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Sample records for agricultural commodities medicine

  1. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.533 Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  2. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.533 Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  3. 76 FR 22339 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... medical devices to Sudan and Iran. Pursuant to section 906(c) of the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to Sudan and Iran are set forth in 31...

  4. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  5. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  6. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  7. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  8. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  9. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  10. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Iran, to any individual or...

  11. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  12. 78 FR 54199 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... medical devices to Sudan and Iran. Pursuant to section 906(c) of the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export... Sudan and Iran are set forth in 31 CFR 538.523-526 and 31 CFR 560.530-533. Under the provisions...

  13. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... classified EAR 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debits or... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance:...

  14. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debit to... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance:...

  15. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debit to... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance:...

  16. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debit to... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance:...

  17. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment...

  18. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment...

  19. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debits or... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  20. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debits or... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  1. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or reexportation of the following food items: castor beans, castor bean seeds, raw eggs, fertilized.... See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for obtaining Official Commodity Classification of EAR 99 from BIS... destruction, or narcotics trafficking programs administered by OFAC, 31 CFR parts 536, 544, 594, 595, 597,...

  2. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or reexportation of the following food items: castor beans, castor bean seeds, raw eggs, fertilized.... See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for obtaining Official Commodity Classification of EAR 99 from BIS... destruction, or narcotics trafficking programs administered by OFAC, 31 CFR parts 536, 544, 594, 595, 597,...

  3. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or reexportation of the following food items: castor beans, castor bean seeds, raw eggs, fertilized.... See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for obtaining Official Commodity Classification of EAR 99 from BIS... destruction, or narcotics trafficking programs administered by OFAC, 31 CFR parts 536, 544, 594, 595, 597,...

  4. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or reexportation of the following food items: castor beans, castor bean seeds, raw eggs, fertilized... 99 from BIS for medicines and submit a copy to OFAC. See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for obtaining... OFAC, 31 CFR parts 536, 544, 594, 595, 597, and 598, or with any foreign organization, group, or...

  5. Mycotoxin contamination of commercially important agricultural commodities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal toxins, called aflatoxins and other mold toxins, are a serious problem in US agricultural commodities. Due to aflatoxins resilience to industrial processes contaminated crops (corn, cotton, peanuts, and tree nuts) cannot be used. The loss of these commodities results in serious economic impa...

  6. 76 FR 41048 - Agricultural Commodity Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... FR 65586, Oct. 26, 2010. \\5\\ Those comments are available on the Commission's Web site at: http... to the term agricultural commodity, please review the NPRM at 75 FR 65586-65587. 2. The Dodd-Frank..., please review the NPRM at 75 FR 65588-65589. Under current regulations, the term agricultural...

  7. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  8. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  9. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  10. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  11. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  12. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations. 1493... Restrictions and Criteria for Export Credit Guarantee Programs § 1493.5 Criteria for agricultural commodity... benefits that the extension of export credit guarantees would provide for the development, expansion...

  13. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations. 1493... Restrictions and Criteria for Export Credit Guarantee Programs § 1493.5 Criteria for agricultural commodity... benefits that the extension of export credit guarantees would provide for the development, expansion...

  14. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations. 1493... agricultural commodity allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S... following: (a) Potential benefits that the extension of export credit guarantees would provide for...

  15. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations. 1493... agricultural commodity allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S... following: (a) Potential benefits that the extension of export credit guarantees would provide for...

  16. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... permits the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba, as well as the reexport of U.S. origin agricultural commodities to Cuba, provided your transaction meets all of the following criteria: (1) The... U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firm may export from abroad to Cuba a foreign produced...

  17. CACI: The Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    This report provides a complete description of the final detailed design of the Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator (CACI). The design was developed and successfully completed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The CACI project was initiated in April 1985 under DOE's Byproducts Utilization Program, with the objectives of transferring food irradiation technology to the industry and thereby demonstrating a beneficial use for the [sup 137]Cs nuclear by-product isotope. As designed, CACI will meet the intended requirements for research, development, and demonstration of irradiation processing of food. Further, as shown in the safety analyses performed during the project, the design conforms to all the safety and licensing requirements set forth for the project. The original scope of the CACI project included completion of its construction. However, the project was terminated for the convenience of the government during the final design phase in February 1986 for lack of a specific site. This Volume, IV, provides specifications as developed for the CACI final design.

  18. CACI: The Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-19

    This report provides a complete description of the final detailed design of the Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator (CACI). The design was developed and successfully completed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The CACI project was initiated in April 1985 under DOE's Byproducts Utilization Program, with the objectives of transferring food irradiation technology to the industry and thereby demonstrating a beneficial use for the 137 Cs nuclear by-product isotope. As designed, CACI will meet the intended requirements for research, development, and demonstration of irradiation processing of food. Further, as shown in the safety analyses performed during the project, the design conforms to all the safety and licensing requirements set forth for the project. The original scope of the CACI project included completion of its construction. However, the project was terminated for the convenience of the government during the final design phase in February 1986 for lack of a specific site. The CACI final design is described in eight volumes. This volume, Volume VII, describes Safety Analysis, Thermal Analysis, and Thermal Testing.

  19. CACI: The Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-19

    This report provides a complete description of the final detailed design of the Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator (CACI). The design was developed and successfully completed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The CACI project was initiated in April 1985 under DOE's Byproducts Utilization Program, with the objectives of transferring food irradiation technology to the industry and thereby demonstrating a beneficial use for the [sup 137]Cs nuclear by-product isotope. As designed, CACI will meet the intended requirements for research, development, and demonstration of irradiation processing of food. Further, as shown in the safety analyses performed during the project, the design conforms to all the safety and licensing requirements set forth for the project. The original scope of the CACI project included completion of its construction. However, the project was terminated for the convenience of the government during the final design phase in February 1986 for lack of a specific site. The CACI final design is described in eight volumes. This Volume V, describes plans, criteria, and requirements.

  20. CACI: The Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-19

    This report provides a complete description of the final detailed design of the Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator (CACI). The design was developed and successfully completed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The CACI project was initiated in April 1985 under DOE's Byproducts Utilization Program, with the objectives of transferring food irradiation technology to the industry and thereby demonstrating a beneficial use for the 137 Cs nuclear by-product isotope. As designed, CACI will meet the intended requirements for research, development, and demonstration of irradiation processing of food. Further, as shown in the safety analyses performed during the project, the design conforms to all the safety and licensing requirements set forth for the project. The original scope of the CACI project included completion of its construction. However, the project was terminated for the convenience of the government during the final design phase in February 1986 for lack of a specific site. The CACI final design is described in eight volumes. This volume Volume III, describes the Shielding Window.

  1. CACI: The Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-19

    This report provides a complete description of the final detailed design of the Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator (CACI). The design was developed and successfully completed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The CACI project was initiated in April 1985 under DOE's Byproducts Utilization Program, with the objectives of transferring food irradiation technology to the industry and thereby demonstrating a beneficial use for the [sup 137]Cs nuclear by-product isotope. As designed, CACI will meet the intended requirements for research, development, and demonstration of irradiation processing of food. Further, as shown in the safety analyses performed during the project, the design conforms to all the safety and licensing requirements set forth for the project. The original scope of the CACI project included completion of its construction. However, the project was terminated for the convenience of the government during the final design phase in February 1986 for lack of a specific site. This Volume, VI, provides the CACI final design features regarding shielding, mechanical and electrical.

  2. 75 FR 15403 - Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... vendors while allowing CCC to more efficiently acquire commodities. The Web-Based Supply Chain System... Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign... information collection associated with procurement of agricultural commodities for foreign donation....

  3. 75 FR 32306 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 46 Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection Eligibility AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... the regulations under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA) in response to...

  4. Commodity Agriculture, Civic Agriculture and the Future of U.S. Farming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyson, Thomas A.; Guptill, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Commodity agriculture and civic agriculture represent two distinct types of farming found in the U.S. today. Commodity agriculture is grounded on the belief that the primary objectives of farming should be to produce as much food/fiber as possible for the least cost. It is driven by the twin goals of productivity and efficiency. Civic…

  5. 76 FR 6095 - Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... 64 FR 68011, Dec. 6, 1999, respectively. In either case (whether transacted pursuant to the ATOM....'' See 75 FR 65586, Oct. 26, 2010. In addition to the provisions on swaps in an agricultural commodity... related matters. \\12\\ See Agricultural Swaps, 75 FR 59666, Sept. 28, 2010. II. Background A....

  6. Infusing Commodity Marketing into the Agriculture Curriculum. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Arkansas Educational Cooperative, Strawberry.

    A project was conducted in Arkansas to infuse commodity marketing content into the agriculture curriculum. Thirty-three schools were selected to participate in the program; teachers from those schools attended a 2-day inservice program presented by a state coordinator for the project. The state coordinator also provided supervision and technical…

  7. Black bear depredation on agricultural commodities in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonker, S.A.; Parkhurst, J.A.; Field, R.; Fuller, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    We used response to a mail survey (n = 848) to evaluate the extent and severity of depredation by black bears (Ursus americanus) on agricultural commodities in Massachusetts and to assess producers' attitudes toward and tolerance of bear depredation. Damage abatement techniques were ranked for effectiveness by producers of corn, bees and honey, and livestock and dairy products. Results showed differences in perception of effects of bear depredation among commodity groups. Producers of corn and livestock and dairy products considered bear damage to be low to moderate in severity whereas beekeepers thought their losses were substantial or severe. Most estimates of economic loss were <$1,000 per year. Respondents considered bears to be an inconvenience, but thought they should remain a part of our natural heritage. There was no significant relationship between producers' experience with or economic dependence on their product and their attitude toward bears or their tolerance of bear damage. We conclude that there is need for effective education programs for agricultural producers, strengthened working relationships between producers and state fish and wildlife agencies, incorporation of producers' suggestions into management decisions, and investment in effective, economical, and long-term solutions to bear depredations for each affected commodity group.

  8. 78 FR 32227 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  9. Cross-correlations between crude oil and agricultural commodity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate cross-correlations between crude oil and agricultural commodity markets. Based on a popular statistical test proposed by Podobnik et al. (2009), we find that the linear return cross-correlations are significant at larger lag lengths and the volatility cross-correlations are highly significant at all of the lag lengths under consideration. Using a detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), we find that the return cross-correlations are persistent for corn and soybean and anti-persistent for oat and soybean. The volatility cross-correlations are strongly persistent. Using a nonlinear cross-correlation measure, our results show that cross-correlations are relatively weak but they are significant for smaller time scales. For larger time scales, the cross-correlations are not significant. The reason may be that information transmission from crude oil market to agriculture markets can complete within a certain period of time. Finally, based on multifractal extension of DCCA, we find that the cross-correlations are multifractal and high oil prices partly contribute to food crisis during the period of 2006-mid-2008.

  10. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  11. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  12. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  13. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  14. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  15. Tips for Organizing an Educational Agricultural Commodity Trading Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, John

    2011-01-01

    Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…

  16. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree... spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree” and “ ‘gum rosin’ means rosin...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  17. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree... spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree” and “ ‘gum rosin’ means rosin...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  18. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree... spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree” and “ ‘gum rosin’ means rosin...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  19. 75 FR 51693 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection Eligibility AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... rule published on June 8, 2010 titled, Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection Eligibility is reopened and extended for an additional 30 days. Reopening...

  20. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower.... 01144), and sunflower seeds (STCC No. 0114940). 09 Fresh fish and other marine products. 20-11...

  1. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower.... 01144), and sunflower seeds (STCC No. 0114940). 09 Fresh fish and other marine products. 20-11...

  2. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower.... 01144), and sunflower seeds (STCC No. 0114940). 09 Fresh fish and other marine products. 20-11...

  3. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower.... 01144), and sunflower seeds (STCC No. 0114940). 09 Fresh fish and other marine products. 20-11...

  4. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower.... 01144), and sunflower seeds (STCC No. 0114940). 09 Fresh fish and other marine products. 20-11...

  5. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original producers of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived: Gum spirits of turpentine, and gum resin, as defined in the Naval Stores Act,...

  6. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original producers of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived: Gum spirits of turpentine, and gum resin, as defined in the Naval Stores Act,...

  7. Amylolytic enzyme production byRhizopus oryzae grown on agricultural commodities.

    PubMed

    Yu, R C; Hang, Y D

    1990-03-01

    The amylolytic enzyme production byRhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 grown on different agricultural commodities was datermined. The mould produced much higher enzyme activity from barley, corn, bats, and rice than from cassava. The optimal temperature for enzyme production was 30°C. Neutralization with CaCO3 greatly enhanced the rate of enzyme production. Nitrogen supplementation of cassava resulted in higher enzyme yields.

  8. 31 CFR 560.520 - Exportation of agricultural commodities on contracts entered into prior to May 7, 1995.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Policy § 560.520 Exportation of agricultural commodities on contracts entered into prior to May 7, 1995..., wheat, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, dairy products, and oilseeds (including vegetable oil). (d)...

  9. 31 CFR 560.520 - Exportation of agricultural commodities on contracts entered into prior to May 7, 1995.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Policy § 560.520 Exportation of agricultural commodities on contracts entered into prior to May 7, 1995..., wheat, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, dairy products, and oilseeds (including vegetable oil). (d)...

  10. 31 CFR 560.520 - Exportation of agricultural commodities on contracts entered into prior to May 7, 1995.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Policy § 560.520 Exportation of agricultural commodities on contracts entered into prior to May 7, 1995..., wheat, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, dairy products, and oilseeds (including vegetable oil). (d)...

  11. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  12. Implications of Climate Volatility for Agricultural Commodity Markets in the Presence of Biofuel Mandates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Hertel, T. W.; Beckman, J.

    2011-12-01

    In presence of bio-fuels, link between energy and agricultural commodity markets has become more complex. An increase in ethanol production to minimum 15bn gallons a year - Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and current technically permissible maximum 10% blending limit - Blend Wall (BW); make the link even stronger. If oil prices in future do not rise significantly from their current levels, this minimum production requirement would likely be binding. In such a scenario any fluctuation in crop production will have to be absorbed by the non-ethanol usage of the crop and would translate into crop prices adjusting to clear the markets and therefore the commodity prices will be more volatile. At high oil prices it is possible that the BW may become binding, severing the link between oil prices and commodity prices as well, potentially leading to higher price volatility. Hertel and Beckman (2010) find that, with both RFS and BW simultaneously binding, corn price volatility due to supply side shocks (which could arise from extreme climate events) could be more than 50% as large as in the absence of bio-fuel policies. So energy markets are important determinants of agricultural commodity price volatility. This proposal intends to introduce the increased supply side volatility on account of climate change and volatility, in the framework. Global warming on account of increased GHG concentrations is expected to increase the intensity and frequency of hot extremes in US (Diffenbaugh et al. 2008) and therefore affect corn yields. With supply shocks expected to increase, binding RFS and BW will exacerbate the volatility, while if they are non-binding then the price changes could be cushioned. We propose to model the impacts of climate changes and volatility on commodity prices by linking three main components - a. Projections for change in temperature and precipitation using climate model b. A statistical model to predict impacts of change in climate variable on corn yields in US

  13. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book.

  14. Genetically modified pigs for medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Prather, Randall S; Shen, Miaoda; Dai, Yifan

    2008-01-01

    The ability to genetically modify pigs has enabled scientists to create pigs that are beneficial to humans in ways that were previously unimaginable. Improvements in the methods to make genetic modifications have opened up the possibilities of introducing transgenes, knock-outs and knock-ins with precision. The benefits to medicine include the production of pharmaceuticals, the provision of organs for xenotransplantation into humans, and the development of models of human diseases. The benefits to agriculture include resistance to disease, altering the carcass composition such that it is healthier to consume, improving the pig's resistance to heat stress, and protecting the environment. Additional types of genetic modifications will likely provide animals with characteristics that will benefit humans in currently unimagined ways.

  15. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements and on an overall (foreign and U.S. flag) basis for the remaining portion of the commodities being... determination. (b) Multiple offers or delivery points. If more than one offer for the sale of commodities is...; (iii) Provide the same deadline for receipt of written freight offers from both U.S. flag vessel...

  16. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... capabilities, including the adequacy of the port to receive, accumulate, handle, store, and protect the cargo... (including the adequacy of the port to receive, accumulate, handle, store, and protect commodities) and other... that efficiency and cost-savings justify use of types of ocean service that would not involve...

  17. [The French National Institute for Agricultural Medicine (INMA)].

