Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural commodity prices

  1. Nonlinear bivariate dependency of price-volume relationships in agricultural commodity futures markets: A perspective from Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yun; Chen, Shu-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear dependency between characteristic financial and commodity market quantities (variables) is crucially important, especially between trading volume and market price. Studies on nonlinear dependency between price and volume can provide practical insights into market trading characteristics, as well as the theoretical understanding of market dynamics. Actually, nonlinear dependency and its underlying dynamical mechanisms between price and volume can help researchers and technical analysts in understanding the market dynamics by integrating the market variables, instead of investigating them in the current literature. Therefore, for investigating nonlinear dependency of price-volume relationships in agricultural commodity futures markets in China and the US, we perform a new statistical test to detect cross-correlations and apply a new methodology called Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA), which is an efficient algorithm to analyze two spatially or temporally correlated time series. We discuss theoretically the relationship between the bivariate cross-correlation exponent and the generalized Hurst exponents for time series of respective variables. We also perform an empirical study and find that there exists a power-law cross-correlation between them, and that multifractal features are significant in all the analyzed agricultural commodity futures markets.

  2. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  3. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  4. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  5. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  6. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  7. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-14

    18 Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity Congressional Research Service Summary Industrial hemp is a variety of Cannabis sativa and is of the same...further processing. Under the current U.S. drug policy, all cannabis varieties, including hemp, are considered Schedule I controlled substances under the...illegal to grow without a DEA permit. Currently, cannabis varieties may be legitimately grown for research purposes only. Among the concerns over

  8. Mycotoxin contamination of commercially important agricultural commodities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal toxins, called aflatoxins and other mold toxins, are a serious problem in US agricultural commodities. Due to aflatoxins resilience to industrial processes contaminated crops (corn, cotton, peanuts, and tree nuts) cannot be used. The loss of these commodities results in serious economic impa...

  9. Child mortality, commodity price volatility and the resource curse.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, Yousef; Kellard, Neil M; Vinogradov, Dmitri

    2017-04-01

    Given many developing economies depend on primary commodities, the fluctuations of commodity prices may imply significant effects for the wellbeing of children. To investigate, this paper examines the relationship between child mortality and commodity price movements as reflected by country-specific commodity terms-of-trade. Employing a panel of 69 low and lower-middle income countries over the period 1970-2010, we show that commodity terms-of-trade volatility increases child mortality in highly commodity-dependent importers suggesting a type of 'scarce' resource curse. Strikingly however, good institutions appear able to mitigate the negative impact of volatility. The paper concludes by highlighting this tripartite relationship between child mortality, volatility and good institutions and posits that an effective approach to improving child wellbeing in low to lower-middle income countries will combine hedging, import diversification and improvement of institutional quality.

  10. Kinetic market models with single commodity having price fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Chakrabarti, B. K.

    2006-12-01

    We study here numerically the behavior of an ideal gas like model of markets having only one non-consumable commodity. We investigate the behavior of the steady-state distributions of money, commodity and total wealth, as the dynamics of trading or exchange of money and commodity proceeds, with local (in time) fluctuations in the price of the commodity. These distributions are studied in markets with agents having uniform and random saving factors. The self-organizing features in money distribution are similar to the cases without any commodity (or with consumable commodities), while the commodity distribution shows an exponential decay. The wealth distribution shows interesting behavior: gamma like distribution for uniform saving propensity and has the same power-law tail, as that of the money distribution, for a market with agents having random saving propensity.

  11. Statistical microeconomics and commodity prices: theory and empirical results.

    PubMed

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2016-01-13

    A review is made of the statistical generalization of microeconomics by Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is given by the unequal time correlation function and is modelled by the Feynman path integral based on an action functional. The correlation functions of the model are defined using the path integral. The existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)) has been empirically ascertained in Baaquie et al. (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). The model's action functionals for different commodities has been empirically determined and calibrated using the unequal time correlation functions of the market commodity prices using a perturbation expansion (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are empirically studied and their auto-correlation for up to 300 days is described by the model to an accuracy of R(2)>0.90-using only six parameters.

  12. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    PubMed Central

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  13. Speculation on commodities futures markets and destabilization of global food prices: exploring the connections.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Jayati; Heintz, James; Pollin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Price Index surpassed its previous peak of June 2008, and prices remained at this level through September 2011. This pattern is creating justified fears of a renewal or intensification of the global food crisis. This paper reviews arguments and evidence to inform debates on how to regulate commodity futures markets in the face of such price volatility and sustained high prices. We focus on the relationship between market liquidity and price patterns in asset markets in general and in commodities futures markets in particular, as well as the relationship between spot and futures market prices for food. We find strong evidence supporting the need to limit huge increases in trading volume on futures markets through regulations. We find that arguments opposing regulation are not supported. We find no support for the claim that liquidity in futures markets stabilizes prices at "fundamental" values or that spot market prices are free of any significant influence from futures markets. Given these results, the most appropriate position for regulators is precautionary: they should enact and enforce policies capable of effectively dampening excessive speculative trading on the commodities markets for food.

  14. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. FUNGIBILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE: EVIDENCE FROM COMMODITY PRICE SHOCKS*

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Justine S.; Shapiro, Jesse M.

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a test of the fungibility of money based on parallel shifts in the prices of different quality grades of a commodity. We embed the test in a discrete-choice model of product quality choice and estimate the model using panel microdata on gasoline purchases. We find that when gasoline prices rise consumers substitute to lower octane gasoline, to an extent that cannot be explained by income effects. Across a wide range of specifications, we consistently reject the null hypothesis that households treat “gas money” as fungible with other income. We compare the empirical fit of three psychological models of decision-making. A simple model of category budgeting fits the data well, with models of loss aversion and salience both capturing important features of the time series. PMID:26937053

  16. FUNGIBILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE: EVIDENCE FROM COMMODITY PRICE SHOCKS.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Justine S; Shapiro, Jesse M

    2013-11-01

    We formulate a test of the fungibility of money based on parallel shifts in the prices of different quality grades of a commodity. We embed the test in a discrete-choice model of product quality choice and estimate the model using panel microdata on gasoline purchases. We find that when gasoline prices rise consumers substitute to lower octane gasoline, to an extent that cannot be explained by income effects. Across a wide range of specifications, we consistently reject the null hypothesis that households treat "gas money" as fungible with other income. We compare the empirical fit of three psychological models of decision-making. A simple model of category budgeting fits the data well, with models of loss aversion and salience both capturing important features of the time series.

  17. 76 FR 41048 - Agricultural Commodity Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... plant, animal and aquatic life, which are generally fungible, within their respective classes, and are used primarily for human food, shelter, animal feed, or natural fiber;'' 3. A catch-all category for..., products of horticulture, and such other commodities used or consumed by animals or humans as...

  18. 75 FR 65586 - Agricultural Commodity Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ..., soybeans and soybean meal were added in 1940. Commodity Exchange Act Amendment of 1940, Public Law No. 76..., peanut oil, soybean oil, and all other fats and oils), cottonseed meal, cottonseed, peanuts, soybeans, soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen concentrated orange juice, and all other goods...

  19. Cross-correlations between crude oil and agricultural commodity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate cross-correlations between crude oil and agricultural commodity markets. Based on a popular statistical test proposed by Podobnik et al. (2009), we find that the linear return cross-correlations are significant at larger lag lengths and the volatility cross-correlations are highly significant at all of the lag lengths under consideration. Using a detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), we find that the return cross-correlations are persistent for corn and soybean and anti-persistent for oat and soybean. The volatility cross-correlations are strongly persistent. Using a nonlinear cross-correlation measure, our results show that cross-correlations are relatively weak but they are significant for smaller time scales. For larger time scales, the cross-correlations are not significant. The reason may be that information transmission from crude oil market to agriculture markets can complete within a certain period of time. Finally, based on multifractal extension of DCCA, we find that the cross-correlations are multifractal and high oil prices partly contribute to food crisis during the period of 2006-mid-2008.

  20. Implications of Climate Volatility for Agricultural Commodity Markets in the Presence of Biofuel Mandates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Hertel, T. W.; Beckman, J.

    2011-12-01

    In presence of bio-fuels, link between energy and agricultural commodity markets has become more complex. An increase in ethanol production to minimum 15bn gallons a year - Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and current technically permissible maximum 10% blending limit - Blend Wall (BW); make the link even stronger. If oil prices in future do not rise significantly from their current levels, this minimum production requirement would likely be binding. In such a scenario any fluctuation in crop production will have to be absorbed by the non-ethanol usage of the crop and would translate into crop prices adjusting to clear the markets and therefore the commodity prices will be more volatile. At high oil prices it is possible that the BW may become binding, severing the link between oil prices and commodity prices as well, potentially leading to higher price volatility. Hertel and Beckman (2010) find that, with both RFS and BW simultaneously binding, corn price volatility due to supply side shocks (which could arise from extreme climate events) could be more than 50% as large as in the absence of bio-fuel policies. So energy markets are important determinants of agricultural commodity price volatility. This proposal intends to introduce the increased supply side volatility on account of climate change and volatility, in the framework. Global warming on account of increased GHG concentrations is expected to increase the intensity and frequency of hot extremes in US (Diffenbaugh et al. 2008) and therefore affect corn yields. With supply shocks expected to increase, binding RFS and BW will exacerbate the volatility, while if they are non-binding then the price changes could be cushioned. We propose to model the impacts of climate changes and volatility on commodity prices by linking three main components - a. Projections for change in temperature and precipitation using climate model b. A statistical model to predict impacts of change in climate variable on corn yields in US

  1. 75 FR 15403 - Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... vendors while allowing CCC to more efficiently acquire commodities. The Web-Based Supply Chain System... Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, USDA ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY:...

  2. Cross-correlation between interest rates and commodity prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Yiming

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate cross-correlations between interest rate and agricultural commodity markets. Based on a statistic of Podobnik et al. (2009), we find that the cross-correlations are all significant. Using the MF-DFA and MF-DXA methods, we find strong multifractality in both auto-correlations and cross-correlations. Moreover, the cross-correlations are persistent. Finally, based on the technique of rolling window, the time-variation property of cross-correlations is also revealed.

  3. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  4. 22 CFR 201.68 - Maximum prices for commodity-related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 201.68 Section 201.68 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.68 Maximum prices for commodity... each such service is eligible for USAID-financing under § 201.67 or § 201.68(a) of this part....

  5. Infusing Commodity Marketing into the Agriculture Curriculum. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Arkansas Educational Cooperative, Strawberry.

    A project was conducted in Arkansas to infuse commodity marketing content into the agriculture curriculum. Thirty-three schools were selected to participate in the program; teachers from those schools attended a 2-day inservice program presented by a state coordinator for the project. The state coordinator also provided supervision and technical…

  6. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Commodities § 780.116 Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act. (a) Section 3(f... defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended (12 U.S...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  7. Mitigation potential and global health impacts from emissions pricing of food commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, Marco; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman; Wiebe, Keith; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The projected rise in food-related greenhouse gas emissions could seriously impede efforts to limit global warming to acceptable levels. Despite that, food production and consumption have long been excluded from climate policies, in part due to concerns about the potential impact on food security. Using a coupled agriculture and health modelling framework, we show that the global climate change mitigation potential of emissions pricing of food commodities could be substantial, and that levying greenhouse gas taxes on food commodities could, if appropriately designed, be a health-promoting climate policy in high-income countries, as well as in most low- and middle-income countries. Sparing food groups known to be beneficial for health from taxation, selectively compensating for income losses associated with tax-related price increases, and using a portion of tax revenues for health promotion are potential policy options that could help avert most of the negative health impacts experienced by vulnerable groups, whilst still promoting changes towards diets which are more environmentally sustainable.

  8. 22 CFR 201.63 - Maximum prices for commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... producer in the original sale of that specific commodity; and (ii) A markup over the amount allowed in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section which may not exceed the lower of the following: The markup over direct... similar commodity, or, the markup over direct cost that is usual and customary in such sales by...

  9. 22 CFR 201.63 - Maximum prices for commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... producer in the original sale of that specific commodity; and (ii) A markup over the amount allowed in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section which may not exceed the lower of the following: The markup over direct... similar commodity, or, the markup over direct cost that is usual and customary in such sales by...

  10. 49 CFR 1313.6 - Contract summary for agricultural commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS RAILROAD CONTRACTS... complaints. (2) Specific commodity. The specific commodity or commodities to be transported under...

  11. Black bear depredation on agricultural commodities in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonker, S.A.; Parkhurst, J.A.; Field, R.; Fuller, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    We used response to a mail survey (n = 848) to evaluate the extent and severity of depredation by black bears (Ursus americanus) on agricultural commodities in Massachusetts and to assess producers' attitudes toward and tolerance of bear depredation. Damage abatement techniques were ranked for effectiveness by producers of corn, bees and honey, and livestock and dairy products. Results showed differences in perception of effects of bear depredation among commodity groups. Producers of corn and livestock and dairy products considered bear damage to be low to moderate in severity whereas beekeepers thought their losses were substantial or severe. Most estimates of economic loss were <$1,000 per year. Respondents considered bears to be an inconvenience, but thought they should remain a part of our natural heritage. There was no significant relationship between producers' experience with or economic dependence on their product and their attitude toward bears or their tolerance of bear damage. We conclude that there is need for effective education programs for agricultural producers, strengthened working relationships between producers and state fish and wildlife agencies, incorporation of producers' suggestions into management decisions, and investment in effective, economical, and long-term solutions to bear depredations for each affected commodity group.

  12. 78 FR 32227 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  13. Market interdependence among commodity prices based on information transmission on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Qiang; Guo, Jian-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviour on the Internet has become a synchro-projection of real society. In this paper, we introduce the public concern derived from query volumes on the Web to empirically analyse the influence of information on commodity markets (e.g., crude oil, heating oil, corn and gold) using multivariate GARCH models based on dynamic conditional correlations. The analysis found that the changes of public concern on the Internet can well depict the changes of market prices, as the former has significant Granger causality effects on market prices. The findings indicate that the information of external shocks to commodity markets could be transmitted quickly, and commodity markets easily absorb the public concern of the information-sensitive traders. Finally, the conditional correlation among commodity prices varies dramatically over time.

  14. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.533 Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  15. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.533 Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  16. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  17. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  18. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  19. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  20. 75 FR 32306 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 46 Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection Eligibility AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... Commodities Act (PACA) was enacted in 1930 to promote fair trading in the marketing of fresh and frozen...

  1. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal....201 Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. (a... this section, in contracts for the Foreign Agricultural Service for commodities and related...

  2. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal....201 Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. (a... this section, in contracts for the Foreign Agricultural Service for commodities and related...

  3. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal....201 Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. (a... this section, in contracts for the Foreign Agricultural Service for commodities and related...

  4. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal....201 Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. (a... this section, in contracts for the Foreign Agricultural Service for commodities and related...

  5. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal....201 Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. (a... this section, in contracts for the Foreign Agricultural Service for commodities and related...

  6. A closed-form solution for the price of cross-commodity electricity derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitakis, D.; Xanthopoulos, S.; Yannacopoulos, A. N.

    2006-11-01

    We present a method for the valuation of two types of cross-commodity electricity options, European spark spread options and locational spread options. Since the underlying assets here are non-tradeable, the methodology of Black-Scholes-Merton cannot be directly applied. Nevertheless, assuming only absence of arbitrage we provide a closed-form analytic formula for the price of the derivatives in the case where the spot prices of the underlying process follow an exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.

  7. 22 CFR 201.64 - Application of the price rules to commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tested as well as the prices being used as a test or measurement are calculated on the basis of delivery... at the internal point, inspection, export packing, forwarder's fees at customary rates, the cost of placing the commodities on board the vessel or export conveyance (unless this cost is covered in...

  8. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury....526 Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)...

  9. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury....533 Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)...

  10. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury....526 Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)...

  11. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury....526 Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)...

  12. 76 FR 22339 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... medical devices to Sudan and Iran. Pursuant to section 906(c) of the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to Sudan and Iran are set forth in 31...

  13. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EAR99. You must have an official commodity classification of EAR99 from BIS for fertilizers, western red... appropriate: Blocks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (by marking box 5 “Other”), 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22 (a), (e), (f), (g... the EAR. If your commodity is fertilizer, western red cedar or live horses, you must confirm that...

  14. Stochastic modeling of economic injury levels with respect to yearly trends in price commodity.

    PubMed

    Damos, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The economic injury level (EIL) concept integrates economics and biology and uses chemical applications in crop protection only when economic loss by pests is anticipated. The EIL is defined by five primary variables: the cost of management tactic per production unit, the price of commodity, the injury units per pest, the damage per unit injury, and the proportionate reduction of injury averted by the application of a tactic. The above variables are related according to the formula EIL = C/VIDK. The observable dynamic alteration of the EIL due to its different parameters is a major characteristic of its concept. In this study, the yearly effect of the economic variables is assessed, and in particular the influence of the parameter commodity value on the shape of the EIL function. In addition, to predict the effects of the economic variables on the EIL level, yearly commodity values were incorporated in the EIL formula and the generated outcomes were further modelled with stochastic linear autoregressive models having different orders. According to the AR(1) model, forecasts for the five-year period of 2010-2015 ranged from 2.33 to 2.41 specimens per sampling unit. These values represent a threshold that is in reasonable limits to justify future control actions. Management actions as related to productivity and price commodity significantly affect costs of crop production and thus define the adoption of IPM and sustainable crop production systems at local and international levels.

