements for frames used to protect operators of...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1002 - Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for wheel-type agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known...; Overhead Protection § 1926.1002 Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for... this section is to set forth requirements for frames used to protect operators of...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1002 - Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for wheel-type agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known...; Overhead Protection § 1926.1002 Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for... this section is to set forth requirements for frames used to protect operators of...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1002 - Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for wheel-type agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known...; Overhead Protection § 1926.1002 Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for... this section is to set forth requirements for frames used to protect operators of...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1002 - Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for wheel-type agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known...; Overhead Protection § 1926.1002 Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for... this section is to set forth requirements for frames used to protect operators of...

  14. The Pitfalls of Bioterrorism Preparedness: the Anthrax and Smallpox Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Hillel W.; Gould, Robert M.; Sidel, Victor W.

    2004-01-01

    Bioterrorism preparedness programs have contributed to death, illness, and waste of public health resources without evidence of benefit. Several deaths and many serious illnesses have resulted from the smallpox vaccination program; yet there is no clear evidence that a threat of smallpox exposure ever existed. The anthrax spores released in 2001 have been linked to secret US military laboratories—the resultant illnesses and deaths might not have occurred if those laboratories were not in operation. The present expansion of bioterrorism preparedness programs will continue to squander health resources, increase the dangers of accidental or purposeful release of dangerous pathogens, and further undermine efforts to enforce international treaties to ban biological and chemical weapons. The public health community should acknowledge the substantial harm that bioterrorism preparedness has already caused and develop mechanisms to increase our public health resources and to allocate them to address the world’s real health needs. PMID:15451727

  15. Laboratory Response to Anthrax Bioterrorism, New York City, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Michael B.; France, Martin E.B.; Niemeyer, Debra M.; Peruski, Leonard; Naimi, Tim; Talboy, Phillip M.; Murray, Patrick H.; Pietz, Harald W.; Kornblum, John; Oleszko, William; Beatrice, Sara T.

    2002-01-01

    In October 2001, the greater New York City Metropolitan Area was the scene of a bioterrorism attack. The scale of the public response to this attack was not foreseen and threatened to overwhelm the Bioterrorism Response Laboratory’s (BTRL) ability to process and test environmental samples. In a joint effort with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the cooperation of the Department of Defense, a massive effort was launched to maintain and sustain the laboratory response and return test results in a timely fashion. This effort was largely successful. The development and expansion of the facility are described, as are the special needs of a BTRL. The establishment of a Laboratory Bioterrorism Command Center and protocols for sample intake, processing, reporting, security, testing, staffing, and quality assurance and quality control are also described. PMID:12396923

  16. Planning the bioterrorism response supply chain: learn and live.

    PubMed

    Brandeau, Margaret L; Hutton, David W; Owens, Douglas K; Bravata, Dena M

    2007-01-01

    Responses to bioterrorism require rapid procurement and distribution of medical and pharmaceutical supplies, trained personnel, and information. Thus, they present significant logistical challenges. On the basis of a review of the manufacturing and service supply chain literature, the authors identified five supply chain strategies that can potentially increase the speed of response to a bioterrorism attack, reduce inventories, and save money: effective supply chain network design; effective inventory management; postponement of product customization and modularization of component parts; coordination of supply chain stakeholders and appropriate use of incentives; and effective information management. The authors describe how concepts learned from published evaluations of manufacturing and service supply chains, as well as lessons learned from responses to natural disasters, naturally occurring outbreaks, and the 2001 US anthrax attacks, can be applied to design, evaluate, and improve the bioterrorism response supply chain. Such lessons could also be applied to the response supply chains for disease outbreaks and natural and manmade disasters.

  17. The local view on the role of plant protection in sustainable agriculture in India.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, S; Rabindra, R J

    1993-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides has affected humans and their environment and contributed significantly to reduced productivity of crops. With the increasing realization of the importance of sustainable agriculture, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) for sustainable agriculture has emerged. In the recent past entomologists and the farmers have identified methods of pest management that are ecologically non-disruptive and stable. Concurrently indigenous crop varieties with resistance to pests and diseases have been developed and cultivated. According to the principle of 'organic farming', several non-chemical methods have become popular among the local farmers. Simple cultural practices like increasing the seed rate to compensate for pest damage, adjusting the time of sowing to avoid pest damage, mulching, intercropping, trap cropping and crop rotation have been found to provide adequate protection from pest damage with no additional cost and without harmful effects on the environment. The age-old method of catch and kill is still being practised by farmers, particularly for cotton. Mechanical methods like the bow trap for control of rats and provision of tin sheets around coconut tree trunks to prevent rats damaging the nuts are still being adopted. The use of botanical materials such as the neem products for pest management has been well received almost all over the world. Biological control using the natural enemies of insect pests has become very popular among the farmers in the 1980s. The farmers who clamoured for chemical pesticides in the 1960s and 1970s are now disillusioned with these poisonous eco-destabilizing substances; they want sensible, biologically rational methods of IPM. Pest surveillance and monitoring play an important role in IPM for sustainable agriculture.

  18. Identification and analysis of obstacles in bioterrorism preparedness and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincavage, Suzanne Michele

    The focus of this study was to identify and analyze the obstacles to bioterrorism preparedness and response facing emergency management agencies and public authorities. In order to establish the limits of this discussion, the obstacles will examine a combined conceptual framework of public health, environmental security and social response. The interdisciplinary characteristics of this framework are ideal for addressing the issue of bioterrorism because of its simultaneous impact, which encompasses the complex interrelationships that pertain to public health and national security and social response. Based on a review of literature, the obstacles presented range from the absence of an effective surveillance system for biological terrorism related diseases to the inadequate training of first responders in bioterrorism preparedness and the difficult challenges of a mass casualty situation and the intense pressures associated with the crisis response. Furthermore, the impending reality of bioterrorism will further illustrate a close examination of the characteristics and management of three major biowarfare agents---anthrax, plague and smallpox. Finally, to provide a realistic understanding of the impact of bioterrorism, three case studies of actual events and two hypothetical scenarios will be discussed. Specifically, the discussion will provide the following three unconventional terrorist attacks: the recent anthrax attacks of 2001, the Aum Shinrikyo's attack of the Tokyo subway in 1995, and the Rajneeshees' use of salmonella poisoning in 1994. The inclusion of the hypothetical scenarios of two massive outbreaks of smallpox and anthrax will be presented to illuminate the seriousness and magnitude of the threat of bioterrorism and the probable consequences of failing to overcome the obstacles presented in this study. The importance of this research cannot be overemphasized, the threat is undeniably serious, and the potential for biological agents to cause devastating

  19. Ebola hemorrhagic fever in the era of bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Polesky, Andrea; Bhatia, Gulshan

    2003-09-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are among a small group of infectious diseases considered potential candidates for use as agents of bioterrorism. Ebola hemorrhagic fever, the focus of this article, has the highest mortality rate of the viral hemorrhagic fevers and has no effective treatment. It is transmitted easily to family members and health care professionals not following universal precautions. The history of this infection, its clinical presentation, and epidemiology are discussed. Attention is paid to the immunopathogenesis of the disease with a focus on pulmonary involvement. Recommendations for infection control and Ebola virus' potential as a bioterrorism agent are addressed.

  20. Towards a more sustainable agriculture: wheat mycorrhization to protect against powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, G; Tisserant, B; Randoux, B; Fontaine, J; Reignault, Ph; Sahraoui, A Lounes-Hadj

    2013-01-01

    One of the means to reduce the use of pesticides, which are harmful for humans and the environment, is the development of alternative methods to control crop diseases. In this context, arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation possesses a great potential for crop production by a more sustainable agriculture. Our work aims to (i) determine the optimal conditions for wheat mycorrhization (ii) study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on a foliar disease of wheat, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici, Bgt), (iii) evaluate the stimulation of natural defences of wheat (Triticuma estivum). Therefore, this work consisted firstly of defining the parameters, affecting the establishment of wheat mycorrhization, such as: phosphorus concentration (62, 12.5, 6.2 mg/L), culture time (4, 5, 6, 7 weeks), arbuscular mycorrhizal species used as an inoculum (Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri), Glomus masseae (Gm) and the mixture of (Ri+Gm)) and wheat cultivars (Orvantis and Lord, sensitive and moderately resistant to Bgt, respectively). Secondly, the protective effect of mycorrhizal inoculation against Bgt was estimated by comparing infection rates of wheat seedlings subjected and non-subjected to AMF. Finally, to better understand the biochemical mechanisms involved in the protection, two enzymatic activities described as defense markers [lipoxygenase (LOX) and peroxidase (POX)] were also assessed. Extensive mycorrhization (about 31%) was obtained at P/5 concentration (12.5 mg/L) when wheat plants were 6 weeks old. The highest colonization rate was obtained when wheat was inoculated with Gm compared to SZE and Ri. The higher resistance level of Lord wheat cultivar against Bgt did not affect the mycorrhizal rate compared to the more susceptible cultivar Orvantis. Our work showed a significant protection level in mycorrhizal (M) wheat plants against Bgt, estimated to about 25 and 43% with Ri and SZE respectively compared to non-mycorrhizal (NM) Orvantis plants. The

  1. Prior notice of imported food under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-11-07

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation that requires the submission to FDA of prior notice of food, including animal feed, that is imported or offered for import into the United States. The final rule implements the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), which required prior notification of imported food to begin on December 12, 2003. The final rule requires that the prior notice be submitted to FDA electronically via either the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP or Customs) Automated Broker Interface (ABI) of the Automated Commercial System (ACS) or the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI). The information must be submitted and confirmed electronically as facially complete by FDA for review no less than 8 hours (for food arriving by water), 4 hours (for food arriving by air or land/rail), and 2 hours (for food arriving by land/road) before the food arrives at the port of arrival. Food imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice is subject to refusal and, if refused, must be held. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a draft compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled "Sec. 110.310 Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002."

  2. Fear of Bioterrorism and Implications for Public Health Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xinfang; Golash, Roman G.

    2003-01-01

    After the human anthrax cases and exposures in 2001, the Illinois Department of Public Health received an increasing number of environmental and human samples (1,496 environmental submissions, all negative for Bacillus anthracis). These data demonstrate increased volume of submissions to a public health laboratory resulting from fear of bioterrorism. PMID:12702237

  3. The Delivery: A Case Study in Bioterrorism Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosh, Judith; Davis, Kim; Fullwood, Angela; Lippek, Maryann; Middleton, Jill

    This paper describes a bioterrorism incident at a Connecticut elementary school. Flowers sent to a teacher were permeated with anthrax spores that infected the teacher, 12 of her students, 3 office staff members, and an administrator. The teacher subsequently died. The Connecticut Department of Public Health confirmed that the students and staff…

  4. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2002, and the subsequent deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of ...

  5. Bio-terrorism, "dirty bombs," hospitals, and security issues.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jesse C

    2004-01-01

    In the event of a bio-terrorism event, the role of the hospital security department will be critical if the disaster plans of health care providers are to be successfully carried out. It is imperative, says the author, that security providers be involved in every step of disaster and emergency response planning.

  6. Current and Developing Technologies for Monitoring Agents of Bioterrorism and Biowarfare

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Daniel V.; Simpson, Joyce M.; Kearns, Elizabeth A.; Kramer, Marianne F.

    2005-01-01

    Recent events have made public health officials acutely aware of the importance of rapidly and accurately detecting acts of bioterrorism. Because bioterrorism is difficult to predict or prevent, reliable platforms to rapidly detect and identify biothreat agents are important to minimize the spread of these agents and to protect the public health. These platforms must not only be sensitive and specific, but must also be able to accurately detect a variety of pathogens, including modified or previously uncharacterized agents, directly from complex sample matrices. Various commercial tests utilizing biochemical, immunological, nucleic acid, and bioluminescence procedures are currently available to identify biological threat agents. Newer tests have also been developed to identify such agents using aptamers, biochips, evanescent wave biosensors, cantilevers, living cells, and other innovative technologies. This review describes these current and developing technologies and considers challenges to rapid, accurate detection of biothreat agents. Although there is no ideal platform, many of these technologies have proved invaluable for the detection and identification of biothreat agents. PMID:16223949

  7. Spatially explicit scenario analysis for reconciling agricultural expansion, forest protection, and carbon conservation in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Lian Pin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2010-06-15

    Palm oil is the world's most important vegetable oil in terms of production quantity. Indonesia, the world's largest palm-oil producer, plans to double its production by 2020, with unclear implications for the other national priorities of food (rice) production, forest and biodiversity protection, and carbon conservation. We modeled the outcomes of alternative development scenarios and show that every single-priority scenario had substantial tradeoffs associated with other priorities. The exception was a hybrid approach wherein expansion targeted degraded and agricultural lands that are most productive for oil palm, least suitable for food cultivation, and contain the lowest carbon stocks. This approach avoided any loss in forest or biodiversity and substantially ameliorated the impacts of oil-palm expansion on carbon stocks (limiting net loss to 191.6 million tons) and annual food production capacity (loss of 1.9 million tons). Our results suggest that the environmental and land-use tradeoffs associated with oil-palm expansion can be largely avoided through the implementation of a properly planned and spatially explicit development strategy.

  8. Health risk in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in central Mexico: perspectives for protection.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, E; Blumenthal, U; Ruiz-Palacios, G; Bennett, S; Quigley, M

    2000-01-01

    9,435 individuals participated in a cross-sectional survey in the irrigation districts of the Mezquital Valley (central Mexico). Exposure groups were: 848 households irrigating with untreated wastewater, 544 households irrigating with the effluent from a series of interconnected reservoirs, and 928 households farming with natural rainfall. The unit of analysis was the individual, and the health outcomes included diarrhoeal diseases and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. Water quality was assessed using faecal coliforms (FC) and nematode eggs, as suggested by (WHO, 1989) for the safe use of wastewater in agriculture. Children from households irrigating with untreated wastewater (10(8) FC/100 mL and 135 nematode eggs/L) had a 33% higher risk of diarrhoeal diseases and a fivefold increase in risk of A. lumbricoides infection (OR = 5.71) compared to children from the control group, farming with rainfall. The risk of A. lumbricoides infection in older individuals was even higher (OR = 13.18). The final analysis showed that drinking unboiled water and cultivating vegetables crops were both associated with a higher risk of diarrheal diseases (OR = 1.45 and 2.00); individuals infected with A. lumbricoides infection came mostly from landless households with poorer dwellings and low standards of sanitation (OR = 2.20, 2.23, 1.72 and 1.43, respectively). These results are discussed in the context of health protection measures and policy recommendations.

  9. Bioterrorism Preparedness Through Public Health and Medical Bio-Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    country. Private Sector and Academic Activities Several bio-surveillance projects are also underway involving the private sector. CDC iss sponsoring...understands the importance of supporting the other in detecting bioterrorism. 41 Distance learning provided through medical, public health, and academic ...34 Emerging Infectious Diseases. (Vol. 8, Issue 8, August 2002). Retrieved from Internet: February 5, 2003. InfoTrac Web: InfoTrac OneFile . McGee, Marianne K

  10. Public health. Building microbial forensics as a response to bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Schutzer, Steven E; Einseln, Anja; Kelley, Lynda C; Walsh, Anne C; Smith, Jenifer A L; Marrone, Babetta L; Robertson, James; Campos, Joseph

    2003-09-26

    Combating bioterrorism is a challenge to all of us. To be proactive, the U.S. Government has formalized the discipline of "microbial forensics" to deter and attribute perpetrators of such acts. This Policy Forum describes the foundations of the microbial forensics program: the creation of a national bioforensics laboratory, a partnership laboratory network, and a peer-consensus scientific working group and the promulgation of quality assurance guidelines.

  11. [Effect of grazing on grassland under protective plantation in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry or Songnen plain].

    PubMed

    He, Nianpeng; Wu, Ling; Zhou, Daowei

    2004-05-01

    Based on the current special position that grassland under protective plantation is one of the most important grazing spaces of the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in Songnen plain, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of grazing on grassland under protective plantation. The results showed that no-grazing grassland in the grassland under protective plantation was seriously degenerated, but light and moderate grazing could stimulate the growth of grass and the product and quality of grassland. The index of grassland quality (IGQ) of no-grazing grassland was the lowest (15.51), attributing to serious degradation, while that of light grazing grassland was the highest (86.41), and the IGQ was decreased with increasing grazing intensity. Therefore, in order to stimulate the grass growth of the grassland, fully utilize the leaves of poplar, and increase the available forage resources, light and moderate grazing intensity should be advocated, but no-grazing and extreme grazing should be avoided.

  12. Informing policy to protect coastal coral reefs: insight from a global review of reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Schaffelke, Britta; Bartley, Rebecca

    2014-08-15

    The continuing degradation of coral reefs has serious consequences for the provision of ecosystem goods and services to local and regional communities. While climate change is considered the most serious risk to coral reefs, agricultural pollution threatens approximately 25% of the total global reef area with further increases in sediment and nutrient fluxes projected over the next 50 years. Here, we aim to inform coral reef management using insights learned from management examples that were successful in reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems. We identify multiple examples reporting reduced fluxes of sediment and nutrients at end-of-river, and associated declines in nutrient concentrations and algal biomass in receiving coastal waters. Based on the insights obtained, we recommend that future protection of coral reef ecosystems demands policy focused on desired ecosystem outcomes, targeted regulatory approaches, up-scaling of watershed management, and long-term maintenance of scientifically robust monitoring programs linked with adaptive management.

  13. Protecting and Promoting Indigenous Knowledge: Environmental Adult Education and Organic Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Given today's pressing environmental issues, environmental adult educators can help us learn to live more sustainably. One of the models for more sustainable ways of life is organic agriculture, based in a knowledge system that works with nature, not against it. In order to understand this knowledge, we need to frame it in a way that captures all…

  14. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  15. The Effect of Anthrax Bioterrorism on Emergency Department Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Robert M.; Reeves, Jabari; Houston, Sherard; McClung, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Study Objective: From September through December 2001, 22 Americans were diagnosed with anthrax, prompting widespread national media attention and public concern over bioterrorism. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the threat of anthrax bioterrorism on patient presentation to a West Coast emergency department (ED). Methods: This survey was conducted at an urban county ED in Oakland, CA between December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. During random 8-hour blocks, all adult patients presenting for flu or upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms were surveyed using a structured survey instrument that included standard visual numerical and Likert scales. Results: Eighty-nine patients were interviewed. Eleven patients (12%) reported potential exposure risk factors. Eighty percent of patients watched television, read the newspaper, or listened to the radio daily, and 83% of patients had heard about anthrax bioterrorism. Fifty-five percent received a chest x-ray, 10% received either throat or blood cultures, and 28% received antibiotics. Twenty-one percent of patients surveyed were admitted to the hospital. Most patients were minimally concerned that they may have contracted anthrax (mean=3.3±3.3 where 0=no concern and 10=extremely concerned). Patient concern about anthrax had little influence on their decision to visit the ED (mean=2.8±3.0 where 0=no influence and 10=greatly influenced). Had they experienced their same flu or URI symptoms one year prior to the anthrax outbreak, 91% of patients stated they would have sought medical attention. Conclusions: After considerable exposure to media reports about anthrax, most patients in this urban West Coast ED population were not concerned about anthrax infection. Fear of anthrax had little effect on decisions to come to the ED, and most would have sought medical help prior to the anthrax outbreak. PMID:20847852

  16. Resource Use Among Rural Agricultural Households Near Protected Areas in Vietnam: The Social Costs of Conservation and Implications for Enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwee, Pamela D.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been ‘invisible’ due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit.

  17. Lessons Learned: The "Pale Horse" Bioterrorism Response Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    to define what the professional and personal liability of private health care providers is for Table 1. Participants in Pale Horse Tabletop Planning...Lessons Learned Lessons Learned: The “Pale Horse ” Bioterrorism Response Exercise Col. David Jarrett, MD, FACEP The city of San Antonio, Texas, and...Editorial, see p. 98 And I looked, and behold, a pale horse : and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. Book of Revelation 6:8 I n

  18. The plague of Athens: an ancient act of bioterrorism?

    PubMed

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Synodinos, Philippos N; Stathi, Angeliki; Skevaki, Chrysanthi L; Zachariadou, Levantia

    2013-09-01

    Recent data implicate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi as a causative pathogen of the Plague of Athens during the Peloponnesian War (430-426 bc). According to Thucydides, the sudden outbreak of the disease may link to poisoning of the water reservoirs by the Spartans. The siege of a city was aimed at exhausting the supplies of a population, which often led to the outbreak and spread of epidemics. Poisoning of the water reservoirs of a besieged city as an act of bioterrorism would probably shorten the necessary time for such conditions to appear.

  19. Plant protection and growth stimulation by microorganisms: biotechnological applications of Bacilli in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Alejandro; Romero, Diego; de Vicente, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    The increasing demand for a steady, healthy food supply requires an efficient control of the major pests and plant diseases. Current management practices are based largely on the application of synthetic pesticides. The excessive use of agrochemicals has caused serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is a growing demand for new and safer methods to replace or at least supplement the existing control strategies. Biological control, that is, the use of natural antagonists to combat pests or plant diseases has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides. The Bacilli offer a number of advantages for their application in agricultural biotechnology. Several Bacillus-based products have been marketed as microbial pesticides, fungicides or fertilisers. Bacillus-based biopesticides are widely used in conventional agriculture, by contrast, implementation of Bacillus-based biofungicides and biofertilizers is still a pending issue.