    PubMed

    Gagey, Michel; Grillet, Jean-Pierre; Crochet, Benoît; Choutet, Patrick

    2007-06-15

    Since 1958, the French National institute for agricultural medicine (INMA) has been studying the determinant health factors (non-exclusively medical) in the agricultural and rural environment. To reach this objective, the INMA organizes various types of training (degree in agricultural medicine, training for the physicians from the Mutualité Sociale Agricole--a French social security agency--, continuing education, seminars and symposiums etc.) designed for various health and safety professionals (occupational physicians, consultant physicians, general practitioners, especially from rural areas, members of safety committees etc.). This agricultural and rural specificity of the INMA is also one of the characteristics of its oldest training (2,500 physicians trained to date): the degree in agricultural medicine, which, following one or two years of courses, allows trainees to carry on occupational medicine in the agricultural sector. Through its holdings, the INMA website (www.inma.fr) provides physicians with a lot of answers to their questions regarding the health issue in agriculture. PMID:17708086

  18. Effect of sampling size on the determination of accurate pesticide residue levels in Japanese agricultural commodities.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Masahiro; Yajima, Tomonari; Iijima, Kazuaki; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2012-05-01

    The uncertainty in pesticide residue levels (UPRL) associated with sampling size was estimated using individual acetamiprid and cypermethrin residue data from preharvested apple, broccoli, cabbage, grape, and sweet pepper samples. The relative standard deviation from the mean of each sampling size (n = 2(x), where x = 1-6) of randomly selected samples was defined as the UPRL for each sampling size. The estimated UPRLs, which were calculated on the basis of the regulatory sampling size recommended by the OECD Guidelines on Crop Field Trials (weights from 1 to 5 kg, and commodity unit numbers from 12 to 24), ranged from 2.1% for cypermethrin in sweet peppers to 14.6% for cypermethrin in cabbage samples. The percentages of commodity exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRLs) specified by the Japanese Food Sanitation Law may be predicted from the equation derived from this study, which was based on samples of various size ranges with mean residue levels below the MRL. The estimated UPRLs have confirmed that sufficient sampling weight and numbers are required for analysis and/or re-examination of subsamples to provide accurate values of pesticide residue levels for the enforcement of MRLs. The equation derived from the present study would aid the estimation of more accurate residue levels even from small sampling sizes. PMID:22475588

  19. Modeling agricultural commodity prices and volatility in response to anticipated climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobell, D. B.; Tran, N.; Welch, J.; Roberts, M.; Schlenker, W.

    2012-12-01

    Food prices have shown a positive trend in the past decade, with episodes of rapid increases in 2008 and 2011. These increases pose a threat to food security in many regions of the world, where the poor are generally net consumers of food, and are also thought to increase risks of social and political unrest. The role of global warming in these price reversals have been debated, but little quantitative work has been done. A particular challenge in modeling these effects is that they require understanding links between climate and food supply, as well as between food supply and prices. Here we combine the anticipated effects of climate change on yield levels and volatility with an empirical competitive storage model to examine how expected climate change might affect prices and social welfare in the international food commodity market. We show that price level and volatility do increase over time in response to decreasing yield, and increasing yield variability. Land supply and storage demand both increase, but production and consumption continue to fall leading to a decrease in consumer surplus, and a corresponding though smaller increase in producer surplus.

  20. Reference Sources in Science, Engineering, Medicine, and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinowsky, H. Robert

    This document is a bibliographic guide of over 2,400 titles in science, engineering, medicine and agriculture. This book is intended for use by librarians for reference updates, researchers and students who need to access information but who are unfamiliar with the particular discipline, and for information science students learning about the…

  1. The Impact of Federal Commodity Donations on the School Lunch Program. Department of Agriculture. Report to the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Department of Agriculture's program for purchasing and distributing commodities for the school lunch program was reviewed in 15 school districts, one very large, one medium sized, and one small school district in each of five states--California, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The objectives of the review were to (1) assess the…

  2. Stopping the spread of agricultural pests with radiation: Quarantine commodity treatments and eradication

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, K.W.

    1997-12-01

    Almost 60 yr ago, E. F. Knipling, a young U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) entomologist, proposed that it might be economically feasible to eradicate the newly introduced screwworm from Florida if a way could be found to sterilize the males. He believed that the male screwworm fly`s strong mating instinct would cause released sterile males to seek out and mate with native screwworm females, interrupting the normal reproductive cycle. Knipling thought this was possible because another USDA scientist, R. C. Bushland, had recently found a way to rear this animal parasite cheaply and in large numbers in the laboratory, making possible the rearing and release of large numbers of sterile male flies into the native population. Some 13 yr would pass before research showed that radiation-induced dominant lethal mutations offered an efficient, practical way to render screwworm flies sterile.

  3. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... covered commodities means covered commodities (of the same type) presented for retail sale in a...

  4. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... covered commodities means covered commodities (of the same type) presented for retail sale in a...

  5. Genetic modifications of pigs for medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Jeffrey J; Prather, Randall S

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified swine hold great promise in the fields of agriculture and medicine. Currently, these swine are being used to optimize production of quality meat, to improve our understanding of the biology of disease resistance, and to reduced waste. In the field of biomedicine, swine are anatomically and physiologically analogous to humans. Alterations of key swine genes in disease pathways provide model animals to improve our understanding of the causes and potential treatments of many human genetic disorders. The completed sequencing of the swine genome will significantly enhance the specificity of genetic modifications, and allow for more accurate representations of human disease based on syntenic genes between the two species. Improvements in both methods of gene alteration and efficiency of model animal production are key to enabling routine use of these swine models in medicine and agriculture.

  6. A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities - applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil.

    PubMed

    Persson, U Martin; Henders, Sabine; Cederberg, Christel

    2014-11-01

    The world's agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints, however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land-use change and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here, we propose a new methodology for calculating land-use change carbon footprints for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate land-use change carbon footprints in 2010 to be 66 tCO2 /t meat (carcass weight) for Brazilian beef, 0.89 tCO2 /t for Brazilian soybeans, and 7.5 tCO2 /t for Indonesian palm oil, using a 10 year amortization period. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of footprints for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and subnational footprints; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of land-use change. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land-use change, the proposed carbon footprint methodology could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land-use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible. PMID:24838193

  7. A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities - applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil.

    PubMed

    Persson, U Martin; Henders, Sabine; Cederberg, Christel

    2014-11-01

    The world's agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints, however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land-use change and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here, we propose a new methodology for calculating land-use change carbon footprints for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate land-use change carbon footprints in 2010 to be 66 tCO2 /t meat (carcass weight) for Brazilian beef, 0.89 tCO2 /t for Brazilian soybeans, and 7.5 tCO2 /t for Indonesian palm oil, using a 10 year amortization period. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of footprints for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and subnational footprints; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of land-use change. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land-use change, the proposed carbon footprint methodology could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land-use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible.

  8. A Comparative Cost Analysis of Commodity Foods from the U. S. Department of Agriculture in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cora

    2009-01-01

    Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program receive a portion of their federal funding as commodity foods rather than cash payments. This research compared the product costs and estimated total procurement costs of commodity and commercial foods from the school district perspective using data from 579 Minnesota ordering sites in…

  9. Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borkhataria, R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.; Jordan-Garcia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation, hoping lessons from Puerto Rico will apply to the international coffee industry. Throughout the 20th century, government intervention, including subsidies and technical assistance, supported coffee farming in Puerto Rico. In an effort to modernize coffee production and increase yields, the conversion from shade to sun coffee plantations was encouraged. Despite government support, the amount of land devoted to this once dominant agricultural commodity declined markedly between 1982 and 2007 (84%), due to labor shortages, low income, and catastrophic hurricanes. We found that a return to shaded plantations would be embraced by most farmers. Growers of shaded coffee were generally happier with their cultivation practices (89.3% satisfied) than growers of sun coffee (60.9% satisfied), valued biodiversity, and were willing to cultivate coffee under shade if given similar incentives to those received for farming sun coffee. The future of the coffee industry in Puerto Rico may depend on government programs that capitalize upon emerging markets for sustainably produced, shade-grown coffee. We conclude that where governments have close ties to the coffee industry, they should strive to wed economic development with the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecological services by providing support and incentives for the production of shade coffee. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  11. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or reexportation of the following food items: castor beans, castor bean seeds, certified pathogen... fertilizers, live horses, western red cedar, and medical devices other than basic medical supplies. See 15 CFR... controls maintained under part 744 of the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 744. (5)...

  12. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR, 1995 Comp., p. 356), Executive Order 13224 (66 FR 49079, 3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 786), or Public... October 21, 1995 (60 FR 54579, 3 CFR, 1995 Comp., p. 415) or the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... exportation or reexportation of the following items: castor beans, castor bean seeds, certified...

  13. 31 CFR 561.327 - Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, that fall within... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, that are intended for ultimate use in Iran as: (i) Food for..., 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1 (excluding items classified as EAR 99). (d) The term...

  14. 31 CFR 561.327 - Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, that fall within... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, that are intended for ultimate use in Iran as: (i) Food for..., 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1 (excluding items classified as EAR 99). (d) The term...

  15. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain instances require a license from the Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security. See, e.g., 15 CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debit to blocked accounts. Payment for any...

  16. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain instances require a license from the Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security. See, e.g., 15 CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debit to blocked accounts. Payment for any...

  17. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance of an executory contract is expressly made contingent upon the prior issuance of the one-year... also include the name of the individual(s) responsible for the application and related commercial... listed on BIS's Web site,...

  18. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... foregoing, is authorized, provided that performance of an executory contract is expressly made contingent... the individual(s) responsible for the application and related commercial transactions along with their... syringes, bandages, gauze and similar items, that are specifically listed on BIS's Web site,...

  19. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... foregoing, is authorized, provided that performance of an executory contract is expressly made contingent... the individual(s) responsible for the application and related commercial transactions along with their... syringes, bandages, gauze and similar items, that are specifically listed on BIS's Web site,...

  20. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance of an executory contract is expressly made contingent upon the prior issuance of the one-year... also include the name of the individual(s) responsible for the application and related commercial... listed on BIS's Web site, http://www.bis.doc.gov/policiesand...

  1. Nonlinear bivariate dependency of price-volume relationships in agricultural commodity futures markets: A perspective from Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yun; Chen, Shu-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear dependency between characteristic financial and commodity market quantities (variables) is crucially important, especially between trading volume and market price. Studies on nonlinear dependency between price and volume can provide practical insights into market trading characteristics, as well as the theoretical understanding of market dynamics. Actually, nonlinear dependency and its underlying dynamical mechanisms between price and volume can help researchers and technical analysts in understanding the market dynamics by integrating the market variables, instead of investigating them in the current literature. Therefore, for investigating nonlinear dependency of price-volume relationships in agricultural commodity futures markets in China and the US, we perform a new statistical test to detect cross-correlations and apply a new methodology called Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA), which is an efficient algorithm to analyze two spatially or temporally correlated time series. We discuss theoretically the relationship between the bivariate cross-correlation exponent and the generalized Hurst exponents for time series of respective variables. We also perform an empirical study and find that there exists a power-law cross-correlation between them, and that multifractal features are significant in all the analyzed agricultural commodity futures markets.

  2. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, Christine; Xue, Xiaobo; Howarth, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making.

  3. Introduction to systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the first in a series of six articles related to systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. In this article, we overview the methodology of systematic reviews and provide a discussion of their use. Systematic reviews differ qualitatively from traditional reviews by explicitly defining a specific review question, employing methods to reduce bias in the selection and inclusion of studies that address the review question (including a systematic and specified search strategy, and selection of studies based on explicit eligibility criteria), an assessment of the risk of bias for included studies and objectively summarizing the results qualitatively or quantitatively (i.e. via meta-analysis). Systematic reviews have been widely used to address human healthcare questions and are increasingly being used in veterinary medicine. Systematic reviews can provide veterinarians and other decision-makers with a scientifically defensible summary of the current state of knowledge on a topic without the need for the end-user to read the vast amount of primary research related to that topic.

  4. Toward a national core course in agricultural medicine and curriculum in agricultural safety and health: the "building capacity" consensus process.

    PubMed

    Rudolphi, Josie M; Donham, Kelley J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The agricultural industry poses specific hazards and risks to its workers. Since the 1970s, the University of Iowa has been establishing programs to educate rural health care and safety professionals who in turn provide education and occupational health and safety services to farm families and farm workers. This program has been well established in the state of Iowa as a program of Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health (I-CASH). However, the National 1989 Agriculture at Risk Report indicated there was a great need for agricultural medicine training beyond Iowa's borders. In order to help meet this need, Building Capacity: A National Resource of Agricultural Medicine Professionals was initiated as a project of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health in 2006. Before the first phase of this project, a consensus process was conducted with a group of safety and health professionals to determine topics and learning objectives for the course. Over 300 students attended and matriculated the agricultural medicine course during first phase of the project (2007-2010). Beginning the second phase of the project (2012-2016), an expanded advisory committee (38 internationally recognized health and safety professionals) was convened to review the progress of the first phase, make recommendations for revisions to the required topics and competencies, and discuss updates to the second edition of the course textbook (Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for the Health Professions). A formal consensus process was held and included an online survey and also a face-to-face meeting. The group was charged with the responsibility of developing the next version of this course by establishing best practices and setting an agenda with the long-term goal of developing a national course in agricultural medicine.

  5. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  6. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  7. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  8. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  9. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  10. Screening method for the detection of aflatoxins in mixed feeds and other agricultural commodities with subsequent confirmation and quantitative measurement of aflatoxins in positive samples.

    PubMed

    Romer, T R

    1975-05-01

    The method described will detect total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in mixed feeds, grains nuts, and fruit products in samples containing as little as 5-15 mug/kg. In addition, the presence of aflatoxins in the positive samples can be confirmed and the toxins can be quantitatively measured, using the same extract as that used for the screening method. In the screening method, aflatoxins are extracted with acetone-water (85+15), and interferences are removed by adding cupric carbonate and ferric chloride gel. The aflatoxins are extracted from the aqueous phase with chloroform and the chloroform extract is washed with a basic aqueous solution. A Velasco-type minicolumn is used to further purify the extract and capture the aflatoxins in a tight band. The screening method has been successfully applied to 24 different agricultural commodities. Quantitative thin layer chromatography was also performed with extracts of each of these commodities. An average recovery of 94% B1, 108% B2, 130% G1, and 103% G2 was obtained compared to the official final action AOAC method for cottonseed products, 26.048-26.056. Within-laboratory coefficients of variation of 10-15% were obtained for each of the aflatoxins and total aflatoxins in a sample of peanut meal naturally contaminated with 11 mug B1+3 mug B2+11 mug G1+5 mug G2/kg.

  11. Library Cooperation at the NOVA University--the Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllys, Heli

    The Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine--the NOVA University-was established in 1995 to increase the cooperation between the Nordic agricultural universities. The NOVA libraries of the seven institutions and facilities involved wanted to show that they are a very useful partner in launching new ideas. They have the…

  12. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  13. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  14. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  15. 22 CFR 228.51 - Commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commodities. 228.51 Section 228.51 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND... agricultural commodities, motor vehicles, or pharmaceuticals (see § 228.13, “Special source rules...

  16. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  17. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  18. Quantitative analysis of dicamba residues in raw agricultural commodities with the use of ion-pairing reagents in LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyue; Riter, Leah S; Wujcik, Chad E; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    A sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of dicamba residues in raw agricultural commodities (RACs). Instead of analysis in the traditionally used negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, these anionic compounds were detected in positive ESI with the use of ion-pairing reagents. In this approach, only a small amount (60µM) of a commercially available dicationic ion-pairing reagent was introduced into the post-column sample stream. This method has been validated in six different types of RACs including corn grain, corn stover, cotton seed, soybean, soy forage and orange with satisfactory quantitative accuracy and precision. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) values for these analytes were 1.0 to 3.0µg/kg. The standard curves were linear over the range of the tested concentrations (3.0 to 500µg/kg), with correlation coefficient (r) values≥0.999. Evaluation of ionization effects in RAC matrix extracts using diluent blanks for comparison showed no significant matrix effects were present. PMID:26717820

  19. Detection and quantification of residues and metabolites of medicinal products in environmental compartments, food commodities and workplaces. A review.

    PubMed

    Bottoni, Paola; Caroli, Sergio

    2015-03-15

    The toxicological assessment of medicinal products (MPs) and their residues and metabolites in the environment have become a challenging task worldwide. The contamination of environmental compartments, biota, workplace, foodstuff and feedstuff by residues and metabolites of these substances poses a risk to human health which is still far from being fully understood. On the other hand, existing analytical methods not always possess sufficient detection power to quantify residues of MPs at very low concentrations. This review sets forth some of the most significant contributions made in this field over the past decade with a special focus on novel fit-for-purpose analytical approaches for the detection, identification and quantification of these pollutants and the assessment of their noxious potential for human beings and the environment. PMID:25591909

  20. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER... Commodities Act, 1930; (2) Subject to a federal marketing order under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement...