  15. Stochastic Modeling of Economic Injury Levels with Respect to Yearly Trends in Price Commodity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The economic injury level (EIL) concept integrates economics and biology and uses chemical applications in crop protection only when economic loss by pests is anticipated. The EIL is defined by five primary variables: the cost of management tactic per production unit, the price of commodity, the injury units per pest, the damage per unit injury, and the proportionate reduction of injury averted by the application of a tactic. The above variables are related according to the formula EIL = C/VIDK. The observable dynamic alteration of the EIL due to its different parameters is a major characteristic of its concept. In this study, the yearly effect of the economic variables is assessed, and in particular the influence of the parameter commodity value on the shape of the EIL function. In addition, to predict the effects of the economic variables on the EIL level, yearly commodity values were incorporated in the EIL formula and the generated outcomes were further modelled with stochastic linear autoregressive models having different orders. According to the AR(1) model, forecasts for the five-year period of 2010–2015 ranged from 2.33 to 2.41 specimens per sampling unit. These values represent a threshold that is in reasonable limits to justify future control actions. Management actions as related to productivity and price commodity significantly affect costs of crop production and thus define the adoption of IPM and sustainable crop production systems at local and international levels. PMID:25373206

  16. On the importance of commodity and energy price shocks for the macroeconomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, Paul S.

    Although higher commodity prices are commonly thought to presage higher rates of inflation, the existing literature suggests that the predictive power of commodity prices for inflation has waned since the 1980s. In the first chapter, I show that this result can be overturned using state-of-the-art forecast combination methods. Moreover, commodity prices are shown to contain predictive information not contained in the leading principal components of a broad set of macroeconomic and financial variables. These improved inflation forecasts are of little value, however, for predicting actual Fed policy decisions. The remaining two chapters study the effect of energy price shocks on U.S. consumer and business expenditures. In the second chapter, I show that there is no statistical support for the presence of asymmetries in the response of real consumption to energy price increases and decreases. This finding has important implications for empirical and theoretical models of the transmission of energy price shocks. I then quantify the direct effect on real consumption of (1) unanticipated changes in discretionary income, (2) shifts in precautionary savings, and (3) changes in the operating cost of energy-using durables. Finally, I trace the declining importance of energy price shocks relative to the 1970s to changes in the composition of U.S. automobile production and the declining overall importance of the U.S. automobile sector. An alternative source of asymmetry is the response of nonresidential fixed investment to energy price shocks. In the third chapter, I show that the apparent asymmetry in the estimated responses of business fixed investment in equipment and structures is largely an artifact (1) of the aggregation of mining-related expenditures by the oil, natural gas, and coal mining industry and all other expenditures, and (2) of ignoring an exogenous shift in investment caused by the 1986 Tax Reform Act. Once symmetry is imposed and miningrelated expenditures

  17. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  18. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  19. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  20. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  1. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  2. Tips for Organizing an Educational Agricultural Commodity Trading Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, John

    2011-01-01

    Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…

  3. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  4. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  5. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  6. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  7. Essays on Commodity Prices and Macroeconomic Performance of Developing and Resources Rich Economies: Evidence from Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ferhat I.

    My dissertation consists of three essays in empirical macroeconomics. The objective of this research is to use rigorous time-series econometric analysis to investigate the impact of commodity prices on macroeconomic performance of a small, developing and resource-rich country, which is in the process of transition from a purely command and control economy to a market oriented one. Essay 1 studies the relationship between Kazakhstan's GDP, total government expenditure, real effective exchange rate and the world oil price. Specifically, I use the cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR) and error correction modeling (ECM) approach to identify the long and short-run relations that may exist among these macroeconomic variables. I found a long-run relationship for Kazakhstan's GDP, which depends on government spending and the oil price positively, and on the real effective exchange rate negatively. In the short run, the growth rate of GDP depends on the growth rates of the oil price, investment and the magnitude of the deviation from the long-run equilibrium. Essay 2 studies the inflation process in Kazakhstan based on the analysis of price formation in the following sectors: monetary, external, labor and goods and services. The modeling is conducted from two different perspectives: the first is the monetary model of inflation framework and the second is the mark-up modeling framework. Encompassing test results show that the mark-up model performs better than the monetary model in explaining inflation in Kazakhstan. According to the mark-up inflation model, in the long run, the price level is positively related to unit labor costs, import prices and government administered prices as well the world oil prices. In the short run, the inflation is positively influenced by the previous quarter's inflation, the contemporaneous changes in the government administered prices, oil prices and by the changes of contemporaneous and lagged unit labor costs, and negatively affected

  8. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reexportation of the excluded food items specified in paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section, agricultural commodities that do not fall within the definition of food set forth in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, food (as defined in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section) intended for military or law...

  9. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... technology or software used to manufacture agricultural commodities, medicine, or medical devices, such as technology to design or produce biotechnological items or medical devices. (4) Nothing in this section or in..., that are intended for ultimate use in Iran as: (A) Food for humans (including raw, processed,...

  10. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section affects prohibitions on the sale or supply of U.S. technology or software used to manufacture agricultural commodities, medicine, or medical devices, such as technology to.... 1, that are intended for ultimate use in Sudan as: (A) Food for humans (including raw,...

  11. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reexportation of the excluded food items specified in paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section, agricultural commodities that do not fall within the definition of food set forth in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, food (as defined in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section) intended for military or law...

  12. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reexportation of the excluded food items specified in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section, agricultural commodities that do not fall within the definition of food set forth in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section, food (as defined in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section) intended for military or law...

  13. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original producers of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived: Gum spirits of turpentine, and gum resin, as defined in the Naval Stores Act,...

  14. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to... Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is requesting public comments on the effectiveness of its licensing... public comment period about the effectiveness of the licensing procedures. BIS is currently preparing...

  15. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to... Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is requesting public comments on the effectiveness of its licensing... public comment period about the effectiveness of the licensing procedures. BIS is currently preparing...

  16. 31 CFR 561.327 - Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., medicine, and medical devices. 561.327 Section 561.327 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.327 Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and...-grade gelatin powder, and peptones and their derivatives. (c) The term medicine has the same...

  17. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.530 Section 560.530 Money and..., medicine, and medical devices. (a)(1) One-year specific license requirement. The exportation or... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Iran, to any individual or...

  18. 31 CFR 561.327 - Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., medicine, and medical devices. 561.327 Section 561.327 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.327 Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and...-grade gelatin powder, and peptones and their derivatives. (c) The term medicine has the same...

  19. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.523 Section 538.523 Money and..., medicine, and medical devices. (a)(1) One-year specific license requirement. The exportation or... purchasers or importers, medicine or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  20. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.523 Section 538.523 Money and..., medicine, and medical devices. (a)(1) One-year specific license requirement. The exportation or... part 538), medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or entity in...

  1. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.530 Section 560.530 Money and..., medicine, and medical devices. (a) One-year license requirement. The exportation or reexportation of...), medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Iran, any entity in Iran, individuals in Iran, or...

  2. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower... (STCC) number are: 01 Farm products, with the exception of grain (STCC No. 0113), soybeans (STCC...

  3. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower... (STCC) number are: 01 Farm products, with the exception of grain (STCC No. 0113), soybeans (STCC...

  4. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower... (STCC) number are: 01 Farm products, with the exception of grain (STCC No. 0113), soybeans (STCC...

  5. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower... (STCC) number are: 01 Farm products, with the exception of grain (STCC No. 0113), soybeans (STCC...

  6. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower... (STCC) number are: 01 Farm products, with the exception of grain (STCC No. 0113), soybeans (STCC...

  7. 78 FR 54199 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... medical devices to Sudan and Iran. Pursuant to section 906(c) of the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export... Sudan and Iran are set forth in 31 CFR 538.523-526 and 31 CFR 560.530-533. Under the provisions...

  8. 31 CFR 560.520 - Exportation of agricultural commodities on contracts entered into prior to May 7, 1995.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... States to Iran of any agricultural commodity under an export sales contract are authorized, provided: (1... with the exportation of other agricultural articles from the United States to Iran that do not...

  9. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment...

  10. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  11. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Iran, to any individual or...

  12. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment...

  13. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  14. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  15. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., sweet corn, cucumbers, eggplant, escarole, garlic, honeydew melons, lettuce, onions, green peppers..., cabbage, sweet corn, cucumbers, green peas, spinach and tomatoes. other commodities Beef cattle;...

  16. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., sweet corn, cucumbers, eggplant, escarole, garlic, honeydew melons, lettuce, onions, green peppers..., cabbage, sweet corn, cucumbers, green peas, spinach and tomatoes. other commodities Beef cattle;...

  17. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., sweet corn, cucumbers, eggplant, escarole, garlic, honeydew melons, lettuce, onions, green peppers..., cabbage, sweet corn, cucumbers, green peas, spinach and tomatoes. other commodities Beef cattle;...

  18. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., sweet corn, cucumbers, eggplant, escarole, garlic, honeydew melons, lettuce, onions, green peppers..., cabbage, sweet corn, cucumbers, green peas, spinach and tomatoes. other commodities Beef cattle;...

  19. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  20. 7 CFR 27.97 - Ascertaining the accuracy of price quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 27.97 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD... cotton in each spot market shall be responsible for providing accurate and timely price, quality,...

  1. 7 CFR 27.97 - Ascertaining the accuracy of price quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 27.97 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD... cotton in each spot market shall be responsible for providing accurate and timely price, quality,...

  2. Volumetric Pricing of Agricultural Water Supplies: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Perry, Gregory M.

    1985-07-01

    Models of water consumption by rice producers are conceptualized and then estimated using cross-sectional time series data obtained from 16 Texas canal operators for the years 1977-1982. Two alternative econometric models demonstrate that both volumetric and flat rate water charges are strongly and inversely related to agricultural water consumption. Nonprice conservation incentives accompanying flat rates are hypothesized to explain the negative correlation of flat rate charges and water consumption. Application of these results suggests that water supply organizations in the sample population converting to volumetric pricing will generally reduce water consumption.

  3. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  4. Cross-correlations between agricultural commodity futures markets in the US and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhihui; Lu, Xinsheng

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the cross-correlation properties of agricultural futures markets between the US and China using a cross-correlation statistic test and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA). The results show that the cross-correlations between the two geographically distant markets for four pairs of important agricultural commodities futures are significantly multifractal. By introducing the concept of a “crossover”, we find that the multifractality of cross-correlations between the two markets is not long lasting. The cross-correlations in the short term are more strongly multifractal, but they are weakly so in the long term. Moreover, cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent and those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent in the short term while cross-correlations of all kinds of fluctuations for soy bean and soy meal futures are persistent and for corn and wheat futures are anti-persistent in the long term. We also find that cross-correlation exponents are less than the averaged generalized Hurst exponent when q<0 and more than the averaged generalized Hurst exponent when q>0 in the short term, while in the long term they are almost the same.

  5. Three essays on agricultural price volatility and the linkages between agricultural and energy markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng

    This dissertation contains three essays. In the first essay I use a volatility spillover model to find evidence of significant spillovers from crude oil prices to corn cash and futures prices, and that these spillover effects are time-varying. Results reveal that corn markets have become much more connected to crude oil markets after the introduction of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Furthermore, crude oil prices transmit positive volatility spillovers into corn prices and movements in corn prices become more energy-driven as the ethanol gasoline consumption ratio increases. Based on this strong volatility link between crude oil and corn prices, a new cross hedging strategy for managing corn price risk using oil futures is examined and its performance studied. Results show that this cross hedging strategy provides only slightly better hedging performance compared to traditional hedging in corn futures markets alone. The implication is that hedging corn price risk in corn futures markets alone can still provide relatively satisfactory performance in the biofuel era. The second essay studies the spillover effect of biofuel policy on participation in the Conservation Reserve Program. Landowners' participation decisions are modeled using a real options framework. A novel aspect of the model is that it captures the structural change in agriculture caused by rising biofuel production. The resulting model is used to simulate the spillover effect under various conditions. In particular, I simulate how increased growth in agricultural returns, persistence of the biofuel production boom, and the volatility surrounding agricultural returns, affect conservation program participation decisions. Policy implications of these results are also discussed. The third essay proposes a methodology to construct a risk-adjusted implied volatility measure that removes the forecasting bias of the model-free implied volatility measure. The risk adjustment is based on a closed

  6. 7 CFR 5.3 - Selection of calendar year price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of calendar year price data. 5.3 Section 5.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.3 Selection of calendar year price data. In computing the adjusted base price for those commodities for which calendar...

  7. 7 CFR 5.3 - Selection of calendar year price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection of calendar year price data. 5.3 Section 5.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.3 Selection of calendar year price data. In computing the adjusted base price for those commodities for which calendar...

  8. 7 CFR 5.3 - Selection of calendar year price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of calendar year price data. 5.3 Section 5.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.3 Selection of calendar year price data. In computing the adjusted base price for those commodities for which calendar...

  9. 7 CFR 5.3 - Selection of calendar year price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of calendar year price data. 5.3 Section 5.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.3 Selection of calendar year price data. In computing the adjusted base price for those commodities for which calendar...

  10. 7 CFR 5.3 - Selection of calendar year price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of calendar year price data. 5.3 Section 5.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.3 Selection of calendar year price data. In computing the adjusted base price for those commodities for which calendar...

  11. A sensitivity analysis of process design parameters, commodity prices and robustness on the economics of odour abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R Bart; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the economics of the five most commonly applied odour abatement technologies (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing and a hybrid technology consisting of a biotrickling filter coupled with carbon adsorption) towards design parameters and commodity prices was evaluated. Besides, the influence of the geographical location on the Net Present Value calculated for a 20 years lifespan (NPV20) of each technology and its robustness towards typical process fluctuations and operational upsets were also assessed. This comparative analysis showed that biological techniques present lower operating costs (up to 6 times) and lower sensitivity than their physical/chemical counterparts, with the packing material being the key parameter affecting their operating costs (40-50% of the total operating costs). The use of recycled or partially treated water (e.g. secondary effluent in wastewater treatment plants) offers an opportunity to significantly reduce costs in biological techniques. Physical/chemical technologies present a high sensitivity towards H2S concentration, which is an important drawback due to the fluctuating nature of malodorous emissions. The geographical analysis evidenced high NPV20 variations around the world for all the technologies evaluated, but despite the differences in wage and price levels, biofiltration and biotrickling filtration are always the most cost-efficient alternatives (NPV20). When, in an economical evaluation, the robustness is as relevant as the overall costs (NPV20), the hybrid technology would move up next to BTF as the most preferred technologies.

  12. An integrated landscape designed for commodity and bioenergy crops for a tile-drained agricultural watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, M. Cristina

    2016-09-16

    Here, locating bioenergy crops on strategically selected subfield areas of marginal interest for commodity agriculture can increase environmental sustainability. Location and choice of bioenergy crops should improve environmental benefits with minimal disruption of current food production systems. We identified subfield soils of a tile-drained agricultural watershed as marginal if they had areas of low crop productivity index (CPI), were susceptible to nitrate-nitrogen (NO3–N) leaching, or were susceptible to at least two other forms of environmental degradation (marginal areas). In the test watershed (Indian Creek watershed, IL) with annual precipitation of 852 mm, 3% of soils were CPI areas and 22% were marginal areas. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to forecast the impact of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), willow (Salix spp.), and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman) in these subfield areas on annual grain yields, NO3–N and sediment exports, and water yield. Simulated conversion of CPI areas from current land use to bioenergy crops had no significant (p ≤ 0.05) impact on grain production and reduced NO3–N and sediment exports by 5.0 to 6.0% and 3.0%, respectively. Conversion of marginal areas from current land use to switchgrass forecasted the production of 34,000 t of biomass and reductions in NO3–N (26.0%) and sediment (33.0%) exports. Alternatively, conversion of marginal areas from current land use to willow forecasted similar reductions as switchgrass for sediment but significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower reductions in annual NO3–N export (18.0 vs. 26.0%).

  13. An integrated landscape designed for commodity and bioenergy crops for a tile-drained agricultural watershed

    DOE PAGES

    Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, M. Cristina

    2016-09-16

    Here, locating bioenergy crops on strategically selected subfield areas of marginal interest for commodity agriculture can increase environmental sustainability. Location and choice of bioenergy crops should improve environmental benefits with minimal disruption of current food production systems. We identified subfield soils of a tile-drained agricultural watershed as marginal if they had areas of low crop productivity index (CPI), were susceptible to nitrate-nitrogen (NO3–N) leaching, or were susceptible to at least two other forms of environmental degradation (marginal areas). In the test watershed (Indian Creek watershed, IL) with annual precipitation of 852 mm, 3% of soils were CPI areas and 22%more » were marginal areas. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to forecast the impact of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), willow (Salix spp.), and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman) in these subfield areas on annual grain yields, NO3–N and sediment exports, and water yield. Simulated conversion of CPI areas from current land use to bioenergy crops had no significant (p ≤ 0.05) impact on grain production and reduced NO3–N and sediment exports by 5.0 to 6.0% and 3.0%, respectively. Conversion of marginal areas from current land use to switchgrass forecasted the production of 34,000 t of biomass and reductions in NO3–N (26.0%) and sediment (33.0%) exports. Alternatively, conversion of marginal areas from current land use to willow forecasted similar reductions as switchgrass for sediment but significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower reductions in annual NO3–N export (18.0 vs. 26.0%).« less

  14. An Integrated Landscape Designed for Commodity and Bioenergy Crops for a Tile-Drained Agricultural Watershed.

    PubMed

    Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, M Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Locating bioenergy crops on strategically selected subfield areas of marginal interest for commodity agriculture can increase environmental sustainability. Location and choice of bioenergy crops should improve environmental benefits with minimal disruption of current food production systems. We identified subfield soils of a tile-drained agricultural watershed as marginal if they had areas of low crop productivity index (CPI), were susceptible to nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) leaching, or were susceptible to at least two other forms of environmental degradation (marginal areas). In the test watershed (Indian Creek watershed, IL) with annual precipitation of 852 mm, 3% of soils were CPI areas and 22% were marginal areas. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to forecast the impact of growing switchgrass ( L.), willow ( spp.), and big bluestem ( Vitman) in these subfield areas on annual grain yields, NO-N and sediment exports, and water yield. Simulated conversion of CPI areas from current land use to bioenergy crops had no significant ( 0.05) impact on grain production and reduced NO-N and sediment exports by 5.0 to 6.0% and 3.0%, respectively. Conversion of marginal areas from current land use to switchgrass forecasted the production of 34,000 t of biomass and reductions in NO-N (26.0%) and sediment (33.0%) exports. Alternatively, conversion of marginal areas from current land use to willow forecasted similar reductions as switchgrass for sediment but significantly ( 0.01) lower reductions in annual NO-N export (18.0 vs. 26.0%).