  20. Bioterrorism and the Role of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Regular review of the management of bioterrorism is essential for maintaining readiness for these sporadically occurring events. This review provides an overview of the history of biological disasters and bioterrorism. I also discuss the recent recategorization of tier 1 agents by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Laboratory Response Network (LRN), and specific training and readiness processes and programs, such as the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Laboratory Preparedness Exercise (LPX). LPX examined the management of cultivable bacterial vaccine and attenuated strains of tier 1 agents or close mimics. In the LPX program, participating laboratories showed improvement in the level of diagnosis required and referral of isolates to an appropriate reference laboratory. Agents which proved difficult to manage in sentinel laboratories included the more fastidious Gram-negative organisms, especially Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia spp. The recent Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic provided a check on LRN safety processes. Specific guidelines and recommendations for laboratory safety and risk assessment in the clinical microbiology are explored so that sentinel laboratories can better prepare for the next biological disaster. PMID:26656673

  1. Anthrax: a continuing concern in the era of bioterrorism

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Anthrax, a potentially fatal infection, is a virulent and highly contagious disease. It is caused by a gram-positive, toxigenic, spore-forming bacillus: Bacillus anthracis. For centuries, anthrax has caused disease in animals and, although uncommonly, in humans throughout the world. Descriptions of this naturally occurring disease begin in antiquity. Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores, which are infected by ingestion of spores from the soil. With the advent of modern microbiology, Pasteur developed the first successful anthrax vaccine in 1881. The incidence of the disease has continually decreased since the late 19th century, and animal vaccination programs drastically reduced the animal mortality from the disease. However, anthrax spores continue to be documented in soil samples from throughout the world. Research on anthrax as a biological weapon began more than 80 years ago, and today at least 17 nations are believed to have offensive biological weapons programs that include anthrax. Recent events in the USA have shown how society is affected by both hoax and real threats of anthrax bioweapons. This fourth article in the series on weapons of biowarfare/bioterrorism summarizes the historical background of anthrax as well as clinical and laboratory information useful for bioterrorism preparedness. PMID:16200179

  2. Pathology and Pathogenesis of Bioterrorism-Related Inhalational Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Guarner, Jeannette; Jernigan, John A.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Tatti, Kathleen; Flannagan, Lisa M.; Stephens, David S.; Popovic, Tanja; Ashford, David A.; Perkins, Bradley A.; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2003-01-01

    During October and November 2001, public health authorities investigated 11 patients with inhalational anthrax related to a bioterrorism attack in the United States. Formalin-fixed samples from 8 patients were available for pathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) study using monoclonal antibodies against the Bacillus anthracis cell wall and capsule. Prominent serosanguinous pleural effusions and hemorrhagic mediastinitis were found in 5 patients who died. Pulmonary infiltrates seen on chest radiographs corresponded to intraalveolar edema and hyaline membranes. IHC assays demonstrated abundant intra- and extracellular bacilli, bacillary fragments, and granular antigen-staining in mediastinal lymph nodes, surrounding soft tissues, and pleura. IHC staining in lung, liver, spleen, and intestine was present primarily inside blood vessels and sinusoids. Gram’s staining of tissues was not consistently positive. In 3 surviving patients, IHC of pleural samples demonstrated abundant granular antigen-staining and rare bacilli while transbronchial biopsies showed granular antigen-staining in interstitial cells. In surviving patients, bacilli were not observed with gram’s stains. Pathological and IHC studies of patients who died of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax confirmed the route of infection. IHC was indispensable for diagnosis of surviving anthrax cases. The presence of B. anthracis antigens in the pleurae could explain the prominent and persistent hemorrhagic pleural effusions. PMID:12875989

  3. Smallpox vaccination and bioterrorism with pox viruses.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Anton

    2003-10-01

    Bioterrorist attacks occupy a special place amongst the innumerable potential types of terrorist attack, with the intentional release of pox viruses being especially feared in this connection. Apart from the variola virus, the agent responsible for smallpox in humans, the monkeypox virus and numerous other animal pox viruses pose potential risks for humans and animals. This risk scenario also includes recombinations between the various pox viruses, changes in hosts and genetically engineered manipulations of pox viruses. For over 200 years, the method of choice for combatting smallpox was via vaccination with a reproductive, original vaccinia virus. Worldwide eradication of smallpox at the end of the 1970s and the discontinuation of routine smallpox vaccination in 1980 can be credited to such vaccination. Unfortunately, these vaccinations were associated with a large number of postvaccinal impairments, sometimes resulting in death (e.g. postvaccinal encephalitis). The only way to restrict such postvaccinal complications was to carry out initial vaccination within the first 2 postnatal years. Initial vaccination at a later age led to such a sharp increase in the number of vaccines with complications that vaccination had to be discouraged. The dilemma of the smallpox vaccine stocks stems from the fact that a large portion of these stocks are produced with the same vaccinia strains as before. This is irresponsible, especially as the percentage of immune-suppressed persons in the population, for whom vaccination-related complications pose an especial threat, is increasing. One solution to the dilemma of the smallpox vaccine stocks is the MVA strain. It is harmless, protects humans and animals equally well against smallpox and can be applied parenterally.

  4. Bioterrorism versus radiological terrorism: notes from a bio/nuclear epidemiologist.

    PubMed

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    The antiterrorism and disaster planning communities often speak of the high potential for bioterrorism and possible potential for radioterrorism, specifically the explosion of a fission device on US soil. Information gained from an epidemiologist's work in the national and international scene, which inevitably involves Intel regarding the cultures and subcultures being studied, suggest that bioterrorism is far less likely to be a major threat, that has been over-emphasized at the state level due to warnings from Homeland Security, and that Homeland Security itself appears biased toward bioterrorism of late with very little available rational basis.

  5. Evaluating sustainable water quality management in the U.S.: Urban, Agricultural, and Environmental Protection Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oel, P. R.; Alfredo, K. A.; Russo, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable water management typically emphasizes water resource quantity, with focus directed at availability and use practices. When attention is placed on sustainable water quality management, the holistic, cross-sector perspective inherent to sustainability is often lost. Proper water quality management is a critical component of sustainable development practices. However, sustainable development definitions and metrics related to water quality resilience and management are often not well defined; water quality is often buried in large indicator sets used for analysis, and the policy regulating management practices create sector specific burdens for ensuring adequate water quality. In this research, we investigated the methods by which water quality is evaluated through internationally applied indicators and incorporated into the larger idea of "sustainability." We also dissect policy's role in the distribution of responsibility with regard to water quality management in the United States through evaluation of three broad sectors: urban, agriculture, and environmental water quality. Our research concludes that despite a growing intention to use a single system approach for urban, agricultural, and environmental water quality management, one does not yet exist and is even hindered by our current policies and regulations. As policy continues to lead in determining water quality and defining contamination limits, new regulation must reconcile the disparity in requirements for the contaminators and those performing end-of-pipe treatment. Just as the sustainable development indicators we researched tried to integrate environmental, economic, and social aspects without skewing focus to one of these three categories, policy cannot continue to regulate a single sector of society without considering impacts to the entire watershed and/or region. Unequal distribution of the water pollution burden creates disjointed economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy

  6. Assessing community values for reducing agricultural emissions to improve water quality and protect coral health in the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, John; Windle, Jill

    2011-12-01

    Policymakers wanting to increase protection of the Great Barrier Reef from pollutants generated by agriculture need to identify when measures to improve water quality generate benefits to society that outweigh the costs involved. The research reported in this paper makes a contribution in several ways. First, it uses the improved science understanding about the links between management changes and reef health to bring together the analysis of costs and benefits of marginal changes, helping to demonstrate the appropriate way of addressing policy questions relating to reef protection. Second, it uses the scientific relationships to frame a choice experiment to value the benefits of improved reef health, with the results of mixed logit (random parameter) models linking improvements explicitly to changes in "water quality units." Third, the research demonstrates how protection values are consistent across a broader population, with some limited evidence of distance effects. Fourth, the information on marginal costs and benefits that are reported provide policymakers with information to help improve management decisions. The results indicate that while there is potential for water quality improvements to generate net benefits, high cost water quality improvements are generally uneconomic. A major policy implication is that cost thresholds for key pollutants should be set to avoid more expensive water quality proposals being selected.

  7. Bioterrorism preparedness. III: State and federal programs and response.

    PubMed

    Mothershead, Jerry L; Tonat, Kevin; Koenig, Kristi L

    2002-05-01

    Management of a bioterrorism event will begin with early detection and intervention at the local level. Any large-scale event will require rapid state and federal assistance. Federal initiatives targeting bioterrorism have increasingly become a complex web of executive and legislative actions, frequently initiated in reaction to specific events, and often unrelated to this threat. Multiple executive and legislative branch actions have resulted in a proliferation of federal programs, and coordination of these efforts remains a significant challenge. Still, great strides have been taken to improve our defensive posture against this emerging threat, and, at all levels, governmental authorities and agencies are much better prepared to respond to such events than they were a decade ago. The events of September 11, 2001 and subsequent events are clear indicators that the timeline for preparedness has been significantly compressed. Federal emergency operations, historically designed more for recovery than response, seemed up to the task in the wake of the World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks, although there was criticism of federal responsiveness to the subsequent anthrax incidents [71,72], and the timeliness of federal resources in the event of a large-scale outbreak resulting from a bioterrorism attack has yet to be truly tested. The recent establishment of the Office of Homeland Security and the Homeland Security Council holds promise that some of these inefficiencies may be rectified and overall coordination of programs will improve. Continued improvements in the effectiveness of the federal government in meeting the challenges of this and other emerging threats to homeland security will require: Establishment of consensus standards, metrics, and measures of effectiveness for all aspects of disaster, epidemic, and terrorism management at the local, regional, state, and federal levels Delineation of expected, quantifiable state and local capabilities to mitigate

  8. [Analysis of policies in activating the Infectious Disease Specialist Network (IDSN) for bioterrorism events].

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang Soo

    2008-07-01

    Bioterrorism events have worldwide impacts, not only in terms of security and public health policy, but also in other related sectors. Many countries, including Korea, have set up new administrative and operational structures and adapted their preparedness and response plans in order to deal with new kinds of threats. Korea has dual surveillance systems for the early detection of bioterrorism. The first is syndromic surveillance that typically monitors non-specific clinical information that may indicate possible bioterrorism-associated diseases before specific diagnoses are made. The other is infectious disease specialist network that diagnoses and responds to specific illnesses caused by intentional release of biologic agents. Infectious disease physicians, clinical microbiologists, and infection control professionals play critical and complementary roles in these networks. Infectious disease specialists should develop practical and realistic response plans for their institutions in partnership with local and state health departments, in preparation for a real or suspected bioterrorism attack.

  9. [The strategic plan for preparedness and response to bioterrorism in Korea].

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun Soon

    2008-07-01

    Following the Anthrax bioterrorism attacks in the US in 2001, the Korean government established comprehensive countermeasures against bioterrorism. These measures included the government assuming management of all infectious agents that cause diseases, including smallpox, anthrax, plaque, botulism, and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fevers (ebola fever, marburg fever, and lassa fever) for national security. In addition, the Korean government is reinforcing the ability to prepare and respond to bioterrorism. Some of the measures being implemented include revising the laws and guidelines that apply to the use of infectious agents, the construction and operation of dual surveillance systems for bioterrorism, stockpiling and managing products necessary to respond to an emergency (smallpox vaccine, antibiotics, etc.) and vigorously training emergency room staff and heath workers to ensure they can respond appropriately. In addition, the government's measures include improved public relations, building and maintaining international cooperation, and developing new vaccines and drugs for treatments of infectious agents used to create bioweapons.

  10. Emotional and Behavioral Consequences of Bioterrorism: Planning a Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Bradley D; Tanielian, Terri L; Eisenman, David P; Keyser, Donna J; Burnam, M Audrey; Pincus, Harold A

    2004-01-01

    Millions of dollars have been spent improving the public health system's bioterrorism response capabilities. Yet relatively little attention has been paid to precisely how the public will respond to bioterrorism and how emotional and behavioral responses might complicate an otherwise successful response. This article synthesizes the available evidence about the likely emotional and behavioral consequences of bioterrorism to suggest what decision makers can do now to improve that response. It examines the emotional and behavioral impact of previous “bioterrorism-like” events and summarizes interviews with experts who have responded to such events or conducted research on the effects of communitywide disasters. The article concludes by reflecting on the evidence and experts’ perspectives to suggest actions to be taken now and future policy and research priorities. PMID:15330972

  11. Bioterrorism web site resources for infectious disease clinicians and epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Natalie E; Steele, Lynn; Crawford, Carol Y; Huebner, Nathan L; Fonseka, Jamila C; Bonander, Jason C; Kuehnert, Matthew J

    2003-06-01

    Finding bioterrorism-related information on the World Wide Web can be laborious. We hope to help readers find such information more easily by summarizing essential information in a consistent framework. A panel of 7 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reviewers identified Web sites and evaluated them for sponsorship, mission, content usefulness, online ease of use, and adherence to commonly accepted quality criteria. Of >100 potential sites identified, 81 were chosen for target content of interest, and 43 were selected for inclusion. The results were classified into general purpose/portal sites; biological agent information; laboratory, infection control, epidemiology, and mental health information; and emergency contact sources, news and updates, event preparedness resources, information for first-responder settings, clinical and public education materials, and research resources. Agents covered included anthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fever.

  12. Development of an on-line bioterrorism preparedness course.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Robert G; Jewell, Susan; Skawinski, Edward

    2005-11-01

    To reach a large audience of public health workers and others interested in learning more about bioterrorism and emergency preparedness, an on-line, Web-based, certificated course entitled "Terrorism, Preparedness and Public Health: An Introduction" was planned, developed, and implemented. Interactivity and other user-friendly devices helped it gain acceptance. To date (May 2005), more than 6,000 people from all 50 states and some foreign countries have registered for the course, and about 2,400 have passed an exam for a certificate of completion. We believe the success of this course is related to the strength and accuracy of the content and its historical perspective; to the quality of the technical development, including multiple levels of interactivity, ease of use, and a printed completion certificate; and to the use of real case studies and the lack of dramatic overstatement.

  13. Intelligent adversary risk analysis: a bioterrorism risk management model.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Gregory S; Smith, Christopher M; Moxley, Frederick I

    2010-01-01

    The tragic events of 9/11 and the concerns about the potential for a terrorist or hostile state attack with weapons of mass destruction have led to an increased emphasis on risk analysis for homeland security. Uncertain hazards (natural and engineering) have been successfully analyzed using probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Unlike uncertain hazards, terrorists and hostile states are intelligent adversaries who can observe our vulnerabilities and dynamically adapt their plans and actions to achieve their objectives. This article compares uncertain hazard risk analysis with intelligent adversary risk analysis, describes the intelligent adversary risk analysis challenges, and presents a probabilistic defender-attacker-defender model to evaluate the baseline risk and the potential risk reduction provided by defender investments. The model includes defender decisions prior to an attack; attacker decisions during the attack; defender actions after an attack; and the uncertainties of attack implementation, detection, and consequences. The risk management model is demonstrated with an illustrative bioterrorism problem with notional data.

  14. Hospital preparedness to bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, G; Puro, V; Heptonstall, J

    2006-10-01

    In the last 2 decades, successive outbreaks caused by new, newly recognised and resurgent pathogens, and the risk that high-consequence pathogens might be used as bioterrorism agents amply demonstrated the need to enhance capacity in clinical and public health management of highly infectious diseases. In this article we review these recent and current threats to public health, whether naturally occurring or caused by accidental or intentional release. Moreover, we discuss some components of hospital preparedness for, and response to, infectious disease of the emergencies in developed countries. The issues of clinical awareness and education, initial investigation and management, surge capacity, communication, and caring for staff and others affected by the emergency are discussed. We also emphasise the importance of improving the everyday practice of infection control by healthcare professionals.

  15. Vaccines, Pharmaceutical Products, and Bioterrorism: Challenges for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    plague (Yersinia pestis), tularemia (Francisella tularensis), brucellosis ( Brucella abortus, B. melitensis , B. suis, B. canis), Q fever (Coxiella...Special Issue 20011029 090 Vaccines, Pharmaceutical Products, and Bioterrorism: Challenges for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Kathryn C...Zoon U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland, USA In regards to bioterrorism, the goal of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA

  16. The First Amendment and scientific freedom in the era of bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Anton, Brian P

    2004-01-01

    The events of 9/11 have raised awareness that certain scientific research in the public domain may aid terrorists in their quest to develop biological weapons, and there is a legitimate cause for concern in rare cases. Proposed executive branch responses are consistent in their approach to the problem: restrain the offending research by restricting public access to it in some form or another. This paper examines some of the history of the United States (U.S.) government's restrictions on scientific communication and the protection that the First Amendment affords scientists against such restrictions. It focuses in particular on biological science, which has in recent years come under increased scrutiny due to fears of "bioterrorism." It concludes that science needs to be vigilant against government encroachment, but also needs to become the first line of defense in preventing dissemination of potentially dangerous research data. Should the exercise of prior restraint against biological research become necessary, the guidelines developed at the 2002 Monterey workshop provide a useful framework for determining what biological research might cause "direct, immediate, and irreparable" harm to national security under the New York Times Co. v. United States precedent.

  17. [Methods of analysis of protective measures in agriculture regarding radioactively contaminated land: evaluation of the effectiveness, intervention levels and comparison of different countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Iatsalo, B I; Aleksakhin, R M

    1997-01-01

    Methodological aspects of the analysis of protective measures in agriculture in the long-term period of liquidation of the consequences of a nuclear accident are considered. Examples of the estimations of countermeasure effectiveness with the use of the cost-benefit analysis, as well as methods of the estimation of intervention levels and examples of a comparison of various protective measures with the use of several criteria of effectiveness are discussed.

  18. Biowarfare, bioterrorism, and animal diseases as bioweapons: Chapter 6 in Disease emergence and resurgence: The wildlife-human connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    Linkages between disease in humans and the maladies of animals continue to be a focus for those concerned with disease effects on human health. References to animal diseases, particularly zoonoses such as rabies and glanders, are found in the writings of Greek (Hippocrates, Democritus, Aristotle, Galen, Dioscorides), Byzantine (Oribasius, Actius of Amida), and Roman (Pliny the Elder, Celsus) physicians and naturalists.3 Also, early advances in disease knowledge were closely associated with the study of contagions in animals to the extent that “The most complete ancient accounts of the concepts of contagion and contamination are found in treatises on veterinary medicine.”4,5Opportunities for disease transfer between animals and humans have increased during modern times, partly because of advances in animal husbandry and intensive agriculture that result in increased contacts among humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Infectious pathogens exploit these contacts, and must be considered in this era of increased world tensions and international terrorism (Fig. 6.1).Disease emergence and resurgence are generally associated with natural processes and unanticipated outcomes related to human behavior and actions. That perspective has been broadened by recent acts of bioterrorism. A new category of deliberately emerging diseases contains emerging microbes that are developed by humans, usually for nefarious use.211 Included are naturally occurring microbial agents and those altered by bioengineering.This chapter highlights the wildlife component of the pathogen-host-environment triad to focus attention on the potential for bioterrorists to use wildlife as a means for infectious disease attacks against society. The value of this focus is that the underlying causes of disease emergence and the optimal prevention or control response frequently differ for disease emergence, resurgence, and deliberately emerging diseases.211 Differences also exist relative to the potential

  19. Striking against bioterrorism with advanced proteomics and reference methods.

    PubMed

    Armengaud, Jean

    2017-01-01

    The intentional use by terrorists of biological toxins as weapons has been of great concern for many years. Among the numerous toxins produced by plants, animals, algae, fungi, and bacteria, ricin is one of the most scrutinized by the media because it has already been used in biocrimes and acts of bioterrorism. Improving the analytical toolbox of national authorities to monitor these potential bioweapons all at once is of the utmost interest. MS/MS allows their absolute quantitation and exhibits advantageous sensitivity, discriminative power, multiplexing possibilities, and speed. In this issue of Proteomics, Gilquin et al. (Proteomics 2017, 17, 1600357) present a robust multiplex assay to quantify a set of eight toxins in the presence of a complex food matrix. This MS/MS reference method is based on scheduled SRM and high-quality standards consisting of isotopically labeled versions of these toxins. Their results demonstrate robust reliability based on rather loose scheduling of SRM transitions and good sensitivity for the eight toxins, lower than their oral median lethal doses. In the face of an increased threat from terrorism, relevant reference assays based on advanced proteomics and high-quality companion toxin standards are reliable and firm answers.

  20. Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.

    PubMed

    Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

    2013-08-01

    Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry.

  1. Training Future Physicians about Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report of the Expert Panel on Bioterrorism Education for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to share their insights about the learning objectives and educational experiences that they would recommend for the training of future physicians about bioterrorism. The expert panel broadened the scope of their discussion beyond bioterrorism to…

  2. Predicting response to reassurances and uncertainties in bioterrorism communications for urban populations in New York and California.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L; Truman, Benedict I; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S

    2012-06-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.'s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N=320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent interpretation

  3. Predicting Response to Reassurances and Uncertainties in Bioterrorism Communications for Urban Populations in New York and California

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L.; Truman, Benedict I.; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.’s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N = 320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent

  4. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on

  5. Metabolic Network Analysis-Based Identification of Antimicrobial Drug Targets in Category A Bioterrorism Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Lee, Deok-Sun; Burd, Henry; Blank, William; Kapatral, Vinayak

    2014-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents. PMID:24454817

  6. Public health and bioterrorism: renewed threat of anthrax and smallpox.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Arūne; Luksiene, Zivile; Zagminas, Kestutis; Surkiene, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism is one of the main public health categorical domains. According to sociological analytics, in postmodern society terrorism is one of the real threats of the 21st century. While rare, the use of biological weapons has a long history. Recently, anthrax has been evaluated as one of the most dangerous biological weapons. Naturally occurring anthrax in humans is a disease acquired from contact with anthrax-infected animals or anthrax-contaminated animal products. Usually anthrax infection occurs in humans by three major routes: inhalational, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal. Inhalational anthrax is expected to account for most serious morbidity and most mortality. The clinical presentation of inhalation anthrax has been described as a two-stage illness. Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis. Antibiotics, anthrax globulin, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, vaccine are possible tools of therapy. Smallpox existed in two forms: variola major, which accounted for most morbidity and mortality, and a milder form, variola minor. Smallpox spreads from person to person primarily by droplet nuclei or aerosols expelled from the oropharynx of infected persons and by direct contact. In the event of limited outbreak with few cases, patients should be admitted to the hospital and confined to rooms that are under negative pressure and equipped with high-efficiency particulate air filtration. In larger outbreaks, home isolation and care should be the objective for most patients. Progress in detection, suitable vaccines, postexposure prophylaxis, infection control, and decontamination might be serious tools in fight against the most powerful biological weapon. To assure that the public health and healthcare system can respond to emergencies, the government should direct resources to strengthen the emergency-response system, create medication stockpiles, and improve the public health infrastructure.

  7. Using protection motivation theory and formative research to guide an injury prevention intervention: increasing adherence to the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Heaney, Catherine A; Kmet, Jennifer M; Wilkins, J R

    2011-05-01

    The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to reduce childhood agricultural injuries by assisting adults in assigning appropriate chores and providing needed supervision and training. To develop an effective intervention to increase adherence to NAGCAT among farm parents, formative research (focus groups and pilot-testing) was conducted. Protection motivation theory (PMT) was used to guide this research and inform intervention development. Focus group results suggested how PMT constructs might be addressed to increase adherence. A home visit intervention, using a standardized presentation in POWERPoint™, was developed to (a) introduce NAGCAT, (b) increase motivation to use NAGCAT and enhance safe work behaviors, and (c) ultimately reduce agricultural work-related injuries among youth. Process evaluation data suggests that the intervention was well received by farm parents. Conducting theory-guided formative research identified motivational barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers that might not have been otherwise apparent.

  8. Issues of sustainable irrigated agriculture in the San Joaquin Valley of California in a changing regulatory environment concerning water quality and protection of wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Delamore, M.L.

    1994-06-01

    Since the discovery of selenium toxicosis in the Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, California, public perception of irrigated agriculture as a benign competitor for California`s developed water supply has been changed irrevocably. Subsurface return flows from irrigated agriculture were implicated as the source of selenium which led to incidents of reproductive failure in waterfowl and threatened survival of other fish and wildlife species. Stringent water quality objectives were promulgated to protect rivers, tributaries, sloughs and other water bodies receiving agricultural discharges from selenium contamination. Achieving these objectives was left to the agricultural water districts, federal and state agencies responsible for drainage and water quality enforcement in the San Joaquin Basin. This paper describes some of the strategies to improve management of water resources and water quality in response to these new environmental objectives. Similar environmental objectives will likely be adopted by other developed and developing countries with large regions of arid zone agriculture and susceptible wildlife resources. A series of simulation models have been developed over the past four years to evaluate regional drainage management strategies such as: irrigation source control; drainage recycling; selective retirement of agricultural land; regional shallow ground water pumping; coordination of agricultural drainage, wetland and reservoir releases; and short-term ponding of drainage water. A new generation of Geographic Information Service-based software is under development to bridge the gap between planning and program implementation. Use of the decision support system will allow water districts and regulators to continuously monitor drainage discharges to the San Joaquin River in real-time and to assess impacts of management strategies that have been implemented to take advantage of the River`s assimilative capacity for trace elements and salts.

  9. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  10. Agricultural Bioterrorism: Why It Is A Concern And What We Must Do

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    Aujeszky’s disease • Echinococcosis/Hyda tidosis • Heartwater • Leptospirosis • Q Fever • Rabies • Paratuberculosis • New World screwworm...pleuropneumonia* • Lumpy skin disease* • Newcastle disease* • Paratuberculosis /Johne’s disease • Peste des petits ruminants* • Pseudo rabies virus • Rift valley

  11. Bioweapons, bioterrorism and biodiversity: potential impacts of biological weapons attacks on agricultural and biological diversity.

    PubMed

    Dudley, J P; Woodford, M H

    2002-04-01

    Diseases and biological toxins have been used as weapons of war throughout recorded history, from Biblical times through to the present day. Bioweapon uses have historically been directed primarily, although not exclusively, against human populations. Specialised technicians and state-of-the-art research facilities are no longer necessary for the production or deployment of many known bioweapon agents and commercially available technologies now permit the large-scale production of bioweapon agents in small-scale facilities at relatively low cost. Failures in the detection and containment of bioweapon and emerging disease outbreaks among populations of wildlife and indigenous peoples in developing countries could result in severe erosion of genetic diversity in local and regional populations of both wild and domestic animals, the extinction of endangered species and the extirpation of indigenous peoples and their cultures. Our ability to understand and control the spread of diseases within and among human and animal populations is increasing but is still insufficient to counter the threats presented by existing bioweapon diseases and the growing number of highly pathogenic emergent infections. Interdisciplinary and international efforts to increase the monitoring, surveillance, identification and reporting of disease agents and to better understand the potential dynamics of disease transmission within human and animal populations in both industrialised and developing country settings will greatly enhance our ability to combat the effects of bioweapons and emerging diseases on biological communities and biodiversity.

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Rural Primary Care: Improving Care for Mental Health Following Bioterrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Dobalian, Aram; Wiens, Brenda A.; Gylys, Julius A.; Evans, Garret D.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Recent bioterrorist attacks have highlighted the critical need for health care organizations to prepare for future threats. Yet, relatively little attention has been paid to the mental health needs of rural communities in the wake of such events. A critical aspect of bioterrorism is emphasis on generating fear and uncertainty, thereby…

  13. A Comprehensive Evaluation System for Military Hospitals' Response Capability to Bio-terrorism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Jiang, Nan; Shao, Sicong; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to establish a comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Literature research and Delphi method were utilized to establish the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Questionnaires were designed and used to survey the status quo of 134 military hospitals' response capability to bio-terrorism. Survey indicated that factor analysis method was suitable to for analyzing the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. The constructed evaluation system was consisted of five first-class and 16 second-class indexes. Among them, medical response factor was considered as the most important factor with weight coefficient of 0.660, followed in turn by the emergency management factor with weight coefficient of 0.109, emergency management consciousness factor with weight coefficient of 0.093, hardware support factor with weight coefficient of 0.078, and improvement factor with weight coefficient of 0.059. The constructed comprehensive assessment model and system are scientific and practical.

  14. An Overview of the U.S. Public Health System in the Context of Bioterrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-17

    Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Food Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22...bioterrorism-related programs and services provided by LPHAs include epidemiology and surveillance, communicable disease control measures, food safety , and...518 Other b 0 0 100 Subtotal, HRSA $0 $135 $618 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food safety 1 98 98 Vaccine and drug approval 6 47 54

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead... of a solid material. When grid or mesh is used, the largest permissible opening shall be such that the maximum circle that can be inscribed between the elements of the grid or mesh is 1.5 in. (38...

  16. Nutrient loads from agricultural and forested areas in Finland from 1981 up to 2010-can the efficiency of undertaken water protection measures seen?

    PubMed

    Tattari, Sirkka; Koskiaho, Jari; Kosunen, Maiju; Lepistö, Ahti; Linjama, Jarmo; Puustinen, Markku

    2017-03-01

    Long-term data from a network of intensively monitored research catchments in Finland was analysed. We studied temporal (1981-2010) and spatial variability in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), from 1987 losses, both from agricultural and forestry land. Based on trend analysis, total nitrogen (TN) concentrations increased in two of the four agricultural sites and in most of the forested sites. In agricultural catchments, the total phosphorus (TP) trends were decreasing in two of the four catchments studied. Dissolved P (DRP) concentrations increased in two catchments and decreased in one. The increase in DRP concentration can be a result of reducing erosion by increased non-plough cultivation and direct sowing. In forested catchments, the TP trends in 1987-2011 were significantly decreasing in three of the six catchments, while DRP concentrations decreased significantly in all sites. At the same time, P fertilisation in Finnish forests has decreased significantly, thus contributing to these changes. The mean annual specific loss for agricultural land was on average 15.5 kg ha(-1) year(-1) for N and 1.1 kg ha(-1) year(-1) for P. In the national scale, total TN loading from agriculture varied between 34,000-37,000 t year(-1) and total P loading 2400-2700 t year(-1). These new load estimates are of the same order than those reported earlier, emphasising the need for more efforts with wide-ranging and carefully targeted implementation of water protection measures.

  17. Bio-terrorism, human security and public health: can international law bring them together in an age of globalization?

    PubMed

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2005-09-01

    Bio-terrorism, the use of a microorganism with the deliberate intent of causing infection, before and since the anthrax attacks in the United States in October 2001, has emerged as a real medical and public health threat. The link between bio-terrorism, human security and public health raises complex questions on the normative trajectories of international law, the mandates of international organizations, and global health governance. In May 2001, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution entitled "Global Health Security: Epidemic Alert and Response" which inter alia, urged WHO member states to participate actively in the verification and validation of surveillance data and information concerning health emergencies of international concern. This article explores the links between bio-terrorism, human security and public health, and investigates the effectiveness of international legal mechanisms that link them in an age of globalization of public health. The article explores the interaction of WHO's 'soft-law' approaches to global health security, and the 'moribund' negotiations of the verification and monitoring protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention 1972. Can international law link bio-terrorism, public health and human security? Does the WHO collaborate with other international organizations within and outside the United Nations system to develop effective legal and governance approaches to bio-terrorism and global health security? The article concludes that the globalization of public health threats like bio-terrorism requires globalized legal approaches.

  18. Measures of the EU Agri-Environmental Protection Scheme (GAEPS) and their impacts on the visual acceptability of Finnish agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Tahvanainen, Liisa; Ihalainen, Marjut; Hietala-Koivu, Reija; Kolehmainen, Osmo; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Nousiainen, Ismo; Helenius, Juha

    2002-11-01

    As a member of the European Union, Finland has committed itself to creating an environmental policy for agriculture. The aims of this study were to evaluate visual impacts of the General Agri-Environmental Protection Scheme (GAEPS) and Supplementary Protection Scheme (SPS) and general attitudes towards some activities in those policies and furthermore to examine the suitability of the method of Alho et al. (2001) for the scenic beauty assessment. The study areas consisted of three original, untreated, and 15 modified rural landscapes representing a variety of different activities. The scenic beauty of the landscapes was evaluated through pairwise comparisons of the responses of 68 people. Furthermore, attitudes towards environmental values, water protection, buffer strips and subsidies to agriculture were obtained. The respondents found the maintained buffer strips more pleasing than unmaintained strips and considered that the quality of watercourses was increased by buffer strips along them. A suitable width for the buffer strip along main ditches, brooks and waterways was regarded, on average, to be wider than the current recommendations. Although the opinions of farmers were basically in line with the existing recommendations, farmers' opininons on the second and third most important effects of buffer strips, an increase in weeds and a decrease in cultivated land, clearly differed from those of the other respondents. Afforestation, lack of building maintenance and abandoned fields were considered to be the most important factors impacting rural landscapes. This study indicates that the Finnish Agri-Environmental Protection Schemes have had positive impacts on the visual quality of landscapes. Attitudes towards other impacts are contradictory. This study also showed the improvement of the Alho et al. (2001) method in these kinds of studies relative to other methods of pairwise comparisons.

  19. Analysis of research publications that relate to bioterrorism and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barker, Gary C

    2013-09-01

    Research relating to bioterrorism and its associated risks is interdisciplinary and is performed with a wide variety of objectives. Although published reports of this research have appeared only in the past decade, there has been a steady increase in their number and a continuous diversification of sources, content, and document types. In this analysis, we explored a large set of published reports, identified from accessible indices using simple search techniques, and tried to rationalize the patterns and connectivity of the research subjects rather than the detailed content. The analysis is based on a connectivity network representation built from author-assigned keywords. Network analysis reveals a strong relationship between research aimed at bioterrorism risks and research identified with public health. Additionally, the network identifies clusters of keywords centered on emergency preparedness and food safety issues. The network structure includes a large amount of meta-information that can be used for assessment and planning of research activity and for framing specific research interests.

  20. Bioterrorism preparedness--Part II. Smallpox vaccination in a hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lenworth M; Emanuelsen, Kathy; McKay, Charles; Burns, Karyl

    2004-01-01

    The threat of using smallpox as an agent for bioterrorism resulted in a directive for the creation of smallpox response teams. In Connecticut, The Commissioner of the Department of Public Health convened public health and hospital leadership to plan for the vaccination of these teams. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the vaccination program at Hartford Hospital, a Center of Excellence for Bioterrorism Preparedness, and to report the results of a survey of the vaccinees regarding the vaccination experience. Ninety persons were vaccinated. Six individuals experienced low-grade fever and 10 had axillary node swelling. One individual experienced significant fatigue. A total of six persons lost time from work. Four lost one day and two persons lost between four to five days of work. There was no autoinoculation, transfer inoculation, vaccinia or any other significant complication. Survey results indicate that most vaccinees felt positive about the experience.

  1. Emergency Department data for bioterrorism surveillance: electronic data availability, timeliness, sources and standards.

    PubMed

    Travers, Debbie A; Waller, Anna; Haas, Stephanie W; Lober, William B; Beard, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Emergency Department (ED) data are a key component of bioterrorism surveillance systems. Little research has been done to examine differences in ED data capture and entry across hospitals, regions and states. The purpose of this study was to describe the current state of ED data for use in bioterrorism surveillance in 2 regions of the country. We found that chief complaint (CC) data are available electronically in 54% of the North Carolina EDs surveyed, and in 100% of the Seattle area EDs. Over half of all EDs reported that CCs are recorded in free text form. Though all EDs have electronic diagnosis data, less than half report that diagnoses are coded within 24 hours of the ED visit.

  2. Optimistic bias and perceptions of bioterrorism in Michigan corporate spokespersons, fall 2001.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Charles T; Park, Hyun Soon; Wrigley, Brenda J

    2003-01-01

    The notion that individuals believe that they are more likely than others to experience positive events and avoid negative ones is a well-documented phenomenon in the combined literatures of social psychology and health communication. The current study focuses on Michigan corporate spokespersons' perceptions of their company's risk and potential for optimistic bias. Beginning on September 10, 2001, and continuing through October 2001, telephone surveys were conducted by a professional survey research firm to assess spokespersons' awareness of and preparedness for a bioterrorism attack at their corporation, as well as to ascertain perceived self-risk relative to that of other, similar corporations. The results offer evidence of a robust optimistic bias, and provide an unusually timely snapshot of levels of corporate awareness of bioterrorism during a critical period of time in which the U.S. experienced its first anthrax attack.

  3. Bioterror Preparedness-Educational Programming for Military, Public Health and Civilian Medical Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    media. We’ll also assess zoonotic infectious agents, and approaches to prevention and control. During our time together, I encourage you to take the...of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. With a focus on viral hepatitis , Dr. Lemon’s research interests have been continuously...fevers, viral encephalitides), new and emerging infectious diseases, the threat posed by bioterrorism, and most recently zoonotic influenza. Lauran

  4. The Bioethicist Who Cried "Synthetic Biology": An Analysis of the Function of Bioterrorism Predictions in Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Holm, Søren

    2017-04-01

    This article analyzes a specter that has haunted bioethics almost since its inception, namely the specter of the misuse of biotechnology by maleficent agents bent on mass destruction, or the complete eradication of human kind and life as we know it. The article provides a general account of why bioethicists cry "catastrophic bioterrorism potential" when new biotechnologies emerge, and an analysis of the arguments that flow from the prediction, especially in relation to synthetic biology.

  5. REXPO: A catchment model designed to understand and simulate the loss dynamics of plant protection products and biocides from agricultural and urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmer, I. K.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Stamm, C.

    2016-02-01

    During rain events, biocides and plant protection products are transported from agricultural fields but also from urban sources to surface waters. Originally designed to be biologically active, these compounds may harm organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Although several models allow either urban or agricultural storm events to be predicted, only few combine these two sources, and none of them include biocide losses from building envelopes. This study therefore aims to develop a model designed to predict water and substance flows from urban and agricultural sources to surface waters. We developed a model based on physical principles for water percolation and substance flow including micro- (also called matrix-) and macropore-flows for the agricultural areas together with a model representing sources, sewer systems and a wastewater treatment plant for urban areas. In a second step, the combined model was applied to a catchment where an extensive field study had been conducted. The modelled and measured discharge and compound results corresponded reasonably well in terms of quantity and dynamics. The total cumulative discharge was only slightly lower than the total measured discharge (factor 0.94). The total modelled losses of the agriculturally used herbicide atrazine were slightly lower (∼25%) than the measured losses when the soil pore water distribution coefficient (describing the partition between soil particles and pore water) (Kd) was kept constant and slightly higher if it was increased with time. The modelled urban losses of diuron from facades were within a factor of three with respect to the measured values. The results highlighted the change in importance of the flow components during a rain event from urban sources during the most intensive rain period towards agricultural ones over a prolonged time period. Applications to two other catchments, one neighbouring and one on another continent showed that the model can be applied using site specific data for

  6. Emergency preparedness and bioterrorism response: development of an educational program for public health personnel.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Karen; Lamantia, Joanne; Prozialeck, Linda; Proziack, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Public health departments are under increasing pressure to provide emergency preparedness and bioterrorism response education to public health personnel. The challenge that health departments face is to provide cost-efficient, timely education to a large number of multidisciplinary personnel. This article describes an innovative strategy for providing this education to public health personnel using the health department's intranet system. The intranet system provided confidential information specific to the staff role and allowed for concurrent access to the program by multiple individuals at different service sites. Knowledge acquisition was tested through short multiple-choice questions that followed the specific information modules. The intranet system faced a number of challenges during the pilot-testing phase, primarily related to changes in the role of the public health nurse and limitations in funding and public health staff to maintain and monitor the bioterrorism response program and the intranet system. The design of the program may prove useful for other public health organizations when a need exists for quick delivery of information to a large number of personnel. It may especially be useful in providing basic emergency preparedness and bioterrorism education to new personnel in health departments.

  7. Vaccine administration by paramedics: a model for bioterrorism and disaster response preparation.

    PubMed

    Walz, Bruce J; Bissell, Richard A; Maguire, Brian; Judge, James A

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 have had a profound effect on disaster planning efforts in the United States. This is true especially in the area of bioterrorism. One of the major tenets of bioterrorism response is the vaccination of at-risk populations. This paper investigates the efficacy of training emergency medical services paramedics to administer vaccines in public health settings as preparation for and response to bioterrorism events and other disaster events. The concept of vaccination administration by specially trained paramedics is not new. Various programs to provide immunizations for emergency services personnel and at-risk civilian populations have been reported. Vaccination programs by paramedics should follow the guidelines of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This paper compares the seven standards of the CDC guidelines to routine paramedic practice and education. It is concluded that paramedics are adequately trained to administer vaccines. However, specific training and protocols are needed in the areas of administrative paperwork and patient education. A proposed outline for a paramedic-training program is presented.

  8. Building a strategy for soil protection at local and regional scale--the case of agricultural wastes landspreading.

    PubMed

    Doula, M K; Sarris, A; Hliaoutakis, A; Kydonakis, A; Papadopoulos, N S; Argyriou, L

    2016-03-01

    Agricultural wastes (AW) are produced in huge quantities worldwide and may cause detrimental effects on environmental quality, affecting soil, water, and air quality. Given the growing soil degradation worldwide, the need for more food of good quality and therefore the intensified agriculture, it is important to develop recycling plans even for those types of treated AW (e.g., composts) that are not considered hazardous. Two strategic approaches for safe and sustainable landspreading of organic wastes are proposed, depending on wastes properties and hazard potential, i.e., an approach appropriate for traditionally used wastes (manures and composts) and another approach for wastes that are potentially hazardous or hazardous and should only be reused under specific restrictions. Both approaches foresee concrete steps, require close cooperation between farmers and local/regional authorities, and are appropriate to ensure environmental sustainability at AW recycling or disposal areas. Desktop and web application tools are also presented that are anticipated to assist authorities in implementing their monitoring strategies.

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of Amazon rainfall. Consequences for the planning of agricultural occupation and the protection of primary forests.

    PubMed

    Sombroek, W

    2001-11-01

    The spatial and temporal pattern of annual rainfall and the strength of the dry season within the Amazon region are poorly known. Existing rainfall maps are based on the data from full-scale, long-term meteorological stations, operated by national organizations linked to the World Meteorological Organisation, such as INMET in Brazil. Stations with 30 or more years of uninterrupted and reliable recordings are very few, considering the size of the region, and most of them are located along the major rivers. It has been suggested that rainfall conditions away from these rivers are substantially different. An analysis has been made of the records of a network of simple pluviometric sites in the Brazilian part of the region as maintained by the National Agency for Electric Energy (ANEEL) since 1970. The latter data sets were used to draw more detailed maps on annual rainfall, and on the strength of the dry season in particular; average number of consecutive months with less than 100 mm, 50 mm, and 10 mm, respectively. Also, some data were obtained on the spatial expression of El Niño events within the region. Subregional differences are large, and it is argued that they are important for the success or failure of agricultural settlements; for the hazard of large-scale fire damage of the still existing primary forest vegetation; for the functioning of this land cover as stock and sink of CO2, and for the likelihood that secondary forests on abandoned agricultural lands will have less biomass. The effects of past El Niño rainfall anomalies on the biodiversity of the natural savannahs within the forest region are discussed.

  10. Protective effect of ipratropium bromide on bronchoconstriction induced by sulfur dioxide exposure during apricot sufurization processes that causes asthma-like syndrome in agricultural environment.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Zeki; Kilic, Talat; Koksal, Nurhan; Kotuk, Mahir

    2005-05-01

    We previously showed that apricot sulfurization workers are exposed to high concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), resulting in an asthma-like syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment of ipratropium bromide protects bronchoconstriction induced by SO2 exposure during apricot sulfurization processes that causes asthma-like syndrome. Firstly, pulmonary function tests were measured before and immediately after SO2 exposure due to processes of apricot sulfurization in 21 healthy volunteer apricot sulfurization workers who did not use any medication in apricot farms. One week later, same measurements were repeated in the same workers when they were working in same farm but they were administered two puffs of ipratropium bromide (20 microg per dose) before 30 min second SO2 exposure for protection of SO2-induced bronchoconstriction. Occupational SO2 exposure caused significant decrement in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF25-75%) in the worker and these decrements were prevented by ipratropium bromide given 30 min before SO2 exposure. This result suggests that pre-treatment of ipratropium bromide protects SO2-induced bronchoconstriction in healthy worker during apricot sulfurization processes that causes asthma-like syndrome in agricultural environment.

  11. Management of air-borne viruses by "optical barriers" in protected agriculture and open-field crops.

    PubMed

    Antignus, Yehezkel

    2014-01-01

    The incurable nature of viral diseases and the public awareness to the harmful effects of chemical pest control to the environment and human health led to the rise of the integrated pest management (IPM) concept. Cultural control methods serve today as a central pivot in the implementation of IPM. This group of methods is based on the understanding of the complex interactions between disease agents and their vectors as well as the interactions between the vectors and their habitat. This chapter describes a set of cultural control methods that are based on solar light manipulation in a way that interferes with vision behavior of insects, resulting in a significant crop protection against insect pests and their vectored viruses.

  12. Pre-PCR processing in bioterrorism preparedness: improved diagnostic capabilities for laboratory response networks.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Johannes; Knutsson, Rickard; Ansell, Ricky; Rådström, Peter; Rasmusson, Birgitta

    2013-09-01

    Diagnostic DNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a valuable tool for rapid detection of biothreat agents. However, analysis is often challenging because of the limited size, quality, and purity of the biological target. Pre-PCR processing is an integrated concept in which the issues of analytical limit of detection and simplicity for automation are addressed in all steps leading up to PCR amplification--that is, sampling, sample treatment, and the chemical composition of PCR. The sampling method should maximize target uptake and minimize uptake of extraneous substances that could impair the analysis--so-called PCR inhibitors. In sample treatment, there is a trade-off between yield and purity, as extensive purification leads to DNA loss. A cornerstone of pre-PCR processing is to apply DNA polymerase-buffer systems that are tolerant to specific sample impurities, thereby lowering the need for expensive purification steps and maximizing DNA recovery. Improved awareness among Laboratory Response Networks (LRNs) regarding pre-PCR processing is important, as ineffective sample processing leads to increased cost and possibly false-negative or ambiguous results, hindering the decision-making process in a bioterrorism crisis. This article covers the nature and mechanisms of PCR-inhibitory substances relevant for agroterrorism and bioterrorism preparedness, methods for quality control of PCR reactions, and applications of pre-PCR processing to optimize and simplify the analysis of various biothreat agents. Knowledge about pre-PCR processing will improve diagnostic capabilities of LRNs involved in the response to bioterrorism incidents.

  13. Using GIS technology to manage information following a bio-terrorism attack.

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, Brad; Ramsey, James L., Jr.; Finley, Patrick

    2005-05-01

    The BROOM system was developed to collect, manage and analyze information from bioterrorist attacks on strategic buildings. GIS features help decision-makers and analysts rapidly assess the current status of contaminated facilities and develop optimized cleanup strategies. BROOM consists of networked server, desktop and PDA components. PDAs are deployed to collect samples of suspected bioagents, such as anthrax. Novel geostatistical methods are used to generate contaminant maps and define optimum locations for subsequent sampling. Efficiency and accuracy gains witnessed in field tests show that GIS technology can play a vital role in visualizing, managing and analyzing data from bioterrorism incidents.

  14. Biological weapons and bioterrorism in the first years of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, Milton

    2002-09-01

    This paper evaluates four recent developments in biological-weapons politics and bioterrorism. First is American opposition to finalization of a verification protocol for the Biological Weapons Convention; second, a successful attempt at mass-casualty terrorism; third, an ongoing investigation into the bioterrorist capabilities of the al Qaeda network; and, fourth, a series of fatal anthrax attacks in the United States. The first of these evaluations is informed by interviews conducted between 2000 and 2002 with policy principals in the United States and elsewhere.

  15. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  16. The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act: planning for and response to bioterrorism and naturally occurring infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Sapsin, Jason W; Teret, Stephen P; Burris, Scott; Mair, Julie Samia; Hodge, James G; Vernick, Jon S

    2002-08-07

    The Center for Law and the Public's Health at Georgetown and Johns Hopkins Universities drafted the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA or Model Act) at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Model Act provides state actors with the powers they need to detect and contain bioterrorism or a naturally occurring disease outbreak. Legislative bills based on the MSEHPA have been introduced in 34 states. Problems of obsolescence, inconsistency, and inadequacy may render current state laws ineffective or even counterproductive. State laws often date back to the early 20th century and have been built up in layers over the years. They frequently predate the vast changes in the public health sciences and constitutional law. The Model Act is structured to reflect 5 basic public health functions to be facilitated by law: (1) preparedness, comprehensive planning for a public health emergency; (2) surveillance, measures to detect and track public health emergencies; (3) management of property, ensuring adequate availability of vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and hospitals, as well as providing power to abate hazards to the public's health; (4) protection of persons, powers to compel vaccination, testing, treatment, isolation, and quarantine when clearly necessary; and (5) communication, providing clear and authoritative information to the public. The Model Act also contains a modernized, extensive set of principles and requirements to safeguard personal rights. Law can be a tool to improve public health preparedness. A constitutional democracy must balance the common good with respect for personal dignity, toleration of groups, and adherence to principles of justice.

  17. Summary and results of the joint WMD-DAC/Alameda County bioterrorism response plan exercise.

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Lipkin, Joel; West, Todd H.; Tam, Ricky; Hirano, Howard H.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.

    2003-11-01

    On June 12,2003, the Alameda County Public Health Department and Sandia National Laboratories/CA jointly conducted an exercise that used a Weapons of Mass Destruction-Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC) bioterrorism attack simulation to test the effectiveness of the county's emergency response plan. The exercise was driven by an assumed release (in the vicinity of the Berkeley Marina), and subsequent spread, of a small quantity of aerosolized, weapons-grade anthrax spores. The simulation used several key WMD-DAC capabilities, namely: (1) integration with an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate expected dose levels in the affected areas, (2) a individual-tracking capability for both infected and non-infected persons as they made decisions, sought treatment, and received prophylaxis drugs, and (3) a user interface that allows exercise participants to affect the scenario evolution and outcome. The analysis of the county's response plan included documenting and reviewing the decisions made by participants during the exercise. Twenty-six local and regional officials representing the health care system, emergency medical services and law enforcement were involved in responding to the simulated attack. The results of this joint effort include lessons learned both by the Alameda County officials regarding implementation of their bioterrorism response plan and by the Sandia representatives about conducting exercises of this type. These observations are reviewed in this report, and they form a basis for providing a better understanding of group/individual decision processes and for identifying effective communication options among decision makers.

  18. Update: Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax and adverse events from antimicrobial prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    2001-11-09

    CDC and state and local public health authorities continue to investigate cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax. As of November 7, a total of 22 cases of anthrax have been identified according to the CDC surveillance case definition; 10 were confirmed inhalational anthrax cases and 12 cases (seven confirmed and five suspected) were cutaneous anthrax (Table 1). The majority of cases have occurred in persons working at postal facilities in New Jersey (NJ) and the District of Columbia (DC) in which letters contaminated with anthrax were handled or processed using high-speed sorting machines, or at media companies in New York City (NYC) or Florida (FL) where letters, either confirmed or presumed to be contaminated with anthrax, were opened or handled. The probable exposures for a case of cutaneous anthrax in NJ and a case of inhalational anthrax in NYC remain unknown. Epidemiologic investigations of these cases and surveillance to detect new cases of bioterrorism-associated anthrax continue. This report updates the investigation of these cases and describes adverse events associated with antimicrobial prophylaxis.

  19. Role of law enforcement response and microbial forensics in investigation of bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Beaudry, Jodi A; Barnaby, Neel G; Giusti, Alan M; Bannan, Jason D; Keim, Paul

    2007-08-01

    The risk and threat of bioterrorism and biocrime have become a large concern and challenge for governments and society to enhance biosecurity. Law enforcement plays an important role in assessing and investigating activities involved in an event of bioterrorism or biocrime. Key to a successful biosecurity program is increased awareness and early detection of threats facilitated by an integrated network of responsibilities and capabilities from government, academic, private, and public assets. To support an investigation, microbial forensic sciences are employed to analyze and characterize forensic evidence with the goal of attribution or crime scene reconstruction. Two different molecular biology-based assays--real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and repetitive element PCR--are described and demonstrate how molecular biology tools may be utilized to aid in the investigative process. Technologies relied on by microbial forensic scientists need to be properly validated so that the methods used are understood and so that interpretation of results is carried out within the limitations of the assays. The three types of validation are preliminary, developmental, and internal. The first is necessary for rapid response when a threat is imminent or an attack has recently occurred. The latter two apply to implementation of routinely used procedures.

  20. Role of Law Enforcement Response and Microbial Forensics in Investigation of Bioterrorism

    PubMed Central

    Budowle, Bruce; Beaudry, Jodi A.; Barnaby, Neel G.; Giusti, Alan M.; Bannan, Jason D.; Keim, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The risk and threat of bioterrorism and biocrime have become a large concern and challenge for governments and society to enhance biosecurity. Law enforcement plays an important role in assessing and investigating activities involved in an event of bioterrorism or biocrime. Key to a successful biosecurity program is increased awareness and early detection of threats facilitated by an integrated network of responsibilities and capabilities from government, academic, private, and public assets. To support an investigation, microbial forensic sciences are employed to analyze and characterize forensic evidence with the goal of attribution or crime scene reconstruction. Two different molecular biology-based assays – real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and repetitive element PCR – are described and demonstrate how molecular biology tools may be utilized to aid in the investigative process. Technologies relied on by microbial forensic scientists need to be properly validated so that the methods used are understood and so that interpretation of results is carried out within the limitations of the assays. The three types of validation are preliminary, developmental, and internal. The first is necessary for rapid response when a threat is imminent or an attack has recently occurred. The latter two apply to implementation of routinely used procedures. PMID:17696298

  1. A program against bacterial bioterrorism: improved patient management and acquisition of new knowledge on infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Michael; Dargis, Rimtas; Andresen, Keld; Christensen, Jens Jørgen E

    2012-06-01

    In 2002 it was decided to establish laboratory facilities in Denmark for diagnosing agents associated with bioterrorism in order to make an immediate appropriate response to the release of such agents possible. Molecular assays for detection of specific agents and molecular and proteomic techniques for identification of bacteria were introduced as part of the program. All assays and techniques were made accessible for use in diagnosing patients, even when an intentional release was not suspected. Medical expertise on different diseases was established at the department as an integrated part of the program. The analyses included PCR assays for specific bacteria, identification of isolated bacteria by DNA sequencing, detection and identification of bacteria in clinical sample material by universal bacterial PCR and DNA sequencing, and identification of bacteria by mass spectrometry. The established analyses formed a basis on which a series of further developments was built. In addition to reducing the time for obtaining diagnoses and improving the accuracy of diagnosis of individual infected patients, the analyses provided new knowledge on the frequency and distribution of some bacterial infections, including Q fever, tularemia, trench fever, brucellosis, and melioidosis. The implementation of an antibioterrorism program in a clinical diagnostic setting improved the diagnostic possibilities for patients in Denmark and provided new epidemiologic information. It also introduced a number of diagnostic assays for bacterial infections not associated with bioterrorism that are difficult to culture or identify.

  2. Exposure of laboratory workers to Francisella tularensis despite a bioterrorism procedure.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Daniel S; Schwartz, Donald R

    2002-06-01

    A rapidly fatal case of pulmonary tularemia in a 43-year-old man who was transferred to a tertiary care facility is presented. The microbiology laboratory and autopsy services were not notified of the clinical suspicion of tularemia by the service caring for the patient. Despite having a laboratory bioterrorism procedure in place and adhering to established laboratory protocol, 12 microbiology laboratory employees were exposed to Francisella tularensis and the identification of the organism was delayed due to lack of notification of the laboratory of the clinical suspicion of tularemia. A total of 11 microbiology employees and two persons involved in performing the patient's autopsy received prophylactic doxycycline due to concerns of transmission. None of them developed signs or symptoms of tularemia. One microbiology laboratory employee was pregnant and declined prophylactic antibiotics. As a result of this event, the microbiology laboratory has incorporated flow charts directly into the bench procedures for several highly infectious agents that may be agents of bioterrorism. This should permit more rapid recognition of an isolate for referral to a Level B laboratory for definitive identification and should improve laboratory safety.

  3. "Med-X": a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B; Lathrop, Sarah L; Nashelsky, Marcus B; Nine, Jeffrey S; Gallaher, Margaret M; Umland, Edith T; McLemore, Jerri L; Reichard, R Ross; Irvine, Rebecca A; McFeeley, Patricia J; Zumwalt, Ross E

    2007-05-01

    We created a model surveillance system (Med-X) designed to enable medical examiners and coroners to recognize fatal infections of public health importance and deaths due to bioterrorism. All individuals who died in New Mexico and fell under medical examiner jurisdiction between November 23, 2000, and November 22, 2002, were prospectively evaluated using sets of surveillance symptoms and autopsy-based pathologic syndromes. All infectious disease deaths were evaluated to identify the specific causative agent. Of 6104 jurisdictional cases, 250 (4.1%) met Med-X criteria, of which 141 (56.4%) had a target pathologic syndrome. Ultimately, 127 (51%) of the 250 cases were due to infections. The causative organism was identified for 103 (81%) of the infectious disease deaths, of which 60 (58.3%) were notifiable conditions in New Mexico. Flu-like symptoms, fever and respiratory symptoms, and encephalopathy or new-onset seizures had predictive values positive for fatal infections of 65%, 72%, and 50%, respectively, and are useful as autopsy performance criteria. Before the development of surveillance criteria, 37 (14.8%) of the cases ordinarily would not have been autopsied resulting in a 1% increase in autopsy workload. Med-X is an effective method of detecting infectious disease deaths among medical examiner cases. Uniform criteria for performing medical examiner autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the likelihood of recognizing deaths related to bioterrorism.

  4. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: II. Mode of Action of the Biological Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerville, Jeffrey C.

    2003-01-01

    Integrates bioterrorism into the science curriculum and explains actions against serious agents such as anthrax, plague, smallpox, botulinum toxin, and ricin toxin. Uses the learning cycle as the instructional tool which is student-centered and has three phases that include exploring, explaining, and extending. (Contains 24 references.) (YDS)

  5. Preserving the Finger Lakes for the Future: A Prototype Decision Support System for Water Resource Management, Open Space, and Agricultural Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity conducted under NASA Grant NAG13-02059 entitled "Preserving the Finger Lakes for the Future" A Prototype Decision Support System for Water Resources Management, Open Space and Agricultural Protection, for the period of September 26, 2003 to September 25, 2004. The RACNE continues to utilize the services of its affiliate, the Institute for the Application of Geospatial Technology at Cayuga Community College, Inc. (IAGT), for the purposes of this project under its permanent operating agreement with IAGT. IAGT is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit Corporation created by the RACNE for the purpose of carrying out its programmatic and administrative mission. The "Preserving the Finger Lakes for the Future" project has progressed and evolved as planned, with the continuation or initiation of a number of program facets at programmatic, technical, and inter-agency levels. The project has grown, starting with the well received core concept of the Virtual Management Operations Center (VMOC), to the functional Watershed Virtual Management Operations Center (W-VMOC) prototype, to the more advanced Finger Lakes Decision Support System (FLDSS) prototype, deployed for evaluation and assessment to a wide variety of agencies and organizations in the Finger Lakes region and beyond. This suite of tools offers the advanced, compelling functionality of interactive 3D visualization interfaced with 2D mapping, all accessed via Internet or virtually any kind of distributed computer network.

  6. From bioterrorism exercise to real-life public health crisis: lessons for emergency hotline operations.

    PubMed

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Bookbinder, Sylvia H; Miro, Suzanne; Burke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although public health agencies routinely operate hotlines to communicate key messages to the public, they are rarely evaluated to improve hotline management. Since its creation in 2003, the New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services' Emergency Communications Center has confronted two large-scale incidents that have tested its capabilities in this area. The influenza vaccine shortage of 2004 and the April 2005 TOPOFF 3 full-scale bioterrorism exercise provided both real-life and simulated crisis situations from which to derive general insights into the strengths and weaknesses of hotline administration. This article identifies problems in the areas of staff and message management by analyzing call volume data and the qualitative observations of group feedback sessions and semistructured interviews with hotline staff. It also makes recommendations based on lessons learned to improve future hotline operations in public health emergencies.

  7. Bioterrorism and biological threats dominate federal health security research; other priorities get scant attention.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Connor, Kathryn; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Pillemer, Francesca Matthews; Mullikin, James M; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    The federal government plays a critical role in achieving national health security by providing strategic guidance and funding research to help prevent, respond to, mitigate, and recover from disasters, epidemics, and acts of terrorism. In this article we describe the first-ever inventory of nonclassified national health security-related research funded by civilian agencies of the federal government. Our analysis revealed that the US government's portfolio of health security research is currently weighted toward bioterrorism and emerging biological threats, laboratory methods, and development of biological countermeasures. Eight of ten other priorities identified in the Department of Health and Human Services' National Health Security Strategy-such as developing and maintaining a national health security workforce or incorporating recovery into planning and response-receive scant attention. We offer recommendations to better align federal spending with health security research priorities, including the creation of an interagency working group charged with minimizing research redundancy and filling persistent gaps in knowledge.

  8. Bioterrorism: the effects of biological decontamination on the recovery of electronic evidence.

    PubMed

    Hoile, Rebecca; Banos, Connie; Colella, Michael; Roux, Claude

    2011-06-15

    The investigation of a bioterrorism event will ultimately lead to the collection of vital data from electronic devices such as computers and mobile phones. This project sought to determine the use of gamma irradiation and formaldehyde gas as effective biological decontaminants, and the effect of these methods on the recovery of electronic evidence. Electronic items were contaminated with viable spores and then exposed to both decontaminants. Log values for each matrix were calculated with flash drives recording the highest value of 566 Gy for gamma irradiation and a maximum of 50 min exposure to formaldehyde saw the effective destruction of spores. The results indicate that recovery of data varied based on the decontaminant selected, formaldehyde gas giving the most promising results, with electronic data recovered after the required exposure time. Gamma irradiation proved damaging to electronic circuitry at levels required to render the items safe. The implications to computer intelligence and forensics will be discussed based on the outcomes of these findings.

  9. Responding to bioterror concerns by increasing milk pasteurization temperature would increase estimated annual deaths from listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Martin, Nicole; Laue, Shelley; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In a 2005 analysis of a potential bioterror attack on the food supply involving a botulinum toxin release into the milk supply, the authors recommended adopting a toxin inactivation step during milk processing. In response, some dairy processors increased the times and temperatures of pasteurization well above the legal minimum for high temperature, short time pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), with unknown implications for public health. The present study was conducted to determine whether an increase in high temperature, short time pasteurization temperature would affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially lethal foodborne pathogen normally eliminated with proper pasteurization but of concern when milk is contaminated postpasteurization. L. monocytogenes growth during refrigerated storage was higher in milk pasteurized at 82 °C than in milk pasteurized at 72 °C. Specifically, the time lag before exponential growth was decreased and the maximum population density was increased. The public health impact of this change in pasteurization was evaluated using a quantitative microbial risk assessment of deaths from listeriosis attributable to consumption of pasteurized fluid milk that was contaminated postprocessing. Conservative estimates of the effect of pasteurizing all fluid milk at 82 °C rather than 72 °C are that annual listeriosis deaths from consumption of this milk would increase from 18 to 670, a 38-fold increase (8.7- to 96-fold increase, 5th and 95th percentiles). These results exemplify a situation in which response to a rare bioterror threat may have the unintended consequence of putting the public at increased risk of a known, yet severe harm and illustrate the need for a paradigm shift toward multioutcome risk benefit analyses when proposing changes to established food safety practices.

  10. Surge capacity for response to bioterrorism in hospital clinical microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Daniel S

    2003-12-01

    Surge capacity is the ability to rapidly mobilize to meet an increased demand. While large amounts of federal funding have been allocated to public health laboratories, little federal funding has been allocated to hospital microbiology laboratories. There are concerns that hospital laboratories may have inadequate surge capacities to deal with a significant bioterrorism incident. A workflow analysis of a clinical microbiology laboratory that serves an urban medical center was performed to identify barriers to surge capacity in the setting of a bioterrorism event and to identify solutions to these problems. Barriers include a national shortage of trained medical technologists, the inability of clinical laboratories to deal with a dramatic increase in the number of blood cultures, a delay while manufacturers increase production of critical products and then transport and deliver these products to clinical laboratories, and a shortage of class II biological safety cabinets. Federal funding could remedy staffing shortages by making the salaries of medical technologists comparable to those of similarly educated health care professionals and by providing financial incentives for students to enroll in clinical laboratory science programs. Blood culture bottles, and possibly continuous-monitoring blood culture instruments, should be added to the national antibiotic stockpile. Federal support must ensure that companies that manufacture essential laboratory supplies are capable of rapidly scaling up production. Hospitals must provide increased numbers of biological safety cabinets and amounts of space dedicated to clinical microbiology laboratories. Laboratories should undertake limited cross-training of technologists, ensure that adequate packaging supplies are available, and be able to move to a 4-day blood culture protocol.

  11. Quality of Agricultural Products and Protection of the Environment: Training, Knowledge Dissemination and Certification. Synthesis Report of a Study in Five European Countries. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadaki-Klavdianou, A.; Menkisoglou-Spiroudi, O.; Tsakiridou, E.

    This book examines existing European environmental education and agricultural practices friendly to the environment. Focus is on studies conducted in five countries Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain--that aimed to define new knowledge qualifications related to environmental issues in producing alternative agricultural products…

  12. Chimeric plantibody passively protects mice against aerosolized ricin challenge.

    PubMed

    Sully, Erin K; Whaley, Kevin J; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do H; Pauly, Michael H; Velasco, Jesus; Hiatt, Ernie; Morton, Josh; Swope, Kelsi; Roy, Chad J; Zeitlin, Larry; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2014-05-01

    Recent incidents in the United States and abroad have heightened concerns about the use of ricin toxin as a bioterrorism agent. In this study, we produced, using a robust plant-based platform, four chimeric toxin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that were then evaluated for the ability to passively protect mice from a lethal-dose ricin challenge. The most effective antibody, c-PB10, was further evaluated in mice as a therapeutic following ricin exposure by injection and inhalation.

  13. An integrated and dynamic optimisation model for the multi-level emergency logistics network in anti-bioterrorism system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Lindu

    2012-08-01

    Demand for emergency resources is usually uncertain and varies quickly in anti-bioterrorism system. Besides, emergency resources which had been allocated to the epidemic areas in the early rescue cycle will affect the demand later. In this article, an integrated and dynamic optimisation model with time-varying demand based on the epidemic diffusion rule is constructed. The heuristic algorithm coupled with the MATLAB mathematical programming solver is adopted to solve the optimisation model. In what follows, the application of the optimisation model as well as a short sensitivity analysis of the key parameters in the time-varying demand forecast model is presented. The results show that both the model and the solution algorithm are useful in practice, and both objectives of inventory level and emergency rescue cost can be controlled effectively. Thus, it can provide some guidelines for decision makers when coping with emergency rescue problem with uncertain demand, and offers an excellent reference when issues pertain to bioterrorism.

  14. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism.

  15. Optimal swab processing recovery method for detection of bioterrorism-related Francisella tularensis by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Walker, Roblena E; Petersen, Jeannine M; Stephens, Kenyatta W; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2010-10-01

    Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is regarded as a potential bioterrorism agent. The advent of bioterrorism has heightened awareness of the need for validated methods for processing environmental samples. In this study we determined the optimal method for processing environmental swabs for the recovery and subsequent detection of F. tularensis by the use of real-time PCR assays. Four swab processing recovery methods were compared: heat, sonication, vortexing, and the Swab Extraction Tube System (SETS). These methods were evaluated using cotton, foam, polyester and rayon swabs spiked with six pathogenic strains of F. tularensis. Real-time PCR analysis using a multi-target 5'nuclease assay for F. tularensis showed that the use of the SETS method resulted in the best limit of detection when evaluated using multiple strains of F. tularensis. We demonstrated also that the efficiency of F. tularensis recovery from swab specimens was not equivalent for all swab processing methodologies and, thus, that this variable can affect real-time PCR assay sensitivity. The effectiveness of the SETS method was independent of the automated DNA extraction method and real-time PCR platforms used. In conclusion, diagnostic laboratories can now potentially incorporate the SETS method into specimen processing protocols for the rapid and efficient detection of F. tularensis by real-time PCR during laboratory bioterrorism-related investigations.

  16. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains--how biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick; De Medici, Dario; Fricker, Martina; Löfström, Charlotta; Agren, Joakim; Segerman, Bo; Andersson, Gunnar; Wielinga, Peter; Fenicia, Lucia; Skiby, Jeffrey; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2011-03-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents are outlined. Given the current scale of international trade any response need to be considered in an international context. Biotraceability (e.g. the ability to use downstream information to point to processes or within a particular food chain that can be identified as the source of undesirable agents) is crucial in any food-born outbreak and particular in the response to bioterrorism events. In the later case, tested and proven biotraceability improves the following: (i) international collaboration of validated tracing tools and detection methods, (ii) multi-disciplinary expertise and collaboration in the field of food microbiology and conceptual modeling of the food chain, (iii) sampling as a key step in biotracing (iv) optimized sample preparation procedures, including laboratory work in Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, (v) biomarker discovery for relevant tracing and tracking applications, and (vi) high-throughput sequencing using bio-informatic platforms to speed up the characterization of the biological agent. By applying biotraceability, the response phase during a bioterrorism event may be shortened and is facilitated for tracing the origin of biological agent contamination.

  17. Guidelines to implement medical examiner/coroner-based surveillance for fatal infectious diseases and bioterrorism ("Med-X").

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B; Fischer, Marc; Reagan, Sarah; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    Medical examiners and coroners investigate deaths that are sudden, unexplained, and violent. Oftentimes these deaths are a consequence of infections, many of which have public health consequences. Additionally, because deaths from bioterrorism are homicides, they fall under the jurisdiction of medical examiners and coroners. Surveillance for infectious disease-related deaths can enhance the opportunities to recognize these deaths. Beginning in 2000, the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator developed and tested a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality ("Med-X") using a set of symptoms to determine which cases should receive an autopsy and a set of pathology-based syndromes for early reporting of cases to public health authorities. This model demonstrated that many of the symptoms had a high predictive value for infections and were useful criteria for autopsy performance. The causative organism was identified for 81% of infections of which 58% were notifiable conditions by public health standards. Uniform criteria for performing autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the probability of recognizing fatalities related to bioterrorism. We have developed guidelines for medical examiners, coroners and their public health partners to use in implementing Med-X surveillance in their jurisdictions. These guidelines encompass definitions of symptoms and syndromes, specimen collection and storage procedures, laboratory diagnostic approaches, and processes for case flow, case reporting, and data collection. We also suggest resources for autopsy biosafety information and funding.

  18. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  19. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  20. National agricultural lands study. Agricultural land retention and availability: a bibliographic source book

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Publications obtainable resulting from the national agricultural lands study are described. The book is divided into 5 chapters: agricultural land within a changing context; agricultural land base-limitations and capabilities; competition for and allocation of agricultural land, state and local agricultural land protection programs, and the federal role. This source book is intended to provide the reader with a broad familiarity with this literature and with issues involved in the current debate about protecting farmland. (DMC)

  1. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    PubMed

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-06

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively).

  2. A look behind the scenes: bioterrorism, smallpox, and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Beane, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and continued conflict in Middle Eastern countries has provoked a strong interest in issues of national security. On December 13, 2002 the Bush Administration announced its smallpox vaccination policy, the first nationwide "proactive" measure to address the threat of bioterrorism. The Program has received mixed reactions as a result of partisan issues, tensions in public health policy and federal and state jurisdiction, conflicting scientific views, and different risk assessments. The slow pace of the program, the difficulties surrounding its implementation, and the debates regarding its validity serves as a "case study" to demonstrate current short-comings in federal and state anti-terrorist and public health policies. The focus will be on the states' public health laws and emergency preparedness plans through an analysis of the proposed Model State Emergency Preparedness Act. Updating current public health laws combined with increased funding of scientific research and the foresight to act "proactively" will reach far beyond improving national security. These efforts serve the dual purpose of deterring future terrorist attacks while greatly improving responses to a number of other health emergencies and disasters.

  3. [Historical perspective of smallpox in Mexico: emergence, elimination, and risk of reemergence due to bioterrorism].

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Lammoglia, Lorena; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    Smallpox has been considered a disease of historical interest. However, given the 2001 terrorist events in the U.S. with intentional release of spores of Bacillus anthracis, and the current political worldwide agenda, the risk of bioterrorism has become a global public health concern. The risk of an intentional release of Variola virus as a biological weapon mandates a critical review of the historical impact of the disease in our country and the possible risk of its intentional reemergence. Smallpox was introduced into susceptible Indian populations in the Americas in the 16th century, contributing to the collapse of the Aztec Empire. Francisco Xavier Balmis start a vaccination campaign in the New World, and his efforts are considered the first eradication campaign of vaccine preventable diseases. Due to his efforts, smallpox was eliminated in Mexico in 1951. In the posteradication era, there is small but finite risk of intentional release of Variola virus. In response to this risk, Mexico has developed a comprehensive National preparedness plan. The impact of a new epidemic of smallpox will be considered a catastrophic event from both a historical and public health perspectives.

  4. Agents of Bioterrorism: Curriculum and Pedagogy in an Online Masters Course

    PubMed Central

    Page, Eric J.; Gray, Joshua P.

    2014-01-01

    The Agents of Bioterrorism course (BSBD 640, University of Maryland University College) is a graduate level course created in response to an elevated need for scientists working in the field of medical countermeasures to biological and chemical weapons in the years following 9/11. Students read and evaluate assigned current primary literature articles investigating medical countermeasures at each stage of development. In addition, students learn concepts of risk assessment, comparing and ranking several agents of terror. Student learning is assessed through a variety of assignments. A term paper focuses on a lesser known weapon of terror, with students recommending the best countermeasure in development and delivering a risk assessment comparing their agent to other major weapons of terror discussed throughout the semester. Similarly, a group project on an assigned major weapon of terror (anthrax, plague, smallpox, vesicants, or nerve agent) focuses more heavily on evaluating primary literature and concluding which countermeasure(s) in development are the best. Students complete the course with a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of action of many biological agents, information literacy for the medical literature available at PubMed and the primary scientific literature, and a basic understanding of the role of the government in biodefense research. This paper describes the pedagogical approaches used to teach this course and how they might be adopted for other courses. PMID:25089297

  5. Unfinished business: efforts to define dual-use research of bioterrorism concern.

    PubMed

    Zmorzynska, Anna; Suk, Jonathan E; Biederbick, Walter; Maidhof, Heinrich; Sasse, Julia; Semenza, Jan C; Hunger, Iris

    2011-12-01

    Biotechnological research poses a special security problem because of the duality between beneficial use and misuse. In order to find a balance between regulating potentially dangerous research and assuring scientific advancement, a number of assessments have tried to define which types of research are especially open to misuse and should therefore be considered dual-use research of special concern requiring rigorous oversight. So far, there has been no common understanding of what such activities are. Here we present a review of 27 assessments focusing on biological dual-use issues published between 1997 and 2008. Dual-use research activities identified by these assessments as being of special concern were compiled and compared. Moreover, from these 27 assessments, the primary research publications explicitly identified as examples of concerning research activities were extracted and analyzed. We extracted a core list of 11 activities of special concern and show that this list does not match with the reasons why primary research publications were identified as being of special concern. Additionally, we note that the 11 activities identified are not easily conducted or replicated, and therefore the likelihood of their being used in a high-tech mass casualty bioterrorism event should be reevaluated.

  6. Viruses of the Bunya- and Togaviridae families: potential as bioterrorism agents and means of control.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, Robert W; Smee, Donald F

    2003-01-01

    When considering viruses of potential importance as tools for bioterrorism, several viruses in the Bunya- and Togaviridae families have been cited. Among those in the Bunyaviridae family are Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, hanta, and sandfly fever viruses, listed in order of priority. Those particularly considered in the Togaviridae family are Venezuelan, eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses. Factors affecting the selection of these viruses are the ability for them to induce a fatal or seriously incapacitating illness, their ease of cultivation in order to prepare large volumes, their relative infectivity in human patients, their ability to be transmitted by aerosol, and the lack of measures available for their control. Each factor is fully considered in this review. Vaccines for the control of infections induced by these viruses are in varying stages of development, with none universally accepted to date. Viruses in the Bunyaviridae family are generally sensitive to ribavirin, which has been recommended as an emergency therapy for infections by viruses in this family although has not yet been FDA-approved. Interferon and interferon inducers also significantly inhibit these virus infections in animal models. Against infections induced by viruses in the Togaviridae family, interferon-alpha would appear to currently be the most useful for therapy.

  7. Achieving Long-Term Protection of Water Quality of Grand Lake St. Marys Through Implementation of Conservation Practices and Control of Phosphorus Input from Agricultural Drainage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM), a 13,000 acre lake in northwestern Ohio, is experiencing toxic levels of algal blooms resulting primarily from phosphorus input from agricultural runoff. The algal blooms are so severe that the Ohio Department of Natural Resources advised against any...

  8. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. PMID:25247187

  9. 76 FR 29083 - Agriculture Priorities and Allocations System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... restoration (civilian): Programs to protect or restore the agriculture and food system from terrorist attacks...: Programs to protect or restore the agriculture and food system from terrorist attacks, major disasters,...

  10. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  12. Environmental aspects in plant protection practices of non-agricultural pesticide users: case study of communes and the ministry of public works and transport (MET) of the Walloon Region (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the environmental aspects of the surveys (health-related aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of good practices (including zero pesticides) and a growing awareness of environmental issues among non-agricultural users. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major environmental risks (in the form of water pollution from pesticides). Information, awareness-raising and training therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users.

  13. Medical Allocations to Persons with Special Needs during a Bioterrorism Event

    PubMed Central

    Branum, Melissa; Pawani, Sejal; Miller, Sandy; Bowman, Jeanne; Clare, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    After the bioterrorism-anthrax attacks of 2001, public health officials were tasked with planning population-wide medicine dispensing. This planning started with assumptions and then evaluations of seasonal immunization clinics. Research on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic-vaccination campaign showed that an adequately prepared public health system could have prevented over 16% of flu-associated hospitalizations. The 2011 ice storms revealed difficulties with sheltering medically fragile persons with disabilities. Later research showed that training and preparedness levels increased responders’ willingness to serve. When triaging disaster survivors to community-mass-care-services of general shelters, medical shelters, or mental health services; sorting improved up to 15% when past traumatic effects, personal care assistance, or service methodology were accounted for. The number of persons who are disabled and dependent on electric medical equipment are increasing. This current study compared the time it takes to dispense medication to two different cohorts: a general-population cohort (n=31) and a special-needs cohort (n=30). The cohort comprised entirely of persons with special needs took 4.1 compared to 2.48 minutes per person in a general population cohort (p=.057). A person with any special needs took 3.73 versus 2.43 minutes for a person with no special needs (p=.082). Modeling of service times per station and cohort type found significant delays at the medical station among persons in the general population who are pregnant (14 minutes or 840 seconds, p=.002) and persons in the special needs cohort with a language barrier (12.5 minutes or 750 seconds, p=.001). Recommendations include planning for closed Points of Dispensing Sites (PODS) to those with special needs, ensuring a sufficient number of medical dispenser in open PODS, and assigning extra capacity at the medical station area for special needs involving children, language, or pregnancy issues. PMID:28210421

  14. Bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: the first 10 cases reported in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, J. A.; Stephens, D. S.; Ashford, D. A.; Omenaca, C.; Topiel, M. S.; Galbraith, M.; Tapper, M.; Fisk, T. L.; Zaki, S.; Popovic, T.; Meyer, R. F.; Quinn, C. P.; Harper, S. A.; Fridkin, S. K.; Sejvar, J. J.; Shepard, C. W.; McConnell, M.; Guarner, J.; Shieh, W. J.; Malecki, J. M.; Gerberding, J. L.; Hughes, J. M.; Perkins, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    From October 4 to November 2, 2001, the first 10 confirmed cases of inhalational anthrax caused by intentional release of Bacillus anthracis were identified in the United States. Epidemiologic investigation indicated that the outbreak, in the District of Columbia, Florida, New Jersey, and New York, resulted from intentional delivery of B. anthracis spores through mailed letters or packages. We describe the clinical presentation and course of these cases of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax. The median age of patients was 56 years (range 43 to 73 years), 70% were male, and except for one, all were known or believed to have processed, handled, or received letters containing B. anthracis spores. The median incubation period from the time of exposure to onset of symptoms, when known (n=6), was 4 days (range 4 to 6 days). Symptoms at initial presentation included fever or chills (n=10), sweats (n=7), fatigue or malaise (n=10), minimal or nonproductive cough (n=9), dyspnea (n=8), and nausea or vomiting (n=9). The median white blood cell count was 9.8 X 10(3)/mm(3) (range 7.5 to 13.3), often with increased neutrophils and band forms. Nine patients had elevated serum transaminase levels, and six were hypoxic. All 10 patients had abnormal chest X-rays; abnormalities included infiltrates (n=7), pleural effusion (n=8), and mediastinal widening (seven patients). Computed tomography of the chest was performed on eight patients, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy was present in seven. With multidrug antibiotic regimens and supportive care, survival of patients (60%) was markedly higher (<15%) than previously reported. PMID:11747719

  15. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  16. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  17. Establishment and maintenance of records under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2004-12-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation that requires the establishment and maintenance of records by persons who manufacture, process, pack, transport, distribute, receive, hold, or import food in the United States. Such records are to allow for the identification of the immediate previous sources and immediate subsequent recipients of food. The final rule implements the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), and is necessary to help address credible threats of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals. The requirement to establish and maintain records is one of several tools that will help improve FDA's ability to respond to, and further contain, threats of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals from accidental or deliberate contamination of food. In the event of an outbreak of foodborne illness, such information will help FDA and other authorities determine the source and cause of the event. In addition, the information will improve FDA's ability to quickly notify the consumers and/or facilities that might be affected by the outbreak.

  18. LAMP using a disposable pocket warmer for anthrax detection, a highly mobile and reliable method for anti-bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ben; Maki, Takayuki; Obara, Takeyuki; Fukumoto, Hitomi; Hagisawa, Kohsuke; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Okutani, Akiko; Bazartseren, Boldbaastar; Inoue, Satoshi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    A quick, reliable detection system is necessary to deal with bioterrorism. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a DNA amplification method that can amplify specific DNA fragments in isothermal conditions. We developed a new highly mobile and practical LAMP anthrax detection system that uses a disposable pocket warmer without the need for electricity (pocket-warmer LAMP). In our tests, the detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was 1,000 copies of Bacillus anthracis pag and capB gene fragments per tube. The pocket-warmer LAMP also detected B. anthracis genes from DNA extracted from 0.1 volume of a B. anthracis colony. The lower detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was not significantly different from that of a conventional LAMP using a heat block, and was not changed under cold (4 degrees C) or warm (37 degrees C) conditions in a Styrofoam box. The pocket-warmer LAMP could be useful against bioterrorism, and as a sensitive, reliable detection tool in areas with undependable electricity infrastructures.

  19. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  20. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  1. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  2. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  3. 77 FR 75607 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Plant Variety Protection Office (PVPO) is...

  4. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  5. Assessing the impacts of Best Management Practices on nitrate pollution in an agricultural dominated lowland catchment considering environmental protection versus economic development.

    PubMed

    Haas, Marcelo B; Guse, Björn; Fohrer, Nicola

    2017-03-15

    Water quality is strongly affected by nitrate inputs in agricultural catchments. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are alternative practices aiming to mitigate the impacts derived from agricultural activities and to improve water quality. Management activities are influenced by different governmental policies like the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). Their distinct goals can be contrasting and hamper an integrated sustainable development. Both need to be addressed in the actual conjuncture in rural areas. Ecohydrological models like the SWAT model are important tools for land cover and land use changes investigation and the assessment of BMPs implementation effects on water quality. Thus, in this study, buffer strip, fertilization reduction and alternative crops were considered as BMPs and were implemented in the SWAT model for the Treene catchment. Their efficiency in terms of nitrate loads reduction related to implementation costs at the catchment scale was investigated. The practices correspond to the catchment conditions and are based on small and mid areal changes. Furthermore, the BMPs were evaluated from the perspective of ecologic and economic policies. The results evidenced different responses of the BMPs. The critical periods in winter were addressed by most of the BMPs. However, some practices like pasture land increase need to be implemented in greater area for better results in comparison to current activities. Furthermore, there is a greater nitrate reduction potential by combining BMPs containing fertilization reduction, buffer strips and soil coverage in winter. The discussion about efficiency showed the complexity of costs stipulation and the relation with arable land and yield losses. Furthermore, as the government policies can be divergent an integrated approach considering all the involved actors is important and seeks a sustainable development.

  6. Applications of DNA Technologies in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jinggui; Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Chen; Shangguan, Lingfei

    2016-01-01

    With the development of molecular biology, some DNA-based technologies have showed great potentiality in promoting the efficiency of crop breeding program, protecting germplasm resources, improving the quality and outputs of agricultural products, and protecting the eco-environment etc., making their roles in modern agriculture more and more important. To better understand the application of DNA technologies in agriculture, and achieve the goals to promote their utilities in modern agriculture, this paper describes, in some different way, the applications of molecular markers, transgenic engineering and gene's information in agriculture. Some corresponding anticipations for their development prospects are also made. PMID:27499686

  7. OptiPhy, a technical-economic optimisation model for improving the management of plant protection practices in agriculture: a decision-support tool for controlling the toxicity risks related to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Mghirbi, Oussama; LE Grusse, Philippe; Fabre, Jacques; Mandart, Elisabeth; Bord, Jean-Paul

    2017-03-01

    The health, environmental and socio-economic issues related to the massive use of plant protection products are a concern for all the stakeholders involved in the agricultural sector. These stakeholders, including farmers and territorial actors, have expressed a need for decision-support tools for the management of diffuse pollution related to plant protection practices and their impacts. To meet the needs expressed by the public authorities and the territorial actors for such decision-support tools, we have developed a technical-economic model "OptiPhy" for risk mitigation based on indicators of pesticide toxicity risk to applicator health (IRSA) and to the environment (IRTE), under the constraint of suitable economic outcomes. This technical-economic optimisation model is based on linear programming techniques and offers various scenarios to help the different actors in choosing plant protection products, depending on their different levels of constraints and aspirations. The health and environmental risk indicators can be broken down into sub-indicators so that management can be tailored to the context. This model for technical-economic optimisation and management of plant protection practices can analyse scenarios for the reduction of pesticide-related risks by proposing combinations of substitution PPPs, according to criteria of efficiency, economic performance and vulnerability of the natural environment. The results of the scenarios obtained on real ITKs in different cropping systems show that it is possible to reduce the PPP pressure (TFI) and reduce toxicity risks to applicator health (IRSA) and to the environment (IRTE) by up to approximately 50 %.

  8. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  9. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  10. Management of agricultural waste for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution: adsorption behaviors, adsorption mechanisms, environmental protection, and techno-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Elhafez, S E Abd; Hamad, H A; Zaatout, A A; Malash, G F

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, Egypt has been suffering from the phenomenon of black cloud resulting from burning rice husk and increasing the demand for water leading to the water crisis. An alternative, low-value and surplus agricultural byproduct (rice husk, RH) has an enormous potential for the removal of Cu(II) ions from water. The present study focuses on the chance of the use of rice husk as a bio-adsorbent without any chemical treatment instead of burning it and soiling the environment. The elemental, structural, morphological, surface functional, thermal, and textural characteristics of RH are determined by XRF, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TGA, and BET surface area, respectively, and contributed to the understanding of the adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution. Also, the performance analysis, adsorption mechanism, influencing factors, favorable conditions, etc. are discussed in this article. The results obtained from optimization by batch mode are achieved under the following conditions: initial concentration, 150 ppm; amount of rice husk, 1 g; average particle size, 0.25 mm; temperature, 25 °C; pH, 4; agitation rate, 180 rpm; and contact time, 60 min. RH exhibits a high degree of selectivity for Cu(II) adsorption. The adsorption isotherm is fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich models with R (2) 0.998 and 0.997, respectively. The adsorption is well governed by the pseudo-second-order kinetics. It is observed that the rate of adsorption improves with decreasing temperature, and the process is exothermic and non-spontaneous. Particular attention has being paid to factors as production processes, fixed/operational cost, production cost, and profit. The techno-economical analysis is presented in this study that provides precise demands on capital for a fixed investment, provisions for operational capital, and finally provisions for revenue. The social, economical, and environmental benefits by industrial point of view using low-cost adsorbent are also

  11. First Case of Bioterrorism-Related Inhalational Anthrax in the United States, Palm Beach County, Florida, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, Steven T.; Rosenstein, Nancy E.; Malecki, Jean M.; Shepard, Colin W.; Raghunathan, Pratima L.; Pillai, Segaran P.; Popovic, Tanja; Quinn, Conrad P.; Meyer, Richard F.; Zaki, Sharif R.; Kumar, Savita; Bruce, Sherrie M.; Sejvar, James J.; Dull, Peter M.; Tierney, Bruce C.; Jones, Joshua D.; Perkins, Bradley A.

    2002-01-01

    On October 4, 2001, we confirmed the first bioterrorism-related anthrax case identified in the United States in a resident of Palm Beach County, Florida. Epidemiologic investigation indicated that exposure occurred at the workplace through intentionally contaminated mail. One additional case of inhalational anthrax was identified from the index patient’s workplace. Among 1,076 nasal cultures performed to assess exposure, Bacillus anthracis was isolated from a co-worker later confirmed as being infected, as well as from an asymptomatic mail-handler in the same workplace. Environmental cultures for B. anthracis showed contamination at the workplace and six county postal facilities. Environmental and nasal swab cultures were useful epidemiologic tools that helped direct the investigation towards the infection source and transmission vehicle. We identified 1,114 persons at risk and offered antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:12396910

  12. First case of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax in the United States, Palm Beach County, Florida, 2001.

    PubMed

    Traeger, Marc S; Wiersma, Steven T; Rosenstein, Nancy E; Malecki, Jean M; Shepard, Colin W; Raghunathan, Pratima L; Pillai, Segaran P; Popovic, Tanja; Quinn, Conrad P; Meyer, Richard F; Zaki, Sharif R; Kumar, Savita; Bruce, Sherrie M; Sejvar, James J; Dull, Peter M; Tierney, Bruce C; Jones, Joshua D; Perkins, Bradley A

    2002-10-01

    On October 4, 2001, we confirmed the first bioterrorism-related anthrax case identified in the United States in a resident of Palm Beach County, Florida. Epidemiologic investigation indicated that exposure occurred at the workplace through intentionally contaminated mail. One additional case of inhalational anthrax was identified from the index patient's workplace. Among 1,076 nasal cultures performed to assess exposure, Bacillus anthracis was isolated from a co-worker later confirmed as being infected, as well as from an asymptomatic mail-handler in the same workplace. Environmental cultures for B. anthracis showed contamination at the workplace and six county postal facilities. Environmental and nasal swab cultures were useful epidemiologic tools that helped direct the investigation towards the infection source and transmission vehicle. We identified 1,114 persons at risk and offered antimicrobial prophylaxis.

  13. Flash detection/identification of pathogens, bacterial spores and bioterrorism agent biomarkers from clinical and environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    White, David C; Lytle, Cory A; Gan, Ying-Dong M; Piceno, Yvette M; Wimpee, Michael H; Peacock, Aaron D; Smith, Carol A

    2002-02-01

    We propose to develop an integrated rapid, semiportable, prototype point microbial detection/identification system for clinical specimens that is also capable of differentiating microbial bioterrorism attacks from threats or hoaxes by defining the pathogen. The system utilizes "flash" extraction/analytical system capable of detection/identification of microbes from environmental and clinical matrices. The system couples demonstrated technologies to provide quantitative analysis of lipid biomarkers of microbes including spores in a system with near-single cell (amol/microl) sensitivity. Tandem mass spectrometry increases specificity by providing the molecular structure of neutral lipids, phospholipids, and derivatized spore-specific bacterial biomarker, 2,6-dipicolinic acid (DPA) as well as the lipopolysaccharide-amide-linked hydroxy-fatty acids (LPS-ALHFA) of Gram-negative bacteria. The extraction should take about an hour for each sample but multiple samples can be processed simultaneously.

  14. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  15. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  16. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  17. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  18. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  19. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  20. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  1. Helping Residents Protect Water Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Building on the successful early engagement of the Plain Sect agricultural community, the Eastern Lancaster County Source Water Protection Collaborative is expanding its efforts to involve local residents in the work of protecting drinking water sources.

  2. Communicating the risks of bioterrorism and other emergencies in a diverse society: a case study of special populations in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    McGough, Marty; Frank, Loreeta Leer; Tipton, Stacia; Tinker, Tim L; Vaughan, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    In the event that terrorists use air, water, or food to deliver destructive agents to civilian populations, some groups and populations may be disproportionately at risk and have unique communications needs. Bioterrorism represents an even greater national public health threat if the nation's preparedness and readiness plans do not address the needs and perspectives of, for example, low-income residents, racially and ethnically diverse communities, and other "special populations". The objective of this study was to develop communications strategies to reach special populations in North Dakota before, during, and after a bioterrorism attack or other crisis. To achieve the study objectives, the investigators used telephone interviews and telephone focus groups with organizations that represented special populations. Areas of inquiry included attitudes and concerns about crises, sources of information used and those identified as most credible, methods to reach people during a crisis event, and awareness of and attitudes about the agencies and organizations that affect risk communications.

  3. EPA Issues Report on Virginia Animal Agriculture Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (PHILADELPHIA - March 16, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced today it has completed an evaluation of Virginia's animal agriculture programs. The assessment is one of six that the agency is conducting of state animal agriculture

  4. Broad Spectrum Antiviral Activity of Favipiravir (T-705): Protection from Highly Lethal Inhalational Rift Valley Fever

    PubMed Central

    Caroline, Amy L.; Powell, Diana S.; Bethel, Laura M.; Oury, Tim D.; Reed, Douglas S.; Hartman, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of antiviral drugs that have broad-spectrum activity against a number of viral infections would be of significant benefit. Due to the evolution of resistance to currently licensed antiviral drugs, development of novel anti-influenza drugs is in progress, including Favipiravir (T-705), which is currently in human clinical trials. T-705 displays broad-spectrum in vitro activity against a number of viruses, including Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV). RVF is an important neglected tropical disease that causes human, agricultural, and economic losses in endemic regions. RVF has the capacity to emerge in new locations and also presents a potential bioterrorism threat. In the current study, the in vivo efficacy of T-705 was evaluated in Wistar-Furth rats infected with the virulent ZH501 strain of RVFV by the aerosol route. Methodology/Principal Findings Wistar-Furth rats are highly susceptible to a rapidly lethal disease after parenteral or inhalational exposure to the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. In the current study, two experiments were performed: a dose-determination study and a delayed-treatment study. In both experiments, all untreated control rats succumbed to disease. Out of 72 total rats infected with RVFV and treated with T-705, only 6 succumbed to disease. The remaining 66 rats (92%) survived lethal infection with no significant weight loss or fever. The 6 treated rats that succumbed survived significantly longer before succumbing to encephalitic disease. Conclusions/Significance Currently, there are no licensed antiviral drugs for treating RVF. Here, T-705 showed remarkable efficacy in a highly lethal rat model of Rift Valley Fever, even when given up to 48 hours post-infection. This is the first study to show protection of rats infected with the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. Our data suggest that T-705 has potential to be a broad-spectrum antiviral drug. PMID:24722586

  5. EPA Releases Report on Maryland Agriculture Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (PHILADELPHIA - August 31, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced today it has completed an evaluation of Maryland's animal agriculture regulations and programs. The assessment, which is one of six that the agency is conducting of

  6. EPA Releases Report on Delaware Agriculture Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (PHILADELPHIA - August 31, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced today it has completed an evaluation of Delaware's animal agriculture regulations and programs. The assessment is one of six that the agency is conducting of state a

  7. Microwave-assisted tissue processing for same-day EM-diagnosis of potential bioterrorism and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Josef A; Gelderblom, Hans R; Hauroeder, Baerbel; Schmetz, Christel; Milios, Jim; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the turnaround times, section and image quality of a number of more "difficult" specimens destined for rapid diagnostic electron microscopy (EM) after microwave-assisted processing. The results were assessed and compared with those of conventionally processed samples. A variety of infectious agents, some with a potential for bioterrorism, and liver biopsies serving as an example for routine histopathology samples were studied. The samples represented virus-producing cell cultures (such as SARS-coronavirus, West Nile virus, Orthopox virus), bacteria suspensions (cultures of Escherichia coli and genetically knockout apathogenic Bacillus anthracis), suspensions of parasites (malaria Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania major, Microsporidia cuniculi, Caenorhabditis elegans), and whole Drosophila melanogaster flies infected with microsporidia. Fresh liver samples and infected flies were fixed in Karnovsky-fixative by microwaving (20 min), all other samples were fixed in buffered glutaraldehyde or Karnovsky-fixative overnight or longer. Subsequently, all samples were divided to evaluate alternative processing protocols: one part of the sample was OsO4-postfixed, ethanol-dehydrated, Epon-infiltrated (overnight) in an automated tissue processor (LYNX, Leica), and polymerized at 60 degrees C for 48 h; in parallel the other part was microwave-assisted processed in the bench microwave device (REM, Milestone), including post-osmication and the resin block polymerization. The microwave-assisted processing protocol required at minimum 3 h 20 min: the respective epon resin blocks were uniformly polymerized allowing an easy sectioning of semi- and ultrathin sections. Sections collected on non-coated 200 mesh grids were stable in the electron beam and showed an excellent preservation of the ultrastructure and high contrast, thus allowing an easy, unequivocal and rapid assessment of specimens. Compared with conventional routine methods

  8. Sustainability of Agricultural Systems: Concept to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture not only feeds the planet, it also is the biggest overall factor affecting the environment. Thus, innovative sustainable farming systems that produce healthy food and protect the environment at the same time are very much needed. We, as agricultural engineers, need ...

  9. Agricultural Polymers for Corrosion Protection of Metals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corrosion is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. When metals come in contact with different environments such as air, water, chemical products and pollutants, they begin to degrade as the metal interacts with its environment. This research investigates the...

  10. 7 CFR 4280.155 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective advances. 4280.155 Section 4280.155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.155 Protective advances. All...

  11. An Overview of the U.S. Public Health System in the Context of Bioterrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-11

    Communication 21 Emergency Management 21 Medical Care vs . Public Health Providers 21 Food Safety 22 Public Information 22 Information systems 22...control measures, food safety , and restaurant inspections . The NACCHO survey shows that over 70% of LPHAs provide : adult and child immunizations...inspectors, develop new methods of detecting contaminated foods, work with state food safety regulators, and protect crops and livestock . It also

  12. [Syndromic surveillance in circumstances of bioterrorism threat--the essence, application abilities and superiority over a traditional epidemiological surveillance].

    PubMed

    Osemek, Paweł; Kocik, Janusz; Paśnik, Krzysztof

    2009-12-01

    This article provides a short review about trends of developing current syndromic surveillance systems. To improve methods of early detection of natural or bioterrorism-related outbreaks, it has to be established a new way of epidemiological thinking, which uses innovative real-time surveillance systems. Syndromic surveillance has been created for an early detection, to monitor the temporo-spatial spread of an outbreak, and to provide prompt data for immediate analysis and feedback to public health authorities. It supports timely decision making process for countermeasure procedures. Framework of syndromic surveillance system requires a proper electronic infrastructure to be build up. Optimal syndrome definitions and data sources for continuing specific diseases outbreak surveillance have not been determined so far. Systems of interest might enhance collaboration among clinical providers, primary care providers, emergency services, information-systems professionals and public health agencies. However economic scope of this undertakings effectively limits ability to implement it in Polish public health service right now. Besides, syndromic surveillance cannot replace traditional public health surveillance with a post-factum epidemiological investigation and laboratory analysis. It can be a useful supplement.

  13. Overview of Mosquito Research Programs at the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), a U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service laboratory, was established in World War II to produce products to protect military personnel against insect vector of disease. Currently the mission of CMAVE is ...

  14. EPA requires major agricultural chemical dealer to safely manage pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced settlements with two associated companies for the improper storage and containment of agricultural pesticides. Fertizona, a large fertilizer and crop protection retailer, and

  15. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Enhancement, Protection,...

  16. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Enhancement, Protection,...

  17. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Enhancement, Protection,...

  18. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Enhancement, Protection,...

  19. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Enhancement, Protection,...

  20. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protected areas. 301.38-3 Section 301.38-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a)...

  1. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protected areas. 301.38-3 Section 301.38-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protected areas. 301.38-3 Section 301.38-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a)...

  3. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protected areas. 301.38-3 Section 301.38-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a)...

  4. Market distortions and technological progress in agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, J.M.; Pardey, P.G.

    1993-05-01

    It is widely believed that price policies have contributed to low rates of productivity growth in agriculture, but there has been little progress to date in work on the relationship between price distortions and agricultural productivity or agricultural research. Given the importance of technological change in agriculture, it is important to know whether price policies impede investments in R&D and productivity growth. In this article, a theoretical analysis indicates that the effects of commodity price policies on incentives of government and industry to invest in agricultural research are ambiguous. While the results suggest a general tendency of policies that protect producers to encourage greater research investments, the opposite result cannot be ruled out. A statistical model using international, cross-sectional, time-series data shows that agricultural research investments are significantly correlated, but negatively, with rates of producer protection. The implication is that some factor other than price policy is responsible for both the low rates of public-sector investments in agricultural research worldwide, and the low rates of productivity growth in less-developed countries. Research administrators in more- and less-developed countries alike typically consider a multiplicity of goals when setting research priorities and research budgets. Therefore, an alternative explanation of low agricultural productivity and underinvestment in agricultural research may be that public-sector research policy has been misguided. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Vocational Agriculture Handbook for Agriculture Cooperative Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This handbook was designed to assist school administrators, vocational administrators, vocational agricultural teachers, and area consultants of vocational agriculture in developing, implementing, and improving an agricultural cooperative training program (especially in Texas). The handbook, which presents information in a narrative format,…

  6. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    PubMed

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs.

  7. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protected areas. 301.38-3 Section 301.38-3 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a) The Administrator may designate as a protected area in paragraph (d) of this section any State that has...

  8. 40 CFR 49.133 - Rule for agricultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule for agricultural burning permits... agricultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for agricultural burning within the Indian reservation to control emissions of particulate...

  9. Agricultural Chemicals and Radiation. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    The document is designed to be used as a resource in teaching vocational agriculture high school students about the environment. Agricultural chemicals are the major focus, with some attention to radiation. The importance of safety in agricultural chemical use is stressed, with descriptions of the pesticide label; protective clothing; respiratory…

  10. Duration of immunity after smallpox vaccination: a study on vaccination policy against smallpox bioterrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Arita, Isao

    2002-08-01

    The success of global smallpox eradication in 1980 led all the nations of the world to discontinue smallpox vaccination. To date, however, the threat of deliberate release of smallpox virus has led health authorities to reconsider smallpox vaccination and at the same time, to urge to evaluate duration of the immunity of the population vaccinated before 1980. Although available data is scarce and incomplete, the study suggests that protective immunity lasts longer in a good percentage of vaccinees, although the real percentage and duration are not known. Accordingly, how to establish a national vaccination policy for preparedness in Japan and elsewhere was discussed. The study is intended to cause interest and debate among the medical and public health community.

  11. Development paths of China's agricultural Pharmaceutical industry under Eco-agriculture background.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinkai; Gong, Liutang; Ji, Xi; Zhang, Jin; Miao, Pei

    2014-07-01

    Using pesticides has double effects. On one hand, it contributes to pests control and regulates the growth of crops; On the other hand, it does harm to the environment. To develop ecological agriculture should not only emphasize the output level of agriculture to pursuit of economic efficiency, but also need to keep the ecological environment protected and focus on the social benefits during the development of the industry. As a large agricultural country in the world, China is vigorously promoting the development of ecological agriculture, which is bound to put forward to developing the pesticide industry and green ecological development requirements to promote the transformation and upgrading of agricultural pharmaceutical industry. This paper discusses the mechanism of pesticide pollution on the ecological environment and analyzes China's agricultural problems in the pharmaceutical industry. Then study on the development of Chinese green pesticides and try to find the proper paths of agricultural pharmaceutical to achieve industrial upgrading.

  12. Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff.

  13. Inhibition of retrograde transport protects mice from lethal ricin challenge.

    PubMed

    Stechmann, Bahne; Bai, Siau-Kun; Gobbo, Emilie; Lopez, Roman; Merer, Goulven; Pinchard, Suzy; Panigai, Laetitia; Tenza, Danièle; Raposo, Graça; Beaumelle, Bruno; Sauvaire, Didier; Gillet, Daniel; Johannes, Ludger; Barbier, Julien

    2010-04-16

    Bacterial Shiga-like toxins are virulence factors that constitute a significant public health threat worldwide, and the plant toxin ricin is a potential bioterror weapon. To gain access to their cytosolic target, ribosomal RNA, these toxins follow the retrograde transport route from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, via endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. Here, we used high-throughput screening to identify small molecule inhibitors that protect cells from ricin and Shiga-like toxins. We identified two compounds that selectively block retrograde toxin trafficking at the early endosome-TGN interface, without affecting compartment morphology, endogenous retrograde cargos, or other trafficking steps, demonstrating an unexpected degree of selectivity and lack of toxicity. In mice, one compound clearly protects from lethal nasal exposure to ricin. Our work discovers the first small molecule that shows efficacy against ricin in animal experiments and identifies the retrograde route as a potential therapeutic target.

  14. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  15. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  16. Theme: Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

  17. 75 FR 77612 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection... Agriculture intends to reestablish the Plant Variety Protection Board. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul....regulations.gov or by e-mail: Paul.Zankowski@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Plant...

  18. 76 FR 22044 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides; Notification to the Secretaries of Agriculture...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...; Notification to the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and Human Services AGENCY: Environmental Protection..., Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington DC 20460- 0001; telephone number:...

  19. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  20. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  1. Agriculture: Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  2. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  3. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  4. Reorienting Agricultural Education towards a Free Market Model Emphasizing Economic Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberson, Max L.

    Agricultural education has grown and flourished in the past because it took students with farm backgrounds and helped them become better managers and producers, thus improving agriculture in general. Now that fewer students are coming from farms into agricultural education, agricultural education has lost its protected status and become just…

  5. Advanced agricultural biotechnologies and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Thomas A

    2002-05-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies are anchored to a scientific paradigm rooted in experimental biology, whereas sustainable agriculture rests on a biological paradigm that is best described as ecological. Both biotechnology and sustainable agriculture are associated with particular social science paradigms: biotechnology has its foundation in neoclassical economics, but sustainability is framed by an emerging community-centered, problem-solving perspective. Fundamentally, biotechnology and neoclassical economics are reductionist in nature. Sustainability and community problem-solving, however, are nonreductionist. Given these differences, we might see the development of two rather distinct systems of food production in the near future.

  6. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  7. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  8. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  9. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  10. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  11. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  12. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  13. Patho-Genes.org: a website dedicated to gene sequences of potential bioterror bacteria and PCR primers used to amplify them.

    PubMed

    Gardès, Julien; Bachar, Dipankar; Croce, Olivier; Christen, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Pathogenic agents can be very hard to detect, and usually they do not cause illness for several hours or days. To improve the speed and the accuracy of detection tests and satisfy the needs of early diagnosis, molecular biology methods such as PCR are now used. However, selecting a proper target gene and designing good primers is often not easy. We present a dedicated website, http://patho-genes.org, where we provide every sequence, functional annotation, published primer and relevant article for every annotated gene of major pathogenic bacterial species listed as key agents to be used for a bioterrorism attack. Each published primer was analysed to determine its melting temperature, its specificity and its coverage (i.e. its sensitivity against every allele of its target gene). Data generated have been organized in the form of data sheet for each gene, which are available through multiple browser panels and query systems.

  14. Comparison of quantitative PCR and culture-based methods for evaluating dispersal of Bacillus thuringiensis endospores at a bioterrorism hoax crime scene.

    PubMed

    Crighton, Taryn; Hoile, Rebecca; Coleman, Nicholas V

    2012-06-10

    Since the anthrax mail attacks of 2001, law enforcement agencies have processed thousands of suspicious mail incidents globally, many of which are hoax bioterrorism threats. Bio-insecticide preparations containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores have been involved in several such threats in Australia, leading to the requirement for rapid and sensitive detection techniques for this organism, a close relative of Bacillus anthracis. Here we describe the development of a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of Bt crystal toxin gene cry1, and evaluation of the method's effectiveness during a hoax bioterrorism event in 2009. When combined with moist wipe sampling, the cry1 qPCR was a rapid, reliable, and sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting and quantifying Bt contamination, and mapping endospore dispersal within a mail sorting facility. Results from the cry1 qPCR were validated by viable counts of the same samples on Bacillus-selective agar (PEMBA), which revealed a similar pattern of contamination. Extensive and persistent contamination of the facility was detected, both within the affected mailroom, and extending into office areas up to 30m distant from the source event, emphasising the need for improved containment procedures for suspicious mail items, both during and post-event. The cry1 qPCR enables detection of both viable and non-viable Bt spores and cells, which is important for historical crime scenes or scenes subjected to decontamination. This work provides a new rapid method to add to the forensics toolbox for crime scenes suspected to be contaminated with biological agents.

  15. Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-25

    factor. Experiments with dry spores of Bacillus megaterium shows that the sensitivity is constant between -268°C and -148°C, increasing temperature... Bacillus megaterium spores equilibrated with oxygen the sensitivity increases by 16% on decreasing temperature from +18 to + 2,5°C. Further reduction in...The influence of temperature and phase state on the radiosensitivity of Bacillus megaterium spores (in Hungarian), Izotóptechnika, 24, 27-31. [16

  16. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... describes the Category A diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. If these germs ... Watch Specific Segments of the Program Overview Anthrax Plague Smallpox Botulism Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Tularemia Note: Parts ...

  17. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protected plant permits. 355.11 Section 355.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS...

  18. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protected plant permits. 355.11 Section 355.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS...

  19. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protected plant permits. 355.11 Section 355.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS...

  20. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protected plant permits. 355.11 Section 355.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS...

  1. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protected plant permits. 355.11 Section 355.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS...

  2. 77 FR 75606 - Renewal of the Plant Variety Protection Board Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Renewal of the Plant Variety Protection Board Charter AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee...

  3. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View ...

  4. Agricultural Land Conversion: Background and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuseth, Owen J.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes forces contributing to the conversion of agricultural land for other uses, causes for the depletion of the land, major issues surrounding the loss of farmland, and current policies designed to control haphazard land conversion. Concludes that the United States lacks a national farmland protection policy. (KC)

  5. Health hazards to children in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Wilk, V A

    1993-09-01

    Children comprise a significant portion of the agricultural workforce and are exposed to many workplace hazards, including farm machinery, pesticides, poor field sanitation, unsafe transportation, and fatigue from doing physically demanding work for long periods. Migrant farmworker children face the additional hazard of substandard or nonexistent housing in the fields. Children account for a disproportionate share of agricultural workplace fatalities and disabling injuries, with more than 300 deaths and 27,000 injuries per year. The most common cause of fatal and nonfatal injury among children in agriculture is farm machinery, with tractors accounting for the greatest number. Remedies to the problems of child labor must take into account family economics and the need for child care. Labor law reform and rigorous enforcement of existing laws and of workplace health and safety requirements are vital to better protect the children and adults working in agriculture.

  6. EPA Releases Report on West Virginia Agriculture Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (PHILADELPHIA - August 31, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced today it has completed an evaluation of West Virginia's animal agriculture regulations and programs. The assessment, which is one of six that the agency is conductin

  7. EPA Issues Report on Pennsylvania Animal Agriculture Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (PHILADELPHIA - March 16, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced today it has completed an evaluation of Pennsylvania's animal agriculture programs. The assessment is one of six that the agency is conducting of state animal agricul

  8. Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

    The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

  9. 78 FR 37200 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural... their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: July 31, 2013... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Jennifer Banks, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and...

  10. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  11. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  12. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  13. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  15. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  17. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  19. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  20. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  1. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  2. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  3. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  4. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  5. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  6. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  7. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  8. Vocational Agriculture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

    These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

  9. Agriculture in the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...

  10. USSR Report Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the last century one of the first Russian agronomists, M. G. Pavlov , in speaking about efficient agriculture, was asked the question, is agriculture...three are agronomists in enterprises--Nikolay Georgiyevich Kovalev, Fedor Akimovich Ivashchenko and Ivan Kirillovich Okhrimenko. All three work under the

  11. Revisiting Supervised Agricultural Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; Clarke, Ariane; Fallon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 40 agricultural educators unanimously agreed that supervised agricultural experience should remain an integral component of the curriculum; a name change is not currently warranted. Categories recommended were agribusiness entrepreneurship, placement, production, research, directed school lab, communications, exploration, and…

  12. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  13. Invasive species in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

  14. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  15. Agricultural chemical utilization and human health.

    PubMed Central

    Mushak, E W; Piver, W T

    1992-01-01

    The public is justifiably concerned about the human health effects of agricultural chemicals. The many gaps in information about the mechanisms of toxic action, human exposures, and the nature and extent of human health effects are large. Very few older pesticides, in particular, have been tested for human health effects. Workers who produce, harvest, store, transport, process, and prepare food and fibers are exposed to many chemicals that are potentially hazardous and that are used in agriculture. The occupational health of these workers has not been adequately studied, and protective efforts have sometimes been minimal. Valid and accurate risk assessment is best based on sound information about how chemicals, in this case agricultural chemicals, are involved in toxic events--their mechanisms of action. These health effects include tumor promotion, chronic and acute neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Another key part of risk assessment is exposure assessment. Fundamental studies of the toxicology of target organisms and nontarget organisms exposed to agricultural chemicals are needed to discover and develop better solutions to the problems of agricultural pest control, including better formulations, optimal application rates and public education in safety and alternative agricultural practices. The large number of pesticides that have never been adequately tested for effects on human health is particularly worrisome in light of emerging information about delayed nervous system effects. PMID:1396466

  16. Harvest of confusion: immigration reform and California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1990-01-01

    "Agriculture was a major stumbling block to immigration reform [in the United States], largely because Congress was unwilling to assign explicit priorities to the competing goals of protecting American workers and admitting supplemental immigrant farmworkers. This article describes the Special Agricultural Worker or SAW legalization program that generated 700,000 applications in California and the hypothetical calculations required to determine whether Replenishment Agricultural Workers or RAWs will be admitted to the United States to do farmwork. The paper concludes that immigration reform did not resolve the century-old debate over agriculture's 'need' for alien workers; instead, SAWs and RAWs have contributed to the harvest of confusion on farm labor."

  17. HEALTH AND EXPOSURE RESEARCH FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY: THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The AHS is the...

  18. Career Preparation in Agricultural Resources: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Householder, Larry

    This curriculum guide in agricultural resources is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes eight occupational subgroups: fish, forestry, mining area restoration, outdoor recreation, soil, range, water, and wildlife. It is…

  19. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and health conditions in agricultural and non-agricultural workers from Maule, Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Levy, Karen; Muñoz, María Pía; Achú, Eduardo; Cornejo, Claudia; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of exposure to OP pesticides and health status in Chilean farm workers from the Maule Region. An occupational health questionnaire was administered in 207 agricultural and non-agricultural workers. For the group of agricultural workers, we asked about specific occupational exposure history and symptoms of OP pesticide poisoning. The main health problem of the exposed group was previous OP pesticide poisoning (p < 0.001). Fifty-six percent of agricultural workers reported symptoms consistent with acute OP pesticide poisoning. The use of respiratory personal protective equipment and younger age were protective against these symptoms, and number of years of OP pesticide exposure was positively associated with reporting symptoms of poisoning. Of the pesticide applicators 47 % reported using chlorpyrifos. The regulations regarding use and application of pesticides should be strengthened, as should training and intervention with workers to improve the use of personal protective equipment.

  20. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  1. Nonpoint Source: Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agricultural runoff as a nonpoint source category of pollution. Resouces to learn more a bout conservation practices to reduce water quality impacts from storm water run off and ground water infiltration

  2. Agricultural Education and OSHA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1974-01-01

    Agriculture teachers should be interested in and become familiar with the implications of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 for their own benefit, for their students, and for their students' future employers. (AG)

  3. USSR Report Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This is USSR Report for Agriculture. It contains the issues with different topics on Major Crop Progress and Weather Reporting, Livestock, Regional Development , Agro-Economics and Organization, Tilling and Cropping Technology.

  4. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  5. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  6. Toward a Sustainable Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Future trends in population growth, energy use, climate change, and globalization will challenge agriculturists to develop innovative production systems that are highly productive and environmentally sound. Furthermore, future agricultural production systems must possess an inherent capacity to adap...

  7. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  8. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality.

  9. USSR Report Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-06

    simultaneous freeing of production resources for the achievement of other social goals of public development involves improving the structure of the food...in agriculture it becomes possible to free about 2 million hectares of arable land for the purpose of cultivating other crops, about 200,000 persons...insufficient application of mineral fertilizers. The structural changes in agriculture proposed by us, based on the freeing of 2 million hectares of

  10. Lunar agriculture in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, S.

    Through the moon' s role in choosing the proper time for planting, harvesting and woodcutting is widely attested in ethnographic reports, the cultural logic and structure of actions by which this celestial body is perceived and used has not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of this paper is to offer such an explanatory framework within which the role of the moon in the agricultural cycle may be explained. My examples of the beliefs about lunar agriculture derive from the Mesoamerican cultural tradition.

  11. 77 FR 1913 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    .... SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on critical air quality issues related to agriculture. Special emphasis will be placed... Environmental Protection Agency Updates D. Air Quality Issues/Concerns Discussions Exceptional Events...

  12. 19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United States of plants and plant products is subject to regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting...

  13. 40 CFR 166.22 - Consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and Governors of the States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agriculture and Governors of the States. 166.22 Section 166.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and Governors of the States. The Agency, in determining whether or not such emergency conditions exist, shall consult with the Secretary of Agriculture and...

  14. 19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United States of plants and plant products is subject to regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting...

  15. 40 CFR 166.22 - Consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and Governors of the States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agriculture and Governors of the States. 166.22 Section 166.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and Governors of the States. The Agency, in determining whether or not such emergency conditions exist, shall consult with the Secretary of Agriculture and...

  16. 19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United States of plants and plant products is subject to regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting...

  17. 40 CFR 166.22 - Consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and Governors of the States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agriculture and Governors of the States. 166.22 Section 166.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and Governors of the States. The Agency, in determining whether or not such emergency conditions exist, shall consult with the Secretary of Agriculture and...

  18. 40 CFR 166.22 - Consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and Governors of the States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture and Governors of the States. 166.22 Section 166.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and Governors of the States. The Agency, in determining whether or not such emergency conditions exist, shall consult with the Secretary of Agriculture and...

  19. 77 FR 16990 - Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture of Two Draft Regulatory Documents...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... of Agriculture of Two Draft Regulatory Documents Under FIFRA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ] ACTION: Notification of submission to the Secretary of Agriculture. SUMMARY: This document... (FIFRA) that the EPA has forwarded to the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture...

  20. 19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United States of plants and plant products is subject to regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting...

  1. 40 CFR 166.22 - Consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and Governors of the States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agriculture and Governors of the States. 166.22 Section 166.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and Governors of the States. The Agency, in determining whether or not such emergency conditions exist, shall consult with the Secretary of Agriculture and...

  2. 19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United States of plants and plant products is subject to regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting...

  3. Economic and Social Conditions Relating to Agriculture and Its Structure to Year 2000. CARD Miscellaneous Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.

    Possible economic and social trends in world agriculture by year 2000 will include increased energy costs; larger, fewer and more specialized farms; decreasing agricultural population; closer ties between farmers and large agribusinesses; more emphasis on consumer and environmental protection; and an increased importance of agriculture in…

  4. The Omics Revolution in Agricultural Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Agrochemicals Division cosponsored the 13th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held as part of the 248th National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society in San Francisco, CA, USA, August 10–14, 2014. The topic of the Congress was Crop, Environment, and Public Health Protection; Technologies for a Changing World. Over 1000 delegates participated in the Congress with interactive scientific programming in nine major topic areas including the challenges and opportunities of agricultural biotechnology. Plenary speakers addressed global issues related to the Congress theme prior to the daily technical sessions. The plenary lecture addressing the challenges and opportunities that omic technologies provide agricultural research is presented here. The plenary lecture provided the diverse audience with information on a complex subject to stimulate research ideas and provide a glimpse of the impact of omics on agricultural research. PMID:26468989

  5. The Omics Revolution in Agricultural Research.

    PubMed

    Van Emon, Jeanette M

    2016-01-13

    The Agrochemicals Division cosponsored the 13th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held as part of the 248th National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society in San Francisco, CA, USA, August 10-14, 2014. The topic of the Congress was Crop, Environment, and Public Health Protection; Technologies for a Changing World. Over 1000 delegates participated in the Congress with interactive scientific programming in nine major topic areas including the challenges and opportunities of agricultural biotechnology. Plenary speakers addressed global issues related to the Congress theme prior to the daily technical sessions. The plenary lecture addressing the challenges and opportunities that omic technologies provide agricultural research is presented here. The plenary lecture provided the diverse audience with information on a complex subject to stimulate research ideas and provide a glimpse of the impact of omics on agricultural research.

  6. About the Endangered Species Protection Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The goal of EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program is to carry out EPA’s FIFRA responsibilities in compliance with the Endangered Species Act, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and other pesticide users. Read an overview of the ESPP.

  7. 7 CFR 3550.206 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be charged against the largest loan. (2) Amounts advanced will be due with the next scheduled payment... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF.... RHS may pay for fees or services and charge the cost against the borrower's account to protect...

  8. 7 CFR 3550.206 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be charged against the largest loan. (2) Amounts advanced will be due with the next scheduled payment... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF.... RHS may pay for fees or services and charge the cost against the borrower's account to protect...

  9. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  10. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production

    PubMed Central

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and—more importantly—create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win–lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3–3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future. PMID:20643935

  11. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-11-16

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and--more importantly--create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win-lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3-3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future.

  12. Governance, agricultural intensification, and land sparing in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Ceddia, Michele Graziano; Bardsley, Nicholas Oliver; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Sedlacek, Sabine

    2014-05-20

    In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South American countries and quantify the effects of major determinants of agricultural land expansion, including various dimensions of governance, over the period 1970-2006. The results indicate that the effect of agricultural intensification on agricultural expansion is conditional on the quality and type of governance. When considering conventional aspects of governance, agricultural intensification leads to an expansion of agricultural area when governance scores are high. When looking specifically at environmental aspects of governance, intensification leads to a spatial contraction of agriculture when governance scores are high, signaling a sustainable intensification process.

  13. Governance, agricultural intensification, and land sparing in tropical South America

    PubMed Central

    Ceddia, Michele Graziano; Bardsley, Nicholas Oliver; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Sedlacek, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South American countries and quantify the effects of major determinants of agricultural land expansion, including various dimensions of governance, over the period 1970–2006. The results indicate that the effect of agricultural intensification on agricultural expansion is conditional on the quality and type of governance. When considering conventional aspects of governance, agricultural intensification leads to an expansion of agricultural area when governance scores are high. When looking specifically at environmental aspects of governance, intensification leads to a spatial contraction of agriculture when governance scores are high, signaling a sustainable intensification process. PMID:24799696

  14. 29 CFR 500.70 - Scope of worker protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) General. The Act provides protections for migrant and seasonal agricultural workers irrespective of... property which is used as housing for any migrant agricultural workers must ensure that the facility or... of migrant or seasonal agricultural workers. As stated in these regulations, the...

  15. 78 FR 63448 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Notices #0; Federal...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is intended to notify...

  16. Theme: Changes in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Changes in Agricultural Education in Tennessee" (Byerley, Todd); "Evolving Focus for Agricultural Education Graduates?" (Schlink); "Researching Adult Organizations in Agricultural Education" (Seevers, Dormody); "Past 25 Years" (Klein, Luft); "Agricultural Education" (Sibiga, Mannebach); "Don't Look Back" (Butcher); "Changes in…

  17. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  18. Agriculture and water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, G. William

    The attempt by certain jurisdictions to preserve a rural lifestyle by means of farmland preservation may produce some unwanted side effects, such as polluted water supplies. While there are many excellent and important reasons to preserve high-quality agricultural land for food production, efforts to retain or encourage agricultural activities in areas experiencing rapid population growth may produce some serious environmental problems.For the entire post-WW II period the United States has experienced almost continuous suburban sprawl. Many incorporated areas, experiencing rapid development, have attempted to preserve open-space and less-developed land uses by actively attempting to preserve agricultural activities. Often the most recent migrants to a growing municipality exemplify the ‘last in’ syndrome by being among the most vociferous in attempting to halt further development.

  19. Agriculture-related anaemias.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F

    1994-12-01

    Man evolved as a hunter-gatherer, and the invention and spread of agriculture was followed by changes in diet, the environment and population densities which have resulted in globally high prevalences of anaemias due to nutritional deficiencies of iron, folate and (locally) vitamin B12, to infestations by hookworm and schistosomes, to malaria, and to the natural selection for the genes for sickle-cell diseases, beta-thalassaemias, alpha-thalassaemias, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, ovalocytosis and possibly (locally) elliptocytosis. The present explosion of population is driving an expansion of agriculture, especially the cultivation of rice, and this has led often to disastrous increases of transmission of malaria, schistosomiasis and other diseases, to widespread chemical pollution, and to degradation of the environment. Anaemia, as the commonest manifestation of human disease, is a frequent consequence. The urgent need for increased food production is matched by the urgent need for assessment and control of the health impact of agricultural development.

  20. [Musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture].

    PubMed

    Bernard, Christophe; Tourne, Mathias

    2007-06-15

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major area of concern in the occupational world. The agricultural industry is particularly affected: 93 percent of occupational diseases in agriculture are MSD. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs in one third of the cases. Shoulder is the second most common location. The most affected occupational areas are meat production, viticulture, market gardening, horticulture and small animal farming. This MSD phenomenon, of multifactorial origin, which has been amplifying for two decades, has led to some consensus in terms of definition and prevention strategy. The aim is to identify, limit or even suppress risk factors through worker training as well as through actions related to work organization. Regarding occupational health and safety in agriculture, two fronts of progress have been mentioned: the creation of a statistic observatory of MSD (disease, occupational area and cost) and the assessment of prevention activities. Finally, a new issue is being discussed: sustainable prevention of MSD.

  1. Traumatic injuries in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hard, D L; Myers, J R; Gerberich, S G

    2002-02-01

    The National Coalition for Agricultural Safety and Health (NCASH) in 1988 addressed issues in agriculture and noted "a sense of urgency... arose from the recognition of the unabating epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming . . ." This article provides an update to the NCASH conference on traumatic injuries in agriculture, a history on how the facts and figures were arrived at for the NCASH conference, and a current report on the status of traumatic injuries in agriculture in the U.S. Fatal and nonfatal injuries are addressed along with national and regional surveillance systems. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) was used for reporting national agricultural production fatal injuries from 1992-1998 (25.8 deaths per 100,000 workers), the Traumatic Injury Surveillance of Farmers (TISF) 1993-1995 was used to report nonfatal injuries occurring nationally (7.5/100 workers), and Regional Rural Injury Studies I and II (RRIS-I and RRIS-II) were used to illustrate a regional approach along with in-depth, specific analyses. Fatality rates, which showed some decline in the 1980s, were fairly constant during the 1990s. Changes in nonfatal injury rates for this sector could not be assessed due to a lack of benchmark data. The main concerns identified in the 1989 NCASH report continue today: tractors are the leading cause of farm-related death due mostly to overturns; older farmers continue to be at the highest risk for farm fatalities; and traumatic injuries continue to be a major concern for youth living or working on U.S. farms. Fatal and nonfatal traumatic injuries associated with agricultural production are a major public health problem that needs to be addressed through comprehensive approaches that include further delineation of the problem, particularly in children and older adults, and identification of specific risk factors through analytic efforts. Continued development of relevant surveillance systems and implementation of appropriate

  2. Proceedings: Agricultural Technology Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report is a compilation of field trip overviews, presentations and committee reports from the EPRI-ATA meeting held in Boise, Idaho, May 28-30, 1997. The field trips consisted of an Agriculture and Aquaculture Tour, a tour of Idaho as America's Seed Supplier, and a Production of Milk, Cheese and Electricity tour. Presentations and committee reports include the following: (1) Idaho Seed Industry; (2) Controlled Environment Agriculture; (3) Irrigation in the North West: An Overview; (4) Drip Irrigation; (5) Sprinkler Irrigation; (6) Current Status of the ATA; (7) ATA Office Report; (8) Committee Reports; (9) Steering Committee Minutes.

  3. Agricultural Meteorology in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1982-03-01

    During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

  4. Agricultural use of wetlands: opportunities and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Jos T. A.; Setter, Tim L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Wetlands are species-rich habitats performing valuable ecosystem services such as flood protection, water quality enhancement, food chain support and carbon sequestration. Worldwide, wetlands have been drained to convert them into agricultural land or industrial and urban areas. A realistic estimate is that 50 % of the world's wetlands have been lost. Scope This paper reviews the relationship between wetlands and agriculture with the aim to identify the successes and failures of agricultural use in different types of wetlands, with reference to short-term and long-term benefits and issues of sustainability. It also addresses a number of recent developments which will lead to pressure to reclaim and destroy natural wetlands, i.e. the continuous need for higher production to feed an increasing world population and the increasing cultivation of energy crops. Finally, attention is paid to the development of more flood-tolerant crop cultivars. Conclusions Agriculture has been carried out in several types of (former) wetlands for millennia, with crop fields on river floodplain soils and rice fields as major examples. However, intensive agricultural use of drained/reclaimed peatlands has been shown to lead to major problems because of the oxidation and subsidence of the peat soil. This does not only lead to severe carbon dioxide emissions, but also results in low-lying land which needs to be protected against flooding. Developments in South-East Asia, where vast areas of tropical peatlands are being converted into oil palm plantations, are of great concern in this respect. Although more flood-tolerant cultivars of commercial crop species are being developed, these are certainly not suitable for cultivation in wetlands with prolonged flooding periods, but rather will survive relatively short periods of waterlogging in normally improved agricultural soils. From a sustainability perspective, reclamation of peatlands for agriculture should be strongly discouraged

  5. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > NEI for Kids > Protective Eyewear All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  6. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  7. Vocational Agriculture II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Keith; Steward, Jim

    This curriculum guide was developed for second-year courses in vocational agriculture in Oklahoma. The curriculum contains 5 sections organized in 16 instructional units. The units follow a standard format established in 1970 for development of instructional materials for all Oklahoma vocational teachers. This format includes eight basic…

  8. Agriculture, Forestry, Range Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Significant results obtained from ERTS-1 observations of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are summarized. Four major parts are covered: (1) crop classification and mensuration; (2) timber and range resources survey and classification; (3) soil survey and mapping; and (4) subdiscipline areas.

  9. Popular misconceptions: agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McHughen, Alan; Wager, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Agricultural biotechnology, especially genetic engineering or genetic modification (GM), is a topic of considerable controversy worldwide. The public debate is fraught with polarized views and opinions, some are held with religious zeal. Unfortunately, it is also marked with much ignorance and misinformation. Here we explore some popular misconceptions encountered in the public debate.

  10. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  11. [Vibration on agricultural tractors].

    PubMed

    Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed.

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David; Walsh, Fiona

    2016-04-19

    In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans.

  13. Curriculum Guide for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem. Div. of Community Colleges and Career Education.

    Developed through a cooperative effort by industry and education, this curriculum guide outlines the basic knowledge and skills necessary for entry-level competencies in the broad field of agriculture, or for entrance into a post-high school program. This guide is one of several developed for Oregon's new approach to secondary education called…

  14. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  15. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-08-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.

  16. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  17. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  18. Agriculture Education. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in ornamental horticulture. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) horticulture and job opportunities, (2) preparing soil mixtures, (3) control, (4) plant propagation, (5) plant…

  19. USSR Report, Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-04

    exists beyond the Urals. Extensive flooding is expected here on the Lower Tunguska . Spring upper levels will be surpassed on the rivers of...extraordinary event . Allow me to cite an example involving another oblast and another branch of agriculture. In 1982, 55 farms in Orel Oblast obtained

  20. Urban conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables are important sources of vitamins and nutrients for human nutrition. United States Department of Agriculture recommends filling half of the food plates with vegetables in every meal. While it is important in promoting good health, access to fresh vegetables is limited especially in urban ...

  1. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  2. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  3. Agriculture Sales and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Robert

    Designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in agriculture and related areas, this curriculum guide is written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives, and is a suggested method of group instruction for students who are employed in an agribusiness program. The material is intended to cover those items which every…

  4. Agriculture: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 3-year program in agriculture. The guide consists of a course description; general course objectives;…

  5. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  6. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  7. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    evaluation of the phyto- sanitary condition of the fields were not coordinated with the calendar- phenological schedules, some agronomists were unable...During the first year following its introduction, an intensified variation of this agricultural technology enabled the Tambov grain growers to produce

  8. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  9. 7 CFR 1980.472 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... obligations. Ordinarily, protective advances are made when liquidation is contemplated or in process. A... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protective advances. 1980.472 Section 1980.472...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.472...

  10. 7 CFR 1980.472 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... obligations. Ordinarily, protective advances are made when liquidation is contemplated or in process. A... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective advances. 1980.472 Section 1980.472...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.472...

  11. 7 CFR 1980.472 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... obligations. Ordinarily, protective advances are made when liquidation is contemplated or in process. A... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective advances. 1980.472 Section 1980.472...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.472...

  12. 7 CFR 1980.472 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... obligations. Ordinarily, protective advances are made when liquidation is contemplated or in process. A... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Protective advances. 1980.472 Section 1980.472...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.472...

  13. 7 CFR 1980.472 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... obligations. Ordinarily, protective advances are made when liquidation is contemplated or in process. A... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective advances. 1980.472 Section 1980.472...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.472...

  14. The global view: issues affecting US production agriculture.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses small events occurring among developing countries, particularly but not exclusively in Asia, and their subsequent large impacts on net food exporting countries in the world, particularly, but not exclusively, located in the Western hemisphere. A Green Revolution II is underway as a result where the world's agricultural system will produce more (output) with less (inputs). Agriculture will meet the rapidly growing demand for bio-based foods, fuels, feeds, and fiber while reducing input usage, preserving the natural environment, and maintaining native ecosystems. In turn agricultural workers will receive a health dividend as chemical usage falls, automation, metering, and sensing technologies rise, and exposure to harsh environmental, both natural and man-made, conditions is reduced. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  15. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  16. An Evaluation Tool for Agricultural Health and Safety Mobile Applications.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Iris; Ellis, Tammy; Yoder, Aaron; Keifer, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    As the use of mobile devices and their software applications, or apps, becomes ubiquitous, use amongst agricultural working populations is expanding as well. The smart device paired with a well-designed app has potential for improving workplace health and safety in the hands of those who can act upon the information provided. Many apps designed to assess workplace hazards and implementation of worker protections already exist. However, the abundance and diversity of such applications also presents challenges regarding evaluation practices and assignation of value. This is particularly true in the agricultural workspace, as there is currently little information on the value of these apps for agricultural safety and health. This project proposes a framework for developing and evaluating apps that have potential usefulness in agricultural health and safety. The evaluation framework is easily transferable, with little modification for evaluation of apps in several agriculture-specific areas.

  17. Chitinases: in agriculture and human healthcare.

    PubMed

    Nagpure, Anand; Choudhary, Bharti; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2014-09-01

    Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi and insects continues to inspire the research and development of environmentally friendly bioactive alternatives. Potentially lytic enzymes, chitinases can act as a biocontrol agent against agriculturally important fungi and insects. The cell wall in fungi and protective covers, i.e. cuticle in insects shares a key structural polymer, chitin, a β-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine polymer. Therefore, it is advantageous to develop a common biocontrol agent against both of these groups. As chitin is absent in plants and mammals, targeting its metabolism will signify an eco-friendly strategy for the control of agriculturally important fungi and insects but is innocuous to mammals, plants, beneficial insects and other organisms. In addition, development of chitinase transgenic plant varieties probably holds the most promising method for augmenting agricultural crop protection and productivity, when properly integrated into traditional systems. Recently, human proteins with chitinase activity and chitinase-like proteins were identified and established as biomarkers for human diseases. This review covers the recent advances of chitinases as a biocontrol agent and its various applications including preparation of medically important chitooligosaccharides, bioconversion of chitin as well as in implementing chitinases as diagnostic and prognostic markers for numerous diseases and the prospect of their future utilization.

  18. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter.

    PubMed

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  19. Intramuscular delivery of adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing humanized protective antigen induces rapid protection against anthrax that may bypass intranasally originated preexisting adenovirus immunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shipo; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ying; Song, Xiaohong; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Ju; Chen, Jianqin; Yin, Ying; Xu, Junjie; Hou, Lihua; Chen, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Developing an effective anthrax vaccine that can induce a rapid and sustained immune response is a priority for the prevention of bioterrorism-associated anthrax infection. Here, we developed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine expressing the humanized protective antigen (Ad5-PAopt). A single intramuscular injection of Ad5-PAopt resulted in rapid and robust humoral and cellular immune responses in Fisher 344 rats. Animals intramuscularly inoculated with a single dose of 10⁸ infectious units of Ad5-PAopt achieved 100% protection from challenge with 10 times the 50% lethal dose (LD₅₀) of anthrax lethal toxin 7 days after vaccination. Although preexisting intranasally induced immunity to Ad5 slightly weakened the humoral and cellular immune responses to Ad5-PAopt via intramuscular inoculation, 100% protection was achieved 15 days after vaccination in Fisher 344 rats. The protective efficacy conferred by intramuscular vaccination in the presence of preexisting intranasally induced immunity was significantly better than that of intranasal delivery of Ad5-PAopt and intramuscular injection with recombinant PA and aluminum adjuvant without preexisting immunity. As natural Ad5 infection often occurs via the mucosal route, the work here largely illuminates that intramuscular inoculation with Ad5-PAopt can overcome the negative effects of immunity induced by prior adenovirus infection and represents an efficient approach for protecting against emerging anthrax.

  20. Agricultural Health Study

    Cancer.gov

    A prospective cohort study of commercial pesticide applicators, farmers and farmers' spouses in Iowa and North Carolina conducted in collaboration between the NIH and the U.S. Evironmental Protection Agency

  1. Solar charged agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Heckeroth, S.

    1999-07-01

    It is becoming obvious that the developed world's reliance on petroleum for transportation and agricultural production is not sustainable. Industrial agriculture currently uses an average of 200 gallons of diesel per acre (1,900 liters per hectare) per year. Sustainability requires a transition to the use of non-polluting renewable energy sources, as well as small scale farming techniques. This paper outlines the tremendous potential electric tractors offer in a variety of applications all over the world, including greenhouses and organic farms, toxic cleanup, bomb disposal and mine sweeping, as well as use as a mobile power source in remote areas and in emergency applications. An electric tractor can be charged from photovoltaic panels, either on the tractor in the form of a shade canopy or mounted on the roof of a building.

  2. Contacting passengers after exposure to measles on an international flight: Implications for responding to new disease threats and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Lasher, Lara E; Ayers, Tracy L; Amornkul, Pauli N; Nakatab, Michele N; Effler, Paul V

    2004-01-01

    On May 21, 2000, a passenger with measles traveled from Japan to Hawai'i on a seven-hour flight. When the flight landed, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Quarantine Station in Honolulu alerted passengers that a suspected case of measles had been identified, but they were not detained. The next day, to offer appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis, the Hawai'i Department of Health (HDOH) attempted to contact all passengers from the flight using information from the airline, U.S. Customs declaration forms, and tour agencies. Of 335 total passengers, 270 (81%) were successfully reached and provided complete information. The mean time from exposure to contact for all respondents was 61 hours (95% confidence interval 57, 66). A total of 202 (75%) of the responding passengers were contacted within 72 hours after exposure, the time period during which administration of measles vaccine would have provided protection for susceptible individuals. The time-to-contact was significantly longer for passengers who did not stay in hotels than for hotel guests. Customs forms proved to be of limited utility in contacting international travelers. This experience highlights the need for more complete and timely methods of contacting passengers potentially exposed to infectious agents aboard flights.

  3. Contacting passengers after exposure to measles on an international flight: Implications for responding to new disease threats and bioterrorism.

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Lara E.; Ayers, Tracy L.; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Nakatab, Michele N.; Effler, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    On May 21, 2000, a passenger with measles traveled from Japan to Hawai'i on a seven-hour flight. When the flight landed, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Quarantine Station in Honolulu alerted passengers that a suspected case of measles had been identified, but they were not detained. The next day, to offer appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis, the Hawai'i Department of Health (HDOH) attempted to contact all passengers from the flight using information from the airline, U.S. Customs declaration forms, and tour agencies. Of 335 total passengers, 270 (81%) were successfully reached and provided complete information. The mean time from exposure to contact for all respondents was 61 hours (95% confidence interval 57, 66). A total of 202 (75%) of the responding passengers were contacted within 72 hours after exposure, the time period during which administration of measles vaccine would have provided protection for susceptible individuals. The time-to-contact was significantly longer for passengers who did not stay in hotels than for hotel guests. Customs forms proved to be of limited utility in contacting international travelers. This experience highlights the need for more complete and timely methods of contacting passengers potentially exposed to infectious agents aboard flights. PMID:15313108

  4. Agricultural Awareness Days: Integrating Agricultural Partnerships and STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian T.; Wilkinson, Carol A.; Shepherd, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States there is a need to educate young children in science, technology, and agriculture. Through collaboration with many agricultural groups, the Southern Piedmont Agricultural Research and Education Center has set up a program that works with 3rd grade students and teachers to reinforce the science that has been taught in the…

  5. Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

  6. USSR Report Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-24

    following fallow with minimal soil cultivation are damaged to a lesser degree by click beetles and darkling beetles and the harm caused by root rots...receipts and so forth); LPKh specialization and cooperation; the creation of organized forms for supplying them with feed, light mechanization equipment...Llnterview with V.G. Shuntova, chief of the Department of Agricultural Implements and Light Mechanization Equipment of the Central Union of Consumer’s

  7. Agriculture and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-07-03

    How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

  8. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broad- casts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. This document includes articles concerning agriculture issues in the USSR. Topics include: crop progress and weather reporting, livestock, regional development , agro-economicss and organizations, tilling and cropping technology.

  9. Agricultural application of SWECS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, V.

    Principal applications of wind energy for agriculture are (1) farmstead power, mainly electrical, (2) building heating, (3) irrigation pumping, (4) product storage and processing, (5) hot water for residences and dairies, and (6) associated industries of agribusiness such as feedlots, fertilizer elevators, greenhouses, etc. Field experiments show that wind energy is a viable alternative, however, reliability and maintenance are still major problems. Test results of the various experiments are described.

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. PMID:27094336

  11. USSR Report, Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-03

    peas and barley. (0204 GMT) In Bryansk Oblast potato field work is under way. Field work is under way on sunflower plantations in the Ukraine...part of the country. Haymowing is rapidly gain- ing speed. Stocks of silage are being procured earlier than usual. (1800 GMT) 29 June-1 July...earmarked for agriculture was directed into this branch . During the years of the 10th Five- Year Plan the proportion of gross livestock production within

  12. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    obtained from copyright owner, JPRS-UAG-84-021 12 June 1984 USSR REPORT AGRICULTURE CONTENTS MAJOR CROP PROGRESS AND WEATHER REPORTING Details...KHOZYAYSTVA, No 3, Mar 84) - b - MAJOR CROP PROGRESS AND WEATHER REPORTING DETAILS OF SOWING PROGRESS IN ROSTOVSKAYA OBLAST Moscow SEL’SKAYA ZHIZN1...MAJOR CROP PROGRESS AND WEATHER REPORTING SPRING SOWING OPERATIONS IN BELORUSSIAN SSR REVIEWED Minsk SEL’SKAYA GAZETA in Russian 20 Apr 84 p 1

  13. Agricultural and urban pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  14. USSR Report, Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Per hectare of sown area Per ruble of expenditures Winter rye Central taiga -forest Forest steppe Steppe 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22...South Siberian Pro- vince Spring barley Central taiga Semidesert, with irrigation Corn for silage Natural-agricultural mountain regions...harvest increments reach 12.9 quintals per hectare (50.8 percent) on soddy-podzolic soil in the European Province and the Central taiga zone and 9.4 to

  15. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  16. Theme: In-Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Seven theme articles review the history and philosophy of vocational agriculture, its relationship to the national goals for education, the place of sustainable agriculture and supervised experience in the curriculum, diversifying the curriculum, and fisheries education programs in Alaska. (SK)

  17. Agricultural Program Aides - Why Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Vance W.; Ladewig, Howard

    1973-01-01

    The authors report the results of a pilot research program in Texas involving the use of local low-income farmers as agricultural program aides to bring about changes in agricultural production and management and level of living. (Editor)

  18. Strategies To Promote Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    The purpose of the agricultural literacy effort has been to produce informed citizens able to participate more fully in the establishment of policies that support a highly competitive agricultural industry in this country and abroad. In their article titled, "Position Statement on Agricultural Literacy," Russell, McCracken, and Miller…

  19. The Historiography of American Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, R. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Provides secondary school U.S. history teachers with a beginning bibliography for incorporating agricultural history into their classes. Annotates books covering the social, economic, and political aspects of agricultural history. Identifies works dealing with topical matters such as land settlement, slavery, agricultural policy, and the Dust…

  20. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  1. 7 CFR 407.15 - Area risk protection insurance for grain sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for grain sorghum. 407... risk protection insurance for grain sorghum. The grain sorghum crop insurance provisions for Area Risk... AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Grain Sorghum Crop...

  2. Maple Agriculture Protection and Law Enforcement Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2011-10-20

    10/20/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6875-6876) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the

  4. Transition Pathways towards a Robust Ecologization of Agriculture and the Need for System Redesign. Cases from Organic Farming and IPM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamine, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The growing criticism of intensive agricultural practices that lead to a deterioration of natural resources and a decrease of biodiversity has progressively led to more environmental constraints being put on agricultural activities through an "ecologization" of agricultural policies. The aims of these policies have been to protect environmentally…

  5. PROTECTING BIODIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    At present, over 40% of the earth's land surface has been converted from its natural state to one dominated by human activities such as agriculture and development. The destruction and degradation of natural habitats has been clearly linked to the loss of biodiversity. Biodiver...

  6. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  7. Detecting transition in agricultural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, P. J.; Coiner, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural phenomena has been largely concentrated on analysis of agriculture at the field level. Concern has been to identify crop status, crop condition, and crop distribution, all of which are spatially analyzed on a field-by-field basis. A more general level of abstraction is the agricultural system, or the complex of crops and other land cover that differentiate various agricultural economies. The paper reports on a methodology to assist in the analysis of the landscape elements of agricultural systems with Landsat digital data. The methodology involves tracing periods of photosynthetic activity for a fixed area. Change from one agricultural system to another is detected through shifts in the intensity and periodicity of photosynthetic activity as recorded in the radiometric return to Landsat. The Landsat-derived radiometric indicator of photosynthetic activity appears to provide the ability to differentiate agricultural systems from each other as well as from conterminous natural vegetation.

  8. Agricultural health and safety: incorporating the worker perspective.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Augustave, Wilson

    2010-07-01

    This commentary offers a worker's perspective on agricultural health and safety and describes (1) the historical exemption of agriculture from regulatory oversight and barriers encountered due to lack of regulations and poor enforcement of the existing standards; (2) the effect of immigration status on worker protections; and (3) the basic desire for economic survival and how this impacts worker health and safety. The commentary describes two models to reduce hazards at work that illustrate how workers' perspectives can be incorporated successfully at the policy level and during the intervention development process and puts forth recommendations for employers, researchers, and funding agencies to facilitate the integration of workers' perspectives into occupational health and safety in agriculture. Ultimately, improved worker protection requires systemic policy and regulatory changes as well as strong enforcement of existing regulations. This commentary summarizes the presentation, "Ground View: Perspectives of Hired Workers," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  9. Beyond conservation agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  10. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  11. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  12. Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Jane Potter

    This directory lists 151 programs in alternative farming systems (systems that aim at maintaining agricultural productivity and profitability, while protecting natural resources, especially sustainable, low-input, regenerative, biodynamic or organic farming and gardening). It includes programs conducted by colleges and universities, research…

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS
    Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2
    1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA.
    2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA.

    A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

  14. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  15. The agricultural model intercomparison and improvement project (AgMIP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural sector faces the challenge of increasing production to provide food security for the projected human population of 9 billion by mid-century, while protecting the environment and the functioning of its ecosystems. These challenges are compounded by the need to adapt to climate change...

  16. 78 FR 23885 - Agricultural Research Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service..., Agricultural Research Service, intends to grant to Headwall Photonics, Inc. of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, an... published Notice, the Agricultural Research Service receives written evidence and argument which...

  17. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  18. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Eye protection means more than just ... after cataract surgery? Aug 30, 2015 Scleritis Symptoms Mar 01, 2015 Anti-reflective Coating Feb 27, 2015 ...

  19. 7 CFR 400.48 - Protection of interests of tenants, landlords or producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits § 400.48 Protection of interests of...

  20. 7 CFR 400.48 - Protection of interests of tenants, landlords or producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits § 400.48 Protection of interests of...

  1. 7 CFR 400.48 - Protection of interests of tenants, landlords or producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits § 400.48 Protection of interests of...

  2. 7 CFR 400.48 - Protection of interests of tenants, landlords or producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits § 400.48 Protection of interests of...

  3. 7 CFR 400.48 - Protection of interests of tenants, landlords or producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits § 400.48 Protection of interests of...

  4. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here.

  5. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  6. Career Preparation in Agricultural Products (Food Processing): A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eddie A.

    This curriculum guide in agricultural products (food processing) is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes three occupational subgroups: meat, fish, poultry; dairy (milk) products; fruits and vegetables. It is meant as an…

  7. USSR Report, Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-22

    fertilizers for the purpose of developing a non-deficit balance of soil humus with a considera- tion of expanding the area in perennial grasses and of...winter cress, hemp , protected forest plantings and seedling nurseries. These systems call for complete utilization of agrotechnical and other types of...substances, particularly, through the use of juvenile hormones and sterilizing agents. At the same time, research efforts must be redoubled in order to

  8. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  9. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  10. Phosphorus transport by surface and subsurface flow pathways in an upland agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved understanding of phosphorus transport by surface and subsurface flow pathways is critical to protecting water quality in agricultural watersheds. While considerable attention has been devoted to understanding phosphorus losses in overland flow, comparatively limited research has examined ph...

  11. Factors Influencing Surface Runoff and Hydrologic Connectivity on an Agricultural Hillslope in Central Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved understanding of surface hydrologic processes is central to the targeted application of agricultural management practices for water quality protection. Factors influencing surface runoff production and hydrologic connectivity were explored at three landscape positions on a single hillslope...

  12. Soil carbon and soil respiration in conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A balance between food production and environmental protection is required to sustainably feed a growing population. The resource saving concept of conservation agriculture aims to achieve this balance through implementing simultaneously three conservation practices; no-till, continuous soil cover, ...

  13. Water Depletion Threatens Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B. D.; Postel, S.; Floerke, M.; Malsy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the human activity that has by far the largest impact on water, constituting 85% of global water consumption and 67% of global water withdrawals. Much of this water use occurs in places where water depletion, the ratio of water consumption to water availability, exceeds 75% for at least one month of the year. Although only 17% of global watershed area experiences depletion at this level or more, nearly 30% of total cropland and 60% of irrigated cropland are found in these depleted watersheds. Staple crops are particularly at risk, with 75% of global irrigated wheat production and 65% of irrigated maize production found in watersheds that are at least seasonally depleted. Of importance to textile production, 75% of cotton production occurs in the same watersheds. For crop production in depleted watersheds, we find that one half to two-thirds of production occurs in watersheds that have not just seasonal but annual water shortages, suggesting that re-distributing water supply over the course of the year cannot be an effective solution to shortage. We explore the degree to which irrigated production in depleted watersheds reflects limitations in supply, a byproduct of the need for irrigation in perennially or seasonally dry landscapes, and identify heavy irrigation consumption that leads to watershed depletion in more humid climates. For watersheds that are not depleted, we evaluate the potential impact of an increase in irrigated production. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of irrigated agriculture in depleted and non-depleted watersheds, quantifying the fraction of irrigated production going to food production, animal feed, and biofuels.

  14. Is rangeland agriculture sustainable?

    PubMed

    Heitschmidt, R K; Vermeire, L T; Grings, E E

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the sustainability of rangeland agriculture (i.e., managed grazing) on a world-wide basis, with a focus on North America. Sustainability is addressed on three fronts: 1) ecological, 2) economic, and 3) social acceptance. Based on previous and on-going research, we suggest that employment of science-based rangeland grazing management strategies and tactics can ensure ecological sustainability. The formidable challenge in employing such technology centers around the need to balance efficiency of solar energy capture and subsequent harvest efficiencies across an array of highly spatially and temporally variable vegetation growing conditions using animals that graze selectively. Failure to meet this fundamental challenge often accelerates rangeland desertification processes, and in some instances, enhances rate and extent of the invasion of noxious weeds. We also suggest that the fundamental reason that ecologically sound grazing management technologies are often not employed in the management of grazed ecological systems is because social values drive management decisions more so than ecological science issues. This is true in both well-developed societies with substantial economic resources and in less-developed societies with few economic resources. However, the social issues driving management are often entirely different, ranging from multiple-use issues in developed countries to human day-to-day survival issues in poorly developed countries. We conclude that the long-term sustainability of rangeland agriculture in 1) developed societies depends on the ability of rangeland agriculturalists to continually respond in a dynamic, positive, proactive manner to ever-changing social values and 2) less-developed societies on their ability to address the ecological and social consequences arising from unsustainable human populations before the adoption of science-based sustainable rangeland management technologies.

  15. Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Agriculture.

    This report presents findings of a study to examine agricultural education at the secondary level and to make recommendations for program improvement. It focuses on the two major elements of agricultural education--agricultural literacy (education about agriculture) and vocational agriculture (education in agriculture). An executive summary sets…

  16. Comparison of Online Agricultural Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; Patterson, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Outlines major online agricultural information services--agricultural databases, databases with agricultural services, educational databases in agriculture--noting services provided, access to the database, and costs. Benefits of online agricultural database sources (availability of agricultural marketing, weather, commodity prices, management…

  17. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey on sources, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capel, Paul D.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Erwin, Martha L.

    2004-01-01

    Information from these studies will help with decision-making related to chemical use, conservation, and other farming practices that are used to reduce runoff of agricultural chemicals and sediment from fields. This information also will benefit the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Agriculture, local and regional water managers, and agricultural chemical manufacturers who are involved in managing chemical use and pesticide registration.

  18. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book.

  19. Grey water on three agricultural catchments in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazkova, Sarka D.; Kulasova, Alena

    2014-05-01

    The COST project EU EURO-AGRIWAT focuses apart from other problems on the assessment of water footprint (WF). WF is defined as the quantity of water used to produce some goods or a service. In particular, the WF of an agricultural product is the volume of water used during the crop growing period. It has three components: the green water which is rain or soil moisture transpired by a crop, the blue water which is the amount of irrigation water transpired and the grey water which is the volume of water required to dilute pollutants and to restore the quality standards of the water body. We have been observing three different agricultural catchments. The first of them is Smrzovka Brook, located in the protected nature area in the south part of the Jizerske Mountains. An ecological farming has been carried out there. The second agricultural catchment area is the Kralovsky Creek, which lies in the foothills of the Krkonose Mountains and is a part of an agricultural cooperative. The last agricultural catchment is the Klejnarka stream, located on the outskirts of the fertile Elbe lowlands near Caslav. Catchments Kralovsky Brook and Klejnarka carry out usual agricultural activities. On all three catchments, however, recreational cottages or houses not connected to the sewerage system and/or with inefficient septic tanks occur. The contribution shows our approach to trying to quantify the real grey water from agriculture, i.e. the grey water caused by nutrients not utilised by the crops.

  20. Nastran's Application in Agricultural Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwicklen, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Finite element analysis has been recognized as a valuable solution method by agricultural engineers. NASTRAN has been obtained by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Georgia. The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer has been used in the teaching program for an undergraduate course in heat transfer and will be used for a new graduate course in finite element analysis. The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer has also been applied to several research problems in the Agricultural Engineering Department.

  1. Institutions, Social Capital and Agricultural Change in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slangen, Louis H. G.; van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Suchanek, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Data from a survey of agricultural stakeholders are used to demonstrate that institutions and social capital play an important role in agricultural success in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Protection of private property, freedom of exchange, consistency in monitoring environmental laws, governments that act neutrally and are not…

  2. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STUDY DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY BIOMARKER RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantify cancer and non-cancer health risks in the agricultural communit...

  3. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  4. Agricultural Marketing. Student Reference. Volume 12, Number 10. Agdex 810, Catalog Number AG-81-S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Robert

    This student guide in agricultural marketing is designed to accompany the lessons in the curriculum unit, "Instructor's Guide in Agricultural Marketing" (CE 025 683). There are six sections in the student guide: (1) Introduction to Marketing; (2) Marketing Cash Grains; (3) Marketing Grain with a Protected Price; (4) Marketing Cash Livestock; (5)…

  5. Agriculture: Natural Events and Disasters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Natural Events and DiasastersInformation on Natural Events and Disasters. Every year natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, fires, earthquakes, and tornadoes, challenge agricultural production.

  6. Conducting Summer School in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Melvin

    1976-01-01

    Course objectives, student competencies, and class session schedules are outlined for two high school vocational agriculture summer courses: Livestock and Livestock Products Evaluation and Agribusiness Leadership Seminar. (MS)

  7. Precision agriculture and food security.

    PubMed

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  8. Food and Agriculture Organization: A Clearinghouse for Agricultural Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joling, Carole

    1989-01-01

    Describes the functions of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which is an international clearinghouse for agricultural information. The discussion focuses on the information formats provided by the agency and the dissemination channels used for FAO information. Lists of finding aids for FAO materials and libraries…

  9. Milk Processing Plant Employee. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaschke, Nolan; Page, Foy

    This course of study is designed for the vocational agricultural student enrolled in an agricultural cooperative part-time training program in the area of milk processing occupations. The course consists of 11 units, each with 4 to 13 individual topics that milk processing plant employees should know. Subjects covered by the units are the…

  10. Agricultural Production. An Administrative Guide for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This basic instructional guide for an agricultural production program is one in a series of such guides for agricultural education. It is useful in developing and selecting instructional material and implementing competency-based education for a program directed toward helping students to become proficient in animal, plant, and soil sciences and…

  11. Comparing Electronic News Media Reports of Potential Bioterrorism-Related Incidents Involving Unknown White Powder to Reports Received by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Federal Bureau of Investigation: USA, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Geroncio C.; Posid, Joseph; Papagiotas, Stephen; Lowe, Luis

    2015-01-01

    There have been periodic electronic news media reports of potential bioterrorism-related incidents involving unknown substances (often referred to as “white powder”) since the 2001 intentional dissemination of Bacillus anthracis through the US Postal System. This study reviewed the number of unknown “white powder” incidents reported online by the electronic news media and compared them with unknown “white powder” incidents reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) during a two-year period from June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2011. Results identified 297 electronic news media reports, 538 CDC reports, and 384 FBI reports of unknown “white powder.” This study showed different unknown “white powder” incidents captured by each of the three sources. However, the authors could not determine the public health implications of this discordance. PMID:25420771

  12. Antimicrobials in animal agriculture: parables and policy.

    PubMed

    Scott, H M; Midgley, G; Loneragan, G H

    2015-04-01

    In addition to the scientific, economic, regulatory and other policy factors that impact on antimicrobial decision-making in different jurisdictions around the world, there exist ethical, social and cultural bases for the contemporary use of these products in animal agriculture. Thus, the use of the word 'parable' to describe the contemporary moral stories that help to guide ethical antimicrobial use practices and broader policy decisions in animal agriculture is appropriate. Several of these stories reflect difficult decisions that arise from conflicting moral imperatives (i.e. both towards animal welfare and towards human health). Understanding the factors that combine to define the past and present paradigms of antimicrobial usage is crucial to mapping a path forward. There exist barriers, as well as opportunities, for advancing scenarios for reducing antimicrobial usage under a variety of voluntary, regulatory and legal policy frameworks. Any new approaches will ideally be structured to extend the use of present-day antimicrobials into the future, to provide novel alternatives for regulating any newly introduced antimicrobial products so as to maximize their useful life span and to ensure the optimal use of these products in animal agriculture to protect not only the health of animals and the interests of animal health/agriculture stakeholders, but also the human health and the interests of the public at large. A full range of policy approaches, which span the realm from strictly enforced regulations and laws to voluntary guidelines and compliance, should be explored with respect to their risks and benefits in a variety of worldwide settings and in full consideration of a range of stakeholder values.

  13. New England Bioterrorism Preparedness Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Clostridium perfringens Agents of Concern: CDC Category C • Nipah virus • hantaviruses • tickborne hemorrhagic fever viruses • yellow fever • multidrug...Existing facility was closed. During this period, Iraq isolated bacteria and viruses , investigated drying processes, taught students, and built up an...recorded death May 16. Total 66 valid cases 11 survivors Smallpox Epidemic Yugoslavia, 1972 Imported Virus Contagion “Natural Outbreak” Feb. 3-7 index

  14. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  15. Structures protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Materials of which an aircraft is made and the methods used to hold these materials together forming the aircraft structure were studied as factors important in protecting a modern aircraft from hazardous natural environments. Since all-metal aircraft are being replaced by aircraft constructed partly of fiber reinforced plastics with desirable light weight and high strength properties but with poor electrical conductivity, the danger of lightning strikes has become more serious. Lightning effects on metal structures were reviewed and design protection was discussed. The expected lightning effects on nonmetallic materials such as fiberglass and advanced composites were also reviewed.

  16. Making agriculture greener.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta

    2015-01-01

    The application of sewage sludge has been a worldwide agricultural practice for many years. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sewage sludge (Ss) has on the physiological parameters of maize (Zea mays L cvs. PR37NO1). 2 g dm(-3) and 4 g dm(-3) of sewage sludge were examined in hydroponic experiment. Some metal contents (Al, Cr, Mn, Na, Zn) in the shoots and roots of maize were taken. Living bacteria containing fertilizers (LBCF) were examined on how the treatments modify heavy metal uptakes. Dry matter accumulations in shoots and roots, length of shoots and roots of maize were measured. Chlorophyll contents were determined by using spectrophotometer methods. The dry matter accumulation and length of shoots decreased, the dry matter of roots increased in all of the treatments compared to the nutrient solution without treatment (control). Increased chlorophyll a, b and carotene contents were observed at 4 g dm(-3) Ss and 4 g dm(-3) Ss + bio fertilizer treatments.

  17. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  18. Agricultural Aircraft Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Farmers are increasingly turning to aerial applications of pesticides, fertilizers and other materials. Sometimes uneven distribution of the chemicals is caused by worn nozzles, improper alignment of spray nozzles or system leaks. If this happens, job must be redone with added expense to both the pilot and customer. Traditional pattern analysis techniques take days or weeks. Utilizing NASA's wind tunnel and computer validation technology, Dr. Roth, Oklahoma State University (OSU), developed a system for providing answers within minutes. Called the Rapid Distribution Pattern Evaluation System, the OSU system consists of a 100-foot measurement frame tied in to computerized analysis and readout equipment. System is mobile, delivered by trailer to airfields in agricultural areas where OSU conducts educational "fly-ins." A fly-in typically draws 50 to 100 aerial applicators, researchers, chemical suppliers and regulatory officials. An applicator can have his spray pattern checked. A computerized readout, available in five to 12 minutes, provides information for correcting shortcomings in the distribution pattern.

  19. Pesticide Worker Protection Standard “How to Comply” Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The “How to Comply” manual provides information for employers on complying with the worker protection standard for agricultural workers. It has been updated to cover the 2015 revisions to the WPS.

  20. Genetic Technology and Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, William J.; Blase, Melvin G.

    1971-01-01

    Examines the nature, application, limits and potential of applied genetics in plant breeding as a factor in South Asian agricultural development. Concludes other factors were also present in recent agricultural growth, and indicates some economic implications of continued growth, including problems of employment of displaced rural workers. (AL)