  1. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  2. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... of members of commodity committees. There is hereby established a Pear Commodity Committee...

  3. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... of members of commodity committees. There is hereby established a Pear Commodity Committee...

  4. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... of members of commodity committees. There is hereby established a Pear Commodity Committee...

  5. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  6. Animal cloning--the route to new genomics in agriculture and medicine.

    PubMed

    Di Berardino, M A

    2001-09-01

    This paper reviews the origin and development of animal cloning in metazoans starting with primitive experiments performed during the late 1880's and early 1900's, followed by nuclear transplantation in amphibians in 1952, then extended to fish and insects in the 1960's, and finally to mammals in the 1980's. Emphasis is placed on the applications of mammalian cloning to agriculture, medicine, and the conservation of endangered species. In addition, the introduction of genes via random insertion or gene targeting into the genome of donor cells to be used for cloning has opened up another route for new genomics in agriculture and medicine. The production of transgenic clones starting in 1997 has indeed contributed a milestone to scientific research. Although cloning efficiency is still low, certain kinds of experiments are quite feasible, and we anticipate improvements in the future.

  7. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ..., CPOs, Large Traders, ECPs, and ESPs 2. SDs, MSPs, SEFs, and SDRs 3. Entities Eligible To Engage in... Recordkeeping, 76 FR 29818, May 23, 2011 (``Product Definitions NPRM''). The final rule and interpretations that... not applicable. \\7\\ Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps, 76 FR 6095, Feb. 3, 2011. Note that...

  8. 7 CFR 1405.9 - Commodity assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commodity assessments. 1405.9 Section 1405.9... Commodity assessments. (a) CCC will deduct from the proceeds of a marketing assistance loan an amount equal to the amount of an assessment otherwise required to be remitted to a State agency under a...

  9. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  10. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  11. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  12. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  13. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  14. 7 CFR 250.57 - Commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... schools are schools that operate a nonprofit school food service in accordance with 7 CFR part 210, but... CFR part 210, as applicable. (b) Value of donated foods for commodity schools. For participating... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity schools. 250.57 Section 250.57...

  15. Commodity Foods Contain Costs and Create Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Susan K.

    1983-01-01

    San Diego food manufacturers were invited to submit bids on new food items--using as possible ingredients Department of Agriculture donated commodity foods--for the school food service programs. (MLF)

  16. 7 CFR 1405.9 - Commodity assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS § 1405.9... agreement with CCC that sets forth the obligations of the State and CCC with respect to the collection...

  17. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or...

  18. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or...

  19. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or...

  20. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or...

  1. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or...

  2. 78 FR 41384 - Agricultural Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Agricultural Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTC) Agricultural...

  3. 7 CFR 1599.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION..., arrange for transporting, storing, and distributing the donated commodities from the designated point...

  4. 7 CFR 1599.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION..., arrange for transporting, storing, and distributing the donated commodities from the designated point...

  5. 7 CFR 1599.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION..., arrange for transporting, storing, and distributing the donated commodities from the designated point...

  6. 7 CFR 1499.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499..., arrange for transporting, storing, and distributing the donated commodities from the designated point...

  7. 7 CFR 1499.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499..., arrange for transporting, storing, and distributing the donated commodities from the designated point...

  8. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commingled covered commodities. 65.125 Section 65.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT...

  9. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commingled covered commodities. 65.125 Section 65.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT...

  10. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commingled covered commodities. 65.125 Section 65.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.22 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... price for cotton as determined by CCC. (c) Producers must request a commodity certificate exchange in... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity certificate exchanges. 1427.22 Section 1427... Deficiency Payments § 1427.22 Commodity certificate exchanges. (a) For any outstanding marketing...

  12. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private... certification to the Treasurer, CCC, within 60 days from the date of delivery or such extension of time as...

  13. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FINANCING OF SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit..., within 60 days from the date of delivery or such extension of time as may be granted by the Treasurer...

  14. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FINANCING OF SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit..., within 60 days from the date of delivery or such extension of time as may be granted by the Treasurer...

  15. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 253.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION...-condition commodities. The State agency shall immediately notify the appropriate Food and Nutrition Service... commodities are declared unfit for human consumption in accordance with § 250.13(f) of this chapter,...

  16. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Keith H S

    2002-03-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology.

  17. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine*

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Keith HS

    2002-01-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology. PMID:12033731

  18. 7 CFR 17.5 - Contracts between commodity suppliers and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 17.5 Section 17.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES MADE AVAILABLE UNDER TITLE I OF THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS... be engaged in the business of selling agricultural commodities for export from the United States....

  19. 7 CFR 1499.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.9 Section 1499... or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for the donated commodities prior to the transfer... forth in the agreement, of any damage to or loss of the donated commodities that occurs following...

  20. 7 CFR 1599.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1599.9 Section 1599... Damage to or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for the donated commodities prior to the... time period set forth in the agreement, of any damage to or loss of the donated commodities that...

  1. 7 CFR 1599.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1599.9 Section 1599... Damage to or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for the donated commodities prior to the... time period set forth in the agreement, of any damage to or loss of the donated commodities that...

  2. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 43 - Enumerated Physical Commodity Contracts and Other Contracts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Contracts and Other Contracts B Appendix B to Part 43 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... Commodity Contracts and Other Contracts Enumerated Physical Commodity Contracts Agriculture ICE Futures U.S. Cocoa ICE Futures U.S. Coffee C Chicago Board of Trade Corn ICE Futures U.S. Cotton No. 2 ICE Futures...

  3. Relationship between eae and stx virulence genes and Escherichia coli in an agricultural watershed: implications for irrigation water standards and leafy green commodities.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Daniel R; Karns, Jeffrey S; Coppock, Cary; Patel, Jitu; Sharma, Manan; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2011-01-01

    The California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA) was adopted in an effort to minimize the risk of contamination of leafy greens with enteric pathogens from a variety of sources, including ground and surface irrigation waters. The LGMA contains standards similar to those established for recreational waters, based on Escherichia coli concentrations. However, no correlation between E. coli and any specific waterborne pathogen(s) has been reported. We conducted this monitoring study in an agricultural watershed to (i) evaluate spatial and temporal fluctuations in E. coli populations and virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli and (ii) investigate whether a relationship could be established between E. coli and virulence genes. The virulence genes targeted for analysis were the eae and stx genes, encoding for intimin and Shiga-like toxins, respectively; they were detected with PCR methods. E. coli concentrations and eae and stx prevalence varied both spatially and temporally. In general, both were higher in agricultural than in forested areas and were higher in the summer and fall seasons than in winter. The eae and stx genes were prevalent throughout the watershed. However, in the absence of actual isolates, no conclusions could be drawn regarding the prevalence of specific pathogenic E. coli. No correlation was observed between E. coli concentrations and virulence genes; lower E. coli concentrations were not necessarily associated with decreased prevalence of eae and stx genes. These results suggest that the LGMA standards might not adequately address the issue of waterborne contamination, and that alternative criteria might be required. PMID:21219758

  4. Relationship between eae and stx virulence genes and Escherichia coli in an agricultural watershed: implications for irrigation water standards and leafy green commodities.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Daniel R; Karns, Jeffrey S; Coppock, Cary; Patel, Jitu; Sharma, Manan; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2011-01-01

    The California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA) was adopted in an effort to minimize the risk of contamination of leafy greens with enteric pathogens from a variety of sources, including ground and surface irrigation waters. The LGMA contains standards similar to those established for recreational waters, based on Escherichia coli concentrations. However, no correlation between E. coli and any specific waterborne pathogen(s) has been reported. We conducted this monitoring study in an agricultural watershed to (i) evaluate spatial and temporal fluctuations in E. coli populations and virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli and (ii) investigate whether a relationship could be established between E. coli and virulence genes. The virulence genes targeted for analysis were the eae and stx genes, encoding for intimin and Shiga-like toxins, respectively; they were detected with PCR methods. E. coli concentrations and eae and stx prevalence varied both spatially and temporally. In general, both were higher in agricultural than in forested areas and were higher in the summer and fall seasons than in winter. The eae and stx genes were prevalent throughout the watershed. However, in the absence of actual isolates, no conclusions could be drawn regarding the prevalence of specific pathogenic E. coli. No correlation was observed between E. coli concentrations and virulence genes; lower E. coli concentrations were not necessarily associated with decreased prevalence of eae and stx genes. These results suggest that the LGMA standards might not adequately address the issue of waterborne contamination, and that alternative criteria might be required.

  5. 7 CFR 226.5 - Donation of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5...

  6. 7 CFR 226.5 - Donation of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5...

  7. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commodity control, storage and distribution. 253.10 Section 253.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR...

  8. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commodity control, storage and distribution. 253.10 Section 253.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR...

  9. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  10. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  11. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  12. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  13. 7 CFR 1499.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.9 Section 1499..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.9 Damage to or loss of commodities... agreement, of any damage to or loss of the donated commodities that occurs following the transfer of...

  14. 7 CFR 1499.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.9 Section 1499..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.9 Damage to or loss of commodities... agreement, of any damage to or loss of the donated commodities that occurs following the transfer of...

  15. 7 CFR 1599.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1599.9 Section 1599..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM § 1599.9 Damage to or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for the donated commodities prior to...

  16. 7 CFR 1499.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.9 Damage to or loss of commodities... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.9 Section 1499... agreement, of any damage to or loss of the donated commodities that occurs following the transfer of...

  17. 7 CFR 1499.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.9 Section 1499..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.9 Damage to or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for the donated commodities prior to the...

  18. Hybrid molecules of carvacrol and benzoyl urea/thiourea with potential applications in agriculture and medicine.

    PubMed

    Pete, Umesh D; Zade, Chetan M; Bhosale, Jitendra D; Tupe, Santosh G; Chaudhary, Preeti M; Dikundwar, Amol G; Bendre, Ratnamala S

    2012-09-01

    Benzoyl phenyl urea, a class of insect growth regulator's acts by inhibiting chitin synthesis. Carvacrol, a naturally occurring monoterpenoid is an effective antifungal agent. We have structurally modified carvacrol (2-methyl-5-[1-methylethyl] phenol) by introducing benzoylphenyl urea linkage. Two series of benzoylcarvacryl thiourea (BCTU, 4a-f) and benzoylcarvacryl urea (BCU, 5a-f) derivatives were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Derivatives 4b, 4d, 4e, 4f and 5d, 5f showed comparable insecticidal activity with the standard BPU lufenuron against Dysdercus koenigii. BCTU derivatives 4c, 4e and BCU 5c showed good antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi viz. Magnaporthe grisae, Fusarium oxysporum, Dreschlera oryzae; food spoilage yeasts viz. Debaromyces hansenii, Pichia membranifaciens; and human pathogens viz. Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Compounds 5d, 5e and 5f showed potent activity against human pathogens. Moderate and selective activity was observed for other compounds. All the synthesized compounds were non-haemolytic. These compounds have potential application in agriculture and medicine. PMID:22850211

  19. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  20. Highly sensitive and selective organophosphate screening in twelve commodities of fruits, vegetables and herbal medicines by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yee-Man; Tsoi, Yeuk-Ki; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2013-05-01

    The article describes a simple sample pretreatment procedure for the analysis of ten organophosphorus pesticides using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in three distinctively different types of matrices: fresh fruits, fresh vegetables and dried herbs. The method was carefully developed, focusing on the chemistry of various dispersive solvents, to achieve simultaneous, comprehensive extraction and preconcentration in a great span of selected matrices. According to matrix-matched validation study, the set of optimized DLLME conditions has been proven robust to determine target OPPs within a wide linear range from 0.1 to 1000 μg L(-1). With limited usage of organic extractants, remarkable enrichment factors up to 100-fold were obtained, enabling ultra-trace pesticide quantification down to sub-ppt levels at 0.12-4.92 ng kg(-1). Practical application of the method was illustrated by quantitative recovery (70-119%) and good precision (2.6-10% R.S.D.) in a representative range of three fruits and four vegetable commodities featured by the CODEX Alimentarius classification as well as their unique matrix compositions. A careful selection of dried herbs was further classified based on their morphological structures to validate analytical ruggedness of the method. Compared with existing methods for food analysis vis-à-vis OPPs, the present method is superior in terms of high sample throughput, minimal solvent consumption, and small sample size requirement. An additional, significant aspect of this universal DLLME method is that it models sample pretreatment methods with wide coverage of analytical matrices that are more effective, more comprehensive, and more flexible than those currently being used.

  1. 75 FR 70811 - Commodity Assessments; Loans, Purchases, and Other Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Code or the Statement of Policy of the Secretary of Agriculture effective July 24, 1971 (36 FR 13804... part 3015, subpart V, published in the Federal Register on June 24, 1983 (48 FR 29115). Executive Order... Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1405 RIN 0560-AI00 Commodity Assessments; Loans, Purchases,...

  2. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity control, storage and distribution. 253.10... THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLDS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 253.10 Commodity control, storage and distribution. (a) Control and accountability. The State agency shall be responsible for...

  3. 7 CFR 1425.17 - Eligible commodity and pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.17... marketing proceeds from the commodity in accordance with § 1425.18; and (5) Members agreed to accept a payment of initial advances from the CMA in accordance with § 1425.18(a). (d) Ineligible commodities...

  4. 7 CFR 251.4 - Availability of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.4... receiving commodities under this part shall not diminish their normal expenditures for food because...

  5. 7 CFR 251.4 - Availability of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... commodities only in quantities which can be utilized without waste in providing food assistance to needy... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM §...

  6. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  7. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  8. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  9. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  10. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  11. 78 FR 16189 - Transportation of Agricultural Commodities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Executive Order 13563 (76 FR 3821, January 18, 2011), and DOT regulatory policies and procedures (44 FR 1103... Flexibility, Small Business, and Job Creation'' (76 FR 3827). Federalism (Executive Order 13132) A rule has... Procedures and Policy for Considering Environmental Impacts, Order 5610.1 (FMCSA Order), March 1, 2004 (69...

  12. 75 FR 65586 - Agricultural Commodity Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...-818, 54 Stat. 1059 (1940). Livestock, livestock products, and frozen concentrated orange juice were... concentrated orange juice). Trading in onion futures on United States exchanges was prohibited in 1958..., soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen concentrated orange juice, and all other goods...

  13. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2010 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2009 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. National reserves information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported reserves information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM), before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the

  14. 7 CFR 917.18 - Nomination of commodity committee members of the Control Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of commodity committee members of the... Administrative Bodies § 917.18 Nomination of commodity committee members of the Control Committee. Nominations... following manner: (a) A nomination for one member shall be made by each commodity committee...

  15. 7 CFR 917.22 - Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. 917... FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.22 Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Peach Commodity...

  16. 7 CFR 917.22 - Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. 917... FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.22 Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Peach Commodity...

  17. 77 FR 38776 - Reestablishment of the Agricultural Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Reestablishment of the Agricultural Advisory Committee AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Reestablishment. SUMMARY: The Commodity...

  18. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  19. Constellation Commodities Studies Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dirschka, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Constellation program was NASA's long-term program for space exploration. The goal of the commodities studies was to solicit industry expertise in production, storage, and transportation required for future use and to improve efficiency and life cycle cost over legacy methods. Objectives were to consolidate KSC, CCAFS and other requirements; extract available industry expertise; identify commercial opportunities; and establish synergy with State of Florida partnerships. Study results are reviewed.

  20. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  1. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  2. 7 CFR 1499.10 - Claims for damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1499.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... collections pursuant to commercial insurance contracts; and (2) Notifying FAS immediately and providing... initiate a claim collection action. (d)(1) The value of a claim for lost donated commodities shall...

  3. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  4. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  5. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  6. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  7. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  8. 7 CFR 1499.10 - Claims for damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims for damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.10... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.10 Claims for damage to or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for claims arising out of damage to or loss...

  9. 7 CFR 1499.10 - Claims for damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Claims for damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.10... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.10 Claims for damage to or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for claims arising out...