  15. Impact of energy prices on agricultural and energy markets: an integrated modeling approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accelerated growth in biofuels markets has both created and reinforced linkages between agricultural and energy markets. This study investigates the dynamics in biofuel and agricultural markets under alternative price scenarios for both crude oil and natural gas. Two energy ...

  16. 75 FR 51917 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Increase in License Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... / Tuesday, August 24, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture.... USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) administers and enforces the PACA. The PACA...

  17. A GIS-based hedonic price model for agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetriou, Demetris

    2015-06-01

    Land consolidation is a very effective land management planning approach that aims towards rural/agricultural sustainable development. Land reallocation which involves land tenure restructuring is the most important, complex and time consuming component of land consolidation. Land reallocation relies on land valuation since its fundamental principle provides that after consolidation, each landowner shall be granted a property of an aggregate value that is approximately the same as the value of the property owned prior to consolidation. Therefore, land value is the crucial factor for the land reallocation process and hence for the success and acceptance of the final land consolidation plan. Land valuation is a process of assigning values to all parcels (and its contents) and it is usually carried out by an ad-hoc committee. However, the process faces some problems such as it is time consuming hence costly, outcomes may present inconsistency since it is carried out manually and empirically without employing systematic analytical tools and in particular spatial analysis tools and techniques such as statistical/mathematical. A solution to these problems can be the employment of mass appraisal land valuation methods using automated valuation models (AVM) based on international standards. In this context, this paper presents a spatial based linear hedonic price model which has been developed and tested in a case study land consolidation area in Cyprus. Results showed that the AVM is capable to produce acceptable in terms of accuracy and reliability land values and to reduce time hence cost required by around 80%.

  18. 7 CFR 5.5 - Publication of season average, calendar year, and parity price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... parity price data. 5.5 Section 5.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.5 Publication of season average, calendar year, and parity price data. (a) New adjusted... season for the commodity. (b) The official parity prices determined under section 301(a)(1) and...

  19. 7 CFR 5.5 - Publication of season average, calendar year, and parity price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... parity price data. 5.5 Section 5.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.5 Publication of season average, calendar year, and parity price data. (a) New adjusted... season for the commodity. (b) The official parity prices determined under section 301(a)(1) and...

  20. 7 CFR 5.5 - Publication of season average, calendar year, and parity price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... parity price data. 5.5 Section 5.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.5 Publication of season average, calendar year, and parity price data. (a) New adjusted... season for the commodity. (b) The official parity prices determined under section 301(a)(1) and...

  1. 7 CFR 5.5 - Publication of season average, calendar year, and parity price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... parity price data. 5.5 Section 5.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.5 Publication of season average, calendar year, and parity price data. (a) New adjusted... season for the commodity. (b) The official parity prices determined under section 301(a)(1) and...

  2. 7 CFR 5.5 - Publication of season average, calendar year, and parity price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... parity price data. 5.5 Section 5.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.5 Publication of season average, calendar year, and parity price data. (a) New adjusted... season for the commodity. (b) The official parity prices determined under section 301(a)(1) and...

  3. Comparison of Online Agricultural Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; Patterson, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Outlines major online agricultural information services--agricultural databases, databases with agricultural services, educational databases in agriculture--noting services provided, access to the database, and costs. Benefits of online agricultural database sources (availability of agricultural marketing, weather, commodity prices, management…

  4. Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Fanzo, Jessica; Mondal, Pinki; Remans, Roseline; Wood, Stephen A.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifying entities. Following the principles of Cochrane Reviews used in health sciences, we assess evidence to evaluate whether voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities (bananas, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, and tea) has achieved environmental benefits and improved economic and social outcomes for small-scale producers at the level of the farm household. We reviewed over 2600 papers in the peer-review literature and identified 24 cases of unique combinations of study area, certification program, and commodity in 16 papers that rigorously analyzed differences between treatment (certified households) and control groups (uncertified households) for a wide range of response variables. Based on analysis of 347 response variables reported in these papers, we conclude that certification is associated on average with positive outcomes for 34% of response variables, no significant difference for 58% of variables, and negative outcomes for 8% of variables. No significant differences were observed for different categories of responses (environmental, economic and social) or for different commodities (banana, coffee and tea), except negative outcomes were significantly less for environmental than other outcome categories (p = 0.01). Most cases (20 out of 24) investigated coffee certification and response variables were inconsistent across cases, indicating the paucity of studies to conduct a conclusive meta-analysis. The somewhat positive results indicate that voluntary certification programs can sometimes play a role in meeting sustainable development goals and do not support the view that such programs are merely greenwashing. However, results also indicate that

  5. The impact of crude-oil price volatility on agricultural employment in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-12-31

    This study focuses on the impact of fluctuations in the price of crude oil on agricultural employment in the United States. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between agricultural employment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impacts of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in agricultural employment are exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in agricultural employment and the volatility of the price of crude oil, the percentage changes in expected net farm income, realized technological innovation, and the wage rate is examined.

  6. Reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai; Gong, Chengzhu; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-15

    This paper analyses the reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China based on provincial panel data for 2001-2010. Using a parameterized quadratic form for the directional output distance function, we find that if agricultural sectors in all provinces were to produce on the production frontier, China could potentially reduce agricultural emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) by 16.0%, 16.2%, and 20.4%, respectively. Additionally, our results show that the shadow price of TN increased rapidly and continuously, while that of COD and TP fluctuated for the whole period. For the whole country, the average shadow price of COD, TN, and TP are 8266 Yuan/tonne, 25,560 Yuan/tonne, and 10,160 Yuan/tonne, respectively. The regional shadow prices of agricultural pollutants are unbalanced. Furthermore, we show that the pollution costs from emissions of COD, TN, and TP are 6.09% of the annual gross output value of the agricultural sector and are highest in the Western and lowest in the Eastern provinces. Our estimates suggest that there is scope for further pollution abatement and simultaneous output expansion for China's agriculture if farmers promote greater efficiency in their production process. Policymakers are required to dynamically adjust the pollution tax rates and ascertain the initial permit price in an emission trading system. Policymakers should also consider the different pollution costs for each province when making the reduction allocations within the agricultural sector.

  7. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  8. Regime shift in fertilizer commodities indicates more turbulence ahead for food security.

    PubMed

    Elser, James J; Elser, Timothy J; Carpenter, Stephen R; Brock, William A

    2014-01-01

    Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium) for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice) and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum). Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication.

  9. Regime Shift in Fertilizer Commodities Indicates More Turbulence Ahead for Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Elser, James J.; Elser, Timothy J.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Brock, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this “Green Revolution” has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium) for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice) and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum). Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007–2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication. PMID:24787624

  10. 7 CFR 1221.16 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.16 Net market price... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net market price. 1221.16 Section 1221.16...

  11. Nutrient prices and concentrations in midwestern agricultural watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Policies to reduce nutrient emissions from agriculture rest on the assumption that it is very difficult to link inputs on farms to nutrient outputs. As a result, conservation programs fund the installation of best management practices that attempt to avoid, trap, or otherwise control nutrient emissi...

  12. Impact of energy prices and cellulosic biomass supply on agriculture, energy, and the environment: An integrated modeling approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accelerated growth in biofuels markets has both created and reinforced linkages between agricultural and energy markets. This study investigates the dynamics in agricultural and biofuel markets under alternative price scenarios for both crude oil and natural gas. Two energy ...

  13. Stopping the spread of agricultural pests with radiation: Quarantine commodity treatments and eradication

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, K.W.

    1997-12-01

    Almost 60 yr ago, E. F. Knipling, a young U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) entomologist, proposed that it might be economically feasible to eradicate the newly introduced screwworm from Florida if a way could be found to sterilize the males. He believed that the male screwworm fly`s strong mating instinct would cause released sterile males to seek out and mate with native screwworm females, interrupting the normal reproductive cycle. Knipling thought this was possible because another USDA scientist, R. C. Bushland, had recently found a way to rear this animal parasite cheaply and in large numbers in the laboratory, making possible the rearing and release of large numbers of sterile male flies into the native population. Some 13 yr would pass before research showed that radiation-induced dominant lethal mutations offered an efficient, practical way to render screwworm flies sterile.

  14. Instructional Materials Available from Agricultural Education Teaching Materials Center, College Station, Texas. Price List No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Teaching Materials Center, College Station, TX.

    Price lists and order forms are provided for courses of study, lesson plans, and laboratory exercises for vocational agriculture cooperative education and preemployment laboratory training. Courses of study and required references are listed for training employees for: (1) milk, meat, and poultry processing, (2) poultry hatcheries, (3) dairy…

  15. The Impact of Federal Commodity Donations on the School Lunch Program. Department of Agriculture. Report to the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Department of Agriculture's program for purchasing and distributing commodities for the school lunch program was reviewed in 15 school districts, one very large, one medium sized, and one small school district in each of five states--California, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The objectives of the review were to (1) assess the…

  16. 7 CFR 46.39 - Inspection of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930...

  17. A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities - applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil.

    PubMed

    Persson, U Martin; Henders, Sabine; Cederberg, Christel

    2014-11-01

    The world's agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints, however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land-use change and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here, we propose a new methodology for calculating land-use change carbon footprints for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate land-use change carbon footprints in 2010 to be 66 tCO2 /t meat (carcass weight) for Brazilian beef, 0.89 tCO2 /t for Brazilian soybeans, and 7.5 tCO2 /t for Indonesian palm oil, using a 10 year amortization period. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of footprints for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and subnational footprints; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of land-use change. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land-use change, the proposed carbon footprint methodology could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land-use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible.

  18. A Study on Market Efficiency of Selected Commodity Derivatives Traded on NCDEX During 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajipriya, N.

    2012-10-01

    The study aims at testing the weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in the context of an emerging commodity market - National Commodity Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), which is considered as the prime commodity derivatives market in India. The study considered daily spot and futures prices of five selected commodities traded on NCDEX over 12 month period (the futures contracts originating and expiring during the period January 2011 to December 2011) The five commodities chosen are Pepper, Crude palm Oil, steel silver and Chana as they account for almost two-thirds of the value of agricultural commodity derivatives traded on NCDEX. The results of Run test indicate that both spot and futures prices are weak form efficient

  19. A Comparative Cost Analysis of Commodity Foods from the U. S. Department of Agriculture in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cora

    2009-01-01

    Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program receive a portion of their federal funding as commodity foods rather than cash payments. This research compared the product costs and estimated total procurement costs of commodity and commercial foods from the school district perspective using data from 579 Minnesota ordering sites in…

  20. Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borkhataria, R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.; Jordan-Garcia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation, hoping lessons from Puerto Rico will apply to the international coffee industry. Throughout the 20th century, government intervention, including subsidies and technical assistance, supported coffee farming in Puerto Rico. In an effort to modernize coffee production and increase yields, the conversion from shade to sun coffee plantations was encouraged. Despite government support, the amount of land devoted to this once dominant agricultural commodity declined markedly between 1982 and 2007 (84%), due to labor shortages, low income, and catastrophic hurricanes. We found that a return to shaded plantations would be embraced by most farmers. Growers of shaded coffee were generally happier with their cultivation practices (89.3% satisfied) than growers of sun coffee (60.9% satisfied), valued biodiversity, and were willing to cultivate coffee under shade if given similar incentives to those received for farming sun coffee. The future of the coffee industry in Puerto Rico may depend on government programs that capitalize upon emerging markets for sustainably produced, shade-grown coffee. We conclude that where governments have close ties to the coffee industry, they should strive to wed economic development with the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecological services by providing support and incentives for the production of shade coffee. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Spatial and temporal predictions of agricultural land prices using DSM techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carré, F.; Grandgirard, D.; Diafas, I.; Reuter, H. I.; Julien, V.; Lemercier, B.

    2009-04-01

    Agricultural land prices highly impacts land accessibility to farmers and by consequence the evolution of agricultural landscapes (crop changes, land conversion to urban infrastructures…) which can turn to irreversible soil degradation. The economic value of agricultural land has been studied spatially, in every one of the 374 French Agricultural Counties, and temporally- from 1995 to 2007, by using data of the SAFER Institute. To this aim, agricultural land price was considered as a digital soil property. The spatial and temporal predictions were done using Digital Soil Mapping techniques combined with tools mainly used for studying temporal financial behaviors. For making both predictions, a first classification of the Agricultural Counties was done for the 1995-2006 periods (2007 was excluded and served as the date of prediction) using a fuzzy k-means clustering. The Agricultural Counties were then aggregated according to land price at the different times. The clustering allows for characterizing the counties by their memberships to each class centroid. The memberships were used for the spatial prediction, whereas the centroids were used for the temporal prediction. For the spatial prediction, from the 374 Agricultural counties, three fourths were used for modeling and one fourth for validating. Random sampling was done by class to ensure that all classes are represented by at least one county in the modeling and validation datasets. The prediction was done for each class by testing the relationships between the memberships and the following factors: (i) soil variable (organic matter from the French BDAT database), (ii) soil covariates (land use classes from CORINE LANDCOVER, bioclimatic zones from the WorldClim Database, landform attributes and landform classes from the SRTM, major roads and hydrographic densities from EUROSTAT, average field sizes estimated by automatic classification of remote sensed images) and (iii) socio-economic factors (population

  2. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  3. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, Christine; Xue, Xiaobo; Howarth, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making.

  4. Predictability and Market Efficiency in Agricultural Futures Markets: a Perspective from Price-Volume Correlation Based on Wavelet Coherency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yun; Wen, Xing-Chun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we use a time-frequency domain technique, namely, wavelet squared coherency, to examine the associations between the trading volumes of three agricultural futures and three different forms of these futures' daily closing prices, i.e. prices, returns and volatilities, over the past several years. These agricultural futures markets are selected from China as a typical case of the emerging countries, and from the US as a representative of the developed economies. We investigate correlations and lead-lag relationships between the trading volumes and the prices to detect the predictability and efficiency of these futures markets. The results suggest that the information contained in the trading volumes of the three agricultural futures markets in China can be applied to predict the prices or returns, while that in US has extremely weak predictive power for prices or returns. We also conduct the wavelet analysis on the relationships between the volumes and returns or volatilities to examine the existence of the two "stylized facts" proposed by Karpoff [J. M. Karpoff, The relation between price changes and trading volume: A survey, J. Financ. Quant. Anal.22(1) (1987) 109-126]. Different markets in the two countries perform differently in reproducing the two stylized facts. As the wavelet tools can decode nonlinear regularities and hidden patterns behind price-volume relationship in time-frequency space, different from the conventional econometric framework, this paper offers a new perspective into the market predictability and efficiency.

  5. Mitigation Strategies for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture and Land-Use Change: Consequences for Food Prices.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Miodrag; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Humpenöder, Florian; Müller, Christoph; Weindl, Isabelle; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Rolinski, Susanne; Biewald, Anne; Wang, Xiaoxi

    2017-01-03

    The land use sector of agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU) plays a central role in ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. Yet, mitigation policies in agriculture may be in conflict with food security related targets. Using a global agro-economic model, we analyze the impacts on food prices under mitigation policies targeting either incentives for producers (e.g., through taxes) or consumer preferences (e.g., through education programs). Despite having a similar reduction potential of 43-44% in 2100, the two types of policy instruments result in opposite outcomes for food prices. Incentive-based mitigation, such as protecting carbon-rich forests or adopting low-emission production techniques, increase land scarcity and production costs and thereby food prices. Preference-based mitigation, such as reduced household waste or lower consumption of animal-based products, decreases land scarcity, prevents emissions leakage, and concentrates production on the most productive sites and consequently lowers food prices. Whereas agricultural emissions are further abated in the combination of these mitigation measures, the synergy of strategies fails to substantially lower food prices. Additionally, we demonstrate that the efficiency of agricultural emission abatement is stable across a range of greenhouse-gas (GHG) tax levels, while resulting food prices exhibit a disproportionally larger spread.

  6. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    PubMed

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk.

  7. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  8. Study on Venture Capital Investment Risk Avoiding Base on Option Pricing in Agricultural Production and Processing Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper uses the approaches and models of option theory to analyze two-stage venture capital investment in agricultural production and processing enterprises decision-making under uncertainty. Mathematics expressions of this two-stage venture capital investment decision-making are presented. An option value model about two-stage venture capital investment decision-making base on options pricing theory under the uncertainty is presented. Get the solution of option pricing model which we present.

  9. The Effect of Agricultural Growing Season Change on Market Prices in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBeurs, K.M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    to plan effective adaptation strategies. Remote sensing data can also provide some understanding of the spatial extent of these changes and whether they are likely to continue. Given the agricultural nature of most economies on the African continent, agricultural production continues to be a critical determinant of both food security and economic growth (Funk and Brown, 2009). Crop phenological parameters, such as the start and end of the growing season, the total length of the growing season, and the rate of greening and senescence are important for planning crop management, crop diversification, and intensification. The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as: "when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life". Food security roughly depends on three factors: 1) availability of food; 2) access to food and 3) appropriate use of food, as well as adequate water and sanitation. The first factor is dependent on growing conditions and weather and climate. In a previous paper we have investigated this factor by evaluating the effect of large scale climate oscillation on land surface phenology (Brown et al., 2010). We found that all areas in Africa are significantly affected by at least one type of large scale climate oscillations and concluded that these somewhat predictable oscillations could perhaps be used to forecast agricultural production. In addition, we have evaluated changes in agricultural land surface phenology over time (Brown et al., 2012). We found that land surface phenology models, which link large-scale vegetation indices with accumulated humidity, could successfully predict agricultural productivity in several countries around the world. In this chapter we are interested in the effect of variability in peak timing of the growing season, or phenology, on the second factor of food security, food access. In this chapter we want to determine if there is a link between market prices

  10. Economic Analysis of Energy Crop Production in the U.S. - Location, Quantities, Price, and Impacts on Traditional Agricultural Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.E.; De La Torre Ugarte, D.; Slinsky, S.; Graham, R.L.; Shapouri, H.; Ray, D.

    1998-10-04

    POLYSYS is used to estimate US locations where, for any given energy crop price, energy crop production can be economically competitive with conventional crops. POLYSYS is a multi-crop, multi-sector agricultural model developed and maintained by the University of Tennessee and used by the USDA-Economic Research Service. It includes 305 agricultural statistical districts (ASD) which can be aggregated to provide state, regional, and national information. POLYSYS is being modified to include switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow on all land suitable for their production. This paper summarizes the preliminary national level results of the POLYSYS analysis for selected energy crop prices for the year 2007 and presents the corresponding maps (for the same prices) of energy crop production locations by ASD. Summarized results include: (1) estimates of energy crop hectares (acres) and quantities (dry Mg, dry tons), (2) identification of traditional crops allocated to energy crop production and calculation of changes in their prices and hectares (acres) of production, and (3) changes in total net farm returns for traditional agricultural crops. The information is useful for identifying areas of the US where large quantities of lowest cost energy crops can most likely be produced.

  11. 7 CFR 1220.115 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.115 Net market price. The term... other value received by a producer for soybeans after adjustments for any premium or discount based...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.115 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.115 Net market price. The term... other value received by a producer for soybeans after adjustments for any premium or discount based...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.115 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.115 Net market price. The term... other value received by a producer for soybeans after adjustments for any premium or discount based...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.115 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.115 Net market price. The term... other value received by a producer for soybeans after adjustments for any premium or discount based...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.115 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.115 Net market price. The term... other value received by a producer for soybeans after adjustments for any premium or discount based...

  16. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  17. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  18. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  19. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  20. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  1. Provisioning in Agricultural Communities: Local, Regional and Global Cereal Prices and Local Production on Three Continents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Essam, Timothy; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Mann, Bristol F.; Eilerts, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring and incorporating diverse market and staple food information into food price indices is critical for food price analyses. Satellite remote sensing data and earth science models have an important role to play in improving humanitarian aid timing, delivery and distribution. Incorporating environmental observations into econometric models will improve food security analysis and understanding of market functioning.

  2. Quantitative analysis of dicamba residues in raw agricultural commodities with the use of ion-pairing reagents in LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyue; Riter, Leah S; Wujcik, Chad E; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of dicamba residues in raw agricultural commodities (RACs). Instead of analysis in the traditionally used negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, these anionic compounds were detected in positive ESI with the use of ion-pairing reagents. In this approach, only a small amount (60µM) of a commercially available dicationic ion-pairing reagent was introduced into the post-column sample stream. This method has been validated in six different types of RACs including corn grain, corn stover, cotton seed, soybean, soy forage and orange with satisfactory quantitative accuracy and precision. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) values for these analytes were 1.0 to 3.0µg/kg. The standard curves were linear over the range of the tested concentrations (3.0 to 500µg/kg), with correlation coefficient (r) values≥0.999. Evaluation of ionization effects in RAC matrix extracts using diluent blanks for comparison showed no significant matrix effects were present.

  3. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  4. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  5. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  6. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural commodities... ordinarily grows wild without being cultivated does not preclude them from being classed as “agricultural...

  7. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural commodities... ordinarily grows wild without being cultivated does not preclude them from being classed as “agricultural...

  8. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural commodities... ordinarily grows wild without being cultivated does not preclude them from being classed as “agricultural...

  9. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural commodities... ordinarily grows wild without being cultivated does not preclude them from being classed as “agricultural...

  10. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural commodities... ordinarily grows wild without being cultivated does not preclude them from being classed as “agricultural...

  11. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... means: (1) Muscle cuts of beef, lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; (2) Ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5)...

  12. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-08

    control production in the late 1930s under the Marihuana Tax Act (50 Stat. 551). In 1970, production of all varieties of Cannabis, regardless of THC content...hemp, “marijuana” (or “ marihuana ” as it is spelled in the older statutes) refers to the psychotropic drug (whether used for medicinal or recreational...source of fabric for clothing, and the demand CRS-2 4 Richard J. Bonnie and Charles H. Whitebread, The Marihuana Conviction: A History of Marihuana

  13. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  14. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  17. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  18. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  19. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Storage and inventory of commodities. 247.28 Section 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage...

  20. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Storage and inventory of commodities. 247.28 Section 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage...

  1. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage and inventory of commodities. 247.28 Section 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage...

  2. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage and inventory of commodities. 247.28 Section 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage...

  3. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory of commodities. 247.28 Section 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage...

  4. 7 CFR 1421.110 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commodity certificate exchanges. 1421.110 Section 1421.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.110 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commodity certificate exchanges. 1421.110 Section 1421.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY...

  6. 7 CFR 1421.110 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commodity certificate exchanges. 1421.110 Section 1421.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY...

  7. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... of members of commodity committees. There is hereby established a Pear Commodity Committee...

  8. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... of members of commodity committees. There is hereby established a Pear Commodity Committee...

  9. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... of members of commodity committees. There is hereby established a Pear Commodity Committee...

  10. Market distortions and technological progress in agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, J.M.; Pardey, P.G.

    1993-05-01

    It is widely believed that price policies have contributed to low rates of productivity growth in agriculture, but there has been little progress to date in work on the relationship between price distortions and agricultural productivity or agricultural research. Given the importance of technological change in agriculture, it is important to know whether price policies impede investments in R&D and productivity growth. In this article, a theoretical analysis indicates that the effects of commodity price policies on incentives of government and industry to invest in agricultural research are ambiguous. While the results suggest a general tendency of policies that protect producers to encourage greater research investments, the opposite result cannot be ruled out. A statistical model using international, cross-sectional, time-series data shows that agricultural research investments are significantly correlated, but negatively, with rates of producer protection. The implication is that some factor other than price policy is responsible for both the low rates of public-sector investments in agricultural research worldwide, and the low rates of productivity growth in less-developed countries. Research administrators in more- and less-developed countries alike typically consider a multiplicity of goals when setting research priorities and research budgets. Therefore, an alternative explanation of low agricultural productivity and underinvestment in agricultural research may be that public-sector research policy has been misguided. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Commodity Foods Contain Costs and Create Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Susan K.

    1983-01-01

    San Diego food manufacturers were invited to submit bids on new food items--using as possible ingredients Department of Agriculture donated commodity foods--for the school food service programs. (MLF)

  12. Food Price Volatility and Decadal Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The agriculture system is under pressure to increase production every year as global population expands and more people move from a diet mostly made up of grains, to one with more meat, dairy and processed foods. Weather shocks and large changes in international commodity prices in the last decade have increased pressure on local food prices. This paper will review several studies that link climate variability as measured with satellite remote sensing to food price dynamics in 36 developing countries where local monthly food price data is available. The focus of the research is to understand how weather and climate, as measured by variations in the growing season using satellite remote sensing, has affected agricultural production, food prices and access to food in agricultural societies. Economies are vulnerable to extreme weather at multiple levels. Subsistence small holders who hold livestock and consume much of the food they produce are vulnerable to food production variability. The broader society, however, is also vulnerable to extreme weather because of the secondary effects on market functioning, resource availability, and large-scale impacts on employment in trading, trucking and wage labor that are caused by weather-related shocks. Food price variability captures many of these broad impacts and can be used to diagnose weather-related vulnerability across multiple sectors. The paper will trace these connections using market-level data and analysis. The context of the analysis is the humanitarian aid community, using the guidance of the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network and the United Nation's World Food Program in their response to food security crises. These organizations have worked over the past three decades to provide baseline information on food production through satellite remote sensing data and agricultural yield models, as well as assessments of food access through a food price database. Econometric models and spatial analysis are used

  13. How have agricultural policies influenced caloric consumption in the United States?

    PubMed

    Rickard, Bradley J; Okrent, Abigail M; Alston, Julian M

    2013-03-01

    Many commentators have speculated that agricultural policies have contributed to increased obesity rates in the United States, yet such claims are often made without any analysis of the complex links between real-world farm commodity support programs, prices and consumption of foods, and caloric intake. This article carefully studies the effects of US agricultural policies on prices and quantities of 10 agricultural commodities and nine food categories in the United States over time. Using a detailed multimarket model, we simulate the counterfactual removal of measures of support applied to US agricultural commodities in 1992, 1997, and 2002 and quantify the effects on US food consumption and caloric intake. To parameterize the simulations, we calculate three alternative measures of consumer support (the implicit consumer subsidy from policies that support producers) for the 10 agricultural commodities using information about government expenditures on agricultural commodities from various sources. Our results indicate that-holding all other policies constant-removing US subsidies on grains and oilseeds in the three periods would have caused caloric consumption to decrease minimally whereas removal of all US agricultural policies (including barriers against imports of sugar and dairy products) would have caused total caloric intake to increase. Our results also indicate that the influence of agricultural policies on caloric intake has diminished over time.

  14. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  15. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  16. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  17. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  18. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  19. SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODELING OF AGRICULTURAL YIELD DATA WITH AN APPLICATION TO PRICING CROP INSURANCE CONTRACTS

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Vitor A.; Ghosh, Sujit K.; Goodwin, Barry K.; Shirota, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a statistical model of agricultural yield data based on a set of hierarchical Bayesian models that allows joint modeling of temporal and spatial autocorrelation. This method captures a comprehensive range of the various uncertainties involved in predicting crop insurance premium rates as opposed to the more traditional ad hoc, two-stage methods that are typically based on independent estimation and prediction. A panel data set of county-average yield data was analyzed for 290 counties in the State of Paraná (Brazil) for the period of 1990 through 2002. Posterior predictive criteria are used to evaluate different model specifications. This article provides substantial improvements in the statistical and actuarial methods often applied to the calculation of insurance premium rates. These improvements are especially relevant to situations where data are limited. PMID:19890450

  20. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  1. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  2. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  3. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  4. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  5. Relationship between financial speculation and food prices or price volatility: applying the principles of evidence-based medicine to current debates in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Gabrysch, Sabine; Müller, Olaf; Neuhann, Florian; Jordan, Irmgard; Knipper, Michael; Razum, Oliver

    2013-10-16

    There is an unresolved debate about the potential effects of financial speculation on food prices and price volatility. Germany's largest financial institution and leading global investment bank recently decided to continue investing in agricultural commodities, stating that there is little empirical evidence to support the notion that the growth of agricultural-based financial products has caused price increases or volatility. The statement is supported by a recently published literature review, which concludes that financial speculation does not have an adverse effect on the functioning of the agricultural commodities market. As public health professionals concerned with global food insecurity, we have appraised the methodological quality of the review using a validated and reliable appraisal tool. The appraisal revealed major shortcomings in the methodological quality of the review. These were particularly related to intransparencies in the search strategy and in the selection/presentation of studies and findings; the neglect of the possibility of publication bias; a lack of objective or rigorous criteria for assessing the scientific quality of included studies and for the formulation of conclusions. Based on the results of our appraisal, we conclude that it is not justified to reject the hypothesis that financial speculation might have adverse effects on food prices/price volatility. We hope to initiate reflections about scientific standards beyond the boundaries of disciplines and call for high quality, rigorous systematic reviews on the effects of financial speculation on food prices or price volatility.

  6. Relationship between financial speculation and food prices or price volatility: applying the principles of evidence-based medicine to current debates in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is an unresolved debate about the potential effects of financial speculation on food prices and price volatility. Germany’s largest financial institution and leading global investment bank recently decided to continue investing in agricultural commodities, stating that there is little empirical evidence to support the notion that the growth of agricultural-based financial products has caused price increases or volatility. The statement is supported by a recently published literature review, which concludes that financial speculation does not have an adverse effect on the functioning of the agricultural commodities market. As public health professionals concerned with global food insecurity, we have appraised the methodological quality of the review using a validated and reliable appraisal tool. The appraisal revealed major shortcomings in the methodological quality of the review. These were particularly related to intransparencies in the search strategy and in the selection/presentation of studies and findings; the neglect of the possibility of publication bias; a lack of objective or rigorous criteria for assessing the scientific quality of included studies and for the formulation of conclusions. Based on the results of our appraisal, we conclude that it is not justified to reject the hypothesis that financial speculation might have adverse effects on food prices/price volatility. We hope to initiate reflections about scientific standards beyond the boundaries of disciplines and call for high quality, rigorous systematic reviews on the effects of financial speculation on food prices or price volatility. PMID:24131565

  7. Local Staple Food Price Indices in the Age of Biofuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    In many poor, food insecure regions, agriculture is a primary source of income and farmers are reliant both on their own production and on purchasing food in the market to feed their families. Large local food price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation and may be the consequence of weather-related food production declines, Dr can simply be the result of price transmission from the international commodity market. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets far from the places where the chronically food insecure live. A much better understanding of how local staple food prices in isolated regions such as West Africa that grow most of the food they eat to better understand the impact of global commodity market transformations on sensitive communities at the margin. This information will also enable improved strategies for these farmers who are extraordinarily sensitive to climate change impacts on agricultural growing conditions.

  8. 76 FR 13972 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... licenses for agricultural products include grain, cotton, nuts, cottonseed, and dry beans. Warehouse... the sanitation and security of agricultural commodities temporarily stored and handled in preparation... warehouses, commodities are stored in bulk form and commingled. EFAC are typically packaged and...

  9. 7 CFR 1421.110 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: (1) The loan rate and charges, plus interest applicable to the loan; (2) The prevailing world market price, as determined by CCC, for rice or the alternative repayment rate for all other commodities,...

  10. 7 CFR 1421.110 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: (1) The loan rate and charges, plus interest applicable to the loan; (2) The prevailing world market price, as determined by CCC, for rice or the alternative repayment rate for all other commodities,...

  11. 17 CFR 37.3 - Requirements for underlying commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... highly unlikely to be susceptible to the threat of manipulation; or (iii) No cash market; (2) Commodities...) based on that commodity is highly unlikely to be susceptible to the threat of manipulation; or (4... to minimize the threat of market abuses such as price manipulation and distortions, congestion,...

  12. 17 CFR 37.3 - Requirements for underlying commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... highly unlikely to be susceptible to the threat of manipulation; or (iii) No cash market; (2) Commodities...) based on that commodity is highly unlikely to be susceptible to the threat of manipulation; or (4... to minimize the threat of market abuses such as price manipulation and distortions, congestion,...

  13. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  14. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  17. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  18. 48 CFR 470.103 - United States origin of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.103 United States origin of agricultural products... ingredient is: (1) Produced in the United States; and (2) Commercially available in the United States at fair and reasonable prices from domestic sources. (b) Use by the Food and Nutrition Service....

  19. Multiple commodities in statistical microeconomics: Model and market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao; Du, Xin

    2016-11-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013). In Baaquie et al. (2015), the market behavior of single commodities was analyzed and it was shown that market data provides strong support for the statistical microeconomic description of commodity prices. The case of multiple commodities is studied and a parsimonious generalization of the single commodity model is made for the multiple commodities case. Market data shows that the generalization can accurately model the simultaneous correlation functions of up to four commodities. To accurately model five or more commodities, further terms have to be included in the model. This study shows that the statistical microeconomics approach is a comprehensive and complete formulation of microeconomics, and which is independent to the mainstream formulation of microeconomics.

  20. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  1. Relationship between eae and stx virulence genes and Escherichia coli in an agricultural watershed: implications for irrigation water standards and leafy green commodities.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Daniel R; Karns, Jeffrey S; Coppock, Cary; Patel, Jitu; Sharma, Manan; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2011-01-01

    The California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA) was adopted in an effort to minimize the risk of contamination of leafy greens with enteric pathogens from a variety of sources, including ground and surface irrigation waters. The LGMA contains standards similar to those established for recreational waters, based on Escherichia coli concentrations. However, no correlation between E. coli and any specific waterborne pathogen(s) has been reported. We conducted this monitoring study in an agricultural watershed to (i) evaluate spatial and temporal fluctuations in E. coli populations and virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli and (ii) investigate whether a relationship could be established between E. coli and virulence genes. The virulence genes targeted for analysis were the eae and stx genes, encoding for intimin and Shiga-like toxins, respectively; they were detected with PCR methods. E. coli concentrations and eae and stx prevalence varied both spatially and temporally. In general, both were higher in agricultural than in forested areas and were higher in the summer and fall seasons than in winter. The eae and stx genes were prevalent throughout the watershed. However, in the absence of actual isolates, no conclusions could be drawn regarding the prevalence of specific pathogenic E. coli. No correlation was observed between E. coli concentrations and virulence genes; lower E. coli concentrations were not necessarily associated with decreased prevalence of eae and stx genes. These results suggest that the LGMA standards might not adequately address the issue of waterborne contamination, and that alternative criteria might be required.

  2. 17 CFR 180.2 - Prohibition on price manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibition on price manipulation. 180.2 Section 180.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PROHIBITION AGAINST MANIPULATION § 180.2 Prohibition on price manipulation. It shall be unlawful for...

  3. 17 CFR 180.2 - Prohibition on price manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibition on price manipulation. 180.2 Section 180.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PROHIBITION AGAINST MANIPULATION § 180.2 Prohibition on price manipulation. It shall be unlawful for...