  10. Oversight of Food and Nutrition Service Programs: Food Stamps, Child Nutrition, and Commodity Distribution. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, April 25, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    The Federal government's oversight of its food and nutrition programs is discussed in this transcript of a Senate hearing. Testimony is presented regarding food stamps, the school lunch program, problems of targeting the needy, the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), commodity distribution, surplus dairy…

  11. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  12. Genetic diversity and distribution of rhizobia associated with the medicinal legumes Astragalus spp. and Hedysarum polybotrys in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Ji, Zhao Jun; Jiao, Yin Shan; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng; Guo, Bao Lin; Chen, Wen Xin

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing cultivation of medicinal legumes in agricultural fields, the rhizobia associated with these plants are facing new stresses, mainly from fertilization and irrigation. In this study, investigations on the nodulation of three cultivated medicinal legumes, Astragalus mongholicus, Astragalus membranaceus and Hedysarum polybotrys were performed. Bacterial isolates from root nodules of these legumes were subjected to genetic diversity and multilocus sequence analyses. In addition, the distribution of nodule bacteria related to soil factors and host plants was studied. A total 367 bacterial isolates were obtained and 13 genospecies were identified. The predominant microsymbionts were identified as Mesorhizobium septentrionale, Mesorhizobium temperatum, Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium ciceri and Mesorhizobium muleiense. M. septentrionale was found in most root nodules especially from legumes grown in the barren soils (with low available nitrogen and low organic carbon contents), while M. temperatum was predominant in nodules where the plants were grown in the nitrogen-rich fields. A. mongholicus tended to be associated with M. septentrionale, M. temperatum and M. ciceri in different soils, while A. membranaceus and H. polybotrys tended to be associated with M. tianshanense and M. septentrionale, respectively. This study showed that soil fertility may be the main determinant for the distribution of rhizobia associated with these cultured legume plants. PMID:26915496

  13. Nectar yeasts of the Metschnikowia clade are highly susceptible to azole antifungals widely used in medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; de Vega, Clara; Pozo, María I; Lenaerts, Marijke; Van Assche, Ado; Herrera, Carlos M; Jacquemyn, Hans; Lievens, Bart

    2016-02-01

    The widespread use of azole antifungals in medicine and agriculture and the resulting long-persistent residues could potentially affect beneficial fungi. However, there is very little information on the tolerance of non-target environmental fungi to azoles. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility of diverse plant- and insect-associated yeasts from the Metschnikowia clade, including several ecologically important species, to widely used medical and agricultural azoles (epoxiconazole, imazalil, ketoconazole and voriconazole). A total of 120 strains from six species were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the EUCAST broth microdilution procedure after some necessary modifications were made. The majority of species tested were highly susceptible to epoxiconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole (>95% of strains showed MICs ≤ 0.125 mg l(-1)). Most strains were also very susceptible to imazalil, although MIC values were generally higher than for the other azoles. Furthermore, certain Metschnikowia reukaufii strains displayed a 'trailing' phenotype (i.e. showed reduced but persistent growth at antifungal concentrations above the MIC), but this characteristic was dependent on test conditions. It was concluded that exposure to azoles may pose a risk for ecologically relevant yeasts from the Metschnikowia clade, and thus could potentially impinge on the tripartite interaction linking these fungi with plants and their insect pollinators.

  14. Nectar yeasts of the Metschnikowia clade are highly susceptible to azole antifungals widely used in medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; de Vega, Clara; Pozo, María I; Lenaerts, Marijke; Van Assche, Ado; Herrera, Carlos M; Jacquemyn, Hans; Lievens, Bart

    2016-02-01

    The widespread use of azole antifungals in medicine and agriculture and the resulting long-persistent residues could potentially affect beneficial fungi. However, there is very little information on the tolerance of non-target environmental fungi to azoles. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility of diverse plant- and insect-associated yeasts from the Metschnikowia clade, including several ecologically important species, to widely used medical and agricultural azoles (epoxiconazole, imazalil, ketoconazole and voriconazole). A total of 120 strains from six species were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the EUCAST broth microdilution procedure after some necessary modifications were made. The majority of species tested were highly susceptible to epoxiconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole (>95% of strains showed MICs ≤ 0.125 mg l(-1)). Most strains were also very susceptible to imazalil, although MIC values were generally higher than for the other azoles. Furthermore, certain Metschnikowia reukaufii strains displayed a 'trailing' phenotype (i.e. showed reduced but persistent growth at antifungal concentrations above the MIC), but this characteristic was dependent on test conditions. It was concluded that exposure to azoles may pose a risk for ecologically relevant yeasts from the Metschnikowia clade, and thus could potentially impinge on the tripartite interaction linking these fungi with plants and their insect pollinators. PMID:26703195

  15. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  16. 7 CFR 917.122 - Qualification requirements and nominiation procedure for public members of Commodity Committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification requirements and nominiation procedure for public members of Commodity Committees. 917.122 Section 917.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders;...

  17. 7 CFR 917.122 - Qualification requirements and nominiation procedure for public members of Commodity Committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification requirements and nominiation procedure for public members of Commodity Committees. 917.122 Section 917.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders;...

  18. Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  19. Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.

    PubMed

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  20. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  1. Limiting and facilitating access to innovations in medicine and agriculture: a brief exposition of the ethical arguments.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Cristian

    2014-12-01

    Taking people's longevity as a measure of good life, humankind can proudly say that the average person is living a much longer life than ever before. The AIDS epidemic has however for the first time in decades stalled and in some cases even reverted this trend in a number of countries. Climate change is increasingly becoming a major challenge for food security and we can anticipate that hunger caused by crop damages will become much more common.Since many of the challenges humanity faced in the past were overcome by inventive solutions coming from the life sciences, we are compelled to reconsider how we incentivize science and technology development so that those in need can benefit more broadly from scientific research. There is a huge portion of the world population that is in urgent need for medicines to combat diseases that are currently neglected by the scientific community and could immensely benefit from agricultural research that specifically targets their environmental conditions. At the same time efforts have to be made to make the fruits of current and future research more widely accessible. These changes would have to be backed by a range of moral arguments to attract people with diverging notions of global justice. This article explores the main ethical theories used to demand a greater share in the benefits from scientific progress for the poor. Since life sciences bring about a number of special concerns, a short list of conflictive issues is also offered. PMID:26085444

  2. A review of bioinformatics training applied to research in molecular medicine, agriculture and biodiversity in Costa Rica and Central America.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Allan; Morera, Jessica; Jiménez, Sergio; Boza, Ricardo

    2013-09-01

    Today, Bioinformatics has become a scientific discipline with great relevance for the Molecular Biosciences and for the Omics sciences in general. Although developed countries have progressed with large strides in Bioinformatics education and research, in other regions, such as Central America, the advances have occurred in a gradual way and with little support from the Academia, either at the undergraduate or graduate level. To address this problem, the University of Costa Rica's Medical School, a regional leader in Bioinformatics in Central America, has been conducting a series of Bioinformatics workshops, seminars and courses, leading to the creation of the region's first Bioinformatics Master's Degree. The recent creation of the Central American Bioinformatics Network (BioCANET), associated to the deployment of a supporting computational infrastructure (HPC Cluster) devoted to provide computing support for Molecular Biology in the region, is providing a foundational stone for the development of Bioinformatics in the area. Central American bioinformaticians have participated in the creation of as well as co-founded the Iberoamerican Bioinformatics Society (SOIBIO). In this article, we review the most recent activities in education and research in Bioinformatics from several regional institutions. These activities have resulted in further advances for Molecular Medicine, Agriculture and Biodiversity research in Costa Rica and the rest of the Central American countries. Finally, we provide summary information on the first Central America Bioinformatics International Congress, as well as the creation of the first Bioinformatics company (Indromics Bioinformatics), spin-off the Academy in Central America and the Caribbean.

  3. REVIEW OF CONTROL OPTIONS FOR METHYL BROMIDE IN COMMODITY TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes recent developments in the control of methyl bromide (MeBr) and discusses technical considerations and requirements for and economic feasibility of recovery. (NOTE: MeBr, fumigant for agricultural commodities, is an ozone depleting chemical. The U.S. EPA has ...

  4. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the administration of that program in accordance with 7 CFR part 247, the regulations for that program... to local agencies for use by eligible recipients in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 247... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63...

  5. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the administration of that program in accordance with 7 CFR part 247, the regulations for that program... to local agencies for use by eligible recipients in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 247... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63...

  6. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the administration of that program in accordance with 7 CFR part 247, the regulations for that program... to local agencies for use by eligible recipients in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 247... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63...

  7. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the administration of that program in accordance with 7 CFR part 247, the regulations for that program... to local agencies for use by eligible recipients in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 247... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63...

  8. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the administration of that program in accordance with 7 CFR part 247, the regulations for that program... to local agencies for use by eligible recipients in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 247... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63...

  9. 76 FR 49291 - Agricultural Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Commission recently promulgated a final rule defining the term ``agricultural commodity.'' See 76 FR 41048... Agricultural Swaps, 76 FR 6095, February 3, 2011. \\8\\ See Agricultural Swaps, 75 FR 59666, Sept. 28, 2010. C... specifically addressing the costs and benefits of the proposed agricultural swaps rules. \\10\\ See NPRM, 76...

  10. Comparison of Online Agricultural Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; Patterson, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Outlines major online agricultural information services--agricultural databases, databases with agricultural services, educational databases in agriculture--noting services provided, access to the database, and costs. Benefits of online agricultural database sources (availability of agricultural marketing, weather, commodity prices, management…

  11. 76 FR 13972 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement AGENCY... (FSA) proposes adding export food aid commodities (EFAC) to the agricultural products for which... operators storing EFAC. This proposal is in response to the concerns of export food aid providers...

  12. 7 CFR 782.11 - Extent to which commodities are subject to end-use certificate regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent to which commodities are subject to end-use... (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS END-USE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM Implementation of the End-Use Certificate Program § 782.11 Extent to which commodities are subject to...

  13. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a distinct geographic area. 46.48 Section 46.48 Agriculture... Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

  14. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a distinct geographic area. 46.48 Section 46.48 Agriculture... Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

  15. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a distinct geographic area. 46.48 Section 46.48 Agriculture... Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

  16. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a distinct geographic area. 46.48 Section 46.48 Agriculture... Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

  17. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet. PMID:26084100

  18. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  19. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.

    2005-01-01

    United States, about 30 companies accounted for more than 90 percent of the silver fabricated. The consumption of silver for all fabrication uses is expected to grow slowly through the decade ending in 2010 at about 1.3 percent per year for the world and 2.4 percent per year for the United States. World and U.S. reserves and reserve bases are more than adequate to satisfy the demand for newly mined silver through 2010. The other components of supply will be silver recovered from scrap, silver from industrial stocks, and silver bullion that is sold into the market from commodity exchange and private stocks.

  20. [Research progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica and discussion on several key problems].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Zheng, Yu-Guang; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica is an important way to solve the "Lemons Problem" of traditional Chinese medicine market. Standards of commodity classes are also helpful to rebuild market mechanisms for "high price for good quality". The previous edition of commodity classes standards of Chinese materia medica was made 30 years ago. It is no longer adapted to the market demand. This article researched progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It considered that biological activity is a better choice than chemical constituents for standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It is also considered that the key point to set standards of commodity classes is finding the influencing factors between "good quality" and "bad quality". The article also discussed the range of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, and how to coordinate standards of pharmacopoeia and commodity classes. According to different demands, diversiform standards can be used in commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, but efficacy is considered the most important index of commodity standard. Decoction pieces can be included in standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. The authors also formulated the standards of commodity classes of Notoginseng Radix as an example, and hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on traditional Chinese medicine market related research.

  1. 7 CFR 917.35 - Powers and duties of each commodity committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS..., That the Pear Commodity Committee shall approve actions under § 917.39 and make said...

  2. 7 CFR 917.35 - Powers and duties of each commodity committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS..., That the Pear Commodity Committee shall approve actions under § 917.39 and make said...

  3. 7 CFR 917.35 - Powers and duties of each commodity committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS..., That the Pear Commodity Committee shall approve actions under § 917.39 and make said...

  4. 75 FR 29307 - Web Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Form, Paperwork Collection Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Web Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Form, Paperwork Collection... Based Supply Chain Management (WBSCM) that will allow respondents to submit information electronically... CONTACT: David Tuckwiller, Project Manager, Web Based Supply Chain Management System, phone (202)...

  5. 7 CFR 1499.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.11 Use of commodities... structure located on such real property to the extent necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of...

  6. 7 CFR 1499.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499... necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of donated commodities, but only if such structure is not used in...

  7. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION... necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of donated commodities, but only if such structure is not used in...

  8. 7 CFR 1499.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.11 Use of commodities... structure located on such real property to the extent necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of...

  9. 7 CFR 1499.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.11 Use of commodities... structure located on such real property to the extent necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of...

  10. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION... necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of donated commodities, but only if such structure is not used in...

  11. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION... necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of donated commodities, but only if such structure is not used in...

  12. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION... necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of donated commodities, but only if such structure is not used in...

  13. 7 CFR 17.5 - Contracts between commodity suppliers and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 17.5 Section 17.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SALES OF AGRICULTURAL... sale it is determined that an agent employed or engaged by a commodity supplier to obtain a contract is not a selling agent as defined in § 17.2, the sale will not be eligible for financing. (b)...

  14. 7 CFR 240.5 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... specified in § 250.4(b)(2)(ii) of this chapter to be used for donated-food processing and handling expenses... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools. 240.5 Section 240.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  15. 7 CFR 240.5 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... specified in § 250.4(b)(2)(ii) of this chapter to be used for donated-food processing and handling expenses... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools. 240.5 Section 240.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  16. 7 CFR 240.5 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... specified in § 250.4(b)(2)(ii) of this chapter to be used for donated-food processing and handling expenses... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools. 240.5 Section 240.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  17. 7 CFR 240.5 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... specified in § 250.4(b)(2)(ii) of this chapter to be used for donated-food processing and handling expenses... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools. 240.5 Section 240.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  18. 7 CFR 240.5 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... specified in § 250.4(b)(2)(ii) of this chapter to be used for donated-food processing and handling expenses... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools. 240.5 Section 240.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  19. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative... agreements with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) through either the Agricultural Water... Agricultural Water Enhancement Program Legislative Authority The Agricultural Water Enhancement Program...

  20. 7 CFR 250.57 - Commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Child Nutrition Programs § 250.57 Commodity schools. (a) Categorization of commodity schools. Commodity schools are schools that operate a nonprofit school food service in accordance with 7 CFR part 210, but... CFR part 210, as applicable. (b) Value of donated foods for commodity schools. For...

  1. School Meal Programs: More Systematic Development of Specifications Could Improve the Safety of Foods Purchased through USDA's Commodity Program. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives. GAO-11-376

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shames, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Through its commodity program, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides commodity foods at no cost to schools taking part in the national school meals programs. Commodities include raw ground beef, cheese, poultry, and fresh produce. Like federal food safety agencies, the commodity program has taken steps designed to reduce microbial…

  2. Nanotechnology and patents in agriculture, food technology, nutrition and medicine - advantages and risks: worldwide patented nano- and absorber particles in food nutrition and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Benckiser, Gero

    2012-12-01

    The keywords nanotechnology, super absorber, agriculture, nutrition, and food technology exhibited 28,149 positive matches under more than 68 million patents worldwide. A closer look at the first 500 nanotechnology, agriculture, nutrition and biotechnology related patents, published during 2011-2012, unveiled that 64% are parts of machines and control devices while about 36% comprise metal oxides, fertilizers, pesticides and drugs, which are compounds and often applied in combination with inorganic or organic super absorbing polymeric structures. The latter compounds are in the focus of this special issue. PMID:23061649

  3. Multifractal behavior of commodity markets: Fuel versus non-fuel products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbianco, Fernando; Tohmé, Fernando; Stosic, Tatijana; Stosic, Borko

    2016-09-01

    We investigate multifractal properties of commodity time series using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We find that agricultural and energy-related commodities exhibit very similar behavior, while the multifractal behavior of daily and monthly commodity series is rather different. Daily series demonstrate overall uncorrelated behavior, lower degree of multifractality and the dominance of small fluctuations. On the other hand, monthly commodity series show overall persistent behavior, higher degree of multifractality and the dominance of large fluctuations. After shuffling the series, we find that the multifractality is due to a broad probability density function for daily commodities series, while for monthly commodities series multifractality is caused by both a broad probability density function and long term correlations.

  4. 76 FR 77670 - Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... FR 39188 (Sept. 25, 1990) (``Brent Interpretation''). II. Commission Interpretation of ``Actual... ``actual delivery'' as set forth in section 2(c)(2)(D)(ii)(III)(aa) of the Commodity Exchange Act (``CEA... application. In particular, new CEA section 2(c)(2)(D)(ii)(III)(aa) \\18\\ excepts a contract of sale...

  5. 78 FR 52426 - Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act, 76 FR 77670 (Dec. 14, 2011). II. Summary of Comments A. Comments... factors set forth in the Interpretation. \\19\\ 76 FR 77670, 77672 (Dec. 14, 2011). \\20\\ Id. 2. When the 28...)(ii). \\24\\ See, e.g., Statutory Interpretation Concerning Forward Transactions, 55 FR 39188 (Sept....