  4. 17 CFR 180.2 - Prohibition on price manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibition on price manipulation. 180.2 Section 180.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PROHIBITION AGAINST MANIPULATION § 180.2 Prohibition on price manipulation. It shall be...

  5. The Principles and the Specifics of Trading in Commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Dušan; Herbacsková, Anita

    2012-12-01

    In the present period of instability on financial markets, investments in commodities are the solution for elimination of the consequences of inflation and ensure the yield. When investing in commodities, the use of specifics of commodities compared to other assets. The distribution of commodities we can interpret for agricultural commodities, commodities of energy, precious and other metals, and weather. Therefore, in the framework of the investment portfolio are the commodities. This is the reason why one of the most popular types of investment assets now become commodities. In the interpretation of particular commodities we talk about commodity futures. The reason is that the spot market with commodities is limited storage facilities. The growth of the popularity, which allows a wide range of commodities, has caused that in addition to from institutional investors and speculators for trade may involve even small investors. This development will be supplemented by interpretation of the charts and figers, which will be commented and used for generalization of knowledge. Finally, the article will be interpreted by the further development of the market for commodities as it by article assumes from the results of research.

  6. 7 CFR 17.5 - Contracts between commodity suppliers and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity. (4) The supplier's sales price may not exceed the prevailing range of export market prices as... the importer. (ii) The importer shall issue the IFB in the United States and shall open all offers in... price(s) offered. This limitation may, however, be waived by the GSM: (A) When the lowest...

  7. 7 CFR 226.5 - Donation of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5...

  8. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63 Section 250.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  9. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63 Section 250.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  10. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63 Section 250.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  11. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63 Section 250.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  12. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63 Section 250.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  13. Fuel ethanol and agriculture: an economic assessment. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, G.; Gavett, E.

    1986-08-01

    Increased fuel ethanol production through 1995 would raise net farm income, benefiting mainly corn and livestock producers. Production of additional byproduct feeds would depress the price of soybeans. Large ethanol subsidies, which are required to sustain the industry, would offset any savings in agricultural commodity programs. Increased ethanol production would also raise consumer expenditures for food. Any benefits of higher income to farmers would be more than offset by increased Government costs and consumer food expenditures. Direct cash payments to farmers would be more economical than attempting to boost farm income through ethanol subsidies.

  14. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  15. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  16. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  17. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  18. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  19. 7 CFR 1412.31 - Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops. 1412.31 Section 1412.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DIRECT...

  20. 7 CFR 1412.31 - Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops. 1412.31 Section 1412.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DIRECT...

  1. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  2. Irrigation pricing policies and its impact on agricultural inputs demand in Tunisia: a DEA-based methodology.

    PubMed

    Frija, Aymen; Wossink, Ada; Buysse, Jeroen; Speelman, Stijn; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2011-09-01

    This paper estimates farmers' individual irrigation water demand functions employing the information hidden in individual farmers' technical efficiency. This information is extracted through the development of a new deductive methodology based on inverse Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models. The empirical results for Tunisia show that farmers who are more technically efficient have less elastic irrigation water demand functions; these farmers would adjust demand only to a limited extent and they can afford the water price. In contrast, water pricing significantly affects those that are less efficient. These farmers shift towards a different cropping pattern using significantly less water and more land when the price of water increases. Thus, higher water prices would threaten this category's livelihood if their efficiency is not improved. However, if the technical efficiency of these farmers were to improve, then it would be more difficult to reach water saving objectives since their demand will also become highly inelastic. The findings have important implications in view of the objectives of Tunisia water policy which include:full cost recovery, continuity of the irrigation activity, and water saving at the national level.

  3. Commodity Administrative Manual. Public and Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This manual was developed for agencies receiving food commodities distributed to eligible schools and noneducational organizations by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) through the California State Department of Education's Office of Surplus Property. It covers rules, regulations, and forms for recipients who are public or private schools…

  4. CURRICULUM MATERIALS, DESCRIPTION AND PRICE LIST OF MATERIALS DEVELOPED BY THE OHIO VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS SERVICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.

    PAMPHLETS, SLIDES, TAPES, MANUALS, AND AN EXAMINATION ARE INCLUDED IN THIS CATALOG OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR USE BY VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN HIGH SCHOOL AND ADULT FARMER PROGRAMS. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED BY VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS, CURRICULUM SPECIALISTS, TECHNICAL SPECIALISTS, AND AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL AND ARE…

  5. 78 FR 23737 - Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for Commodities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for Commodities Covered by the Livestock Mandatory Act of 1999 AGENCY: Agricultural...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.22 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ending with the 2009 crop and will not be available for subsequent crops. (b) The exchange rate is the... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commodity certificate exchanges. 1427.22 Section 1427... Deficiency Payments § 1427.22 Commodity certificate exchanges. (a) For any outstanding marketing...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.22 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ending with the 2009 crop and will not be available for subsequent crops. (b) The exchange rate is the... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commodity certificate exchanges. 1427.22 Section 1427... Deficiency Payments § 1427.22 Commodity certificate exchanges. (a) For any outstanding marketing...

  8. 7 CFR 1427.22 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ending with the 2009 crop and will not be available for subsequent crops. (b) The exchange rate is the... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commodity certificate exchanges. 1427.22 Section 1427... Deficiency Payments § 1427.22 Commodity certificate exchanges. (a) For any outstanding marketing...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.22 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ending with the 2009 crop and will not be available for subsequent crops. (b) The exchange rate is the... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commodity certificate exchanges. 1427.22 Section 1427... Deficiency Payments § 1427.22 Commodity certificate exchanges. (a) For any outstanding marketing...

  10. 7 CFR 1427.22 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ending with the 2009 crop and will not be available for subsequent crops. (b) The exchange rate is the... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity certificate exchanges. 1427.22 Section 1427... Deficiency Payments § 1427.22 Commodity certificate exchanges. (a) For any outstanding marketing...

  11. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  12. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  13. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  14. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  15. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  16. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 253.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLDS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 253.10 Commodity...

  17. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 253.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLDS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 253.10 Commodity...

  18. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 253.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLDS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 253.10 Commodity...

  19. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 253.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLDS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 253.10 Commodity...

  20. 22 CFR 211.4 - Availability and shipment of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... effectively because of natural or other disturbances, (C) Where carriers to a specific country are unavailable... in connection with agricultural commodities provided under Public Law 480 during a fiscal year...

  1. 41 CFR 51-5.5 - Prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 51-5.6. (c) Price changes for commodities and services shall usually apply to orders received by... the views of the contracting activity, the Committee may make price changes applicable to orders... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Prices. 51-5.5 Section...

  2. 78 FR 16189 - Transportation of Agricultural Commodities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... controlled and operated by a beekeeper engaged in the seasonal transportation ] of bees. The exemption does... 391 for a beekeeper using a CMV for the seasonal transportation of bees, is also retained. Like...

  3. Stochastic processes in the social sciences: Markets, prices and wealth distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Natalia E.

    The present work uses statistical mechanics tools to investigate the dynamics of markets, prices, trades and wealth distribution. We studied the evolution of market dynamics in different stages of historical development by analyzing commodity prices from two distinct periods ancient Babylon, and medieval and early modern England. We find that the first-digit distributions of both Babylon and England commodity prices follow Benfords law, indicating that the data represent empirical observations typically arising from a free market. Further, we find that the normalized prices of both Babylon and England agricultural commodities are characterized by stretched exponential distributions, and exhibit persistent correlations of a power law type over long periods of up to several centuries, in contrast to contemporary markets. Our findings suggest that similar market interactions may underlie the dynamics of ancient agricultural commodity prices, and that these interactions may remain stable across centuries. To further investigate the dynamics of markets we present the analogy between transfers of money between individuals and the transfer of energy through particle collisions by means of the kinetic theory of gases. We introduce a theoretical framework of how the micro rules of trading lead to the emergence of income and wealth distribution. Particularly, we study the effects of different types of distribution of savings/investments among individuals in a society and different welfare/subsidies redistribution policies. Results show that while considering savings propensities the models approach empirical distributions of wealth quite well the effect of redistribution better captures specific features of the distributions which earlier models failed to do; moreover the models still preserve the exponential decay observed in empirical income distributions reported by tax data and surveys.

  4. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2011 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2010 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011 contains new chapters on iron oxide pigments, wollastonite, and zeolites. The chapters on mica (natural), scrap and flake and mica (natural), sheet have been combined into a single chapter - mica (natural). Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. "Appendix C - Reserves and Resources" has been divided into "Part A - Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals" and "Part B - Sources of Reserves Data," including some information that was previously in this introduction. A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2011 are welcomed.

  5. Crop Monitoring as a Tool for Modelling the Genesis of Millet Prices in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, D.; Marinho, E.; Defourny, P.; Waldner, F.; d'Andrimont, R.

    2015-12-01

    Food security in Sahelian countries strongly relies on the ability of markets to transfer staplesfrom surplus to deficit areas. Market failures, leading to the inefficient geographical allocation of food,are expected to emerge from high transportation costs and information asymmetries that are commonin moderately developed countries. As a result, important price differentials are observed betweenproducing and consuming areas which damages both poor producers and food insecure consumers. Itis then vital for policy makers to understand how the prices of agricultural commodities are formed byaccounting for the existing market imperfections in addition to local demand and supply considerations. To address this issue, we have gathered an unique and diversified set of data for Senegal andintegrated it in a spatially explicit model that simulates the functioning of agricultural markets, that isfully consistent with the economic theory. Our departure point is a local demand and supply modelaround each market having its catchment areas determined by the road network. We estimate the localsupply of agricultural commodities from satellite imagery while the demand is assumed to be a functionof the population living in the area. From this point on, profitable transactions between areas with lowprices to areas with high prices are simulated for different levels of per kilometer transportation costand information flows (derived from call details records i.e. mobile phone data). The simulated prices are then comparedwith the actual millet prices. Despite the parsimony of the model that estimates only two parameters, i.e. the per kilometertransportation cost and the information asymmetry resulting from low levels of mobile phone activitybetween markets, it impressively explains more than 80% of the price differentials observed in the 40markets included in the analysis. In one hand these results can be used in the assessment of the socialwelfare impacts of the further development of

  6. Assessing Unit-Price Related Remifentanil Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuska, Chad M.; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Given a commodity available at different prices, a unit-price account of choice predicts preference for the cheaper alternative. This experiment determined if rhesus monkeys preferred remifentanil (an ultra-short-acting [mu]-opioid agonist) delivered at a lower unit price over a higher-priced remifentanil alternative (Phases 1 and 3). Choice…

  7. 76 FR 53533 - Notification of New Pricing Methodology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Mint is implementing a new pricing methodology for its commemorative gold coins to mitigate the effect that fluctuating gold commodity costs has on the pricing of these products. The new pricing methodology... previous Thursday A.M. Fix through the Wednesday A.M. Fix) gold prices, which reflect the cost of the...

  8. Constellation Commodities Studies Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dirschka, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Constellation program was NASA's long-term program for space exploration. The goal of the commodities studies was to solicit industry expertise in production, storage, and transportation required for future use and to improve efficiency and life cycle cost over legacy methods. Objectives were to consolidate KSC, CCAFS and other requirements; extract available industry expertise; identify commercial opportunities; and establish synergy with State of Florida partnerships. Study results are reviewed.

  9. 7 CFR 1170.8 - Price reporting specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... basic commodity (for example, kosher cheese produced with a rabbi on site who is actively involved in... for the basic commodity (for example, kosher butter produced with a rabbi on site who is actively... market price for the basic commodity (for example, kosher dry whey produced with a rabbi on site who...

  10. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  11. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  12. Commodity-Free Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Commodity-free calibration is a reaction rate calibration technique that does not require the addition of any commodities. This technique is a specific form of the reaction rate technique, where all of the necessary reactants, other than the sample being analyzed, are either inherent in the analyzing system or specifically added or provided to the system for a reason other than calibration. After introduction, the component of interest is exposed to other reactants or flow paths already present in the system. The instrument detector records one of the following to determine the rate of reaction: the increase in the response of the reaction product, a decrease in the signal of the analyte response, or a decrease in the signal from the inherent reactant. With this data, the initial concentration of the analyte is calculated. This type of system can analyze and calibrate simultaneously, reduce the risk of false positives and exposure to toxic vapors, and improve accuracy. Moreover, having an excess of the reactant already present in the system eliminates the need to add commodities, which further reduces cost, logistic problems, and potential contamination. Also, the calculations involved can be simplified by comparison to those of the reaction rate technique. We conducted tests with hypergols as an initial investigation into the feasiblility of the technique.

  13. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  14. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  15. 77 FR 22282 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Determination of equivalent price... products price series in the Dairy Products Sales report released by the Agricultural Marketing...

  16. 22 CFR 201.31 - Suppliers of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... CFR parts 500 through 599, as from time to time amended, are complied with; and (6) The purchase price... customs of the trade shall be made by the supplier in the form of a dollar payment to USAID. Any...

  17. 7 CFR 917.122 - Qualification requirements and nominiation procedure for public members of Commodity Committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits... associated with production, processing, financing, or marketing (except as consumers) of the commodities... willingness to attend committee activities regularly, and to familiarize themselves with the background...

  18. 7 CFR 1599.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1599.9 Section 1599.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM §...

  19. 7 CFR 1599.10 - Claims for damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims for damage to or loss of commodities. 1599.10 Section 1599.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD...

  20. 17 CFR 1.35 - Records of commodity interest and related cash or forward transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the date, price, quantity, market, commodity and future; (ii) All retail forex transactions executed... transaction was made; (ii) All retail forex transactions executed on that day for such account, including the... forex, commodity option, and swap transaction was executed on that day. Provided, however, that...

  1. 17 CFR 1.35 - Records of commodity interest and related cash or forward transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the date, price, quantity, market, commodity and future; (ii) All retail forex transactions executed... transaction was made; (ii) All retail forex transactions executed on that day for such account, including the... forex, commodity option, and swap transaction was executed on that day. Provided, however, that...

  2. Historical statistics for mineral and material commodities in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Thomas; Matos, Grecia; with Buckingham, David; DiFrancesco, Carl; Porter, Kenneth; Berry, Cyrus; Crane, Melissa; Goonan, Thomas; Sznopek, John

    2005-01-01

    The USGS makes this information available through published products, including monthly, quarterly, and annual Mineral Industry Surveys, the annual Minerals Yearbook (MYB), the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS), and special mineral commodity studies, including the history of metal prices and materials flow studies. 

  3. 7 CFR 1160.110 - Class I price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class I price. 1160.110 Section 1160.110 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.110 Class I price. Class I price is the price that is established for Class I milk in...

  4. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  5. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  6. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  7. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  8. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  9. Oversight of Food and Nutrition Service Programs: Food Stamps, Child Nutrition, and Commodity Distribution. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, April 25, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    The Federal government's oversight of its food and nutrition programs is discussed in this transcript of a Senate hearing. Testimony is presented regarding food stamps, the school lunch program, problems of targeting the needy, the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), commodity distribution, surplus dairy…

  10. 75 FR 16719 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and... Agricultural Water Enhancement Program (AWEP) by amending section 1240I of the Food ] Security Act of 1985. The... technical assistance to agricultural producers to implement agricultural water enhancement activities...

  11. 7 CFR 1001.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat solids price; (d) The other solids price; (e) The butterfat price; (f) The average butterfat,...

  12. 7 CFR 1001.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat solids price; (d) The other solids price; (e) The butterfat price; (f) The average butterfat,...

  13. 7 CFR 1001.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat solids price; (d) The other solids price; (e) The butterfat price; (f) The average butterfat,...

  14. 7 CFR 1001.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat solids price; (d) The other solids price; (e) The butterfat price; (f) The average butterfat,...

  15. 7 CFR 1001.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat solids price; (d) The other solids price; (e) The butterfat price; (f) The average butterfat,...

  16. 7 CFR 1030.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1030.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1030.51 Section 1030.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  17. 7 CFR 1033.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1033.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1033.51 Section 1033.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  18. 7 CFR 1126.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1126.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1126.51 Section 1126.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  19. 7 CFR 1033.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1033.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1033.51 Section 1033.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  20. 7 CFR 1131.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1131.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1131.51 Section 1131.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  1. 7 CFR 1126.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1126.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1126.51 Section 1126.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  2. 7 CFR 1030.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1030.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1030.51 Section 1030.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  3. 7 CFR 1124.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1124.51 Section 1124.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  4. 7 CFR 1124.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1124.51 Section 1124.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1001.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1001.51 Section 1001.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  6. 7 CFR 1032.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1032.51 Section 1032.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  7. 7 CFR 1032.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1032.51 Section 1032.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  8. 7 CFR 1131.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1131.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1131.51 Section 1131.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  9. 7 CFR 1001.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1001.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1001.51 Section 1001.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  10. 7 CFR 1032.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1032.51 Section 1032.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.51 Class I differential and price. The Class...

  11. 7 CFR 1032.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Class I differential and price. 1032.51 Section 1032.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Class Prices § 1032.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I differential shall be...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class I differential and price. 1032.51 Section 1032.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Class Prices § 1032.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I differential shall be...

  13. Agriculture and Energy: Implications for Food Security, Water, and Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokgoz, S.; Zhang, W.; Msangi, S.; Bhandary, P.

    2011-12-01

    Sustainable production of agricultural commodities and growth of international trade in these goods are challenged as never before by supply-side constraints (such as climate change, water and land scarcity, and environmental degradation) and by demand-side dynamics (volatility in food and energy markets, the strengthening food-energy linkage, population growth, and income growth). On the one hand, the rapidly expanding demand can potentially create new market opportunities for agriculture. On the other hand, there are many threats to a sufficient response by the supply side to meet this growing and changing demand. Agricultural production systems in many countries are neither resource-efficient, nor producing according to their full potential. The stock of natural resources such as land, water, nutrients, energy, and genetic diversity is shrinking relative to demand, and their use must become increasingly efficient in order to reduce environmental impacts and preserve the planet's productive capacity. World energy prices have increased rapidly in recent years. At the same time, agriculture has become more energy-intensive. Higher energy costs have pushed up the cost of producing, transporting and processing agricultural commodities, driving up commodity prices. Higher energy costs have also affected water use and availability through increased costs of water extraction, conveyance and desalinization, higher demand for hydroelectric power, and increased cost of subsidizing water services. In the meantime, the development of biofuels has diverted increasing amounts of agricultural land and water resources to the production of biomass-based renewable energy. This more "intensified" linkage between agriculture and energy comes at a time when there are other pressures on the world's limited resources. The related high food prices, especially those in the developing countries, have led to setbacks in the poverty alleviation effort among the global community with more

  14. Water and energy conservation modeling in Pacific Northwest irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture and electrical energy supply in the Pacific Northwest are intricately bound by mutual dependence on Columbia River Basin water. Diversion and instream demands on the water have intensified through recent development in the region. Water conservation opportunities exist in present irrigation that could supplement regional firm hydroelectricity. A two-level mathematical programming model is developed to evaluate irrigator production and regional price responses to water and electricity conservation policies. Stage one emphasizes decision criteria at producer level - irrigable land, water, electricity and labor demand, and water response yields on major crops. Irrigators choose cropping and irrigation mixes and rates at expected commodity prices under resource constraints consistent with regional policy. Stage two employs production and resource use solutions from stage one in a regional allocation and price equilibrium-seeking program. Alfalfa, apple, and potato prices are determined endogenously, and a decomposition-type linkage reiterates production area response to regional equilibrium prices. Baseline irrigated acreage, water electricity, production, and crop prices are estimated for 1982. Water pricing policies reflecting the opportunity value of Columbia River water for hydrogeneration indicate increasing net social benefits, net farm returns, and hydropower potential accruing from conservation in irrigation.

  15. Impacts of renewable fuel regulation and production on agriculture, energy, and welfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhail, Lihong Lu

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study the impact of U.S. federal renewable fuel regulations on energy and agriculture commodity markets and welfare. We consider two federal ethanol policies: the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) contained in the Energy Security and Independence Act of 2007 and tax credits to ethanol blenders contained in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. My first essay estimates the distribution of short-run impacts of changing federal ethanol policies on U.S. energy prices, agricultural commodity prices, and welfare through a stochastic partial equilibrium model of U.S. corn, ethanol, and gasoline markets. My second essay focuses on studying the price behavior of the renewable fuel credit (RFC) market, which is the mechanism developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet the RFS. RFCs are a tradable, bankable, and borrowable accounting mechanism to ensure that all obligated parties use a mandated level of renewable fuel. I first develop a conceptual framework to understand how the market works and then apply stochastic dynamic programming to simulate prices for RFCs, examine the sensitivity of prices to relevant shocks, and estimate RFC option premiums. My third essay assesses the impact of policy led U.S. ethanol on the markets of global crude oil and U.S. gasoline using a structural Vector Auto Regression model of global crude oil, U.S. gasoline and ethanol markets.

  16. Applications of GARCH models to energy commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, H. Brett

    This thesis uses GARCH methods to examine different aspects of the energy markets. The first part of the thesis examines seasonality in the variance. This study modifies the standard univariate GARCH models to test for seasonal components in both the constant and the persistence in natural gas, heating oil and soybeans. These commodities exhibit seasonal price movements and, therefore, may exhibit seasonal variances. In addition, the heating oil model is tested for a structural change in variance during the Gulf War. The results indicate the presence of an annual seasonal component in the persistence for all commodities. Out-of-sample volatility forecasting for natural gas outperforms standard forecasts. The second part of this thesis uses a multivariate GARCH model to examine volatility spillovers within the crude oil forward curve and between the London and New York crude oil futures markets. Using these results the effect of spillovers on dynamic hedging is examined. In addition, this research examines cointegration within the oil markets using investable returns rather than fixed prices. The results indicate the presence of strong volatility spillovers between both markets, weak spillovers from the front of the forward curve to the rest of the curve, and cointegration between the long term oil price on the two markets. The spillover dynamic hedge models lead to a marginal benefit in terms of variance reduction, but a substantial decrease in the variability of the dynamic hedge; thereby decreasing the transactions costs associated with the hedge. The final portion of the thesis uses portfolio theory to demonstrate how the energy mix consumed in the United States could be chosen given a national goal to reduce the risks to the domestic macroeconomy of unanticipated energy price shocks. An efficient portfolio frontier of U.S. energy consumption is constructed using a covariance matrix estimated with GARCH models. The results indicate that while the electric

  17. Agricultural Productivity Forecasts for Improved Drought Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; McNider, Richard; Moss, Donald; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Water stresses on agricultural crops during critical phases of crop phenology (such as grain filling) has higher impact on the eventual yield than at other times of crop growth. Therefore farmers are more concerned about water stresses in the context of crop phenology than the meteorological droughts. However the drought estimates currently produced do not account for the crop phenology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a drought monitoring decision support tool: The U.S. Drought Monitor, which currently uses meteorological droughts to delineate and categorize drought severity. Output from the Drought Monitor is used by the States to make disaster declarations. More importantly, USDA uses the Drought Monitor to make estimates of crop yield to help the commodities market. Accurate estimation of corn yield is especially critical given the recent trend towards diversion of corn to produce ethanol. Ethanol is fast becoming a standard 10% ethanol additive to petroleum products, the largest traded commodity. Thus the impact of large-scale drought will have dramatic impact on the petroleum prices as well as on food prices. USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the commodity outlook for U.S. WAOB depends on Drought Monitor and has emphatically stated that accurate and timely data are needed in operational agrometeorological services to generate reliable projections for agricultural decision makers. Thus, improvements in the prediction of drought will reflect in early and accurate assessment of crop yields, which in turn will improve commodity projections. We have developed a drought assessment tool, which accounts for the water stress in the context of crop phenology. The crop modeling component is done using various crop modules within Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). DSSAT is an agricultural crop

  18. 41 CFR 51-2.7 - Fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Fair market price. 51-2.7... WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.7 Fair market price. (a) The Committee is responsible for determining fair market prices, and changes thereto, for commodities and services on the Procurement List....

  19. 41 CFR 51-2.7 - Fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fair market price. 51-2.7... WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.7 Fair market price. (a) The Committee is responsible for determining fair market prices, and changes thereto, for commodities and services on the Procurement List....

  20. 60 FR 321 - General Price Support Regulations for Honey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-01-04

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1434 RIN 0560-AD73 General Price Support Regulations for Honey... change, the interim rule amending the Honey Price Support Loan Program published in the Federal Register at 59 FR 23789-23792 on May 9, 1994. The interim rule made certain changes to the Honey Price...

  1. 41 CFR 51-2.7 - Fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fair market price. 51-2... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.7 Fair market price. (a) The Committee is responsible for determining fair market prices, and changes thereto, for commodities and services on...

  2. 41 CFR 51-2.7 - Fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fair market price. 51-2... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.7 Fair market price. (a) The Committee is responsible for determining fair market prices, and changes thereto, for commodities and services on...

  3. 41 CFR 51-2.7 - Fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Fair market price. 51-2.7... WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.7 Fair market price. (a) The Committee is responsible for determining fair market prices, and changes thereto, for commodities and services on the Procurement List....

  4. Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  5. Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.

    PubMed

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  6. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  7. 7 CFR 1221.16 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net market price. 1221.16 Section 1221.16 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.16 Net market price. Net market price means the sales price, or other value, per volumetric unit, received by a...

  8. 7 CFR 1221.16 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net market price. 1221.16 Section 1221.16 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.16 Net market price. Net market price means the sales price, or other value, per volumetric unit, received by a...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.16 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net market price. 1221.16 Section 1221.16 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.16 Net market price. Net market price means the sales price, or other value, per volumetric unit, received by a...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.16 - Net market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net market price. 1221.16 Section 1221.16 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.16 Net market price. Net market price means the sales price, or other value, per volumetric unit, received by a...

  11. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered commodity... nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  12. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered commodity... nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  13. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered commodity... nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  14. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered commodity... nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  15. 7 CFR 1425.17 - Eligible commodity and pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to generally accepted accounting principles. (l) A CMA shall not apply marketing losses from a..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.17... marketing proceeds from the commodity in accordance with § 1425.18; and (5) Members agreed to accept...

  16. REVIEW OF CONTROL OPTIONS FOR METHYL BROMIDE IN COMMODITY TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes recent developments in the control of methyl bromide (MeBr) and discusses technical considerations and requirements for and economic feasibility of recovery. (NOTE: MeBr, fumigant for agricultural commodities, is an ozone depleting chemical. The U.S. EPA has ...

  17. Military and Private Sector Commodity Outlets: A Retail Price Comparison

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    4" Single Speed, Model 7004 27. Black and Decker Dustbuster Cordless Vacuum 28. Pearl Drop Tooth Polish, Spearmint 29. Pro Soft-Edge Toothbrush * 30...27.95 27.94 17; Tooth Polish, Pearl Drops, Spearmint 2.05 2.22 18. Toothbrush, Soft-Edge 1.35 1.43 19. Silkience Shampoo, 15 oz., Reg. 2.39 2.74 20...Black/Decker Drill 13.50 14.07 16. Black/Decker Dustbuster 27.95 29. .. 17. Tooth Polish, Pearl Drugs, Spearmint 2.05 22 18. Toothbrush, Soft-Edge

  18. Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Energy Commodity Spot Price Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-27

    model for the value of l = 2 are given. For this purpose, using a combination of direct search method and Nelder- Mead simplex algorithm, we search...find the parameters that maximize (5.7) using a combination of direct search method and the Nelder- Mead simplex optimization algorithm in Matlab. This...use the Nelder- Mead Simplex Method developed in Matlab. Maximizing (5.28) is equivalent to minimizing L(Θ) = 1 2 N∑ k=1 [ 1 2 ∆yT (k)r−10,2(tk|tk−1)∆y

  19. Afforestation to mitigate climate change: impacts on food prices under consideration of albedo effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Humpenöder, Florian; Stevanović, Miodrag; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Kriegler, Elmar; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Ambitious climate targets, such as the 2 °C target, are likely to require the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Afforestation is one such mitigation option but could, through the competition for land, also lead to food prices hikes. In addition, afforestation often decreases land-surface albedo and the amount of short-wave radiation reflected back to space, which results in a warming effect. In particular in the boreal zone, such biophysical warming effects following from afforestation are estimated to offset the cooling effect from carbon sequestration. We assessed the food price response of afforestation, and considered the albedo effect with scenarios in which afforestation was restricted to certain latitudinal zones. In our study, afforestation was incentivized by a globally uniform reward for carbon uptake in the terrestrial biosphere. This resulted in large-scale afforestation (2580 Mha globally) and substantial carbon sequestration (860 GtCO2) up to the end of the century. However, it was also associated with an increase in food prices of about 80% by 2050 and a more than fourfold increase by 2100. When afforestation was restricted to the tropics the food price response was substantially reduced, while still almost 60% cumulative carbon sequestration was achieved. In the medium term, the increase in prices was then lower than the increase in income underlying our scenario projections. Moreover, our results indicate that more liberalised trade in agricultural commodities could buffer the food price increases following from afforestation in tropical regions.

  20. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.

    2005-01-01

    United States, about 30 companies accounted for more than 90 percent of the silver fabricated. The consumption of silver for all fabrication uses is expected to grow slowly through the decade ending in 2010 at about 1.3 percent per year for the world and 2.4 percent per year for the United States. World and U.S. reserves and reserve bases are more than adequate to satisfy the demand for newly mined silver through 2010. The other components of supply will be silver recovered from scrap, silver from industrial stocks, and silver bullion that is sold into the market from commodity exchange and private stocks.

  1. We're Studying Ways to Improve Commodity Distribution to Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromack, Theodore; Lloyd, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Presents procedures and findings of a Virginia Tech-conducted study-in-process of two alternatives to the United States Department of Agriculture's school lunch commodity surplus distribution program. Both alternatives--the direct cash subsidy and the commodity letter of credit--offer added flexibility to the existing system. (JBM)

  2. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... of members of commodity committees. There are hereby established a Pear Commodity Committee and a... provisions of § 917.25. Effective Date Note: At 59 FR 10055, Mar. 3, 1994, in § 917.20, the words “a...

  3. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... of members of commodity committees. There are hereby established a Pear Commodity Committee and a... provisions of § 917.25. Effective Date Note: At 59 FR 10055, Mar. 3, 1994, in § 917.20, the words “a...

  4. 77 FR 20353 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... programs. In many existing USWA licensed warehouses, commodities such as grain or rice are stored in bulk...). Agricultural products that may be stored under an EFAC licensing agreement include, but are not limited to... commodities to be stored. On March 15, 2011 (76 FR 13972-13973), FSA published a notice in the...

  5. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a distinct geographic area. 46.48 Section 46.48 Agriculture... Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

  6. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a distinct geographic area. 46.48 Section 46.48 Agriculture... Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

  7. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a distinct geographic area. 46.48 Section 46.48 Agriculture... Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

  8. 7 CFR 247.10 - Distribution and use of CSFP commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 247.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.10..., refreshments, or for any purposes other than distribution to, and nutrition education for, CSFP participants....

  9. 7 CFR 247.10 - Distribution and use of CSFP commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 247.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.10..., refreshments, or for any purposes other than distribution to, and nutrition education for, CSFP participants....

  10. 7 CFR 247.10 - Distribution and use of CSFP commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 247.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.10..., refreshments, or for any purposes other than distribution to, and nutrition education for, CSFP participants....

  11. 7 CFR 247.10 - Distribution and use of CSFP commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 247.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.10..., refreshments, or for any purposes other than distribution to, and nutrition education for, CSFP participants....

  12. 7 CFR 247.10 - Distribution and use of CSFP commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 247.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.10..., refreshments, or for any purposes other than distribution to, and nutrition education for, CSFP participants....

  13. 7 CFR 917.35 - Powers and duties of each commodity committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS..., That the Pear Commodity Committee shall approve actions under § 917.39 and make said...

  14. 7 CFR 917.35 - Powers and duties of each commodity committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS..., That the Pear Commodity Committee shall approve actions under § 917.39 and make said...

  15. 7 CFR 917.35 - Powers and duties of each commodity committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS..., That the Pear Commodity Committee shall approve actions under § 917.39 and make said...

  16. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative... agreements with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) through either the Agricultural Water... Agricultural Water Enhancement Program Legislative Authority The Agricultural Water Enhancement Program...

  17. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    contributed the remaining 4 percent (International Fertilizer Industry Association, 2003b, p. 1-4). In 2002, world ammonia exports were 13.1 Mt of contained nitrogen. Trinidad and Tobago (22 percent), Russia (18 percent), Ukraine (10 percent), and Indonesia (7 percent) accounted for 57 percent of the world total. The largest importing regions were North America with 36 percent of the total followed by Western Europe with 23 percent and Asia with 22 percent (International Fertilizer Industry Association, 2003b, p. 5L-11). In 2002, world urea production was 51.4 Mt of contained nitrogen, and exports were 12.0 Mt of contained nitrogen. China and India, which were the two largest producing countries, accounted for 48 percent of world production. The United States and Canada produced about 10 percent of the total. Russia and Ukraine together accounted for 28 percent of total urea exports; Central America and South America, 27 percent; and Asia, North America, and Western Europe, 10 percent each. North America accounted for 36 percent of the total urea imports; Western Europe, 23 percent; and Asia, 22 percent (International Fertilizer Industry Association, 2003f, p. 1-15). Ammonia production capacity in North America and Western Europe is projected to decline through 2004, and capacity in other world regions is projected to increase. Fluctuating natural gas prices are mainly responsible for the capacity decline in North America. Ammonia production capacity is continuing to shift to world regions that have abundant sources of natural gas, and away from those where costs (raw material, labor, environmental compliance) are higher.

  18. 17 CFR 242.612 - Minimum pricing increment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum pricing increment. 242.612 Section 242.612 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation...

  19. 17 CFR 242.612 - Minimum pricing increment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum pricing increment. 242.612 Section 242.612 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation...

  20. [Research progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica and discussion on several key problems].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Zheng, Yu-Guang; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica is an important way to solve the "Lemons Problem" of traditional Chinese medicine market. Standards of commodity classes are also helpful to rebuild market mechanisms for "high price for good quality". The previous edition of commodity classes standards of Chinese materia medica was made 30 years ago. It is no longer adapted to the market demand. This article researched progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It considered that biological activity is a better choice than chemical constituents for standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It is also considered that the key point to set standards of commodity classes is finding the influencing factors between "good quality" and "bad quality". The article also discussed the range of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, and how to coordinate standards of pharmacopoeia and commodity classes. According to different demands, diversiform standards can be used in commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, but efficacy is considered the most important index of commodity standard. Decoction pieces can be included in standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. The authors also formulated the standards of commodity classes of Notoginseng Radix as an example, and hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on traditional Chinese medicine market related research.

  1. 48 CFR 408.707 - Prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prices. 408.707 Section 408.707 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 408.707 Prices. Prior to applying for a price revision, the chief...