  6. Phosphate: are we squandering a scarce commodity?

    PubMed

    Ferro, Charles J; Ritz, Eberhard; Townend, Jonathan N

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life but is a rare element in the universe. On Earth, it occurs mostly in the form of phosphates that are widespread but predominantly at very low concentration. This relative rarity has resulted in a survival advantage, in evolutionary terms, to organisms that conserve phosphate. When phosphate is made available in excess it becomes a cause for disease, perhaps best recognized as a potential cardiovascular and renal risk factor. As a reaction to the emerging public health issue caused by phosphate additives to food items, there have been calls for a public education programme and regulation to bring about a reduction of phosphate additives to food. During the Paleoproterzoic era, an increase in the bioavailability of phosphate is thought to have contributed significantly to the oxygenation of our atmosphere and a dramatic increase in the evolution of new species. Currently, phosphate is used poorly and often wasted with phosphate fertilizers washing this scarce commodity into water bodies causing eutrophication and algal blooms. Ironically, this is leading to the extinction of hundreds of species. The unchecked exploitation of phosphate rock, which is an increasingly rare natural resource, and our dependence on it for agriculture may lead to a strange situation in which phosphate might become a commodity to be fought over whilst at the same time, health and environmental experts are likely to recommend reductions in its use.

  7. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationships. Volume I--Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane, Ed.; Stanton, Marge, Ed.

    Information on the current and projected supply of and demand for graduates of higher education in the food and agricultural sciences is presented, based on federal data bases. The supply data are aggregated by 11 educational clusters, and employment demand data are aggregated by eight occupational clusters. Analysis reveals imbalances in the…

  8. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    PubMed

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards. PMID:24779933

  9. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    PubMed

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards.

  10. [Policy recommendations based on SWOT analysis for agricultural industrialization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials--a case study of uncariae ramulus cum uncis from Jianhe county in Guizhou province].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong; Huo, Ke-Yi; Xiang, Hua

    2013-09-01

    This thesis reviews the historical background of agricultural industrialization, and analyzes the major theories of agricultural industrialization. It also utilizes SWOT analysis method to discuss the industrialization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jianhe county, and finally it puts forward the recommendations for its further development. PMID:24380319

  11. [Policy recommendations based on SWOT analysis for agricultural industrialization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials--a case study of uncariae ramulus cum uncis from Jianhe county in Guizhou province].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong; Huo, Ke-Yi; Xiang, Hua

    2013-09-01

    This thesis reviews the historical background of agricultural industrialization, and analyzes the major theories of agricultural industrialization. It also utilizes SWOT analysis method to discuss the industrialization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jianhe county, and finally it puts forward the recommendations for its further development.

  12. An empirical performance analysis of commodity memories in commodity servers

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbyson, D. J.; Lang, M. K.; Patino, G.

    2004-01-01

    This work details a performance study of six different commodity memories in two commodity server nodes on a number of microbenchmarks, that measure low-level performance characteristics, as well as on two applications representative of the ASCI workload. Thc memories vary both in terms of performance, including latency and bandwidths, and also in terms of their physical properties and manufacturer. Two server nodes were used; one Itanium-II Madison based system, and one Xeon based system. All the memories examined can be used within both processing nodes. This allows the performance of the memories to be directly examined while keeping all other factors within a processing node the same (processor, motherboard, operating system etc.). The results of this study show that there can be a significant difference in application performance from the different memories - by as much as 20%. Thus, by choosing the most appropriate memory for a processing node at a minimal cost differential, significant improved performance may be achievable.

  13. Regime shift in fertilizer commodities indicates more turbulence ahead for food security.

    PubMed

    Elser, James J; Elser, Timothy J; Carpenter, Stephen R; Brock, William A

    2014-01-01

    Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium) for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice) and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum). Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication. PMID:24787624

  14. Regime shift in fertilizer commodities indicates more turbulence ahead for food security.

    PubMed

    Elser, James J; Elser, Timothy J; Carpenter, Stephen R; Brock, William A

    2014-01-01

    Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium) for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice) and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum). Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication.

  15. Regime Shift in Fertilizer Commodities Indicates More Turbulence Ahead for Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Elser, James J.; Elser, Timothy J.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Brock, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this “Green Revolution” has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium) for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice) and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum). Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007–2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication. PMID:24787624

  16. 17 CFR 5.4 - Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. 5.4 Section 5.4 Commodity and... Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. Part 4 of... commodity pool operator or as a commodity trading advisor. Failure by any such person to comply with...

  17. 17 CFR 5.4 - Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. 5.4 Section 5.4 Commodity and... Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. Part 4 of... commodity pool operator or as a commodity trading advisor. Failure by any such person to comply with...

  18. 17 CFR 4.41 - Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and the principals thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising by commodity pool... Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Advertising § 4.41 Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and...

  19. 17 CFR 5.4 - Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. 5.4 Section 5.4 Commodity and... Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. Part 4 of... commodity pool operator or as a commodity trading advisor. Failure by any such person to comply with...

  20. 17 CFR 5.4 - Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. 5.4 Section 5.4 Commodity and... Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. Part 4 of... commodity pool operator or as a commodity trading advisor. Failure by any such person to comply with...

  1. 12 CFR 614.4010 - Agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) of this chapter, for the export (including the cost of freight) of agricultural commodities or... purpose of facilitating the international business operations of such cooperatives pursuant to...

  2. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  8. 75 FR 27338 - NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing-Contract Merchant LLC; NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing-Delivery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Commodities Clearing--Delivery LLC; NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing--Finance LLC; Notice of Filing May 6, 2010... Commodities Clearing--Delivery LLC, and NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing--Finance LLC filed a supplement to...

  9. 17 CFR 32.11 - Suspension of commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of commodity option transactions. 32.11 Section 32.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.11 Suspension of commodity option transactions....

  10. 49 CFR 1313.6 - Contract summary for agricultural commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...). (4) Specific origins, destinations, transit points, and other shipper facilities. (i) Each specific.... (iii) Each transit point identified in the contract. (iv) Each shipper facility affecting performance under the contract (if not included in the origin/destination points or transit points), to the...

  11. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other, not...

  12. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1212.91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other, not...

  13. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1212.91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other, not...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-seed oil, other 1212.91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other,...

  15. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other, not...

  16. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-seed oil, crude. 1512.19 Sunflower-seed oil, other. 1212.91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or... Beet Sugar, raw, solid form. 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring. 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other, not elsewhere specified. Appendix C to Part 560...

  17. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1212.91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other, not...

  18. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other, not...

  19. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other, not...

  20. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-seed oil, crude. 1512.19 Sunflower-seed oil, other. 1212.91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or... Beet Sugar, raw, solid form. 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring. 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other, not elsewhere specified. Appendix C to Part 560...

  1. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the EAR). (2) No export or reexport to or for use in biological, chemical, nuclear warfare or... defined as the point at which the notification is entered into BIS's electronic system. (4) Review...

  2. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... notification or verify the status in BIS's Simplified Network Applications Processing Redesign (SNAP-R) System... confirm with either STELA or SNAP-R that no objection has been raised. If an objection is raised, STELA and SNAP-R will indicate that a license is required. The AGR notification will then be processed as...

  3. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... notification or verify the status in BIS's Simplified Network Applications Processing Redesign (SNAP-R) System... confirm with either STELA or SNAP-R that no objection has been raised. If an objection is raised, STELA and SNAP-R will indicate that a license is required. The AGR notification will then be processed as...

  4. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... notification or verify the status in BIS's Simplified Network Applications Processing Redesign (SNAP-R) System... confirm with either STELA or SNAP-R that no objection has been raised. If an objection is raised, STELA and SNAP-R will indicate that a license is required. The AGR notification will then be processed as...

  5. 49 CFR 1313.6 - Contract summary for agricultural commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... carrier(s), with average number of bad-order cars identified; and (3) (Optional) On order (for ownership... type used to fulfill the contract): (1) Total bad-car orders; (2) Assigned car obligations; and...

  6. 49 CFR 1313.6 - Contract summary for agricultural commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... carrier(s), with average number of bad-order cars identified; and (3) (Optional) On order (for ownership... type used to fulfill the contract): (1) Total bad-car orders; (2) Assigned car obligations; and...

  7. 49 CFR 1313.6 - Contract summary for agricultural commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... carrier(s), with average number of bad-order cars identified; and (3) (Optional) On order (for ownership... type used to fulfill the contract): (1) Total bad-car orders; (2) Assigned car obligations; and...

  8. 17 CFR 1.54 - Contract market rules submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract market rules submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1.54 Section 1.54 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.54 Contract...

  9. 7 CFR 1470.33 - Access to agricultural operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to agricultural operation. 1470.33 Section 1470.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP...

  10. Broilers, Beans, and Bellies: Teaching Commodity Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Loren J.

    1983-01-01

    People should understand what the commodity futures market is and who uses it. The commodity futures market should be studied in a high school economics course so a one-week unit was developed for students that involved them in a simulation as hedgers and speculators. (AM)

  11. 22 CFR 228.51 - Commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commodities. 228.51 Section 228.51 Foreign... SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.51 Commodities. (a) Waiver criteria. Any waiver must be based upon... area included in Geographic Code 941 or the cooperating country. (ii) For assistance other...

  12. A Java commodity grid kit.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.; Foster, I.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit. The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus protocols, allowing the Java CoG Kit to communicate also with the C Globus reference implementation. Thus, the Java CoG Kit provides Grid developers with the ability to utilize the Grid, as well as numerous additional libraries and frameworks developed by the Java community to enable network, Internet, enterprise, and peer-to peer computing. A variety of projects have successfully used the client libraries of the Java CoG Kit to access Grids driven by the C Globus software. In this paper we also report on the efforts to develop server side Java CoG Kit components. As part of this research we have implemented a prototype pure Java resource management system that enables one to run Globus jobs on platforms on which a Java virtual machine is supported, including Windows NT machines.

  13. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  14. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND...

  15. 17 CFR 32.3 - Unlawful commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with a commodity option transaction unless such person is registered as a futures commission merchant... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful commodity option transactions. 32.3 Section 32.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING...

  16. Strategic contracting practices to improve procurement of health commodities

    PubMed Central

    Arney, Leslie; Yadav, Prashant; Miller, Roger; Wilkerson, Taylor

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Public-sector entities responsible for procurement of essential medicines and health commodities in developing countries often lack the technical capacity to efficiently ensure supply security. Under strict public scrutiny and pressures to be transparent, many agencies continue to use archaic procurement methods and to depend on inflexible forecasts and cumbersome tendering processes. On the basis of semi-structured literature reviews and interviews, we identified framework agreements as a strategic procurement practice used by the U.S. federal government that may also be suitable for global health supply chains. Framework agreements are long-term contracts that provide the terms and conditions under which smaller repeat purchasing orders may be issued for a defined period of time. Such agreements are common in U.S. and United Nations procurement systems and in other developed countries and multilateral organizations. In contrast, framework agreements appear to be seldom used in procurement of health commodities in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The current practice of floating tenders multiple times a year contributes to long lead times and stock-outs, and it hampers the manufacturer's or supplier's ability to plan and respond to the government's needs. To date, government's use of strategic contracting practices in public procurement of health commodities has not received much attention in most developing countries. It may present an opportunity for substantial improvements in procurement efficiency and commodity availability. Enabling legislation and strengthened technical capacity to develop and manage long-term contracts could facilitate the use of framework contracts in sub-Saharan Africa, with improved supply security and cost savings likely to result. PMID:25276589

  17. Strategic contracting practices to improve procurement of health commodities.

    PubMed

    Arney, Leslie; Yadav, Prashant; Miller, Roger; Wilkerson, Taylor

    2014-08-01

    Public-sector entities responsible for procurement of essential medicines and health commodities in developing countries often lack the technical capacity to efficiently ensure supply security. Under strict public scrutiny and pressures to be transparent, many agencies continue to use archaic procurement methods and to depend on inflexible forecasts and cumbersome tendering processes. On the basis of semi-structured literature reviews and interviews, we identified framework agreements as a strategic procurement practice used by the U.S. federal government that may also be suitable for global health supply chains. Framework agreements are long-term contracts that provide the terms and conditions under which smaller repeat purchasing orders may be issued for a defined period of time. Such agreements are common in U.S. and United Nations procurement systems and in other developed countries and multilateral organizations. In contrast, framework agreements appear to be seldom used in procurement of health commodities in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The current practice of floating tenders multiple times a year contributes to long lead times and stock-outs, and it hampers the manufacturer's or supplier's ability to plan and respond to the government's needs. To date, government's use of strategic contracting practices in public procurement of health commodities has not received much attention in most developing countries. It may present an opportunity for substantial improvements in procurement efficiency and commodity availability. Enabling legislation and strengthened technical capacity to develop and manage long-term contracts could facilitate the use of framework contracts in sub-Saharan Africa, with improved supply security and cost savings likely to result. PMID:25276589

  18. Strategic contracting practices to improve procurement of health commodities.

    PubMed

    Arney, Leslie; Yadav, Prashant; Miller, Roger; Wilkerson, Taylor

    2014-08-01

    Public-sector entities responsible for procurement of essential medicines and health commodities in developing countries often lack the technical capacity to efficiently ensure supply security. Under strict public scrutiny and pressures to be transparent, many agencies continue to use archaic procurement methods and to depend on inflexible forecasts and cumbersome tendering processes. On the basis of semi-structured literature reviews and interviews, we identified framework agreements as a strategic procurement practice used by the U.S. federal government that may also be suitable for global health supply chains. Framework agreements are long-term contracts that provide the terms and conditions under which smaller repeat purchasing orders may be issued for a defined period of time. Such agreements are common in U.S. and United Nations procurement systems and in other developed countries and multilateral organizations. In contrast, framework agreements appear to be seldom used in procurement of health commodities in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The current practice of floating tenders multiple times a year contributes to long lead times and stock-outs, and it hampers the manufacturer's or supplier's ability to plan and respond to the government's needs. To date, government's use of strategic contracting practices in public procurement of health commodities has not received much attention in most developing countries. It may present an opportunity for substantial improvements in procurement efficiency and commodity availability. Enabling legislation and strengthened technical capacity to develop and manage long-term contracts could facilitate the use of framework contracts in sub-Saharan Africa, with improved supply security and cost savings likely to result.

  19. 17 CFR 3.10 - Registration of futures commission merchants, introducing brokers, commodity trading advisors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... commission merchants, introducing brokers, commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators and leverage..., commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators and leverage transaction merchants. (a) Application for... futures commission merchant, introducing broker, commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator...

  20. Description of historical crop calendar data bases developed to support foreign commodity production forecasting project experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. L., III (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The content, format, and storage of data bases developed for the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting project and used to produce normal crop calendars are described. In addition, the data bases may be used for agricultural meteorology, modeling of stage sequences and planting dates, and as indicators of possible drought and famine.

  1. 7 CFR 917.24 - Procedure for nominating members of various commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917... hold or cause to be held not later than February 15 for pears of each odd numbered year a meeting or... on the Pear Commodity Committee must have produced at least 51 percent of the pears shipped by...

  2. 7 CFR 917.24 - Procedure for nominating members of various commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917... hold or cause to be held not later than February 15 for pears of each odd numbered year a meeting or... on the Pear Commodity Committee must have produced at least 51 percent of the pears shipped by...

  3. 7 CFR 917.24 - Procedure for nominating members of various commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917... hold or cause to be held not later than February 15 for pears of each odd numbered year a meeting or... on the Pear Commodity Committee must have produced at least 51 percent of the pears shipped by...

  4. 78 FR 25416 - Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Farm Service Agency Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain... invitations, however, are issued throughout the month. Web-Based Supply Chain Management (WBSCM) allows... request. This information collection is necessary to support the procurement of agricultural...

  5. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding and Blanket Commodity Lien Waiver

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Lien Waiver B Exhibit B to Subpart A of Part 1962 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...) PERSONAL PROPERTY Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security Pt. 1962, Subpt. A, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart A of Part 1962—Memorandum of Understanding and Blanket Commodity Lien Waiver The Farmers...

  6. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding and Blanket Commodity Lien Waiver

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Lien Waiver B Exhibit B to Subpart A of Part 1962 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...) PERSONAL PROPERTY Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security Pt. 1962, Subpt. A, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart A of Part 1962—Memorandum of Understanding and Blanket Commodity Lien Waiver The Farmers...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding and Blanket Commodity Lien Waiver

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Lien Waiver B Exhibit B to Subpart A of Part 1962 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...) PERSONAL PROPERTY Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security Pt. 1962, Subpt. A, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart A of Part 1962—Memorandum of Understanding and Blanket Commodity Lien Waiver The Farmers...

  8. 7 CFR 1421.5 - Eligible commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poisonous to humans or animals. A commodity containing vomitoxin, aflatoxin, or Aspergillus mold may not be...) Have been produced and sheared from live sheep and goats, of domestic origin and located in the...

  9. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... T-2 which applies to all commodities destined to Communist China. Order T-1 does not relax or...

  10. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... T-2 which applies to all commodities destined to Communist China. Order T-1 does not relax or...

  11. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... T-2 which applies to all commodities destined to Communist China. Order T-1 does not relax or...

  12. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... T-2 which applies to all commodities destined to Communist China. Order T-1 does not relax or...

  13. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... T-2 which applies to all commodities destined to Communist China. Order T-1 does not relax or...

  14. Accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Morari, Alessandro; Castellana, Vito G.; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John T.; Weaver, Jesse R.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2013-10-06

    We are developing a full software system for accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity cluster that scales to hundreds of nodes while maintaining constant query throughput. Our framework comprises a SPARQL to C++ compiler, a library of parallel graph methods and a custom multithreaded runtime layer, which provides a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model with fork/join parallelism and automatic load balancing over a commodity clusters. We present preliminary results for the compiler and for the runtime.

  15. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  16. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  17. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  18. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  19. 17 CFR 31.6 - Registration of leverage commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registration of leverage... LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.6 Registration of leverage commodities. (a) Registration of leverage commodities. Each leverage commodity upon which a leverage contract is offered for sale or purchase or is sold...

  20. 17 CFR 20.11 - Diversified commodity indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diversified commodity indices... TRADER REPORTING FOR PHYSICAL COMMODITY SWAPS § 20.11 Diversified commodity indices. For the purpose of... commonly known diversified indices with publicly available weightings may be reported as if such...

  1. 17 CFR 20.11 - Diversified commodity indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diversified commodity indices... TRADER REPORTING FOR PHYSICAL COMMODITY SWAPS § 20.11 Diversified commodity indices. For the purpose of... commonly known diversified indices with publicly available weightings may be reported as if such...

  2. 17 CFR 20.11 - Diversified commodity indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diversified commodity indices... TRADER REPORTING FOR PHYSICAL COMMODITY SWAPS § 20.11 Diversified commodity indices. For the purpose of... commonly known diversified indices with publicly available weightings may be reported as if such...

  3. 49 CFR 1248.100 - Commodity classification designated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STATISTICS Commodity Code § 1248.100 Commodity classification designated. Commencing with reports for the..., reports of commodity statistics required to be made to the Board, shall be based on the commodity codes... Statistics, 1963, issued by the Bureau of the Budget, and on additional codes 411 through 462 shown in §...

  4. 49 CFR 1248.100 - Commodity classification designated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STATISTICS Commodity Code § 1248.100 Commodity classification designated. Commencing with reports for the..., reports of commodity statistics required to be made to the Board, shall be based on the commodity codes... Statistics, 1963, issued by the Bureau of the Budget, and on additional codes 411 through 462 shown in §...

  5. 76 FR 11701 - Amendments to Commodity Pool Operator and Commodity Trading Advisor Regulations Resulting From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... contracts, commodity options, and off-exchange retail foreign currency transactions, and it does not include... would establish business conduct standards for swap dealers and major swap participants. See 75 FR 80638... and Commodity Trading Advisors: Amendments to Compliance Obligations, 76 FR 7976 (Feb. 11, 2011);...

  6. Nutrition and food commodities in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Martini, Sharon A; Phillips, Marshall

    2009-09-23

    Nutrition in the 20th century is examined with respect to changes in the American diet due to changes in the economy and evolution from an agrarian to an industrialized society. The American farm family diet from two regions of the United States during the 1930s is studied on the basis of overall availability of food commodities. A discussion of the diet staples and differences in farm family health is presented and related to nutritional deficiencies. Beginning in the 1920s through the early 1930s dietary deficiencies became a major focus of public health officials in the United States. Identification of the cause of these human nutritional deficiencies prompted significant research by government agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and National Institutes of Health. Medical schools, universities, pharmaceutical corporations, and private institutions directed their resources into basic chemical research and clinical trials to assess the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nutrients for improving human health and nutrition. Chemists played an important role in the discovery of vitamins, minerals, and essential nutrients, validating the efficacy through tedious clinical trials. They developed synthetic vitamins affording food manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies the opportunity to capitalize upon fortifying foods for consumers. The American chemist was also responsible for the development of commodities to maximize crop yield through pesticides and fertilizers.

  7. Nutrition and food commodities in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Martini, Sharon A; Phillips, Marshall

    2009-09-23

    Nutrition in the 20th century is examined with respect to changes in the American diet due to changes in the economy and evolution from an agrarian to an industrialized society. The American farm family diet from two regions of the United States during the 1930s is studied on the basis of overall availability of food commodities. A discussion of the diet staples and differences in farm family health is presented and related to nutritional deficiencies. Beginning in the 1920s through the early 1930s dietary deficiencies became a major focus of public health officials in the United States. Identification of the cause of these human nutritional deficiencies prompted significant research by government agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and National Institutes of Health. Medical schools, universities, pharmaceutical corporations, and private institutions directed their resources into basic chemical research and clinical trials to assess the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nutrients for improving human health and nutrition. Chemists played an important role in the discovery of vitamins, minerals, and essential nutrients, validating the efficacy through tedious clinical trials. They developed synthetic vitamins affording food manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies the opportunity to capitalize upon fortifying foods for consumers. The American chemist was also responsible for the development of commodities to maximize crop yield through pesticides and fertilizers. PMID:19719130

  8. Multifractal analysis of the Korean agricultural market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hongseok; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2011-11-01

    We have studied the long-term memory effects of the Korean agricultural market using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. In general, the return time series of various financial data, including stock indices, foreign exchange rates, and commodity prices, are uncorrelated in time, while the volatility time series are strongly correlated. However, we found that the return time series of Korean agricultural commodity prices are anti-correlated in time, while the volatility time series are correlated. The n-point correlations of time series were also examined, and it was found that a multifractal structure exists in Korean agricultural market prices.

  9. 48 CFR 8.715 - Replacement commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement commodities. 8.715 Section 8.715 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Nonprofit Agencies Employing People...

  10. Commodities Trading: An Essential Economic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue focuses on commodities trading as an essential economic tool. Activities include critical thinking about marketing decisions and discussion on how futures markets and options are used as important economic tools. Discussion questions and a special student project are included. (EH)

  11. 22 CFR 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commodity jurisdiction. 120.4 Section 120.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS..., and other U.S. Government agencies and industry in appropriate cases. (b) Registration with...

  12. 22 CFR 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commodity jurisdiction. 120.4 Section 120.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS... Departments of State, Defense, Commerce and other U.S. Government agencies and industry in appropriate...

  13. Correlations and cross-correlations in the Brazilian agrarian commodities and stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Erinaldo Leite; Stošić, Tatijana; Bejan, Lucian; Stošić, Borko

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the auto-correlations and cross-correlations of the volatility time series in the Brazilian stock and commodity market, using the recently introduced Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis. We find that the auto-correlations in stock volatilities are weaker than the auto-correlations in the commodity volatility series, contrary to earlier findings for the USA market where commodity volatility exponents were found to be lower than for stocks. We also find that the cross-correlations in the Brazilian stock and commodity market are stronger than what would be expected from simple combinations of auto-correlations of individual series, implying that there may be hidden factors that govern the behavior of the observed volatility series. This enhanced cross-correlation behavior is found in a considerable fraction of Brazilian stocks and agricultural commodities considered in the present work, suggesting that further studies should be directed into investigating these super-cross-correlations, and pinpointing the exogenous variables responsible for such behavior.

  14. Virtual Water Transfers in U.S. Cities from Domestic Commodity Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahams, I. C.; Mejia, A.; Paterson, W.

    2015-12-01

    Cities have imported water into their boundaries for centuries but understanding how cities indirectly affect watersheds through the commodities which they import is fairly unknown. Thus, we present and discuss here a methodology for determining the virtual water transfers to and from U.S. cities associated with domestic commodity flows. For our methodology, we only consider agricultural and industrial commodities and, to represent the commodity flows, we use the Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) dataset from the U.S. Department of Transportation. Accordingly, we determine virtual water transfers for the 123 geographic regions in the FAF, which consists of 17 states, 73 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), and 33 remainders of states. Out of the 41 sectors that comprise the FAF data, we consider only the 29 sectors that account for the agricultural and industrial commodities. Using both water use data for macro-sectors and national water use coefficients for different industries, we determine a weighted water use coefficient for each of the 29 sectors considered. Ultimately, we use these weighted coefficients to estimate virtual water transfers and the water footprint for each city. Preliminary comparisons with other water footprint estimates indicate that our methodology yields reasonable results. In terms of the water footprint, we find that cities (i.e. MSAs) are net consumers, can consume a large proportion of their own production, and can have a large agricultural production. We also find that the per capita water footprint of industrial consumption decreases with increasing population in cities, suggesting that large cities may be more efficient.

  15. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... labor. For example the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables is a processing operation which... “commodity” refers to a single agricultural or horticultural product, for example, all apples are to be treated as a single commodity, while apples and peaches are to be treated as two separate commodities....

  16. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... labor. For example the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables is a processing operation which... “commodity” refers to a single agricultural or horticultural product, for example, all apples are to be treated as a single commodity, while apples and peaches are to be treated as two separate commodities....

  17. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... labor. For example the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables is a processing operation which... “commodity” refers to a single agricultural or horticultural product, for example, all apples are to be treated as a single commodity, while apples and peaches are to be treated as two separate commodities....

  18. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... labor. For example the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables is a processing operation which... “commodity” refers to a single agricultural or horticultural product, for example, all apples are to be treated as a single commodity, while apples and peaches are to be treated as two separate commodities....

  19. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... labor. For example the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables is a processing operation which... “commodity” refers to a single agricultural or horticultural product, for example, all apples are to be treated as a single commodity, while apples and peaches are to be treated as two separate commodities....

  20. Evaluation of containment and control options for methyl bromide in commodity treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeWolf, G.B.; Harrison, M.R.

    1994-07-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr), with the chemical formula CH3Br, also called bromomethane, is listed by the 1991 Montreal Protocol as an ozone depleting chemical similar to the other halogenated hydrocarbons such as the chloro-fluorocarbons (CFCs). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) regulations authorized by the Clean Air Act (CAA) call for a phaseout of MeBr by the year 2001. MeBr is widely used in United States agriculture as a fumigant. This study has gathered preliminary data that can be used to determine if some of the essential agricultural commodity fumigation applications for MeBr could be continued by the use of some emission control methods on those commodity fumigation applications.

  1. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. An example of this is the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables. However, work in... horticultural product. For example, all apples are a commodity, while apples and oranges are two...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. An example of this is the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables. However, work in... horticultural product. For example, all apples are a commodity, while apples and oranges are two...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. An example of this is the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables. However, work in... horticultural product. For example, all apples are a commodity, while apples and oranges are two...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. An example of this is the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables. However, work in... horticultural product. For example, all apples are a commodity, while apples and oranges are two...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. An example of this is the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables. However, work in... horticultural product. For example, all apples are a commodity, while apples and oranges are two...

  6. Revised technical action plan at former Commodity Credit Corporation grain storage sites in Nebraska and Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This document has been prepared for the Commodity Credit Corporation of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA/CCC) to provide an outline for a multiyear plan for technical investigations at sites in Kansas and Nebraska that have been identified as having groundwater contamination. Carbon tetrachloride is the primary contaminant of concern at sites in Nebraska and Kansas where former USDA/CCC grain storage facilities were located.

  7. 17 CFR 4.27 - Additional reporting by advisors of certain large commodity pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... advisors of certain large commodity pools. 4.27 Section 4.27 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.27 Additional reporting by advisors of certain large commodity pools. (a) General...

  8. 17 CFR 4.27 - Additional reporting by advisors of certain large commodity pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... advisors of certain large commodity pools. 4.27 Section 4.27 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.27 Additional reporting by advisors of certain large commodity pools. (a) General...

  9. 17 CFR 4.27 - Additional reporting by advisors of commodity pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... advisors of commodity pools. 4.27 Section 4.27 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.27 Additional reporting by advisors of commodity pools. Except as otherwise expressly provided in this section, CPOs...

  10. Valuing embryos as both commodities and singularities.

    PubMed

    Legge, Michael; Fitzgerald, Ruth

    2016-03-11

    An argument put forward against gamete and embryo donation, sale and research, is that to do so would treat the gametes or embryos as objects with no intrinsic value as human. Instead, gametes and embryos created and used for donation, sale or research, can be considered more like a commodity created and traded for economic exchange--something that is valuable only for the amount of money or other goods and services that others are willing to exchange. While Kant asserts that humans have dignity rather than object worth, the provision of human gametes and embryos are progressively becoming utilities for resolving childlessness and for certain research investigations. In this paper we discuss the commodity market and the relationship to human reproduction material. PMID:27005877

  11. Navier-Stokes Computations on Commodity Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Faulkner, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we discuss and demonstrate the feasibility of solving high-fidelity, nonlinear computational fluid dynamics (CFD) problems of practical interest on commodity machines, namely Pentium Pro PC's. Such calculations have now become possible due to the progress in computational power and memory of the off-the-shelf commodity computers, along with the growth in bandwidth and communication speeds of networks. A widely used CFD code known as TLNS3D, which was developed originally on large shared memory computers was selected for this effort. This code has recently been ported to massively parallel processor (MPP) type machines, where natural partitioning along grid blocks is adopted in which one or more blocks are distributed to each of the available processors. In this paper, a similar approach is adapted to port this code to a cluster of Pentium Pro computers. The message passing among the processors is accomplished through the use of standard message passing interface (MPI) libraries. Scaling studies indicate fairly high level of parallelism on such clusters of commodity machines, thus making solutions to Navier-Stokes equations for practical problems more affordable.

  12. 22 CFR 228.11 - Source and origin of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of... source and origin of a commodity as defined in § 228.01 shall be a country or countries authorized in the... policy restricted country makes the commodity ineligible for USAID financing. (c) When the...

  13. 22 CFR 228.11 - Source and origin of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Source and origin of commodities. 228.11 Section 228.11 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND... Commodity Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.11 Source and origin of commodities. (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.110 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity certificate for the marketing assistance loan collateral. (b) The exchange rate is the lesser of... price, as determined by CCC, for rice or the alternative repayment rate for all other commodities, as determined by CCC. (c) Commodity certificate exchanges may not be used when locking in a repayment rate...

  15. 41 CFR 51-6.13 - Replacement and similar commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Replacement and similar commodities. 51-6.13 Section 51-6.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... desire to procure additional sizes, colors, or other variations of a commodity after the commodity...

  16. 41 CFR 51-6.13 - Replacement and similar commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Replacement and similar commodities. 51-6.13 Section 51-6.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... desire to procure additional sizes, colors, or other variations of a commodity after the commodity...

  17. 41 CFR 51-6.13 - Replacement and similar commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Replacement and similar commodities. 51-6.13 Section 51-6.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... desire to procure additional sizes, colors, or other variations of a commodity after the commodity...

  18. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  19. 17 CFR 33.3 - Unlawful commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on which the option is traded, or (B) Is a member of a futures association registered under section... of the commodity option related activity of its member futures commission merchants in a manner... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful commodity...

  20. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  1. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  2. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  3. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  4. 78 FR 67331 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Assessment Exemption for Organic Commodities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Approved Assessment Exemption for Organic Commodities AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... record. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Organic Handler Market Promotion Assessment Exemption under 26... Investment Act (7 U.S.C. 7901), exempting any person who handles or markets solely 100 percent...

  5. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  6. Multiple commodities in statistical microeconomics: Model and market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao; Du, Xin

    2016-11-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013). In Baaquie et al. (2015), the market behavior of single commodities was analyzed and it was shown that market data provides strong support for the statistical microeconomic description of commodity prices. The case of multiple commodities is studied and a parsimonious generalization of the single commodity model is made for the multiple commodities case. Market data shows that the generalization can accurately model the simultaneous correlation functions of up to four commodities. To accurately model five or more commodities, further terms have to be included in the model. This study shows that the statistical microeconomics approach is a comprehensive and complete formulation of microeconomics, and which is independent to the mainstream formulation of microeconomics.

  7. International trade in livestock and livestock products: the need for a commodity-based approach.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Tambi, E N; Hargreaves, S K; Leyland, T J; Catley, A P; van 't Klooster, G G M; Penrith, M L

    2004-10-01

    International animal health standards designed to facilitate safe trade in livestock and livestock products are set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and documented in the OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code. A core principle of the Code is the need for countries to eradicate important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) to reduce the risk of exporting disease to trading partners. International food safety standards are set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, administered jointly by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The goal of global eradication of most TADs is unachievable for the foreseeable future, other than in the case of rinderpest, and this prevents many countries, especially developing nations, from engaging in international trade under WTO rules. This paper proposes an alternative, commodity-based approach to the formulation of international animal health and food safety standards, based on the fact that different commodities pose very different risks when it comes to the spread of human and animal pathogens. Therefore, the risk mitigation strategies required are equally commodity-dependent. The authors conclude that more focused commodity standards would improve access to international markets for all countries, especially those in the developing world. For this objective to be realised, credible and independent certification is required. PMID:15508847

  8. From Commodity Polymers to Functional Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Tao; Wang, Ling-Ren; Ma, Lang; Han, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Rui; Cheng, Chong; Xia, Yi; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Functional polymers bear specified chemical groups, and have specified physical, chemical, biological, pharmacological, or other uses. To adjust the properties while keeping material usage low, a method for direct synthesis of functional polymers is indispensable. Here we show that various functional polymers can be synthesized by in situ cross-linked polymerization/copolymerization. We demonstrate that the polymers synthesized by the facile method using different functional monomers own outstanding pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility, antifouling property, antibacterial, and anticoagulant property. Our study opens a route for the functionalization of commodity polymers, which lead to important advances in polymeric materials applications. PMID:24710333

  9. From Commodity Polymers to Functional Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Tao; Wang, Ling-Ren; Ma, Lang; Han, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Rui; Cheng, Chong; Xia, Yi; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Functional polymers bear specified chemical groups, and have specified physical, chemical, biological, pharmacological, or other uses. To adjust the properties while keeping material usage low, a method for direct synthesis of functional polymers is indispensable. Here we show that various functional polymers can be synthesized by in situ cross-linked polymerization/copolymerization. We demonstrate that the polymers synthesized by the facile method using different functional monomers own outstanding pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility, antifouling property, antibacterial, and anticoagulant property. Our study opens a route for the functionalization of commodity polymers, which lead to important advances in polymeric materials applications.

  10. Airships for transporting highly volatile commodities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonstegaard, M.

    1975-01-01

    Large airships may prove feasible as carriers of commodities that move as gases or cryogenic liquids; buoyant gaseous cargo could be ballasted with liquid cargo. Airships are compact in shape, operate in a rarified medium, and hence can be fast and perhaps economic carriers of costly cryogenic tanks. The high-pressure gas pipeline has excessive surface area when carrying hydrogen and excessive fluid density when carrying natural gas, while the cryogenic ocean tanker runs in a dense medium and makes gravity waves. But the airship, despite its fluid dynamic advantages, faces problems of safety, weather, and altitude control.

  11. Knowledge-based commodity distribution planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saks, Victor; Johnson, Ivan

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a Decision Support System (DSS) that incorporates Knowledge-Based (KB) and commercial off the shelf (COTS) technology components. The Knowledge-Based Logistics Planning Shell (KBLPS) is a state-of-the-art DSS with an interactive map-oriented graphics user interface and powerful underlying planning algorithms. KBLPS was designed and implemented to support skilled Army logisticians to prepare and evaluate logistics plans rapidly, in order to support corps-level battle scenarios. KBLPS represents a substantial advance in graphical interactive planning tools, with the inclusion of intelligent planning algorithms that provide a powerful adjunct to the planning skills of commodity distribution planners.

  12. Computer-generated mineral commodity deposit maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schruben, Paul G.; Hanley, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    This report describes an automated method of generating deposit maps of mineral commodity information. In addition, it serves as a user's manual for the authors' mapping system. Procedures were developed which allow commodity specialists to enter deposit information, retrieve selected data, and plot deposit symbols in any geographic area within the conterminous United States. The mapping system uses both micro- and mainframe computers. The microcomputer is used to input and retrieve information, thus minimizing computing charges. The mainframe computer is used to generate map plots which are printed by a Calcomp plotter. Selector V data base system is employed for input and retrieval on the microcomputer. A general mapping program (Genmap) was written in FORTRAN for use on the mainframe computer. Genmap can plot fifteen symbol types (for point locations) in three sizes. The user can assign symbol types to data items interactively. Individual map symbols can be labeled with a number or the deposit name. Genmap also provides several geographic boundary file and window options.

  13. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  14. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  15. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  16. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  17. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  18. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  19. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  20. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  1. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  2. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  3. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  4. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  5. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  6. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  7. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  8. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  9. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  10. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  11. 76 FR 7975 - Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors: Amendments to Compliance Obligations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... financial regulators and is charged with identifying risks to the financial stability of the United States..., and promote market integrity within the financial system by, inter alia, enhancing the Commodity....htm. The preamble of the Dodd-Frank Act explicitly states that the purpose of the legislation is:...

  12. 17 CFR 4.14 - Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a commodity trading advisor. 4.14 Section 4.14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.14 Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor. This section...

  13. 17 CFR 4.13 - Exemption from registration as a commodity pool operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a commodity pool operator. 4.13 Section 4.13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.13 Exemption from registration as a commodity pool operator. This section...

  14. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... COMMODITY FOR FUTURE DELIVERY § 33.10 Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. It shall...

  15. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... COMMODITY FOR FUTURE DELIVERY § 33.10 Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. It shall...

  16. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  17. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  18. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  19. Valuing environmental commodities: some recent experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, W.D.; d'Arge, R.C.; Brookshire, D.S.

    1981-05-01

    A general model of consumer behavior is proposed to assess six recent experiments that have attempted to reveal preferences for environmental goals. Each experiment used a mix of both the techniques and the theory of demand for non-market commodities, and each was designed to estimate a non-market attitude associated with the environment and to analyze potential biases in the techniques. The six cases show some consistency in results. The linkage within the contingent market between the environmental attribute, institutional setting, and the bidding instrument must be realistic and accepted by the respondent to avoid biased results. Possibly the most-important result is the replication of results using a traditional property-value study and a contingent bidding approach. All evidence obtained to date suggests that hedonic studies of property values or wages, travel costs, and survey techniques all yield values well one order of magnitude in accuracy. 41 references, 2 tables.

  20. Computational chemistry on commodity-type computers.

    PubMed

    Nicklaus, M C; Williams, R W; Bienfait, B; Billings, E S; Hodoscek, M

    1998-01-01

    A number of inexpensive computers were benchmarked with the ab initio program Gaussian 94, using both small standard test jobs and larger density functional (DFT) calculations. Several varieties of Pentium (x86) and Alpha CPU based systems were tested. Most of them were running under the open source code operating system Linux. They were compared with several workstations and supercomputers. The most powerful of today's commodity-type processors surpassed current supercomputers in speed. The choice of compilers and compilation options was often found to have a larger influence on job CPU times than details of the hardware. Especially on the x86 type machines, the jobs always ran faster the less memory (RAM) they were given. The fastest machine on a per-CPU basis was an Alpha/Linux system. For the DFT calculation, it was close to twice as fast as a Cray J90 supercomputer. PMID:9770303

  1. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  2. Return of the Gentleman Farmer?: Conceptualising Gentrification in UK Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, processes of gentrification are assessed in relation to non-commercial farming: the production of agricultural commodities without the intent of earning a living. The author argues that due to the connection between residence and productive assets (particularly land) inherent in farming, agricultural gentrification represents a…

  3. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  4. Phytoecdysteroids: biological effects, application in agriculture and complementary medicine (as presented at the 14-th Ecdysone Workshop, July, 2000, Rapperswil, Switzerland).

    PubMed

    Kholodova, Y

    2001-01-01

    Serratula coronata and Serratula inermis (fam. Asteraceae) have been chosen as the most perspective sources for ecdysteroids from the flora of Ukraine. Ecdysterone was the major component in both species (approximately 2%). The minor components have been identified as alpha-ecdysone, polypodine B, integristerone, pterosterone, monoacetonide and diacetonide of ecdysterone, monoacetonide of ajugasterone C (S. coronata); and viticosterone E, 2-desoxyecdysterone, polypodine B, integristerone, 26-hydroxyecdysterone (S. inermis). Antioxidant activity, antiradical and immunomodulators effects, anabolic, adaptogenic, stimulating, hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective actions have been found on the variety of model systems in vitro and in vivo (D-hypovitaminosis, hypercholesterolemia, liver intoxication, increased physical loading). Biochemical mechanisms of these findings have been discussed. A number of preparations-biostumulators have been elaborated on the basis of ecdysteroids from Serratula sp.--for poultry-keeping, agricultural entomology and as food supplements for sick or healthy people.

  5. Wisconsin Radio and Television Agricultural Market News Programming. Wisconsin Agricultural Extension Service Research Report No. R2615, April 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroupa, Eugene A.; Walker, Douglas K.

    The study determined what Wisconsin's 102 AM, 107 FM, and 21 television stations were providing as agricultural market information programming and documented the amount, timing, frequency, and completeness of broadcast agricultural market news reports. Data were collected on the sources of market price information, types of commodity and price…

  6. Sustainable agriculture for Alaska and the circumpolar north: Part 1. Development and status of northeren agriculture and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska is food insecure, importing an estimated 95% of all agricultural products and 50 commodities and only maintaining a year round food supply of about three to five days. We 51 review the history, development and current state of sustainable agriculture at high-latitudes, 52 especially Alaska, a...

  7. 5 CFR 1315.13 - Commodity Credit Corporation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commodity Credit Corporation payments... PAYMENT § 1315.13 Commodity Credit Corporation payments. As provided in § 1315.1(d), the provisions of... Credit Corporation (CCC) pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Act of June 29, 1948 (15 U.S.C. 714b(h))...

  8. 5 CFR 1315.13 - Commodity Credit Corporation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commodity Credit Corporation payments... PAYMENT § 1315.13 Commodity Credit Corporation payments. As provided in § 1315.1(d), the provisions of... Credit Corporation (CCC) pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Act of June 29, 1948 (15 U.S.C. 714b(h))...

  9. 46 CFR 531.10 - Excepted and exempted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... NSAs for the movement of the following, as defined in section 3 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40102) and § 530... filing NSAs which exclusively concern the commodities or services listed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (2) NSAs filed with the Commission may include the commodities or services listed in paragraph...

  10. 46 CFR 531.10 - Excepted and exempted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... NSAs for the movement of the following, as defined in section 3 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40102) and § 530... filing NSAs which exclusively concern the commodities or services listed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (2) NSAs filed with the Commission may include the commodities or services listed in paragraph...

  11. 46 CFR 531.10 - Excepted and exempted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... NSAs for the movement of the following, as defined in section 3 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40102) and § 530... filing NSAs which exclusively concern the commodities or services listed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (2) NSAs filed with the Commission may include the commodities or services listed in paragraph...

  12. 46 CFR 531.10 - Excepted and exempted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... NSAs for the movement of the following, as defined in section 3 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40102) and § 530... filing NSAs which exclusively concern the commodities or services listed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (2) NSAs filed with the Commission may include the commodities or services listed in paragraph...

  13. 46 CFR 531.10 - Excepted and exempted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... NSAs for the movement of the following, as defined in section 3 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40102) and § 530... filing NSAs which exclusively concern the commodities or services listed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (2) NSAs filed with the Commission may include the commodities or services listed in paragraph...

  14. 41 CFR 51-6.4 - Military resale commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military resale... PROCEDURES § 51-6.4 Military resale commodities. (a) Purchase procedures for ordering military resale commodities are available from the central nonprofit agencies. Authorized resale outlets (military...

  15. 41 CFR 51-6.4 - Military resale commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military resale... PROCEDURES § 51-6.4 Military resale commodities. (a) Purchase procedures for ordering military resale commodities are available from the central nonprofit agencies. Authorized resale outlets (military...

  16. 22 CFR 211.6 - Processing, repackaging, and labeling commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing, repackaging, and labeling commodities. 211.6 Section 211.6 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD..., with the following information in the language of the country in which the commodities are to...

  17. 31 CFR 560.526 - Commodities trading and related transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with the United States person is a person in Iran or the Government of Iran, and (2) It was impossible... the Government of Iran. (b) Trading in commodities destined for Iran or the Government of Iran. With... by United States persons in commodities of U.S. or third-country origin destined for Iran or...

  18. 31 CFR 560.526 - Commodities trading and related transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the United States person is a person in Iran or the Government of Iran, and (2) It was impossible... the Government of Iran. (b) Trading in commodities destined for Iran or the Government of Iran. With... by United States persons in commodities of U.S. or third-country origin destined for Iran or...

  19. 22 CFR 211.6 - Processing, repackaging, and labeling commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... commodities. 211.6 Section 211.6 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD USE IN DISASTER RELIEF, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER ASSISTANCE § 211.6 Processing... income may be used, to offset such costs if provided for in the Operational Plan or TA or approved...

  20. Applications of GARCH models to energy commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, H. Brett

    This thesis uses GARCH methods to examine different aspects of the energy markets. The first part of the thesis examines seasonality in the variance. This study modifies the standard univariate GARCH models to test for seasonal components in both the constant and the persistence in natural gas, heating oil and soybeans. These commodities exhibit seasonal price movements and, therefore, may exhibit seasonal variances. In addition, the heating oil model is tested for a structural change in variance during the Gulf War. The results indicate the presence of an annual seasonal component in the persistence for all commodities. Out-of-sample volatility forecasting for natural gas outperforms standard forecasts. The second part of this thesis uses a multivariate GARCH model to examine volatility spillovers within the crude oil forward curve and between the London and New York crude oil futures markets. Using these results the effect of spillovers on dynamic hedging is examined. In addition, this research examines cointegration within the oil markets using investable returns rather than fixed prices. The results indicate the presence of strong volatility spillovers between both markets, weak spillovers from the front of the forward curve to the rest of the curve, and cointegration between the long term oil price on the two markets. The spillover dynamic hedge models lead to a marginal benefit in terms of variance reduction, but a substantial decrease in the variability of the dynamic hedge; thereby decreasing the transactions costs associated with the hedge. The final portion of the thesis uses portfolio theory to demonstrate how the energy mix consumed in the United States could be chosen given a national goal to reduce the risks to the domestic macroeconomy of unanticipated energy price shocks. An efficient portfolio frontier of U.S. energy consumption is constructed using a covariance matrix estimated with GARCH models. The results indicate that while the electric

  1. Federal Agency and Federal Library Reports. Library of Congress; Center for the Book; Federal Library and Information Center Committee; National Commission on Libraries and Information Science; National Agricultural Library; National Library of Medicine;United States Government Printing Office; National Technical Information Service; National Archives and Records Administration; National Center for Education Statistics Library Statistics Program; National Library of Education; Educational Resources Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Audrey; Cole, John Y.; Tarr, Susan M.; Vlach, Rosalie B.; Carey, Len; Mehnert, Robert; Sherman, Andrew M.; Davis, Linda; Vecchiarelli, Marion H.; Chute, Adrienne; Dunn, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Includes reports from Library of Congress, Center for the Book, Federal Library and Information Center Committee, National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, National Agricultural Library, National Library of Medicine, Government Printing Office, National Technical Information Service, National Archives and Records Administration,…

  2. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Financial Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Diabetes Medicines What do diabetes medicines do? Over time, high levels of blood glucose, ... your diabetes medicines, food choices, and physical activity. Medicines for My Diabetes Ask your doctor what type ...

  3. Live HDR video streaming on commodity hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, Joshua; Hatchett, Jonathan; Debattista, Kurt; Chalmers, Alan

    2015-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) video provides a step change in viewing experience, for example the ability to clearly see the soccer ball when it is kicked from the shadow of the stadium into sunshine. To achieve the full potential of HDR video, so-called true HDR, it is crucial that all the dynamic range that was captured is delivered to the display device and tone mapping is confined only to the display. Furthermore, to ensure widespread uptake of HDR imaging, it should be low cost and available on commodity hardware. This paper describes an end-to-end HDR pipeline for capturing, encoding and streaming high-definition HDR video in real-time using off-the-shelf components. All the lighting that is captured by HDR-enabled consumer cameras is delivered via the pipeline to any display, including HDR displays and even mobile devices with minimum latency. The system thus provides an integrated HDR video pipeline that includes everything from capture to post-production, archival and storage, compression, transmission, and display.

  4. Commodity-Based Computing Clusters at PPPL.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wah, Darren; Davis, Steven L.; Johansson, Marques; Klasky, Scott; Tang, William; Valeo, Ernest

    2002-11-01

    In order to cost-effectively facilitate mid-scale serial and parallel computations and code development, a number of commodity-based clusters have been built at PPPL. A recent addition is the PETREL cluster, consisting of 100 dual-processor machines, both Intel and AMD, interconnected by a 100Mbit switch. Sixteen machines have an additional Myrinet 2000 interconnect. Also underway is the implementation of a Prototype Topical Computing Facility which will explore the effectiveness and scaling of cluster computing for larger scale fusion codes, specifically including those being developed under the SCIDAC auspices. This facility will consist of two parts: a 64 dual-processor node cluster, with high speed interconnect, and a 16 dual-processor node cluster, utilizing gigabit networking, built for the purpose of exploring grid-enabled computing. The initial grid explorations will be in collaboration with the Princeton University Institute for Computational Science and Engineering (PICSciE), where a 16 processor cluster dedicated to investigation of grid computing is being built. The initial objectives are to (1) grid-enable the GTC code and an MHD code, making use of MPICH-G2 and (2) implement grid-enabled interactive visualization using DXMPI and the Chromium API.

  5. Commodity chemical growth to slow in 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Plishner, E.S.

    1992-12-09

    In their latest chemical outlook, DRI/McGraw-Hill economists characterize 1992 as a peak year for U.S. commodity chemical demand growth, at 4.2%, tapering off to a compound 2.2% between 1993 and 1995. Just as operating rates begin to reach higher levels in 1995, however, DRI forecasts slowing GNP growth. DRI's Ramunas J. Svarcas expects a decline in exports. Those plastics promising the rosiest consumption outlook include melamine-formaldehyde resin, up 9.9% in 1992, from 155 million lbs in 1991, and projected to grow 8.6%/year through 1995; styrene acrylonitrile resin, up 23% this year, from 58 million lbs last year, and growing 8.2%/year through 1995; and unsaturated polyester, up 11.7% this year, from 1.07 billion lbs in 1991, and increasing at 6.5%/year. Methanol is a bright spot, with consumption growing 4.7%, from 11.2 billion lbs in 1991 and 12%/year thereafter. Ortho-xylene managed an impressive 21% rebound from a depressed 1991 level of 783 million lbs, and is expected to continue its recovery at 7.7%/year.

  6. Features of the Java commodity grid kit.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Rehn, N.; Russell, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit (Java CoG Kit). The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus Toolkit protocols, allowing the Java CoG Kit to also communicate with the services distributed as part of the C Globus Toolkit reference implementation. Thus, the Java CoG Kit provides Grid developers with the ability to utilize the Grid, as well as numerous additional libraries and frameworks developed by the Java community to enable network, Internet, enterprise and peer-to-peer computing. A variety of projects have successfully used the client libraries of the Java CoG Kit to access Grids driven by the C Globus Toolkit software. In this paper we also report on the efforts to develop serverside Java CoG Kit components. As part of this research we have implemented a prototype pure Java resource management system that enables one to run Grid jobs on platforms on which a Java virtual machine is supported, including Windows NT machines.

  7. 48 CFR 470.103 - United States origin of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and reasonable prices from domestic sources. (b) Use by the Food and Nutrition Service. Commodities and the products of agricultural commodities acquired for use by the Food and Nutrition Service shall... procured by the Department shall be of 100 percent United States origin. (d) Product derived from...

  8. 48 CFR 470.103 - United States origin of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and reasonable prices from domestic sources. (b) Use by the Food and Nutrition Service. Commodities and the products of agricultural commodities acquired for use by the Food and Nutrition Service shall... procured by the Department shall be of 100 percent United States origin. (d) Product derived from...

  9. 48 CFR 470.103 - United States origin of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false United States origin of... FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.103 United States origin of agricultural products. (a) Products of United States origin. As provided by 7 U.S.C. 1732(2) and 1736o-1(a) commodities...

  10. 48 CFR 470.103 - United States origin of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false United States origin of... FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.103 United States origin of agricultural products. (a) Products of United States origin. As provided by 7 U.S.C. 1732(2) and 1736o-1(a) commodities...

  11. 48 CFR 470.103 - United States origin of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false United States origin of... FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.103 United States origin of agricultural products. (a) Products of United States origin. As provided by 7 U.S.C. 1732(2) and 1736o-1(a) commodities...

  12. Agro-climatic classification systems for estimating the global distribution of livestock numbers and commodities.

    PubMed

    White, D H; Lubulwa, G A; Menz, K; Zuo, H; Wint, W; Slingenbergh, J

    2001-09-01

    Investment in agricultural research in developing countries is being increasingly targeted at those agro-climatic zones and issues where the economic and environmental benefits may be expected to be greatest. This first requires that the zones themselves be defined, along with information on domestic livestock numbers and commodity output within agro-climatic zones in different countries. Different methods for classifying agro-climatic zones were compared. These included methods based on estimated length of growing period (LGP) using rainfall and temperature data, the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (PET), and on more detailed agronomic models, remote sensing data and land use information. Zonation based on LGP has already been linked to existing national livestock data. By defining agro-climatic zones and relating concentrations of livestock populations to those of humans, it is possible to make realistic estimates of livestock populations and the production of livestock commodities for most developing countries. Detailed agro-climatic analyses of Mainland East Asia and Sri Lanka have recently been undertaken using the GROWEST agronomic model. Using this model as the basis of agro-climatic classification appears to be significantly superior, particularly in temperate environments, to approaches based solely on LGP. Different ways of subdividing countries and continents into agro-climatic or agro-ecological zones (AEZs) are reviewed in this paper. In addition, we show how the numbers of production and commodities from domestic livestock can be allocated to such zones. We also indicate how some of this information can be applied. PMID:11697667

  13. Speculation on commodities futures markets and destabilization of global food prices: exploring the connections.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Jayati; Heintz, James; Pollin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Price Index surpassed its previous peak of June 2008, and prices remained at this level through September 2011. This pattern is creating justified fears of a renewal or intensification of the global food crisis. This paper reviews arguments and evidence to inform debates on how to regulate commodity futures markets in the face of such price volatility and sustained high prices. We focus on the relationship between market liquidity and price patterns in asset markets in general and in commodities futures markets in particular, as well as the relationship between spot and futures market prices for food. We find strong evidence supporting the need to limit huge increases in trading volume on futures markets through regulations. We find that arguments opposing regulation are not supported. We find no support for the claim that liquidity in futures markets stabilizes prices at "fundamental" values or that spot market prices are free of any significant influence from futures markets. Given these results, the most appropriate position for regulators is precautionary: they should enact and enforce policies capable of effectively dampening excessive speculative trading on the commodities markets for food.

  14. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 31 - Schedule of Fees for Registration of Leverage Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Registration of Leverage Commodities A Appendix A to Part 31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS Pt. 31, App. A Appendix A to Part 31—Schedule of Fees for Registration of Leverage Commodities (a) Each application for registration of a leverage commodity must...

  15. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.10 Fraud...

  16. 17 CFR 32.9 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.9 Section 32.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.9 Fraud in connection with...

  17. 17 CFR 32.4 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.4 Section 32.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.4 Fraud in connection with...

  18. 17 CFR 32.9 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.9 Section 32.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.9 Fraud in connection with...

  19. 17 CFR 32.9 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.9 Section 32.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.9 Fraud in connection with...

  20. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.10 Fraud...

  1. 17 CFR 32.4 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.4 Section 32.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.4 Fraud in connection with...

  2. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.10 Fraud...

  3. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.105 “Primary” and...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing... livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land, and that there shall...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing... livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land, and that there shall...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing... livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land, and that there shall...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing... livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land, and that there shall...

  8. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  9. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  10. New practical and theoretical approaches to the induction of morphogenesis from plant tumors in vitro using new types of plant growth regulators: towards constructive paradigms in agriculture and medicine.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    Using classical or traditional plant growth regulators, calli or plant tumors have been produced in vitro and subsequently have been induced to produce buds and plantlets, a process referred to as regeneration. For many years, this has been a successful procedure for in vitro, plant propagation. However, for a number of plant species investigators could not induce calli in vitro to produce buds. Organogenesis was still recalcitrant for various plants in 1980. New types or nonconventional growth regulators, such as methylglyoxal and ascorbic acid, were then found to overcome recalcitrant organogenesis in vitro. Their successful or effective use gave support to a theory that stressful, non-uniform cohesive force-fields, electromagnetic in nature, occurring through the application of certain chemicals, are necessary for in vitro morphogenesis from plant neoplasm or callus. Morphogenesis is seen as an adaptive accommodation to the inner stresses from such non-uniform, cohesive forces. Diverse chemicals, not considered traditional plant growth regulators would, it has been conjectured, enable the generation of such cohesive forces, in non-uniform arrays, and it has been predicted that more chemicals of this type will be discovered. A new constructive approach to agriculture and medicine, using a new plant tissue-culture model, based on new theory, has also been predicted.

  11. 22 CFR 201.63 - Maximum prices for commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... producer in the original sale of that specific commodity; and (ii) A markup over the amount allowed in... competitors of the supplier; and (iii) To the extent not included in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section...

  12. Fuel ethanol and agriculture: an economic assessment. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, G.; Gavett, E.

    1986-08-01

    Increased fuel ethanol production through 1995 would raise net farm income, benefiting mainly corn and livestock producers. Production of additional byproduct feeds would depress the price of soybeans. Large ethanol subsidies, which are required to sustain the industry, would offset any savings in agricultural commodity programs. Increased ethanol production would also raise consumer expenditures for food. Any benefits of higher income to farmers would be more than offset by increased Government costs and consumer food expenditures. Direct cash payments to farmers would be more economical than attempting to boost farm income through ethanol subsidies.

  13. Upon Further Review: A Commodity Chemist on Green Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, William F.

    2016-09-01

    Green chemistry is most often thought of in the context of specialty or pharmaceutical chemicals where many synthetic chemistry approaches are in play. However, principles similar to those of green chemistry and engineering were employed over the years in reducing cost and increasing volume of chemicals that became commodities. This paper considers some of those principles, their impact, and some perspectives on the potential and limits associated with green chemistry for commodity chemicals.

  14. Ranking and selection of motor carrier safety performance by commodity.

    PubMed

    Horrace, William C; Keane, Thomas P

    2004-11-01

    We use recent safety performance data to rank US motor carrier commodity segments (e.g., Tank segment or Produce segment) in terms of several driver-related, vehicle-related, and crash-related safety measures. Ranking and selection inference techniques are used to determine the best and worst performing commodity segments at the 95% confidence level. The results are mixed, however the Passenger segment is generally best, while the Produce, Intermodal, and Refrigerated segments tend to be worst. PMID:15350872

  15. Statistical microeconomics and commodity prices: theory and empirical results.

    PubMed

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2016-01-13

    A review is made of the statistical generalization of microeconomics by Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is given by the unequal time correlation function and is modelled by the Feynman path integral based on an action functional. The correlation functions of the model are defined using the path integral. The existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)) has been empirically ascertained in Baaquie et al. (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). The model's action functionals for different commodities has been empirically determined and calibrated using the unequal time correlation functions of the market commodity prices using a perturbation expansion (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are empirically studied and their auto-correlation for up to 300 days is described by the model to an accuracy of R(2)>0.90-using only six parameters. PMID:26621991

  16. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  17. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  18. GCAM 3.0 Agriculture and Land Use: Data Sources and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Emanuel, William R.; Nathan, Mayda; Zhou, Yuyu

    2011-12-12

    This report presents the data processing methods used in the GCAM 3.0 agriculture and land use component, starting from all source data used, and detailing all calculations and assumptions made in generating the model inputs. The report starts with a brief introduction to modeling of agriculture and land use in GCAM 3.0, and then provides documentation of the data and methods used for generating the base-year dataset and future scenario parameters assumed in the model input files. Specifically, the report addresses primary commodity production, secondary (animal) commodity production, disposition of commodities, land allocation, land carbon contents, and land values.

  19. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  20. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  1. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    PubMed

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  2. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    PubMed Central

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  3. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  4. Redesigning Urban Carbon Cycles: from Waste Stream to Commodity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brabander, D. J.; Fitzstevens, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    supporting urban agriculture. We are now extending this approach to additional large U.S. and European urban centers where different philosophical and technological approaches to managing urban waste carbon have resulted in a range of infrastructures, from highly distributed systems (Germany) to centralized mega facilities (London). Ultimately, this research will lead to a decision-making matrix model that will permit cities to customize their urban carbon waste stream facilities and transform this waste into a usable commodity.

  5. Commodity Flow Study - Clark County, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, S.Ph.D.; Navis, I.

    2008-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy has designated Clark County, Nevada as an 'Affected Unit of Local Government' due to the potential for impacts by activities associated with the Yucca Mountain High Level Nuclear Waste Repository project. Urban Transit, LLC has led a project team of transportation including experts from the University of Nevada Las Vegas Transportation Research Center to conduct a hazardous materials community flow study along Clark County's rail and truck corridors. In addition, a critical infrastructure analysis has also been carried out in order to assess the potential impacts of transportation within Clark County of high level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel to a proposed repository 90 miles away in an adjacent county on the critical infrastructure in Clark County. These studies were designed to obtain information relating to the transportation, identification and routing of hazardous materials through Clark County. Coordinating with the United States Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U. S. Federal Highway Administration, the Nevada Department of Transportation, and various other stakeholders, these studies and future research will examine the risk factors along the entire transportation corridor within Clark County and provide a context for understanding the additional vulnerability associated with shipping spent fuel through Clark County. (authors)

  6. [Discussion on the causation of fake crude medicinal materials in the Ming Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Hu, Anhui

    2014-05-01

    In the Ming Dynasty, the phenomenon of fake crude medicinal materials is very common. Its fundamental reasons are the development of commodity economy and the tense relationship between supply and demand, reflecting in the stimulation of infinite demand of crude drugs initiated by the government and folk aspects, and the seeking of profits in the trade due to the expansion of the trade markets of crude medicinal materials under the commodity economy progress. To observe and study the causation of fake crude medicinal materials in the Ming Dynasty can help us, to certain extent, to take measures to prevent the overflow of fake crude medicinal materials. PMID:25208834

  7. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstius, David

    infrastructure (i.e., established monitoring sites). Given a collaborator with a short window of access to a reference monitoring site, this would overcome a nominally important barrier associated with non-gravimetric, in-situ calibration of continuous PM2.5 monitors. Progressive and disruptive prospects linked to a proliferation of comparable sensing technologies based on commodity hardware are discussed in Chapter 5.

  8. 17 CFR Appendix D to Part 43 - Other Commodity Swap Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Categories D Appendix D to Part 43 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION... Other Commodity Group Individual Other Commodity Grains Oats Wheat Corn Rice Grains—Other Livestock/Meat Products Live Cattle Pork Bellies Feeder Cattle Lean Hogs Livestock/Meat Products—Other Dairy Products...

  9. Standardization as a Means for Globalizing a Commodity: The Case of Rapeseed in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Keiko; Busch, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    Not all commodities are things, nor are all things available in society commodities. Then, what are commodities? Using the case of rapeseed and its products in China, this paper examines the role of grades and standards (G&S) in simultaneously determining the life of things as commodities and the position of humans as market participants. In the…

  10. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  11. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture...

  12. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture...

  13. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture...

  14. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  15. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  17. Indoles: Industrial, Agricultural and Over-the-Counter Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Timothy C.

    Indole-containing compounds are best known for their medicinal properties in the pharmaceutical industry. Although to a lesser degree, the indole motif none-the-less appears in many significant products across the entire chemical industry. This chapter describes the role that indole plays in a more commodity setting and provides examples illustrating these uses.

  18. [From service of charity to profit center? An ethical critique of commodification of medicine].

    PubMed

    Maio, Giovanni

    2008-06-15

    This paper wants to reflect the actual transformations of modern medicine. The implementation of the market into medicine is only possible by presupposing at least three implications: (a) the patient as consumer, (b) medical care as commodity, (c) competitiveness as criteria for good medicine. All three implications seem to be inadequate if the core identity of medicine is considered. If medicine is regarded as a human service for suffering people, it becomes clear that what medicine has to offer must be more than mere commodity. It is suggested to see medicine as a social institution which is linked to the obligation of the whole society to give medicine the possibility and the economic independence in order to remain an institution of charity which assures help for every man in need and which cannot be reduced to a mere enterprise. PMID:18548217

  19. A Crosswalk of Mineral Commodity End Uses and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.; Menzie, W. David

    2015-09-14

    The links between the end uses of mineral commodities and the NAICS codes provide an instrument for analyzing the use of mineral commodities in the economy. The crosswalk is also a guide, highlighting those industrial sectors in the economy that rely heavily on mineral commodities. The distribution of mineral commodities across the economy is dynamic and does differ from year to year. This report reflects a snapshot of the state of the economy and mineral commodities in 2010.

  20. A Crosswalk of Mineral Commodity End Uses and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.; Menzie, W. David

    2015-01-01

    The links between the end uses of mineral commodities and the NAICS codes provide an instrument for analyzing the use of mineral commodities in the economy. The crosswalk is also a guide, highlighting those industrial sectors in the economy that rely heavily on mineral commodities. The distribution of mineral commodities across the economy is dynamic and does differ from year to year. This report reflects a snapshot of the state of the economy and mineral commodities in 2010.