  2. Metal prices in the United States through 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    This report, which updates and revises the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1999) publication, “Metal Prices in the United States Through 1998,” presents an extended price history for a wide range of metals available in a single document. Such information can be useful for the analysis of mineral commodity issues, as well as for other purposes. The chapter for each mineral commodity includes a graph of annual current and constant dollar prices for 1970 through 2010, where available; a list of significant events that affected prices; a brief discussion of the metal and its history; and one or more tables that list current dollar prices. In some cases, the metal prices presented herein are for some alternative form of an element or, instead of a price, a value, such as the value for an import as appraised by the U.S. Customs Service. Also included are the prices for steel, steel scrap, and iron ore—steel because of its importance to the elements used to alloy with it, and steel scrap and iron ore because of their use in steelmaking. A few minor metals, such as calcium, potassium, sodium, strontium, and thorium, for which price histories were insufficient, were excluded. The annual prices given may be averages for the year, yearend prices, or some other price as appropriate for a particular commodity. Certain trade journals have been the source of much of this price information—American Metal Market, ICIS Chemical Business, Engineering and Mining Journal, Industrial Minerals, Metal Bulletin, Mining Journal, Platts Metals Week, Roskill Information Services Ltd. commodity reports, and Ryan’s Notes. Price information also is available in minerals information publications of the USGS (1880–1925, 1996–present) and the U.S. Bureau of Mines (1926–95), such as Mineral Commodity Summaries, Mineral Facts and Problems, Mineral Industry Surveys, and Minerals Yearbook. In addition to prices themselves, these journals and publications contain information relevant to

  3. 7 CFR 550.47 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., market prices and similar indicia, together with discounts. Cost analysis is the review and evaluation of... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 550.47 Section 550.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE,...

  4. Phosphate: are we squandering a scarce commodity?

    PubMed

    Ferro, Charles J; Ritz, Eberhard; Townend, Jonathan N

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life but is a rare element in the universe. On Earth, it occurs mostly in the form of phosphates that are widespread but predominantly at very low concentration. This relative rarity has resulted in a survival advantage, in evolutionary terms, to organisms that conserve phosphate. When phosphate is made available in excess it becomes a cause for disease, perhaps best recognized as a potential cardiovascular and renal risk factor. As a reaction to the emerging public health issue caused by phosphate additives to food items, there have been calls for a public education programme and regulation to bring about a reduction of phosphate additives to food. During the Paleoproterzoic era, an increase in the bioavailability of phosphate is thought to have contributed significantly to the oxygenation of our atmosphere and a dramatic increase in the evolution of new species. Currently, phosphate is used poorly and often wasted with phosphate fertilizers washing this scarce commodity into water bodies causing eutrophication and algal blooms. Ironically, this is leading to the extinction of hundreds of species. The unchecked exploitation of phosphate rock, which is an increasingly rare natural resource, and our dependence on it for agriculture may lead to a strange situation in which phosphate might become a commodity to be fought over whilst at the same time, health and environmental experts are likely to recommend reductions in its use.

  5. Design the price signal mechanism of suppliers' cost in the commercial procurement process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinming, Huang; Wenjing, Li; Huazhen, Zhu

    2016-06-01

    In the process of commercial procurement, there exists information asymmetry between purchasers and suppliers in terms of commodity cost. The strike price is what purchasers care about, while the focus of suppliers is only the sales revenue. In order to achieve the relatively lower strike price, purchasers need to design a price signal mechanism, explicating the commodity cost of suppliers. In this article, we have designed a mechanism that purchasers can explicit the commodity cost price based on suppliers' choices by providing a variety of purchase contracts to suppliers.

  6. Multifractal behavior of commodity markets: Fuel versus non-fuel products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbianco, Fernando; Tohmé, Fernando; Stosic, Tatijana; Stosic, Borko

    2016-09-01

    We investigate multifractal properties of commodity time series using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We find that agricultural and energy-related commodities exhibit very similar behavior, while the multifractal behavior of daily and monthly commodity series is rather different. Daily series demonstrate overall uncorrelated behavior, lower degree of multifractality and the dominance of small fluctuations. On the other hand, monthly commodity series show overall persistent behavior, higher degree of multifractality and the dominance of large fluctuations. After shuffling the series, we find that the multifractality is due to a broad probability density function for daily commodities series, while for monthly commodities series multifractality is caused by both a broad probability density function and long term correlations.

  7. School Meal Programs: More Systematic Development of Specifications Could Improve the Safety of Foods Purchased through USDA's Commodity Program. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives. GAO-11-376

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shames, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Through its commodity program, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides commodity foods at no cost to schools taking part in the national school meals programs. Commodities include raw ground beef, cheese, poultry, and fresh produce. Like federal food safety agencies, the commodity program has taken steps designed to reduce microbial…

  8. Medium- to long-run implications of high food prices for global nutrition.

    PubMed

    Webb, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The combined food, fuel, and financial crises of 2007-2009 had severe and widespread negative impacts around the world. Two key questions challenging governments were: how long would the high prices last and with what effects on food security and nutrition over the longer run? This paper considers the drivers of the crisis and explores if, unlike past shocks, the recent price increases reflect structural changes in food price formation that will have lasting global implications. New cross-commodity relationships allowed prices to spike, although there was no shortage of food at the global level nor indeed a significant downturn in recent yields. Yet recent record levels of farm production were also mirrored by growing numbers of people chronically undernourished and/or micronutrient deficient. The gap between supply and need was underpinned by growing urban demand, consumption of processed and higher-value foods (including meat), biofuel policy, and purchasing power erosion, but also by short-term market-distorting policies implemented by governments responding to perceived shortages of food. Thus, the impact of future food price crises will depend largely on what policymakers chose to do in response to the peaks and what they do not do during the troughs. Appropriate investments are urgently needed not just in smallholder developing country agriculture, but in effective food policies and targeted programming that can reverse the recent negative trends in nutrition and that support access globally to improved diet quality as well as food quantity.

  9. Commodity predictability analysis with a permutation information theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, Luciano; Tabak, Benjamin M.; Serinaldi, Francesco; Zanin, Massimiliano; Pérez, Darío G.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely known that commodity markets are not totally efficient. Long-range dependence is present, and thus the celebrated Brownian motion of prices can be considered only as a first approximation. In this work we analyzed the predictability in commodity markets by using a novel approach derived from Information Theory. The complexity-entropy causality plane has been recently shown to be a useful statistical tool to distinguish the stage of stock market development because differences between emergent and developed stock markets can be easily discriminated and visualized with this representation space [L. Zunino, M. Zanin, B.M. Tabak, D.G. Pérez, O.A. Rosso, Complexity-entropy causality plane: a useful approach to quantify the stock market inefficiency, Physica A 389 (2010) 1891-1901]. By estimating the permutation entropy and permutation statistical complexity of twenty basic commodity future markets over a period of around 20 years (1991.01.02-2009.09.01), we can define an associated ranking of efficiency. This ranking is quantifying the presence of patterns and hidden structures in these prime markets. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the commodities in the complexity-entropy causality plane allows us to identify periods of time where the underlying dynamics is more or less predictable.

  10. An empirical performance analysis of commodity memories in commodity servers

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbyson, D. J.; Lang, M. K.; Patino, G.

    2004-01-01

    This work details a performance study of six different commodity memories in two commodity server nodes on a number of microbenchmarks, that measure low-level performance characteristics, as well as on two applications representative of the ASCI workload. Thc memories vary both in terms of performance, including latency and bandwidths, and also in terms of their physical properties and manufacturer. Two server nodes were used; one Itanium-II Madison based system, and one Xeon based system. All the memories examined can be used within both processing nodes. This allows the performance of the memories to be directly examined while keeping all other factors within a processing node the same (processor, motherboard, operating system etc.). The results of this study show that there can be a significant difference in application performance from the different memories - by as much as 20%. Thus, by choosing the most appropriate memory for a processing node at a minimal cost differential, significant improved performance may be achievable.

  11. 76 FR 77670 - Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... ``actual delivery'' as set forth in section 2(c)(2)(D)(ii)(III)(aa) of the Commodity Exchange Act (``CEA... application. In particular, new CEA section 2(c)(2)(D)(ii)(III)(aa) \\18\\ excepts a contract of sale that... involved.'' \\19\\ \\18\\ 7 U.S.C. 2(c)(2)(D)(ii)(III)(aa). \\19\\ The Commission has not adopted any...

  12. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  13. 7 CFR 220.20 - Free and reduced price breakfasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Free and reduced price breakfasts. 220.20 Section 220..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.20 Free and reduced price breakfasts. The determination of the children to whom free and reduced price breakfasts are to be...

  14. 7 CFR 220.20 - Free and reduced price breakfasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Free and reduced price breakfasts. 220.20 Section 220..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.20 Free and reduced price breakfasts. The determination of the children to whom free and reduced price breakfasts are to be...

  15. 7 CFR 220.20 - Free and reduced price breakfasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Free and reduced price breakfasts. 220.20 Section 220..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.20 Free and reduced price breakfasts. The determination of the children to whom free and reduced price breakfasts are to be...

  16. 7 CFR 220.20 - Free and reduced price breakfasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Free and reduced price breakfasts. 220.20 Section 220..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.20 Free and reduced price breakfasts. The determination of the children to whom free and reduced price breakfasts are to be...

  17. 7 CFR 220.20 - Free and reduced price breakfasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Free and reduced price breakfasts. 220.20 Section 220..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.20 Free and reduced price breakfasts. The determination of the children to whom free and reduced price breakfasts are to be...

  18. Multifractal spectrum analysis of nonlinear dynamical mechanisms in China’s agricultural futures markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Peng; He, Ling-Yun

    2010-04-01

    Based on Partition Function and Multifractal Spectrum Analysis, we investigated the nonlinear dynamical mechanisms in China’s agricultural futures markets, namely, Dalian Commodity Exchange (DCE for short) and Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (ZCE for short), where nearly all agricultural futures contracts are traded in the two markets. Firstly, we found nontrivial multifractal spectra, which are the empirical evidence of the existence of multifractal features, in 4 representative futures markets in China, that is, Hard Winter wheat (HW for short) and Strong Gluten wheat (SG for short) futures markets from ZCE and Soy Meal (SM for short) futures and Soy Bean No.1 (SB for short) futures markets from DCE. Secondly, by shuffling the original time series, we destroyed the underlying nonlinear temporal correlation; thus, we identified that long-range correlation mechanism constitutes major contributions in the formation in the multifractals of the markets. Thirdly, by tracking the evolution of left- and right-half spectra, we found that there exist critical points, between which there are different behaviors, in the left-half spectra for large price fluctuations; but for the right-hand spectra for small price fluctuations, the width of those increases slowly as the delay t increases in the long run. Finally, the dynamics of large fluctuations is significantly different from that of the small ones, which implies that there exist different underlying mechanisms in the formation of multifractality in the markets. Our main contributions focus on that we not only provided empirical evidence of the existence of multifractal features in China agricultural commodity futures markets; but also we pioneered in investigating the sources of the multifractality in China’s agricultural futures markets in current literature; furthermore, we investigated the nonlinear dynamical mechanisms based on spectrum analysis, which offers us insights into the underlying dynamical mechanisms in

  19. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy Price Volatility and Forecast Uncertainty

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    It is often noted that energy prices are quite volatile, reflecting market participants' adjustments to new information from physical energy markets and/or markets in energy-related financial derivatives. Price volatility is an indication of the level of uncertainty, or risk, in the market. This paper describes how markets price risk and how the marketclearing process for risk transfer can be used to generate "price bands" around observed futures prices for crude oil, natural gas, and other commodities.

  20. Is women's labor a commodity?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elizabeth S

    1990-01-01

    ...A commercial surrogate mother is anyone who is paid money to bear a child for other people and terminate her parental rights, so that the others may raise the child as exclusively their own. The growth of commercial surrogacy has raised with new urgency a class of concerns regarding the proper scope of the market. Some critics have objected to commercial surrogacy on the ground that it improperly treats children and women's reproductive capacities as commodities. The prospect of reducing children to consumer durables and women to baby factories surely inspires revulsion. But are there good reasons behind the revulsion? And is this an accurate description of what commercial surrogacy implies? This article offers a theory about what things are properly regarded as commodities which supports the claim that commercial surrogacy constitutes an unconscionable commodification of children and of women's reproductive capacities.

  1. Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Steel Price Drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, John F.; Corathers, Lisa A.; Edelstein, Daniel L.; Fenton, Michael D.; Kuck, Peter H.; Magyar, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary This report contains the 55 slide images from a presentation made by the author at the meeting of the Metal Powder Industries Federation held in Denver, CO, on May 15, 2007. The Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) invited the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to speak at their annual meeting about the price drivers for chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and steel. These metals are of interest to MPIF because the prices of these raw materials used by their industry were at historically high levels. Because the USGS closely monitors, yet neither buys nor sells, metal commodities, it is an unbiased source of metal price information and analysis. The authors used information about these and other metals collected and published by the USGS (U.S. production, trade, stocks, and prices) and about consumption and stocks internationally by country from industry organizations that publish such information, because metal markets are influenced by activities and events over the entire globe. By seeking a common cause for common behavior among the various metal commodities, the authors found that major price drivers on metal commodities were inflation, major international events such as wars and recessions, and major national events such as the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 and economic growth in China, which started with the open door policy in the 1970s but did not have significant market impact until starting in the 1990s. Metal commodity prices also responded to commodity-specific events.

  2. 7 CFR 550.47 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 550.47 Section 550.47... Agreements Procurement Standards § 550.47 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations...

  3. Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived

  4. Case for Deploying Complex Systems Utilizing Commodity Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Barry S.; Pitts, R. Lee; Ritter, George

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents a study of the transition of computer networks and software engineering at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) from a client/server UNIX based system to a client/server system based on commodity priced and open system components. Topics covered include: an overview of HOSC ground support systems, an analysis for changes to the existing ground support system, an analysis of options considered for the transition to a new system, and a consideration of goals for a new system.

  5. 17 CFR 229.201 - (Item 201) Market price of and dividends on the registrant's common equity and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... registrant may translate such prices into United States currency at the currency exchange rate in effect on... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 201) Market price of and... Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING...

  6. 22 CFR 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commodity jurisdiction. 120.4 Section 120.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.4 Commodity jurisdiction. (a) The commodity jurisdiction procedure is used with the...

  7. 22 CFR 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commodity jurisdiction. 120.4 Section 120.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.4 Commodity jurisdiction. (a) The commodity jurisdiction procedure is used with the...

  8. 22 CFR 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commodity jurisdiction. 120.4 Section 120.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.4 Commodity jurisdiction. (a) The commodity jurisdiction procedure is used with the...

  9. 7 CFR 917.18 - Nomination of commodity committee members of the Control Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... have all the powers, duties, and functions given to the Control Committee under this part and sections... Control Committee. 917.18 Section 917.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Administrative Bodies § 917.18 Nomination of commodity committee members of the Control Committee....

  10. Bio-physical vs. Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on World Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that agricultural production could be greatly affected by climate change, but there remains little quantitative understanding of how these agricultural impacts would affect economic livelihoods in poor countries. The recent paper by Hertel, Burke and Lobell (GEC, 2010) considers three scenarios of agricultural impacts of climate change, corresponding to the fifth, fiftieth, and ninety fifth percentiles of projected yield distributions for the world’s crops in 2030. They evaluate the resulting changes in global commodity prices, national economic welfare, and the incidence of poverty in a set of 15 developing countries. Although the small price changes under the medium scenario are consistent with previous findings, their low productivity scenario reveals the potential for much larger food price changes than reported in recent studies which have hitherto focused on the most likely outcomes. The poverty impacts of price changes under the extremely adverse scenario are quite heterogeneous and very significant in some population strata. They conclude that it is critical to look beyond central case climate shocks and beyond a simple focus on yields and highly aggregated poverty impacts. In this paper, we conduct a more formal, systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) with respect to uncertainty in the biophysical impacts of climate change on agriculture, by explicitly specifying joint distributions for global yield changes - this time focusing on 2050. This permits us to place confidence intervals on the resulting price impacts and poverty results which reflect the uncertainty inherited from the biophysical side of the analysis. We contrast this with the economic uncertainty inherited from the global general equilibrium model (GTAP), by undertaking SSA with respect to the behavioral parameters in that model. This permits us to assess which type of uncertainty is more important for regional price and poverty outcomes. Finally, we undertake a

  11. 17 CFR 4.41 - Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and the principals thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising by commodity pool... Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Advertising § 4.41 Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and...

  12. 17 CFR 4.41 - Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and the principals thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and the principals thereof. 4.41 Section 4.41 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY...

  13. Activities for Students: Predicting Future Gas Prices Using the Standards for Mathematical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bismarck, Stephen F.; Zelkowski, Jeremy; Gleason, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Like many commodities, the price of gasoline continues to rise, and these price changes are readily observed in gas stations' signage. Moreover, algebraic methods are well suited to model price change and answer the student's question. Over the course of one ninety-minute block or two forty-five-minute classes, students build functions…

  14. 75 FR 41365 - Dairy Product Price Support Program and Dairy Indemnity Payment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... Part 760 Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1430 RIN 0560-AH88 Dairy Product Price Support Program.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule specifies regulations for the Dairy Product Price Support...

  15. 7 CFR 6.42 - Complaints of price-undercutting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Complaints of price-undercutting. 6.42 Section 6.42 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Price-Undercutting of Domestic... a subsidy with respect to such article of quota cheese may file with the Investigating Authority...

  16. 7 CFR 6.42 - Complaints of price-undercutting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Complaints of price-undercutting. 6.42 Section 6.42 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Price-Undercutting of Domestic... a subsidy with respect to such article of quota cheese may file with the Investigating Authority...

  17. 7 CFR 6.42 - Complaints of price-undercutting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Complaints of price-undercutting. 6.42 Section 6.42 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Price-Undercutting of Domestic... a subsidy with respect to such article of quota cheese may file with the Investigating Authority...

  18. 7 CFR 6.42 - Complaints of price-undercutting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Complaints of price-undercutting. 6.42 Section 6.42 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Price-Undercutting of Domestic... a subsidy with respect to such article of quota cheese may file with the Investigating Authority...

  19. 7 CFR 6.42 - Complaints of price-undercutting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Complaints of price-undercutting. 6.42 Section 6.42 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Price-Undercutting of Domestic... a subsidy with respect to such article of quota cheese may file with the Investigating Authority...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 7 CFR 1955.113 - Price (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Price (housing). 1955.113 Section 1955.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh)...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.113 - Price (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Price (housing). 1955.113 Section 1955.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh)...

  7. 7 CFR 1955.113 - Price (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Price (housing). 1955.113 Section 1955.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real...

  8. 7 CFR 1955.113 - Price (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Price (housing). 1955.113 Section 1955.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh)...

  9. 7 CFR 1955.113 - Price (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Price (housing). 1955.113 Section 1955.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh)...

  10. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Robinson, Sharon M

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  11. 7 CFR 1170.9 - Price reporting exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Price reporting exemptions. 1170.9 Section 1170.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.9...

  12. 75 FR 27338 - NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing-Contract Merchant LLC; NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing-Delivery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Commodities Clearing--Delivery LLC; NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing--Finance LLC; Notice of Filing May 6, 2010... Commodities Clearing--Delivery LLC, and NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing--Finance LLC filed a supplement to...

  13. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the EAR). (2) No export or reexport to or for use in biological, chemical, nuclear warfare or missile proliferation activities may be made under License Exception AGR (see part 744 of the EAR). (3)...

  14. 49 CFR 1313.6 - Contract summary for agricultural commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corporate names of all carriers that are parties to the contract, and their addresses for service of... escalation provisions in the contract. (8) Volume. All volume, car and/or train size requirements, as set forth in the contract, including: (i) Movement type (single-car, multiple-car, unit-train). (ii)...

  15. 49 CFR 1313.6 - Contract summary for agricultural commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... corporate names of all carriers that are parties to the contract, and their addresses for service of... escalation provisions in the contract. (8) Volume. All volume, car and/or train size requirements, as set forth in the contract, including: (i) Movement type (single-car, multiple-car, unit-train). (ii)...

  16. 49 CFR 1313.6 - Contract summary for agricultural commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... corporate names of all carriers that are parties to the contract, and their addresses for service of... escalation provisions in the contract. (8) Volume. All volume, car and/or train size requirements, as set forth in the contract, including: (i) Movement type (single-car, multiple-car, unit-train). (ii)...

  17. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40 Lentils 0713.90...

  18. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40 Lentils 0713.90...

  19. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40 Lentils 0713.90...

  20. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 1005.00 Corn (Maize). 0713.31 Dried Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans. 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans. 0713.39 Beans, other. 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans. 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum). 0713.20...

  1. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) 0713.31 Dried Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40...

  2. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40 Lentils 0713.90...

  3. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1006.10 Rice in the husk (paddy or rough) 1006.20 Husked (brown) Rice 1006.30 Semi-milled or wholly milled Rice, whether or not polished or glazed 1006.40 Broken Rice 1102.30 Rice Flour 1103.14 Rice...

  4. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Meslin Flour. 1006.10 Rice in the husk (paddy or rough). 1006.20 Husked (brown) Rice. 1006.30 Semi-milled or wholly milled Rice, whether or not polished or glazed. 1006.40 Broken Rice. 1102.30 Rice Flour. 1103.14 Rice Groats, Meal and Pellets. 1002.00 Rye. 1003.00 Barley. 1004.00 Oats. 1007.00 Grain...

  5. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1212.91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other, not...

  6. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-seed oil, other 1212.91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other,...

  7. 49 CFR 1313.6 - Contract summary for agricultural commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (iii) Any provisions for optional extension. (6) Rail car data. (i) Either the information in paragraph... follows: (A) The number of dedicated cars (or, at the carrier's option, car days), by major car type, to... carrier(s), with average number of bad-order cars identified; and (3) (Optional) On order (for...

  8. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required). In the case of multiple partial shipments, all such shipments must be made within the 12 months... procedures set forth in paragraph (c) of this section. If you intend to engage in multiple shipments during... reexport (or prior to the first of multiple shipments) under License Exception AGR. (2) Procedures....

  9. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... required). In the case of multiple partial shipments, all such shipments must be made within the 12 months... procedures set forth in paragraph (c) of this section. If you intend to engage in multiple shipments during... reexport (or prior to the first of multiple shipments) under License Exception AGR. (2) Procedures....

  10. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... procedures set forth in paragraph (c) of this section. If you intend to engage in multiple shipments during the one-year period after the signing of the contract, you need only notify BIS prior to the first... reexport (or prior to the first of multiple shipments) under License Exception AGR. (2) Procedures....

  11. 76 FR 6095 - Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... method. All comments must be submitted in English, or if not, accompanied by an English translation... regulations--thus withdrawing the provisions originally adopted in 1993 to provide legal certainty for the... give the Commission a means of improving the legal certainty of the market for swaps agreements.''...

  12. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  13. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  14. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  15. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  16. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  17. Parallel supercomputing with commodity components

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, M.S.; Goda, M.P.; Becker, D.J.

    1997-09-01

    We have implemented a parallel computer architecture based entirely upon commodity personal computer components. Using 16 Intel Pentium Pro microprocessors and switched fast ethernet as a communication fabric, we have obtained sustained performance on scientific applications in excess of one Gigaflop. During one production astrophysics treecode simulation, we performed 1.2 x 10{sup 15} floating point operations (1.2 Petaflops) over a three week period, with one phase of that simulation running continuously for two weeks without interruption. We report on a variety of disk, memory and network benchmarks. We also present results from the NAS parallel benchmark suite, which indicate that this architecture is competitive with current commercial architectures. In addition, we describe some software written to support efficient message passing, as well as a Linux device driver interface to the Pentium hardware performance monitoring registers.

  18. Parallel supercomputing with commodity components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, M. S.; Goda, M. P.; Becker, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    We have implemented a parallel computer architecture based entirely upon commodity personal computer components. Using 16 Intel Pentium Pro microprocessors and switched fast ethernet as a communication fabric, we have obtained sustained performance on scientific applications in excess of one Gigaflop. During one production astrophysics treecode simulation, we performed 1.2 x 10(sup 15) floating point operations (1.2 Petaflops) over a three week period, with one phase of that simulation running continuously for two weeks without interruption. We report on a variety of disk, memory and network benchmarks. We also present results from the NAS parallel benchmark suite, which indicate that this architecture is competitive with current commercial architectures. In addition, we describe some software written to support efficient message passing, as well as a Linux device driver interface to the Pentium hardware performance monitoring registers.

  19. Global stocks of selected mineral-based commodities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Karl, Nick A.

    2016-12-05

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey, National Minerals Information Center, analyzes mineral and metal supply chains by identifying and describing major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. This report focuses on an important component of the world’s supply chain: the amounts and global distribution of major consumer, producer, and exchange stocks of selected mineral commodities. In this report, the term “stock” is used instead of “inventory” and refers to accumulations of mined ore, intermediate products, and refined mineral-based commodities that are in a form that meets the agreed-upon specifications of a buyer or processor of intermediate products. These may include certain ores such as bauxite, concentrates, smelter products, and refined metals. Materials sometimes referred to as inventory for accounting purposes, such as ore contained in a deposit or in a leach pile, or materials that need to be further processed before they can be shipped to a consumer, are not considered. Stocks may be held (owned) by consumers, governments, investors, producers, and traders. They may serve as (1) a means to achieve economic, social, and strategic goals through government policies; (2) a secure source of supply to meet demand and to mitigate potential shortages in the supply chain; (3) a hedge to mitigate price volatility; and (4) vehicles for speculative investment.The paucity and uneven reliability of data for stocks of ores and concentrates and for material held by producers, consumers, and merchants hinder the accurate estimating of the size and distribution of this portion of the supply chain for certain commodities. This paper reviews the more visible stocks held in commodity exchange warehouses distributed throughout the world.

  20. 76 FR 67500 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Adjustment Notice states that the overall average for Special Services is a result of large price reductions...; Address Management Services; Caller Service; Change-of-Address Credit Card Authentication; Confirm... Periodicals, Nonprofit and Classroom Periodicals, Science of Agriculture Periodicals advertising...

  1. Will Commodity Properties Affect Seller's Creditworthy: Evidence in C2C E-commerce Market in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hui; Ling, Min

    This paper finds out that the credit rating level shows significant difference among different sub-commodity markets in E-commerce, which provides room for sellers to get higher credit rating by entering businesses with higher average credit level before fraud. In order to study the influence of commodity properties on credit rating, this paper analyzes how commodity properties affect average crediting rating through the degree of information asymmetry, returns and costs of fraud, credibility perception and fraud tolerance. Empirical study shows that Delivery, average trading volume, average price and complaint possibility have decisive impacts on credit performance; brand market share, the degree of standardization and the degree of imitation also have a relatively less significant effect on credit rating. Finally, this paper suggests that important commodity properties should be introduced to modify reputation system, for preventing credit rating arbitrage behavior where sellers move into low-rating commodity after being assigned high credit rating.

  2. Reference pricing and firms' pricing strategies.

    PubMed

    Miraldo, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Within a horizontal differentiation model and allowing for heterogeneous qualities, we analyze the effects of reference pricing reimbursement on firms' pricing strategies. With this analysis we find inherent incentives for firms' pricing behavior, and consequently we shed some light on the time consistency of such policy. The analysis encompasses different reference price rules: (i) reference price as the minimum of the observed prices in the market, (ii) reference price as a linear combination of firms' prices. Results show that under the "minimum policy" firms are not able to coordinate on higher prices while the "linear policy", implicitly, provides a coordination device. We have also found that, relatively to the "linear policy", when the reference price is the minimum of observed prices, after policy implementation, total and private expenditures are higher and consumer surplus and firms' profits are lower. With quality differentiation both the minimum and linear policies unambiguously lead to higher prices.

  3. Estimating economic value of agricultural water under changing conditions and the effects of spatial aggregation.

    PubMed

    Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Harou, Julien J; Howitt, Richard E

    2010-11-01

    Given the high proportion of water used for agriculture in certain regions, the economic value of agricultural water can be an important tool for water management and policy development. This value is quantified using economic demand curves for irrigation water. Such demand functions show the incremental contribution of water to agricultural production. Water demand curves are estimated using econometric or optimisation techniques. Calibrated agricultural optimisation models allow the derivation of demand curves using smaller datasets than econometric models. This paper introduces these subject areas then explores the effect of spatial aggregation (upscaling) on the valuation of water for irrigated agriculture. A case study from the Rio Grande-Rio Bravo Basin in North Mexico investigates differences in valuation at farm and regional aggregated levels under four scenarios: technological change, warm-dry climate change, changes in agricultural commodity prices, and water costs for agriculture. The scenarios consider changes due to external shocks or new policies. Positive mathematical programming (PMP), a calibrated optimisation method, is the deductive valuation method used. An exponential cost function is compared to the quadratic cost functions typically used in PMP. Results indicate that the economic value of water at the farm level and the regionally aggregated level are similar, but that the variability and distributional effects of each scenario are affected by aggregation. Moderately aggregated agricultural production models are effective at capturing average-farm adaptation to policy changes and external shocks. Farm-level models best reveal the distribution of scenario impacts.

  4. 77 FR 11251 - Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors: Compliance Obligations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...The Commodity Futures Trading Commission is adopting amendments to its existing part 4 regulations and promulgating one new regulation regarding Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors. The Commission is also adopting new data collections for CPOs and CTAs that are consistent with a data collection required under the Dodd-Frank Act for entities registered with both the......

  5. 22 CFR 228.51 - Commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commodities. 228.51 Section 228.51 Foreign... SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.51 Commodities. (a) Waiver criteria. Any waiver must be based upon... area included in Geographic Code 941 or the cooperating country. (ii) For assistance other...

  6. Broilers, Beans, and Bellies: Teaching Commodity Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Loren J.

    1983-01-01

    People should understand what the commodity futures market is and who uses it. The commodity futures market should be studied in a high school economics course so a one-week unit was developed for students that involved them in a simulation as hedgers and speculators. (AM)

  7. 7 CFR 1401.4 - Commodity certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transferred, exchanged for the inventory of CCC (including the receipt in accordance with paragraph (e) of... exchanged for cash, as provided for in this section. Commodity certificates shall be subject to the... certificate to CCC shall endorse the certificate to CCC. (d) Exchange of commodity certificate for...

  8. A Java commodity grid kit.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.; Foster, I.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit. The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus protocols, allowing the Java CoG Kit to communicate also with the C Globus reference implementation. Thus, the Java CoG Kit provides Grid developers with the ability to utilize the Grid, as well as numerous additional libraries and frameworks developed by the Java community to enable network, Internet, enterprise, and peer-to peer computing. A variety of projects have successfully used the client libraries of the Java CoG Kit to access Grids driven by the C Globus software. In this paper we also report on the efforts to develop server side Java CoG Kit components. As part of this research we have implemented a prototype pure Java resource management system that enables one to run Globus jobs on platforms on which a Java virtual machine is supported, including Windows NT machines.

  9. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  10. 7 CFR 760.640 - National average market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National average market price. 760.640 Section 760.640....640 National average market price. (a) The Deputy Administrator will establish the National Average Market Price (NAMP) using the best sources available, as determined by the Deputy Administrator,...

  11. 7 CFR 760.640 - National average market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National average market price. 760.640 Section 760.640....640 National average market price. (a) The Deputy Administrator will establish the National Average Market Price (NAMP) using the best sources available, as determined by the Deputy Administrator,...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1032.60 by the protein price, the other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  13. 7 CFR 1126.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pounds of protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1126.60 by the protein price, other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  14. 7 CFR 1126.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (h... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  16. 7 CFR 1033.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1033.60 by the protein price, the other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  17. 7 CFR 1001.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pounds of protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1001.60 by the protein price, other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively; (c... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  18. 7 CFR 1030.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, nonfat solids, protein and other solids content...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1032.60 by the protein price, the other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  1. 7 CFR 1033.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  2. 7 CFR 1001.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pounds of protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1001.60 by the protein price, other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively; (c... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  3. 7 CFR 1126.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pounds of protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1126.60 by the protein price, other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  4. 7 CFR 1126.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (h... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The...

  5. 7 CFR 1030.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, nonfat solids, protein and other solids content...

  6. 7 CFR 1032.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  7. 7 CFR 1033.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1033.60 by the protein price, the other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  8. 7 CFR 1030.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, nonfat solids, protein and other solids content...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1033.60 by the protein price, the other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  10. 7 CFR 1032.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1032.60 by the protein price, the other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  11. 7 CFR 1032.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1032.60 by the protein price, the other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  12. 7 CFR 1126.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (h... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The...

  13. 7 CFR 1126.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (h... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The...

  14. 7 CFR 1030.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, nonfat solids, protein and other solids content...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  16. 7 CFR 1001.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pounds of protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1001.60 by the protein price, other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively; (c... MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  17. 7 CFR 1001.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pounds of protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1001.60 by the protein price, other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively; (c... MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  18. 7 CFR 1126.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pounds of protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1126.60 by the protein price, other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  19. 7 CFR 1126.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pounds of protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1126.60 by the protein price, other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  20. 7 CFR 1033.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  1. 7 CFR 1033.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  2. 7 CFR 1126.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pounds of protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1126.60 by the protein price, other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  3. 7 CFR 1032.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  4. 7 CFR 1032.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1032.60 by the protein price, the other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  5. 7 CFR 1033.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1033.60 by the protein price, the other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  6. 7 CFR 1030.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, nonfat solids, protein and other solids content...

  7. 7 CFR 1032.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  8. 7 CFR 1001.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pounds of protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1001.60 by the protein price, other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively; (c... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING... publicly the following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price... cell adjustment rate; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content...

  10. 7 CFR 1033.61 - Computation of producer price differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... protein, other solids, and butterfat contained in the milk for which an obligation was computed pursuant to § 1033.60 by the protein price, the other solids price, and the butterfat price, respectively, and... MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  11. 7 CFR 1126.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; (g) The average butterfat, protein, nonfat solids, and other solids content of producer milk; and (h... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC...

  13. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC...

  15. Impact of alcohol fuel production on agricultural markets

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Production of alcohol from biomass feedstocks, such as corn, was given Federal and State support which resulted in alcohol production rising from 20 million gallons in 1979 to 430 million gallons in 1984. This study estimates the impacts of alcohol production from corn on selected agricultural markets. The tool of analysis was a three region (United States, the European Community and the rest of the world) econometric model of the markets for corn, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat and corn byproduct feeds. Three alternative growth paths for alcohol production (totalling 1.1, 2.0, and 3.0 billion gallons) were analyzed with the model in the context of three different trade environments. The results of this analysis indicate that alcohol production of 1.1 billion gallons by 1980 would have caused moderate adjustments to commodity markets while 3.0 billion gallons would have caused major adjustments. Corn prices rose sharply with increased alcohol production as did wheat prices but to a somewhat lesser extent. The substitution of corn for soybeans on the supply side was not sufficient to offset the demand depressing effects of corn byproduct feeds on soybean meal which translated into slightly lower soybean prices. A quota limiting imports of corn gluten feed into the EC to three million tons annually would cause reductions in export earnings for corn millers.

  16. Price convergence in North America natural gas spot markets

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.; Cuc, M.

    1996-12-01

    Government policy changes and subsequent regulatory actions in Canada and the United States (US) in the mid-1980s led to effective deregulation of the commodity market for natural gas. This was done by price deregulation, unbundling of pipeline services, and the fostering of a competitive market through equal and open access to pipeline transportation capacity by all suppliers and users. This paper attempts to measure the degree of price convergence in the North American natural gas spot markets. 38 refs.

  17. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  18. 17 CFR 5.4 - Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. 5.4 Section 5.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS §...

  19. 17 CFR 5.4 - Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. 5.4 Section 5.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS §...

  20. 17 CFR 5.4 - Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. 5.4 Section 5.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS §...