Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural diffuse pollution

  1. Constructed wetlands to reduce diffuse pollution from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deasy, C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2009-04-01

    Across Europe, many rivers and lakes are polluted. Sediment can disturb aquatic ecosystems, and is associated with the transport of pesticides, pathogens, toxic metals and nutrients, including phosphorus (P). P is growth-limiting in freshwaters, and rivers and lakes may become eutrophic where concentrations are high, leading to algal blooms and loss of biodiversity. For example, in the UK, the Biodiversity Action Plan estimates that over 70% of lakes are eutrophic. Concern about water quality has resulted in EU policy drivers to protect rivers and lakes. Under the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), surface waters must achieve ‘good ecological and chemical condition' by 2015. Studies in the UK indicate that P concentrations need to be an order of magnitude lower in fresh waters to comply with the requirements of the WFD, and methods of controlling sediment and P inputs into surface waters are urgently required. Pollution sources such as sewage treatment works can be regulated, but non point (diffuse) sources are difficult to control. As agricultural activities have been estimated to account for 30% of P inputs to surface waters, controlling the transfer of diffuse pollutants in runoff from agricultural land is a priority for catchment managers. The use of in-field mitigation options such as reduced tillage has been found to be effective in the UK, but pollutants can still be lost from hillslopes unchecked via subsurface runoff pathways, some of which (e.g. field drains) may contribute very high loads of sediment and P to streams. Mitigation approaches, such as wetlands, which operate at the edge-of-field, where hillslope pathways have already discharged their pollutant loads into the receiving stream, are therefore essential. Over the next two years we will establish ten wetland sites in the UK and use these to: 1) reduce levels of sediment and nutrients leaving agricultural fields; 2) determine the effectiveness of different wetland designs for

  2. Seasonal changes in the performance of a catch crop for mitigating diffuse agricultural pollution.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Inoue, K; Fujiwara, T; Yamane, S; Yasutake, D; Maeda, M; Nagare, H; Akao, S; Ohtoshi, K

    2013-01-01

    An in situ technology for mitigating diffuse agricultural pollution using catch crops was developed for simultaneously preventing nitrate groundwater pollution, reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) gas emissions, and removing salts from the topsoil. Seasonal changes in the performance of a catch crop were investigated using lysimeters in a full-scale greenhouse experiment with 50 d cultivation of dent corn. Catch crop cultivation significantly reduced the leached mineral nitrogen by 89-91% in summer, 87-89% in spring, and 61-82% in winter, and it also significantly reduced the N2O emission by 68-84% in summer. The amounts of nitrogen uptake by the catch crop were remarkably higher than those of leached nitrogen and N2O emission in each season. Catch crop cultivation is a promising technology for mitigating diffuse agricultural pollution. PMID:23985506

  3. Impact of legacy phosphorus sources on diffuse phosphorus pollution from agriculture: lessons from the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legacy phosphorus (P), the accumulation of P in soils and sediments due to past agricultural management activities, represents an emerging challenge to ongoing efforts to mitigate diffuse P pollution from agriculture. Nutrient management programs, already tasked with minimizing the effects of today...

  4. Fuzzy rule based estimation of agricultural diffuse pollution concentration in streams.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raj Mohan

    2008-04-01

    Outflow from the agricultural fields carries diffuse pollutants like nutrients, pesticides, herbicides etc. and transports the pollutants into the nearby streams. It is a matter of serious concern for water managers and environmental researchers. The application of chemicals in the agricultural fields, and transport of these chemicals into streams are uncertain that cause complexity in reliable stream quality predictions. The chemical characteristics of applied chemical, percentage of area under the chemical application etc. are some of the main inputs that cause pollution concentration as output in streams. Each of these inputs and outputs may contain measurement errors. Fuzzy rule based model based on fuzzy sets suits to address uncertainties in inputs by incorporating overlapping membership functions for each of inputs even for limited data availability situations. In this study, the property of fuzzy sets to address the uncertainty in input-output relationship is utilized to obtain the estimate of concentrations of a herbicide, atrazine, in a stream. The data of White river basin, a part of the Mississippi river system, is used for developing the fuzzy rule based models. The performance of the developed methodology is found encouraging. PMID:19295100

  5. Spatially-Distributed Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Framework to Control Phosphorus from Agricultural Diffuse Pollution.

    PubMed

    Geng, Runzhe; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sharpley, Andrew N; Meng, Fande

    2015-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural diffuse pollution control are implemented at the field or small-watershed scale. However, the benefits of BMP implementation on receiving water quality at multiple spatial is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach that combines risk assessment (i.e., Phosphorus (P) index), model simulation techniques (Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN), and a BMP placement tool at various scales to identify the optimal location for implementing multiple BMPs and estimate BMP effectiveness after implementation. A statistically significant decrease in nutrient discharge from watersheds is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs, strategically targeted within watersheds. Specifically, we estimate two types of cost-effectiveness curves (total pollution reduction and proportion of watersheds improved) for four allocation approaches. Selection of a ''best approach" depends on the relative importance of the two types of effectiveness, which involves a value judgment based on the random/aggregated degree of BMP distribution among and within sub-watersheds. A statistical optimization framework is developed and evaluated in Chaohe River Watershed located in the northern mountain area of Beijing. Results show that BMP implementation significantly (p >0.001) decrease P loss from the watershed. Remedial strategies where BMPs were targeted to areas of high risk of P loss, deceased P loads compared with strategies where BMPs were randomly located across watersheds. Sensitivity analysis indicated that aggregated BMP placement in particular watershed is the most cost-effective scenario to decrease P loss. The optimization approach outlined in this paper is a spatially hierarchical method for targeting nonpoint source controls across a range of scales from field to farm, to watersheds, to regions. Further, model estimates showed targeting at multiple scales is necessary to optimize program efficiency

  6. Spatially-Distributed Cost–Effectiveness Analysis Framework to Control Phosphorus from Agricultural Diffuse Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Runzhe; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Meng, Fande

    2015-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural diffuse pollution control are implemented at the field or small-watershed scale. However, the benefits of BMP implementation on receiving water quality at multiple spatial is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach that combines risk assessment (i.e., Phosphorus (P) index), model simulation techniques (Hydrological Simulation Program–FORTRAN), and a BMP placement tool at various scales to identify the optimal location for implementing multiple BMPs and estimate BMP effectiveness after implementation. A statistically significant decrease in nutrient discharge from watersheds is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs, strategically targeted within watersheds. Specifically, we estimate two types of cost-effectiveness curves (total pollution reduction and proportion of watersheds improved) for four allocation approaches. Selection of a ‘‘best approach” depends on the relative importance of the two types of effectiveness, which involves a value judgment based on the random/aggregated degree of BMP distribution among and within sub-watersheds. A statistical optimization framework is developed and evaluated in Chaohe River Watershed located in the northern mountain area of Beijing. Results show that BMP implementation significantly (p >0.001) decrease P loss from the watershed. Remedial strategies where BMPs were targeted to areas of high risk of P loss, deceased P loads compared with strategies where BMPs were randomly located across watersheds. Sensitivity analysis indicated that aggregated BMP placement in particular watershed is the most cost-effective scenario to decrease P loss. The optimization approach outlined in this paper is a spatially hierarchical method for targeting nonpoint source controls across a range of scales from field to farm, to watersheds, to regions. Further, model estimates showed targeting at multiple scales is necessary to optimize program

  7. Modular approaches to the control of diffuse agricultural pollution: buffer zones, bioreactors, ditches and ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, J. M. B.; Blackwell, M. S. A.; Granger, S.; Chadwick, D.; Haygarth, P.; Bol, R.

    2009-04-01

    Despite the abundance of literature reporting both riparian and non-riparian buffer strip performance in the control of diffuse pollutants from agriculture, the spatial and temporal mechanistics of the processes involved are poorly understood. As a result, buffer zones have often been implemented incorrectly and have failed to deliver the benefits expected of them. One of the main challenges with buffer zone effectiveness has been found to be their by-passing by the passage of polluted water through sub-surface drains which in many regions of the UK has regularly been shown to greatly limit their value with regard to nutrient control [MAFF report, Leeds-Harrison 1996]. In addition, little work has been carried out on the role of additional, complementary structural buffering methods such as managed ditches and ponds, which may provide more benefits, especially if used either alongside or instead of the more conventional use of buffer strips. This paper describes a new 5 year Defra funded project*, which is using a multi-scaled approach to understand the abiotic and biotic drivers of the short-term and ‘long-term' effectiveness of conventional grassed buffer strips. At the field scale, we are using high resolution monitoring methods to compare the effectiveness of other mitigation methods including buffer strips enhanced with subsurface bioreactors, managed ditches, and ponds, to control a range of water pollutants and hydrology. Each of the mitigation methods is being investigated both individually, and as part of a strategic modular network of mitigation methods in a purposely constructed and replicated experimental site. References Leeds-Harrison , P. B., Quinton, J. N., Walker, M., Harrison, K. S., Gowing, D. G., Tyrrel, S. F., Morris, J., Mills, J., and Harrod, T. (1996). "Buffer zones in headwater catchments ". MAFF-English Nature Buffer Zone project CSA 2285, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedford, UK. *Link to Defra website: http://randd.defra.gov.uk

  8. MANAGEMENT OF DIFFUSE POLLUTION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS: LESSONS FROM THE MINNESOTA RIVER BASIN. (R825290)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The Minnesota River (Minnesota, USA) receives large non-point source pollutant loads. Complex interactions between agricultural, state agency, environmental groups, and issues of scale make watershed management difficult. Subdividing the basin's 12 major water...

  9. Assessing the cost of groundwater pollution: the case of diffuse agricultural pollution in the Upper Rhine valley aquifer.

    PubMed

    Rinaudo, J-D; Arnal, C; Blanchin, R; Elsass, P; Meilhac, A; Loubier, S

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the costs of diffuse groundwater pollution by nitrates and pesticides for the industrial and the drinking water sectors in the Upper Rhine valley, France. Pollution costs which occurred between 1988 and 2002 are described and assessed using the avoidance cost method. Geo-statistical methods (kriging) are then used to construct three scenarios of nitrate concentration evolution. The economic consequences of each scenario are then assessed. The estimates obtained are compared with the results of a contingent valuation study carried out in the same study area ten years earlier. PMID:16445184

  10. Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2014-01-15

    Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. PMID:23998504

  11. Tackling agricultural diffuse pollution: What might uptake of farmer-preferred measures deliver for emissions to water and air?

    PubMed

    Collins, A L; Zhang, Y S; Winter, M; Inman, A; Jones, J I; Johnes, P J; Cleasby, W; Vrain, E; Lovett, A; Noble, L

    2016-03-15

    Mitigation of agricultural diffuse pollution poses a significant policy challenge across Europe and particularly in the UK. Existing combined regulatory and voluntary approaches applied in the UK continue to fail to deliver the necessary environmental outcomes for a variety of reasons including failure to achieve high adoption rates. It is therefore logical to identify specific on-farm mitigation measures towards which farmers express positive attitudes for higher future uptake rates. Accordingly, a farmer attitudinal survey was undertaken during phase one of the Demonstration Test Catchment programme in England to understand those measures towards which surveyed farmers are most receptive to increasing implementation in the future. A total of 29 on-farm measures were shortlisted by this baseline farm survey. This shortlist comprised many low cost or cost-neutral measures suggesting that costs continue to represent a principal selection criterion for many farmers. The 29 measures were mapped onto relevant major farm types and input, assuming 95% uptake, to a national scale multi-pollutant modelling framework to predict the technically feasible impact on annual agricultural emissions to water and air, relative to business as usual. Simulated median emission reductions, relative to current practise, for water management catchments across England and Wales, were estimated to be in the order sediment (20%)>ammonia (16%)>total phosphorus (15%) ≫ nitrate/methane (11%)>nitrous oxide (7%). The corresponding median annual total cost of the modelled scenario to farmers was £3 ha(-1)yr(-1), with a corresponding range of -£84 ha(-1)yr(-1) (i.e. a net saving) to £33 ha(-1)yr(-1). The results suggest that those mitigation measures which surveyed farmers are most inclined to implement in the future would improve the environmental performance of agriculture in England and Wales at minimum to low cost per hectare. PMID:26789365

  12. Assessment of natural fluorescence as a tracer of diffuse agricultural pollution from slurry spreading on intensely-farmed grasslands.

    PubMed

    Naden, Pamela S; Old, Gareth H; Eliot-Laize, Caroline; Granger, Steve J; Hawkins, Jane M B; Bol, Roland; Haygarth, Phil

    2010-03-01

    The value of natural fluorescence in tracing diffuse pollution, in liquid phase, following slurry application to land was assessed by field experiment using twelve one hectare lysimeters on a heavy clay soil in Devon, UK, during autumn 2007. A strong linear relationship was found between natural fluorescence intensity and slurry concentration. The ratio of indices of tryptophan-like and fulvic/humic-like fluorescence (TI:FI) varied between 2 and 5 for a range of slurries sampled from Devon farms and allowed slurry to be distinguished from uncontaminated drainage waters (TI:FI<1). Incidental losses of slurry, indicated by significantly enhanced TI:FI ratios, high TI and high ammonium levels, occurred via the drain flow pathway of the drained lysimeters during the first small event following slurry-spreading. The maximum estimated loss from a single lysimeter was 2-8kg or 0.004-0.016% of the applied slurry. In the second larger storm event, some five weeks later, significantly enhanced TI:FI ratios in the drain flows were not associated with high TI but with high nitrate levels and, compared to the earlier storm, an increase in the humification index. This implies the loss of slurry decomposition products during this event but further work is needed to validate this. There was no significant enhancement of TI:FI in the surface/throughflow pathways of the drained or undrained lysimeters in either of the events. The observed change over a period of weeks in the strength and nature of the fluorescence signal from spread slurry restricts quantification of slurry losses to those immediately after slurry spreading. Nonetheless, this study demonstrates the utility of fluorescence as an indicator of slurry in drainage waters and the importance of field drains in diffuse agricultural pollution. PMID:20018337

  13. AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION (AGNPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) model addresses concerns related to the potential impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on surface and groundwater quality (Young et al., 1989). It was designed to quantit...

  14. Agricultural and urban pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  15. The Use of LiDAR Elevation Data and Satellite Imagery to Locate Critical Source Areas to Diffuse Pollution in Agricultural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Thériault, Georges; Beaudin, Isabelle; Rodrigue, Jean-François; Denault, Jean-Thomas; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    In Quebec / Canada, water quality improvement in rural areas greatly depends on the reduction of diffuse pollution. Indeed, point source pollution has been reduced significantly in Canada in recent years by creating circumscribed pits for manure and removing animals from stream. Diffuse pollution differs from point source pollution because it is spread over large areas. In agricultural areas, sediment loss by soil and riverbank erosion along with loss of nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.) and pesticides from fields represent the main source of non-point source pollution. The factor mainly responsible for diffuse pollution in agricultural areas is surface runoff occurring in poorly drained areas in fields. The presence of these poorly drained areas is also one of the most limiting factors in crop productivity. Thus, a reconciliation of objectives at the farm (financial concern for farmers) and off-farm concerns (environmental concern) is possible. In short, drainage, runoff, erosion, water quality and crop production are all interconnected issues that need to be tackled together. Two complementary data sources are mainly used in the diagnosis of drainage, surface runoff and erosion : elevation data and multispectral satellite images. In this study of two watersheds located in Québec (Canada), LiDAR elevation data and satellite imagery (QuickBird, Spot and Landsat) were acquired. The studied territories have been partitioned in hydrologic response units (HRUs) according to sub-basins, soils, elevation (topographic index) and land use. These HRUs are afterwards used in a P index software (P-Edit) that calculates the quantities of sediments and phosphorus exported from each HRUs. These exports of sediments and phosphorus are validated with hydrometric and water quality data obtain in two sub-basins and are also compared to soil brightness index derived from multispectral images. This index is sensitive to soil moisture and thus highlights areas where the soil is

  16. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration). PMID:26287831

  17. Climatic Fluctuations and the Diffusion of Agriculture*

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Quamrul; Michalopoulos, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the climatic origins of the diffusion of Neolithic agriculture across countries and archaeological sites. The theory suggests that a foraging society’s history of climatic shocks shaped the timing of its adoption of farming. Specifically, as long as climatic disturbances did not lead to a collapse of the underlying resource base, the rate at which hunter-gatherers were climatically propelled to experiment with their habitats determined the accumulation of tacit knowledge complementary to farming. Consistent with the proposed hypothesis, the empirical investigation demonstrates that, conditional on biogeographic endowments, climatic volatility has a hump-shaped effect on the timing of the adoption of agriculture. PMID:27019534

  18. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  19. Small agricultural impoundments affect pollutant transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-03-01

    Reservoirs created by dams intercept runoff from upslope areas and thus are often sinks for fertilizers and other pollutants that would otherwise flow downstream. Most studies of solute transport through impoundments have focused on large, long-lived systems. However, small impoundments, such as those created for irrigation or livestock watering, are common in agricultural regions, and their total global surface area is comparable to that of large reservoirs. As these small systems mature, the impoundments fill with sediment, creating ecosystems with wetland-like characteristics. Because dams that create these small impoundments are more likely to be degraded, poorly maintained, or removed by their owners, it is important to understand how changes in such systems may affect pollutant transport.

  20. Pollutant Transport and Diffusion in Katabatic Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nappo, Carmen J.; Shankar Rao, K.; Herwehe, Jerold A.

    1989-07-01

    The characteristics of pollutant transport and diffusion of a passive contaminant in a two-dimensional katabatic flow over a simple slope are examined using a primitive equation hydrodynamic model. It is shown that pollutants released above the drainage layer can be entrained into the layer and diffused to the ground surface. For elevated release within the drainage layer, subsidence in the flow leads to relatively high surface concentrations of pollutants close to the stack. Pollutants released at ground level can spread through the entire depth of the drainage layer. This vertical diffusion is more effective for a shallow slope, resulting in higher concentrations at all heights, than for a steeper slope. These dispersion characteristics are quite different from those for stable flows over flat terrain. The differences result from increases of boundary-layer depth, wind speed, and turbulence as the katabatic flow develops downslope.The katabatic flow and dispersion model is tested by simulating the perfluorocarbon and heavy methane tracer releases for Night 4 of the 1980 ASCOT field study in Anderson Creek Valley, California. These tests show that the observed concentrations and the depth of the drainage layer in the lower region of the slope are underpredicted because the model could not simulate the convergence of drainage air (pooling) in the valley basin. The nightly average values of the observed concentrations, however, are predicted well. It is concluded that the model is applicable to nearly two-dimensional open slopes.

  1. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  2. Engaging farmers to inform future diffuse pollution policy in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrain, Emilie; Lovett, Andrew; Nobel, Lister; Grant, Fiona; Blundell, Paul; Cleasby, Will

    2013-04-01

    Stakeholder knowledge and engagement is increasingly seen as a necessary ingredient for catchment management. Whilst many agricultural management options remain voluntary, the implementation of diffuse pollution mitigation measures will only be effective with the cooperation of stakeholders. Anthony et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2012) state the need for more information on the realistic farmer uptake of methods to enhance analyses of the potential for pollution mitigation. A study engaging farmers to understand current agricultural practices and their attitudes towards mitigation measures has formed part of the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) programme in England. Interviews with over seventy farmers were conducted during 2012 in three contrasting areas of the UK: the grassland dominated Eden catchment in the North West of England; the arable dominated Wensum catchment in East Anglia and the mixed farming of the Hampshire Avon catchment in southern England. Results from the farmer survey provide a baseline regarding current agricultural practices and give insight regarding attitudes to the adoption of other mitigation measures in the future. Opinions were obtained on eighty different measures taken from a recent guide to possible measures prepared for the UK government (Newell-Price et al., 2011). Analyses have been conducted examining how current use and attitudes towards future adoption of measures varies according to different characteristics of farm businesses. These findings will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and farm advisers, particularly aiding decision making with respect to strategies for future implementation of programmes of measures. References. Anthony, S.G. et al., 2009. Quantitative assessment of scenarios for managing trade-off between the economic performance of agriculture and the environment and between different environmental media. Available at: http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default

  3. Metamodels and nonpoint pollution policy in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzaher, Aziz; Lakshminarayan, P. G.; Cabe, Richard; Carriquiry, Alicia; Gassman, Philip W.; Shogren, Jason F.

    1993-06-01

    Complex mathematical simulation models are generally used for quantitative measurement of the fate of agricultural chemicals in soil. But it is less efficient to use them directly for regional water quality assessments because of the large number of simulations required to cover the entire region and because the entire set of simulation runs must be repeated for each new policy. To make regional water quality impact assessment on a timely basis, a simplified technique called metamodeling is suggested. A metamodel summarizes the input-output relationships in a complex simulation model designed to mimic actual processes such as groundwater leaching. Metamodels are constructed and validated to predict groundwater and surface water concentrations of major corn and sorghum herbicides in the Corn Belt and Lake States regions of the United States. The usefulness of metamodeling in the evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pollution policies is illustrated using an integrated environmental economic modeling system. For the baseline scenario, we estimate that 1.2% of the regional soils will lead to groundwater detection of atrazine exceeding 0.12 Mg/L, which compares well with the findings of an Environmental Protection Agency monitoring survey. The results suggest no-till practices could significantly reduce surface water concentration and a water quality policy, such as an atrazine ban, could increase soil erosion despite the conservation compliance provisions.

  4. SCIMAP: Modelling Diffuse Pollution in Large River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milledge, D.; Heathwaite, L.; Lane, S. N.; Reaney, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Polluted rivers are a problem for the plants and animals that require clean water to survive. Watershed scale processes can influence instream aquatic ecosystems by delivering fine sediment, solutes and organic matter from diffuse sources. To improve our rivers we need to identify the pollution sources. Models can help us to do this but these rarely address the extent to which risky land uses are hydrologically-connected, and hence able to deliver, to the drainage network. Those that do tend to apply a full hydrological scheme, which is unfeasible for large watersheds. Here we develop a risk-based modelling framework, SCIMAP, for diffuse pollution from agriculture (Nitrate, Phosphate and Fine Sediment). In each case the basis of the analysis is the joint consideration of the probability of a unit of land (25 m2 cell) producing a particular environmental risk and then of that risk reaching the river. The components share a common treatment of hydrological connectivity but differ in their treatment of each pollution type. We test and apply SCIMAP using spatially-distributed instream water quality data for some of the UK’s largest catchments to infer the processes and the associated process parameters that matter in defining their concentrations. We use these to identify a series of risky field locations, where this land use is readily connected to the river system by overland flow.

  5. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water…

  6. ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

  7. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  8. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  9. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MartíNez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  10. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers. PMID:16124498

  11. ANALYTICAL DIFFUSION MODEL FOR LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion model suitable for predicting ambient air pollutant concentrations averaged over a long time period (e.g., month, season, or year) and resulting from the transport of pollutants for distances greater than about 100 km from the source is de...

  12. Disentangling the responses of boreal stream assemblages to low stressor levels of diffuse pollution and altered channel morphology.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Jarno; Muotka, Timo; Vuori, Kari-Matti; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Rääpysjärvi, Jaana; Sutela, Tapio; Aroviita, Jukka

    2016-02-15

    Non-point diffuse pollution from land use and alteration of hydromorphology are among the most detrimental stressors to stream ecosystems. We explored the independent and interactive effects of morphological channel alteration (channelization for water transport of timber) and diffuse pollution on species richness and community structure of four organism groups in boreal streams: diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Furthermore, the effect of these stressors on stream condition was evaluated by Ecological Quality Ratios (EQR) from the national Water Framework Directive (WFD) assessment system. We grouped 91 study sites into four groups that were impacted by either diffuse pollution or hydromorphological alteration, by both stressors, or by neither one. Macroinvertebrate richness was reduced by diffuse pollution, whereas other biological groups were unaltered. Hydromorphological modification had no effect on taxon richness of any of the assemblages. Community structure of all groups was significantly affected by diffuse pollution but not by hydromorphology. Similarly, EQRs indicated negative response by diatoms, macroinvertebrates and fish to diffuse pollution, but not to hydromorphological alteration. Agricultural diffuse pollution thus affected species identities and abundances rather than taxonomic richness. Our results suggest that channelization of boreal streams for timber transport has not altered hydromorphological conditions sufficiently to have a strong impact on stream biota, whereas even moderate nutrient enrichment may be ecologically harmful. Controlling diffuse pollution and associated land use stressors should be prioritized over restoration of in-stream habitat structure to improve the ecological condition of boreal streams. PMID:26706766

  13. Control of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution by Natural Wetland Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  14. Reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai; Gong, Chengzhu; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-15

    This paper analyses the reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China based on provincial panel data for 2001-2010. Using a parameterized quadratic form for the directional output distance function, we find that if agricultural sectors in all provinces were to produce on the production frontier, China could potentially reduce agricultural emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) by 16.0%, 16.2%, and 20.4%, respectively. Additionally, our results show that the shadow price of TN increased rapidly and continuously, while that of COD and TP fluctuated for the whole period. For the whole country, the average shadow price of COD, TN, and TP are 8266 Yuan/tonne, 25,560 Yuan/tonne, and 10,160 Yuan/tonne, respectively. The regional shadow prices of agricultural pollutants are unbalanced. Furthermore, we show that the pollution costs from emissions of COD, TN, and TP are 6.09% of the annual gross output value of the agricultural sector and are highest in the Western and lowest in the Eastern provinces. Our estimates suggest that there is scope for further pollution abatement and simultaneous output expansion for China's agriculture if farmers promote greater efficiency in their production process. Policymakers are required to dynamically adjust the pollution tax rates and ascertain the initial permit price in an emission trading system. Policymakers should also consider the different pollution costs for each province when making the reduction allocations within the agricultural sector. PMID:26398449

  15. Catchments as Reactors: How do landscapes process diffuse pollution? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grathwohl, P.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic organic and inorganic compounds nowadays occur ubiquitous in soils, surface waters and groundwater. Emission of many pollutants is ongoing (through wastewater, agriculture, traffic, households, industry) but still the long-term fate of many compounds in the environment is unclear. Some are degraded by microorganisms, others accumulate in soils or biota, enter the food chain or are transported into groundwater systems and finally may occur in drinking water. Although much progress was made during the last 20 years concerning the identification and parameterization of many processes in laboratory experiments their interplay and efficiency at field scale in not clear. Very slow, but essential processes may have been overlooked - biodegradation may be very different in the lab compared to the field. Solute turnover often happens along steep biogeochemical gradients (locally small diffusion/dispersion coefficients) which are not well known under field conditions and which may dynamically shift their location depending on hydrology causing corresponding changes in concentrations. New field monitoring and analytical methods (sensors, time integrating passive samplers, non-target analysis, etc.) along with new tracer techniques are available meanwhile to record high frequency changes of major chemical parameters and to get an comprehensive inventory of compound classes at catchment scale. Fluxes of pollutants in contrasting catchments can be related to land use or degree of urbanization. Modeling of such systems is essential for exploration of future water quality scenarios for instance as a function of land use or climatic conditions. Spatially explicit reactive models based on coupled partial differential equations are hardly to handle on the scales requested. Conceptual models, however, cannot account for non-linear reactions. Therefore it remains a challenge to combine field observations and theories/models.

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION INITIATIVE (TDI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although pollution prevention (P2) technologies save money and help prevent the release of toxic and hazardous wastes into the environment, many companies are reluctant to install new equipment or change the current processes. Some of the reluctance is initiated by lack of time a...

  17. Nutrient pollution in central California rivers: a comparison of point and diffuse sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, D. J.; Harrison, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems resulting from nutrient pollution is a persistent problem in regions where agriculture and urban development are significant. An important question for ecosystem management in these areas is whether nutrient pollution originates from point sources (e.g., sewage effluent) or diffuse sources (e.g., runoff of fertilizers from agricultural fields). In this poster, we present spatially explicit estimates for the input of two key constituents of nutrient pollution, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), to 22 individual river basins in central California for the early 2000s using information on land cover, agricultural practices, and sewage treatment facilities. Net anthropogenic input (agricultural sources + urban sources - crop harvest) of N ranged from 194 to 11094 kg N km-2 yr-1 while net anthropogenic P inputs ranged from -22 to 346 kg P km-2 yr-1. We estimated that diffuse inputs of inorganic fertilizer and manure were the largest fraction of anthropogenic N and P inputs to these basins. Point source inputs from sewage effluent was nonexistent in 17 of the basins and contributed up to 2 and 15% of N and P inputs in the remaining 5 basins. Using measured data on riverine N and P export from these basins during the 2000 - 2003 water years, we estimate that these basins exported a median of 11 and 12% of their annual net anthropogenic N and P inputs. Among basins, export of net anthropogenic P inputs was on average 53% larger than export of net anthropogenic N inputs. This suggests either that N was retained more efficiently than P or it was lost from basins in gaseous form (e.g., N2 and N2O). Our results suggest that ecosystem management in these central California river basins should focus on diffuse agricultural sources of both N and P to reduce nutrient pollution of downstream aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Applicability of modelling tools in watershed management for controlling diffuse pollution.

    PubMed

    Erturk, A; Gurel, M; Baloch, M A; Dikerler, T; Ekdal, A; Tanik, A; Seker, D Z

    2007-01-01

    Diffuse pollution is hard to analyze, control and manage by its nature. Watershed models and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are recently developed tools that aid analysis of diffuse sources of pollution. However, their applications are not always easy and straightforward. Turkey is a typical example of a mountainous country rich in rivers and streams. Due to the complex geomorphology, land-use and agricultural practices in most of the watersheds in Turkey, modelling, analyzing and managing diffuse pollution has been a challenge. The complex watershed structure forces the modellers to work with spatially high resolution data. Apart from the data, the models themselves may also cause operational problems. These issues and their probable solutions form the basis of the discussions in this paper. It acts as a guideline for modelling and analyzing diffuse pollution by emphasizing the referred problems and difficulties. Design of an Information Technology-based system tool for watershed and/or water quality modelling, which would be suitable for countries having watersheds with similar structure and problems to those of Turkey, is also outlined. PMID:17711010

  19. Sensitivity of hypogean and epigean freshwater copepods to agricultural pollutants.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, T; Di Marzio, W D; Sáenz, M E; Baratti, M; Dedonno, A A; Iannucci, A; Cannicci, S; Messana, G; Galassi, D M P

    2014-03-01

    Widespread pollution from agriculture is one of the major causes of the poor freshwater quality currently observed across Europe. Several studies have addressed the direct impact of agricultural pollutants on freshwater biota by means of laboratory bioassays; however, as far as copepod crustaceans are concerned, the ecotoxicological research is scarce for freshwater species and almost nonexistent for the hypogean ones. In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of the available literature data on the sensitivity of freshwater copepods to agricultural pollutants. We also assessed the acute and chronic sensitivity of a hypogean and an epigean species, both belonging to the Crustacea Copepoda Cyclopoida Cyclopidae, to two N-fertilizers (urea and ammonium nitrate) and two herbicides (ARIANE(TM) II from Dow AgroSciences LLC, and Imazamox), widely used for cereal agriculture in Europe. According to the literature review, freshwater copepods are sensitive to a range of pesticides and N-fertilizers. Ecotoxicological studies on hypogean species of copepods account only one study. There are no standardized protocols available for acute and chronic toxicity tests for freshwater copepods, making comparisons about sensitivity difficult. From our experiments, ionized ammonia proved to be more toxic than the herbicide Imazamox, in both short and chronic bioassays. Urea was the less toxic chemical for both species. The hypogean species was more sensitive than the epigean one to all chemicals. For both species and for all tested chemicals, acute lethality and chronic lethality were induced at concentrations higher than the law limits of good water body quality in Europe, except for ionized ammonia, which provoked the chronic lethality of the hypogean species at a lower concentration. The hazardous concentration (HC) of un-ionized ammonia for 5 % of freshwater copepods, obtained by a species sensitivity distribution, was 92 μg l(-1), significantly lower than the HC computed

  20. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  1. Spatially-Averaged Diffusivities for Pollutant Transport in Vegetated Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chua, Vivien P.

    2016-06-01

    Vegetation in wetlands can create complicated flow patterns and may provide many environmental benefits including water purification, flood protection and shoreline stabilization. The interaction between vegetation and flow has significant impacts on the transport of pollutants, nutrients and sediments. In this paper, we investigate pollutant transport in vegetated flows using the Delft3D-FLOW hydrodynamic software. The model simulates the transport of pollutants with the continuous release of a passive tracer at mid-depth and mid-width in the region where the flow is fully developed. The theoretical Gaussian plume profile is fitted to experimental data, and the lateral and vertical diffusivities are computed using the least squares method. In previous tracer studies conducted in the laboratory, the measurements were obtained at a single cross-section as experimental data is typically collected at one location. These diffusivities are then used to represent spatially-averaged values. With the numerical model, sensitivity analysis of lateral and vertical diffusivities along the longitudinal direction was performed at 8 cross-sections. Our results show that the lateral and vertical diffusivities increase with longitudinal distance from the injection point, due to the larger size of the dye cloud further downstream. A new method is proposed to compute diffusivities using a global minimum least squares method, which provides a more reliable estimate than the values obtained using the conventional method.

  2. Dynamics of diffuse pollution from US southern watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, J.D.; Rebich, R.A.; Cooper, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    To understand the effects of diffuse pollution information on the source of pollutants, quantities in transport, mode of transport, transient nature of the pollution event, and most importantly, a consideration of remediation efforts need to be known. For example, water quality research in the Yazoo Basin uplands in Mississippi has shown sediment loads from a conventional-till upland soybean watershed to be about 19,000kg/ha/yr, and responsible for 77-96% of P and N in transport. In contrast, sediment loads from a comparable no-till soybean watershed were only 500kg/ha/yr, transporting about 31% of P and N in transport. Sediment loads from a nearby forested area were low, about 200kg/ha/yr, but responsible for about 47-76% of P and N in transport. Transient pollution events are responsible for the transport of large quantities of sediment, nutrients, and pesticides; in some storm events nearly the annual load. Best management practices (BMPs) must be designed to remediate diffuse pollution and the transient nature of pollution events which can have a profound effect on the ecological health of steams and reservoirs. Copyright ?? 2001 .

  3. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, C.; Carr, J.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2013-08-01

    Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, but little is known about how these transfers redistribute the environmental costs of agricultural production. The grey water footprint quantifies the environmental costs of virtual water transfers. The grey water footprint is calculated as the amount of water necessary to reduce the concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides released in streams and aquifers to the allowed standards. We reconstructed the global network of virtual grey water transfers for the period 1986-2010 based on global trade data and grey water footprints for 309 commodities. We tracked changes in the structure of the grey water transfer network with network and inequality statistics. Pollution is increasing and is becoming more strongly concentrated in only a handful of countries. The global external grey water footprint, the pollution created by countries outside of their borders, increased 136% during the period. The extent of externalization of pollution is highly unequal between countries and most of this inequality is due to differences in social development status. Our results demonstrate a growing globalization of pollution due to virtual water transfers.

  4. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, C.; Carr, J.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-02-01

    Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water-scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, but little is known about how these transfers redistribute the environmental costs of agricultural production. The grey water footprint quantifies the environmental costs of virtual water transfers. The grey water footprint is calculated as the amount of water necessary to reduce nitrogen concentrations from fertilizers and pesticides released into streams and aquifers to allowed standards. We reconstructed the global network of virtual grey water transfers for the period 1986-2010 based on international trade data and grey water footprints for 309 commodities. We tracked changes in the structure of the grey water transfer network with network and inequality statistics. Pollution is increasing and is becoming more strongly concentrated in only a handful of countries. The global external grey water footprint, the pollution created by countries outside of their borders, increased 136% during the period. The extent of externalization of pollution is highly unequal between countries, and most of this inequality is due to differences in social development status. Our results demonstrate a growing globalization of pollution due to virtual water transfers.

  5. Diffuse pollution of soil and water: Long term trends at large scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grathwohl, P.

    2012-04-01

    Industrialization and urbanization, which consequently increased pressure on the environment to cause degradation of soil and water quality over more than a century, is still ongoing. The number of potential environmental contaminants detected in surface and groundwater is continuously increasing; from classical industrial and agricultural chemicals, to flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. While point sources of pollution can be managed in principle, diffuse pollution is only reversible at very long time scales if at all. Compounds which were phased out many decades ago such as PCBs or DDT are still abundant in soils, sediments and biota. How diffuse pollution is processed at large scales in space (e.g. catchments) and time (centuries) is unknown. The relevance to the field of processes well investigated at the laboratory scale (e.g. sorption/desorption and (bio)degradation kinetics) is not clear. Transport of compounds is often coupled to the water cycle and in order to assess trends in diffuse pollution, detailed knowledge about the hydrology and the solute fluxes at the catchment scale is required (e.g. input/output fluxes, transformation rates at the field scale). This is also a prerequisite in assessing management options for reversal of adverse trends.

  6. Reducing pollution in agriculture land, agroforestry and Common Agrarian Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa Mosquera Losada, Maria; Santiago-Freijanes, José Javier; Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rois, Mercedes; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Reducing non-point source pollution in Europe is a key activity for the European institutions and citizens. Ensuring high quality food supply while environment is sustainable managed is a highly relevant in the European agriculture. New CAP tries to promote sustainability with the greening measures in Pillar I (EU payments) and Pillar II (EU-Country cofinanced payments). The star component of the Pillar I is the greening. The greening includes three types of activities related to crop rotation, maintenance of permanent pasture and the promotion of Ecological Focus Areas (EFA). Greening practices are compulsory in arable lands when they are placed in regions with low proportion of forests and when the owner has large farms. Among the EFA, there are several options that include agroforestry practices like landscape features, buffer strips, agroforestry, strips of eligible hectares along forest edges, areas with short rotation coppice. These practices promote biodiversity and the inclusion of woody vegetation that is able to increase the uptake of the excess of nutrients like N or P. USA Agriculture Department has also recognize the importance of woody vegetation around the arable lands to reduce nutrient pollution and promote biodiversity.

  7. Recent climate and air pollution impacts on Indian agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Jennifer; Ramanathan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the agricultural impacts of climate change has primarily focused on the roles of temperature and precipitation. These studies show that India has already been negatively affected by recent climate trends. However, anthropogenic climate changes are a result of both global emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). Two potent SLCPs, tropospheric ozone and black carbon, have direct effects on crop yields beyond their indirect effects through climate; emissions of black carbon and ozone precursors have risen dramatically in India over the past three decades. Here, to our knowledge for the first time, we present results of the combined effects of climate change and the direct effects of SLCPs on wheat and rice yields in India from 1980 to 2010. Our statistical model suggests that, averaged over India, yields in 2010 were up to 36% lower for wheat than they otherwise would have been, absent climate and pollutant emissions trends, with some densely populated states experiencing 50% relative yield losses. [Our point estimates for rice (−20%) are similarly large, but not statistically significant.] Upper-bound estimates suggest that an overwhelming fraction (90%) of these losses is due to the direct effects of SLCPs. Gains from addressing regional air pollution could thus counter expected future yield losses resulting from direct climate change effects of LLGHGs. PMID:25368149

  8. Recent climate and air pollution impacts on Indian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Burney, Jennifer; Ramanathan, V

    2014-11-18

    Recent research on the agricultural impacts of climate change has primarily focused on the roles of temperature and precipitation. These studies show that India has already been negatively affected by recent climate trends. However, anthropogenic climate changes are a result of both global emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). Two potent SLCPs, tropospheric ozone and black carbon, have direct effects on crop yields beyond their indirect effects through climate; emissions of black carbon and ozone precursors have risen dramatically in India over the past three decades. Here, to our knowledge for the first time, we present results of the combined effects of climate change and the direct effects of SLCPs on wheat and rice yields in India from 1980 to 2010. Our statistical model suggests that, averaged over India, yields in 2010 were up to 36% lower for wheat than they otherwise would have been, absent climate and pollutant emissions trends, with some densely populated states experiencing 50% relative yield losses. [Our point estimates for rice (-20%) are similarly large, but not statistically significant.] Upper-bound estimates suggest that an overwhelming fraction (90%) of these losses is due to the direct effects of SLCPs. Gains from addressing regional air pollution could thus counter expected future yield losses resulting from direct climate change effects of LLGHGs. PMID:25368149

  9. PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY TO NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a probabilistic framework for the assessment of groundwater pollution potential by pesticides in two adjacent agricultural watersheds in the Mid-Altantic Coastal Plain. Indices for estimating streams vulnerability to pollutants' load from the surficial aquifer...

  10. Statistical analysis of effects of measures against agricultural pollution.

    PubMed

    Sæbø, H V

    1991-01-01

    The Norwegian Government has initiated a plan to reduce agricultural pollution. One of the projects in this plan is aimed at investigating the effects of different measures in order to evaluate their effects and costs.A set of experiments has been designed to estimate the effects of measures to reduce or control the use of fertilizers and erosion. The project started in 1985. It comprises continuous measurements in two water courses in each of four counties: one test drainage area where the relevant measures were implemented at the end of 1986, and one reference area where no specific measures are carried out. A series of chemical parameters are measured together with runoff and other hydrological and meteorogical data.The paper provides a preliminary analysis of the data collected in one of the counties during the period June 1985 to April 1988. It contains examples of analysis of covariance to show possible effects of the measures carried out in the test area.Natural variations in precipitation and pollution are large, making it difficult to see the effects of the measures without using statistical techniques to take the multivariability of the problem into account. Some effects can be shown with analysis of covariance. However, the relatively short measurement period makes it neccessary to be careful when interpreting the results. PMID:24233499

  11. Intensive management in grasslands causes diffuse water pollution at the farm scale.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Sabine; Griffith, Bruce A; Murray, Phillip J; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2014-11-01

    Arable land use is generally assumed to be the largest contributor to agricultural diffuse pollution. This study adds to the growing evidence that conventional temperate intensively managed lowland grasslands contribute significantly to soil erosion and diffuse pollution rates. This is the first grassland study to monitor hydrological characteristics and multiple pollutant fluxes (suspended sediment [SS] and the macronutrients: total oxidized nitrogen-N [TON], total phosphorus [TP], and total carbon [TC]) at high temporal resolution (monitoring up to every 15 min) over 1 yr. Monitoring was conducted across three fields (6.5-7.5 ha) on the North Wyke Farm Platform, UK. The estimated annual erosion rates (up to 527.4 kg ha), TP losses (up to 0.9 kg ha), and TC losses (up to 179 kg ha) were similar to or exceeded the losses reported for other grassland, mixed land-use, and arable sites. Annual yields of TON (up to 3 kg ha) were less than arable land-use fluxes and earlier grassland N studies, an important result as the study site is situated within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. The high-resolution monitoring allowed detailed "system's functioning" understanding of hydrological processes, mobilization- transport pathways of individual pollutants, and the changes of the relative importance of diffuse pollutants through flow conditions and time. Suspended sediment and TP concentrations frequently exceeded water quality guidelines recommended by the European Freshwater Fisheries Directive (25 mg L) and the European Water Framework Directive (0.04 mg soluble reactive P L), suggesting that intensively managed grasslands pose a significant threat to receiving surface waters. Such sediment and nutrient losses from intensively managed grasslands should be acknowledged in land management guidelines and advice for future compliance with surface water quality standards. PMID:25602218

  12. Tramline wheelings as diffuse pollution sources: integrating across spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silgram, Martyn; Collins, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    Identifying the sources of diffuse pollution, characterising transport pathways, and understanding the factors controlling delivery to water bodies, are generic challenges faced by scientists and policymakers supporting the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and other water quality legislation. Land management is intrinsically field scale, which is the scale at which much fieldwork is focused. However, processes identified at plot or field scale may not be significant in terms of water quality at catchment scale, which poses the problem of how best to upscale relevant field-scale characterisations. A consistent framework is urgently needed which is capable of bringing together experimental techniques at these disparate spatial scales (plot, field and river catchment scale), to provide high resolution evidence to support catchment characterisations (which identify "hot spots") and the spatial targeting of mitigation measures aimed at diffuse pollution control. In the absence of such frameworks, comparing existing data from disparate projects represents a starting point for assessing scaling issues. The emerging evidence base is increasingly underscoring the importance of tramline wheelings as sources and pathways for diffuse pollution loss to the edge of cereal fields. Recent UK research has demonstrated that these compacted, unvegetated areas (which are used as markers in spraying operations) can account for over 80% of surface losses of runoff, sediment and phosphorus to edge-of-field. Current government and industry-funded projects are now exploring a range of novel practical land management techniques to minimise these field-scale losses. However, given the mitigating role of field headlands and boundaries, and riparian buffer strips in limiting connectivity and delivery to water bodies, it has not been clear whether such losses represent an important element of the net pollutant load reaching catchment outlets. Such scaling issues represent an

  13. Soils as sinks or sources for diffuse pollution of the water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Numerous chemical compounds have been released into the environment by human activities and can nowadays be found everywhere, i.e. in the compartments water, soil, and air, at the poles and in high mountains. Examples for a global distribution of toxic compounds are the persistent organic pollutants (PCB, dioxins, PAH, fluorinated surfactants and flame retardants, etc.: "the Stockholm dirty dozen") but also mercury and other metals. Many of these compounds reached a global distribution via the atmo¬sphere; others have been and are still directly applied to top soils at the large scale by agriculture or are released into groundwater at landfill sites or by discharge of treated or untreated waste waters. Sooner or later such compounds end up in the water cycle - often via an intermediate storage in soils. Pollutants in soils are leached by seepage waters, transferred to ground¬water, and transported to rivers via groundwater flow. Adsorbed compounds may be transported from soils into surface waters by erosion processes and will end up in the sediments. Diffuse pollution of the subsurface environment not only reflects the history of the economic development of the modern society but it is still ongoing - e.g. the number of organic pollutants released into the environment is increasing even though the con¬centrations may decrease compared to the past. Evidence shows that many compounds are persistent in the subsurface environment at large time scales (up to centuries). Thus polluted soils already are or may become a future source for pollution of adjacent compartments such as the atmosphere and groundwater. A profound understanding on how diffuse pollutants are stored and processed in the subsurface environment is crucial to assess their long term fate and transport at large scales. Thus integrated studies e.g. at the catchment scale and models are needed which couple not only the relevant compartments (soil - atmosphere - groundwater/surface waters) but also flow

  14. Management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Water quality in China shows an overall trend of deterioration in recent years. Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and rural regions is the leading source of water pollution. The agricultural nonpoint source pollutants are mainly from fertilization of cropland, excessive livestock and poultry breeding and undefined disposal of daily living wastes in rural areas. Agricultural nonpoint sources contribute the main source of pollution to most watersheds in China, but they are ignored in management strategy and policy. Due to the lack of full understanding of water pollution control and management and the lack of perfect water quality standard systems and practical legislative regulations, agricultural nonpoint source pollution will become one of the biggest challenges to the sustainable development of rural areas and to society as a whole. The system for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control in China should include an appropriate legislation and policy framework, financing mechanisms, monitoring system, and technical guidelines and standards. The management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution requires multidisciplinary approaches that will involve a range of government departments, institutions and the public. PMID:16594318

  15. Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Porto, Antonio Lo

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The

  16. Agricultural land use and best management practices to control nonpoint water pollution.

    PubMed

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Lo Porto, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The

  17. Importance of diffuse pollution control in the Patzcuaro Lake Basin in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carro, Marco Mijangos; Dávila, Jorge Izurieta; Balandra, Antonieta Gómez; López, Rubén Hernández; Delgadillo, Rubén Huerto; Chávez, Javier Sánchez; Inclán, Luís Bravo

    2008-01-01

    In the catchment area of the Lake Patzcuaro in Central Mexico (933 km2) the apportionments of erosion, sediment, nutrients and pathogen coming from thirteen micro basins were estimated with the purpose of identifying critical areas in which best management practices need to be implemented in order to reduce their contribution to the lake pollution and eutrophication. The ArcView Generalized Watershed Loading Functions model (AV-GWLF) was applied to estimate the loads and sources of nutrients. The main results show that the total annual contribution of nitrogen from point sources were 491 tons and from diffuse pollution 2,065 tons, whereas phosphorus loads where 116 and 236 tons, respectively during a thirty year simulation period. Micro basins with predominant agricultural and animal farm land use (56% of the total area) accounts for a high percentage of nitrogen load 33% and phosphorus 52%. On the other hand, Patzcuaro and Quiroga micro basins which comprise approximately 10% of the total catchment area and are the most populated and visited towns by tourist 686,000 people every year, both contributes with 10.1% of the total nitrogen load and 3.2% of phosphorus. In terms of point sources of nitrogen and phosphorus the last towns contribute with 23.5% and 26.6% respectively. Under this situation the adoption of best management practices are an imperative task since the sedimentation and pollution in the lake has increased dramatically in the last twenty years. PMID:19092194

  18. The impact of land management in agricultural catchments on groundwater pollution levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysik, Magdalena

    2014-10-01

    Agricultural activity results in water pollution from nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Increased concentrations of nitrogen compounds pose a threat to animal and human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of agriculture in a catchment basin on the level of groundwater pollution from biogenic compounds. Spatial analysis of the land cover was conducted using a GIS and was based on data from the Corine Land Cover databases.

  19. OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION FROM AGRICULTURE: AN APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is a major source of water quality impairment. When considering responses to non-point source pollution, several policy options have been considered historically, including reducing inputs (e.g. fertilizers) altering technologies on the landscape (e.g. conserv...

  20. Managing Our Environment, A Report on Ways Agricultural Research Fights Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A report on the ways agricultural research attempts to fight pollution is presented in this series of articles covering some of the major challenges facing scientists and regulatory officials working in agricultural research. Improved resource management is stressed with the use of advanced technologies as the avenue to solving environmental…

  1. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on agriculture: an annotated bibliography. Staff report

    SciTech Connect

    Barse, J.R.; Ferguson, W.; Whetzel, V.

    1985-10-01

    Ozone and sulfur dioxide-gaseous air pollutants--can reduce the yields of key agricultural crops such as soybeans, corn, wheat, citrus fruit, cotton, and peanuts by interfering with plant photosynthesis. In general, the greater the pollutant concentration, the greater the yield reduction. Based on this biological evidence, economists are now estimating dollar impacts of ozone pollution on agriculture. By contrast, evidence on the biological impacts of acid rain on crops, soils, and forests is much less clear, often ambiguous. Some acid rain impacts can be favorable, because rainfall acids contain nitrogen and sulfur--major plant nutrients.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES FOR AGRICULTURAL FEEDLOT POLLUTION DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research effort was directed toward the application of remote sensing techniques to the detection and monitoring of pollution from cattle feeding operations. Five livestock feeding operations were selected for the study along the James River from Huron to Redfield, South Dak...

  3. GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: NON-AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE USERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide provides an overview of non-agricultural pesticide se and presents options for minimizing waste through source-reduction and recycling. onagricultural pesticide users are defined as lawn garden; forestry, tree and shrub; sanitary; structural; nursery; and greenhouse pe...

  4. The Challenge for Change in Rural Chile; A Study on Diffusion and Adoption of Agricultural Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menanteau-Horta, Dario

    Purposes of the study were (1) to present some of the problems of the organizational structure of Chilean agriculture, and (2) to explore some of the factors related to diffusion and adoption of agricultural practices as aspects of social and technological change and development. Two central factors considered in the research problem were (1)…

  5. Effects of atmospheric pollutants on forests, wetlands, and agricultural ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Meema, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book reports on the knowledge of the sensitivities and responses of forests, wetlands and crops to airborne pollutants. Pollutants examined include: acidic depositions, heavy metal particulates, sulphur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, acid fogs, and mixtures of these. Various types of ecosystem stresses and physiological mechanisms pertinent to acid deposition are also discussed. Related subjects, such as the effects of ethylene on vegetation, the physiology of drought in trees, the ability of soils to generate acidity naturally, the role of Sphagnum moss in natural peatland acidity, the use of lichens as indicators of changing air quality, and the magnitude of natural emissions of reduced sulphur gases from tropical rainforests and temperate deciduous forests, are covered.

  6. Design and Calibration of an Organic Diffusive Probe to Extend the Diffusion Gradient Technique to Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, Antonina; Sani, Daniela; Ruello, Maria Letizia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for measuring the mobility of persistent organic pollutants in the solid phase of soils within the context of environmental pollution risk assessment. A new diffusive probe, purposely designed by adapting the diffusive gradient technique method, measures labile organic species by immobilizing them after diffusion through a thin deionized water layer. The measure of the mass accumulated is used to calculate the flow of pollutant from solid phase to pore water. Naphthalene was chosen as a model persistent organic pollutant. The probe was calibrated at different temperatures and was then tested in several microcosms at different porosity and reactivities with naphthalene (one clay soil, two sandy soils and one natural soil). The probe response showed good agreement with the expected different abilities of the solid phases in restoring the solution phase. The concentration of naphthalene in the pore water was well buffered by rapid equilibria with the solid phase in the investigated natural soil. In contrast, pore water concentration in the sandy soils decreased rapidly and the flow was slackened, especially for the sandy soil with finer particles. In clay, only a fraction of the total naphthalene content was present in the labile fraction, while the remaining was tightly bound and was not released to the pore water. Therefore, this first stage of testing points out that the diffusive gradient technique, if optimized, can properly quantify the mobility of organic pollutants in soil. PMID:21909309

  7. Identifying diffused nitrate sources in a stream in an agricultural field using a dual isotopic approach.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jingtao; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; He, Liansheng; Liu, Hongliang; Dai, Xuanli; Yu, Yijun

    2014-06-15

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) pollution is a severe problem in aquatic systems in Taihu Lake Basin in China. A dual isotope approach (δ(15)NNO3(-) and δ(18)ONO3(-)) was applied to identify diffused NO3(-) inputs in a stream in an agricultural field at the basin in 2013. The site-specific isotopic characteristics of five NO3(-) sources (atmospheric deposition, AD; NO3(-) derived from soil organic matter nitrification, NS; NO3(-) derived from chemical fertilizer nitrification, NF; groundwater, GW; and manure and sewage, M&S) were identified. NO3(-) concentrations in the stream during the rainy season [mean±standard deviation (SD)=2.5±0.4mg/L] were lower than those during the dry season (mean±SD=4.0±0.5mg/L), whereas the δ(18)ONO3(-) values during the rainy season (mean±SD=+12.3±3.6‰) were higher than those during the dry season (mean±SD=+0.9±1.9‰). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that mixing with atmospheric NO3(-) resulted in the high δ(18)O values during the rainy season, whereas NS and M&S were the dominant NO3(-) sources during the dry season. A Bayesian model was used to determine the contribution of each NO3(-) source to total stream NO3(-). Results showed that reduced N nitrification in soil zones (including soil organic matter and fertilizer) was the main NO3(-) source throughout the year. M&S contributed more NO3(-) during the dry season (22.4%) than during the rainy season (17.8%). AD generated substantial amounts of NO3(-) in May (18.4%), June (29.8%), and July (24.5%). With the assessment of temporal variation of diffused NO3(-) sources in agricultural field, improved agricultural management practices can be implemented to protect the water resource and avoid further water quality deterioration in Taihu Lake Basin. PMID:24686140

  8. Vulnerability and risk evaluation of agricultural nitrogen pollution for Hungary's main aquifer using DRASTIC and GLEAMS models.

    PubMed

    Leone, A; Ripa, M N; Uricchio, V; Deák, J; Vargay, Z

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, the significant improvement in point source depuration technologies has highlighted problems regarding, in particular, phosphorus and nitrogen pollution of surface and groundwater caused by agricultural non-point (diffuse) sources (NPS). Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the relationship between agriculture and chemical and ecological water quality. This is a worldwide problem, but it is particularly relevant in countries, such as Hungary, that have recently become members of the European Community. The Italian Foreign Ministry has financed the PECO (Eastern Europe Countries Project) projects, amongst which is the project that led to the present paper, aimed at agricultural sustainability in Hungary, from the point of view of NPS. Specifically, the aim of the present work has been to study nitrates in Hungary's main aquifer. This study compares a model showing aquifer intrinsic vulnerability to pollution (using the DRASTIC parameter method; Aller et al. [Aller, L., Truman, B., Leher, J.H., Petty, R.J., 1986. DRASTIC: A Standardized System for Evaluating Ground Water Pollution Potential Using Hydrogeologic Settings. US NTIS, Springfield, VA.]) with a field-scale model (GLEAMS; Knisel [Knisel, W.G. (Ed.), 1993. GLEAMS--Groudwater Leaching Effects of Agricultural Management Systems, Version 3.10. University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experimental Station, Tifton, GA.]) developed to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems within and through the plant root zone. Specifically, GLEAMS calculates nitrate nitrogen lost by runoff, sediment and leachate. Groundwater monitoring probes were constructed for the project to measure: (i) nitrate content in monitored wells; (ii) tritium (3H) hydrogen radioisotope, as a tool to estimate the recharge conditions of the shallow groundwater; (iii) nitrogen isotope ratio delta15N, since nitrogen of organic and inorganic origin can easily be distinguished. The results obtained are satisfactory

  9. Effects of Agricultural Pollutants on Competition Between Filter-Feeding Caddis Flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, D. A.; Watzin, M. C.

    2005-05-01

    The effects of agricultural pollutants on competition between lotic macroinvertebrates are largely unstudied. We investigated how agricultural pollution affects competition between larvae of two caddis flies, Hydropsyche spp. and Brachycentrus appalachia. Month-long laboratory experiments were conducted in recirculating stream microcosms at two levels of Hydropsyche abundance: low density (80 Hydropsyche and 40 Brachycentrus per tank) and high density (300 Hydropsyche and 40 Brachycentrus). Experimental factors tested were agricultural pollutant addition (cow manure compost and sand) versus control tanks and taxon combination (Hydropsyche only, Brachycentrus only, and both taxa). In high-density experiments, mortality and drift of Hydropsyche were higher in agricultural tanks than in controls and more Brachycentrus drifted in tanks with Hydropsyche present. In low-density experiments, mortality of Brachycentrus was higher in tanks with Hydropsyche present. In both high and low-density experiments,Brachycentrus had lower mean condition (as measured by body-length residuals) in the presence ofHydropsyche, although these differences were only statistically significant in the high-density experiment. No difference in condition was observed for Hydropsyche at either density. Our results provide evidence of both competition between Hydropsyche and Brachycentrus and direct effects of pollutant addition, but the pollution effects did not alter the competitive interactions between the two species.

  10. Landscape Planning for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction I: A Geographical Allocation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebel, Matthew W.; Maxted, Jeffrey T.; Nowak, Peter J.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution remains a persistent environmental problem, despite the large amount of money that has been spent on its abatement. At local scales, agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been shown to be effective at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to surface waters. However, these effects have rarely been found to act in concert to produce measurable, broad-scale improvements in water quality. We investigated potential causes for this failure through an effort to develop recommendations for the use of riparian buffers in addressing nonpoint source pollution in Wisconsin. We used frequency distributions of phosphorus pollution at two spatial scales (watershed and field), along with typical stream phosphorus (P) concentration variability, to simulate benefit/cost curves for four approaches to geographically allocating conservation effort. The approaches differ in two ways: (1) whether effort is aggregated within certain watersheds or distributed without regard to watershed boundaries (dispersed), and (2) whether effort is targeted toward the most highly P-polluting fields or is distributed randomly with regard to field-scale P pollution levels. In realistic implementation scenarios, the aggregated and targeted approach most efficiently improves water quality. For example, with effort on only 10% of a model landscape, 26% of the total P load is retained and 25% of watersheds significantly improve. Our results indicate that agricultural conservation can be more efficient if it accounts for the uneven spatial distribution of potential pollution sources and the cumulative aspects of environmental benefits.

  11. Science in the clouds: UAVs and cloud computing methods for spatial diffuse pollution risk assessment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaney, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    The processes related to diffuse pollution can be understood within a 'source -> mobilisation -> pathway -> impact' framework. Recently our ability to monitor the impact section of this framework has significantly increased. This has been achieved through the measurement of flow and water quality (e.g. Nitrogen and Phosphorus) on a continuous 10 minute basis. However, our ability to observe and understand the 'source', 'mobilisation' and 'pathway' sections has not progressed at the same rate. This lack of information of the source term is due to the larger spatial areas involved and the difficulty in performing repeat surveys. Within an agricultural catchment, there are two key, temporally dynamic factors that affect the diffuse pollution export [source-mobilisation-pathway]: 1. vegetation cover and 2. agricultural management. These factors influence the amount of bare soil, vulnerable to erosion (source) and the creation of flow pathways, for example, due to tractor wheelings (tram lines). Information on these factors could be acquired through the use of satellite remote sensing or light aircraft based aerial photography. However, to acquire images on a fine temporal scale (monthly) there are significant cost and practical barriers (e.g. cloud cover). A potential solution to the problem could be the use of small semi- autonomous helicopters (UAV) and is the approach that has been investigated in this research. The UAV helicopter that has been used in this research is a Microdrones MD4-200 and is capable of autonomously flying a pre-programmed route and acquiring images at set locations at heights of up to 120 metres. The use of the pre-programmed routes enables the acquisition of repeat images at the same locations. These images contain information on the vegetation cover that can be extracted with the use of standard image processing techniques. However, the images also contain a large amount of implicit information that may help to explain water quality trends

  12. Should pollution reductions count as productivity gains for agriculture?

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.K.

    1998-08-01

    Productivity changes have been used to gauge economic performance for at least fifty years. Because productivity measures have been so closely linked to changes in living standards, it is natural to ask whether net increases in marketed outputs are the only things that should count as gains to the standard of living. The articles by Faere and Grosskopf (FG) and Gollop and Swinand (GS) consider several different technical aspects of addressing this question. The purpose of this article is to comment on their proposals. Both articles implicitly accept the notion that changes in commodities that are not available in markets should be considered in evaluating performance. Faere and Grosskopf focus on how they should be valued in the productivity indexes, while Gollop and Swinand define conditions when pollution reductions can be allowed to count. The best overall summary of this comment on both papers repeat an overworked phrase--the devil is in the details.

  13. A GIS-based approach for spatial analysis of agricultural nitrogen pollution and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liping; Liu, Weidong; Sun, Lin; Qin, Zhihao

    2009-10-01

    Agricultural pollution, which has a direct impact on the water, soil and air quality, is a common but increasingly serious environmental problem nowadays. The misusage of fertilizer, high application fertilizer and low utilization rate, are the major factors of the pollution. Therefore, the pollution caused by nitrate nitrogen has posed a very serious problem to the ecological environment. Combined with the GIS technology, this paper takes Majiang County in Guizhou province that is at southwest of China as a case, to carry out the research on the calculation of the nitrogen surplus in paddy field and the dry land based on the farmland nutrient balance model using the fertilizer amount. This paper reveals the spatial distribution characteristic of the nitrogen pollution, which can help to find a reasonable crop cultivation and fertilization methods to increase the effective utilization fertilization and therefore reduce the pollution.

  14. Potential risks of nitrate pollution in aquifers from agricultural practices in the Nurra region, northwestern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Barbieri, Giulio; Vernier, Antonio; Carletti, Alberto; Demurtas, Nicola; Pinna, Rosanna; Pittalis, Daniele

    2009-12-01

    SummaryThe paper describes the methodological and innovative approach, which aims to evaluate the potential risk of nitrate pollution in aquifers from agricultural practices by combining intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to contamination, according to the SINTACS R5 method, with agricultural nitrates hazard assessment, according to the IPNOA index. The proposed parametric model adopts a geographically based integrated evaluation system, comprising qualitative and semi-quantitative indicators. In some cases, the authors have modified this model, revising and adjusting scores and weights of the parameter to account for the different environmental conditions, and calibrating accordingly. The method has been successfully implemented and validated in the pilot area of the Alghero coastal plain (northwestern Sardinia, Italy) where aquifers with high productivity are present. The classes with a major score (high potential risk) are in the central part of the plain, in correspondence with the most productive aquifers, where most actual or potential pollution sources are concentrated. These are mainly represented by intensive agricultural activities, by industrial agglomerate and diffused urbanisation. For calibrating the model and optimizing and/or weighting the examined factors, the modelling results were validated by comparison with groundwater quality data, in particular nitrate content, and with the potential pollution sources census data. The parametric method is a popular approach to groundwater vulnerability assessment, in contrast to groundwater flow model and statistical method ones: it is, indeed, relatively inexpensive and straightforward, and use data commonly available or that can be estimated. The zoning of nitrate vulnerable areas provides regional authorities with a useful decision support tool for planning land-use properly managing groundwater and combating and/or mitigating desertification processes. However, a careful validation of the results is

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of agricultural N-heterocyclic organic pollutants using immobilized nanoparticles of titania.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Arami, Mokhtar; Limaee, Nargess Yousefi; Gharanjig, Kamaladin

    2007-06-25

    Degradation and mineralization of two agricultural organic pollutants (Diazinon and Imidacloprid as N-heterocyclic aromatics) in aqueous solution by nanophotocatalysis using immobilized titania nanoparticles were investigated. Insecticides, Diazinon and Imidacloprid, are persistent pollutants in agricultural soil and watercourses. A simple and effective method was developed to immobilization of titania nanoparticles. UV-vis, ion chromatography (IC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyses were employed. The effects of operational parameters such as H(2)O(2) and inorganic anions (NO(3)(-), Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-)) were investigated. The mineralization of Diazinon and Imidacloprid was evaluated by monitoring of the formed inorganic anions. The selected pollutants are effectively degraded following first order kinetics model. Results show that the nanophotocatalysis using immobilized titania nanoparticle is an effective method for treatment Diazinon and Imidacloprid from contaminated water. PMID:17145132

  16. GIS-based source identification and apportionment of diffuse water pollution: perfluorinated compound pollution in the Tokyo Bay basin.

    PubMed

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2011-11-01

    To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse water pollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that was extracted from a constructed GIS database. The spatially distributed pollution factors were then explored by multiple linear regression analysis, after which they were visually expressed using GIS. Among the 35 PFC homologues measured in a survey of the Tokyo Bay basin, 18 homologues were analyzed. Pollution by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was explained well by the percentage of arterial traffic area in the basin, and the 84% variance of the measured PFOS concentration was explained by two geographic variables, arterial traffic area and population. Source apportionment between point and nonpoint sources was conducted based on the results of the analysis. The contribution of PFOS from nonpoint sources was comparable to that from point sources in several major rivers flowing into Tokyo Bay. Source identification and apportionment using the GIS-based approach was shown to be effective, especially for ubiquitous types of pollution, such as PFC pollution. PMID:21885084

  17. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production. PMID:21546665

  18. Evaluating mitigation measures for diffuse pollution across time and space (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, J.; Deasy, C.

    2010-12-01

    National governments around the world are placing greater emphasis on reducing diffuse sources of pollutants. This has shifted attention away from end of pipe solutions to clearly identifiable pollutant problems, to catchment-wide interventions using tools that are often poorly understood and which may produce unexpected outcomes. Variability and lags in the temporal and spatial pollutant signal, complex behaviour affecting the mitigation process, and difficulties in gaining sufficient data for robust statistical analysis all lead to uncertainty in the results of mitigation trials. Nethertheless, pressure from policy makers forces scientists to make recommendations on the implementation of mitigation measures and their location within a watershed The diffuse pollution control issue becomes increasingly complicated as multiple diffuse pollutants are often present, and while mitigation measures may address one set of pollutants, interventions may increase problems associated with others and lead to ‘pollution swapping’ These issues become even more complex, as good water quality is only one of the services demanded from the watershed, and other land use pressures, including productivity, flood storage and biodiversity must also be considered. In this paper we explore these themes, making use of data and experiences gained from the Mitigation of Phosphorus and Sediment Project (funded by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs).

  19. Effects of agricultural, industrial, and municipal pollutants on wetlands and wildlife and wildlife health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Kathryn A.

    1995-01-01

    Wetlands accumulate pollutants from adjacent areas through intentional discharge of sewage or industrial wastes, runoff of agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, and discharge from municipal storm drains.  Coastal wetlands receive more pollutants indirectly as the endpoint for upland drainage systems and directly through petroleum spills and insect abatement.  Wetlands that serve as evaporation basins during seasonally high water, especially in more arid climates, concentrate natural compounds and as well as pollutants.  The ability of wetlands to be effective filtration systems for wastewater nutrients through microbial transformations, uptake by plants, and deposition of particulate matter, and the shortage of water in arid climates has resulted in revision of wetland regulations.  Wetlands can now be developed for wastewater treatment and natural wetlands can be restored or converted to wastewater treatment systems.  The effect of these accumulation pollutants on wetland ecology and wildlife health needs to be recognized.

  20. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  1. Evaluation of groundwater pollution risk (GPR) from agricultural activities using DRASTIC model and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Ariffin, Sabrina; Zawawi, Mohamed Azwan Mohamed; Che Man, Hasfalina

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater Pollution risk (GPR) map which utilized groundwater quality is important in order to prevent the groundwater contaminant concentration due to the agricultural activities. DRASTIC model and GIS application are two important tools that had been used for accessing and predicting the quality of groundwater. These supplementary tools are calculating, visualizing, and presenting the GPR by using DRASTIC index for each hydrogeologic factor through ArcGIS software. This study was covered approximately Selangor basin area where the GPR has been defined. There are four categories of agricultural activities in the Selangor basin which are animal husbandary areas, horticultural lands, short term crops and tree, palm and other permanent crops. The map showed that the “low” zones of GPR occupied 56% of the east side of the Selangor basin, 34% of the west side of the Selangor basin exposed to “medium” zones of GPR and the “high” zones of GPR covered 10% at the north side and the south to the west side of the Selangor basin. As a particular, for agricultural activities which is 52% of Selangor basin area, the “low”, ‘’medium” and “high” zones of GPR was occupied as 42%, 43% and 15% respectively. Based on four categories of agricultural landuse, GPR map validated by nitrate distribution map, shows that the 99% of the variation in nitrate distribution zones are explained by GPR zones. In conclusion, groundwater pollution risk was affected by agricultural activities.

  2. A study of atmospheric diffusion from the LANDSAT imagery. [pollution transport over the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Viswanadham, Y.; Torsani, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT multispectral scanner data of the smoke plumes which originated in eastern Cabo Frio, Brazil and crossed over into the Atlantic Ocean, are analyzed to illustrate how high resolution LANDSAT imagery can aid meteorologists in evaluating specific air pollution events. The eleven LANDSAT images selected are for different months and years. The results show that diffusion is governed primarily by water and air temperature differences. With colder water, low level air is very stable and the vertical diffusion is minimal; but water warmer than the air induces vigorous diffusion. The applicability of three empirical methods for determining the horizontal eddy diffusivity coefficient in the Gaussian plume formula was evaluated with the estimated standard deviation of the crosswind distribution of material in the plume from the LANDSAT imagery. The vertical diffusion coefficient in stable conditions is estimated using Weinstock's formulation. These results form a data base for use in the development and validation of meso scale atmospheric diffusion models.

  3. Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations in Fertilizer-Related Agricultural Production Technology in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Kerry J.

    This monograph reviews a wide range of research literature on the diffusion and adoption of innovations in agricultural production technology in the developing countries, with particular emphasis on the practice of using commercially purchased, inorganic fertilizer as a source of plant nutrients. It is intended that the report's documentation of…

  4. Arsenic pollution of agricultural soils by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueping; Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Hu, Erdan; Xie, Xiande; Wang, Lingling; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-01-01

    Animal wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can cause soil arsenic pollution due to the widespread use of organoarsenic feed additives. This study investigated the arsenic pollution of surface soils in a typical CAFO zone, in comparison with that of agricultural soils in the Pearl River Delta, China. The mean soil arsenic contents in the CAFO zone were elevated compared to those in the local background and agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta region. Chemical speciation analysis showed that the soils in the CAFO zone were clearly contaminated by the organoarsenic feed additive, p-arsanilic acid (ASA). Transformation of ASA to inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in the surface soils was also observed. Although the potential ecological risk posed by the arsenic in the surface soils was relatively low in the CAFO zone, continuous discharge of organoarsenic feed additives could cause accumulation of arsenic and thus deserves significant attention. PMID:25036941

  5. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (~78%) and nutrients (~30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  6. Soil enzyme activities as affected by anthropogenic alterations: intensive agricultural practices and organic pollution.

    PubMed

    Gianfreda, Liliana; Antonietta Rao, Maria; Piotrowska, Anna; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Colombo, Claudio

    2005-04-01

    The activity of a range of enzymes related to the cycling of the main biologically important nutrients C, N, P and S was investigated in cultivated and non-cultivated soils from various parts of Europe. Two agricultural sites from North Italy under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) with and without organic fertilization were compared. Two other agricultural sites from South Italy under hazel (Corylus avellana L.) never flooded or repeatedly flooded over by uncontrolled urban and industrial wastes were investigated. The non-cultivated soils were from Middle and South Europe with different pollution history such as no-pollution and pollution with organic contaminants, which is phenanthrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Agricultural soils showed significant differences in some of physical-chemical properties (i.e. organic C, total and labile phosphate contents, available Ca and Mg) between the two sites studied. Enzyme activities of hazel sites periodically flooded by wastes were mainly higher than in the hazel sites never flooded. Sites under many years of continuous corn showed dehydrogenase, invertase, arylsulphatase and beta-glucosidase activities generally lower than the soils under hazel either flooded or not by wastes. As compared to agricultural soils, non-cultivated soils heavily or moderately polluted by organic contaminants displayed much lower values or complete absence of enzymatic activities. Dissimilar, contradictory correlations between soil enzyme activities and the majority of soil properties were observed separately in the two groups of soils. When the whole set of enzyme activities and soil properties were considered, all significant correlations found separately for the groups of soils were lost. The overall results seem to confirm that no direct cause-effect relationships can be derived between the changes of a soil in response to a given factor and both the variations of the activity and the behaviour of the enzymes in soil

  7. Identifying hydrologically sensitive areas using LiDAR DEMs to mitigate critical source areas of diffuse pollution: development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Ian; Jordan, Phil; Mellander, Per-Erik; Fenton, Owen; Shine, Oliver; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.; Creamer, Rachel; McDonald, Noeleen; Dunlop, Paul; Murphy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Identifying critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments requires the accurate identification of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest propensity for generating surface runoff and transporting pollutants such as phosphorus (P). A new GIS-based HSA Index is presented that identifies HSAs at the sub-field scale. It uses a soil topographic index (STI) and accounts for the hydrological disconnection of overland flow via topographic impediment from flow sinks such as hedgerows and depressions. High resolution (0.25-2 m) LiDAR Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are utilised to capture these microtopographic controls on flow pathways and hydrological connectivity. The HSA Index was applied to four agricultural catchments (~7.5-12 km2) with contrasting topography and soil types. Catchment HSA sizes were estimated using high resolution rainfall-quickflow measurements during saturated winter storm events in 2009-2014, and mapped using the HSA Index. HSA sizes ranged from 1.6-3.4% of the catchment area during median storm events and 2.9-8.5% during upper quartile events depending on whether well or poorly drained soils dominated, which validated HSA Index value distributions. Total flow sink volume capacities ranged from 8,298-59,584 m3 and caused 8.5-24.2% of overland-flow-generating-areas and 16.8-33.4% of catchment areas to become hydrologically disconnected from the open drainage channel network. HSA maps identified 'delivery points' along surface runoff pathways where transported pollutants such as P are delivered to the open drainage network. Using these as proposed locations for targeting mitigation measures such as riparian buffer strips (RBS) reduced costs compared to blanket implementation within an example agri-environment scheme by 66% and 91% over 1 and 5 years respectively, which included LiDAR DEM acquisition costs. Considering that HSAs are often the dominant P CSA factor in agricultural catchments and can override

  8. Evaluating agricultural nonpoint-source pollution programs in two Lake Erie tributaries.

    PubMed

    Forster, D Lynn; Rausch, Jonathan N

    2002-01-01

    During the past three decades, numerous government programs have encouraged Lake Erie basin farmers to adopt practices that reduce water pollution. The first section of this paper summarizes these state and federal government agricultural pollution abatement programs in watersheds of two prominent Lake Erie tributaries, the Maumee River and Sandusky River. Expenditures are summarized for each program, total expenditures in each county are estimated, and cost effectiveness of program expenditures (i.e., cost per metric ton of soil saved) are analyzed. Farmers received nearly $143 million as incentive payments to implement agricultural nonpoint source pollution abatement programs in the Maumee and Sandusky River watersheds from 1987 to 1997. About 95% of these funds was from federal sources. On average, these payments totaled about $7000 per farm or about $30 per farm acre (annualized equivalent of $2 per acre) within the watersheds. Our analysis raises questions about how efficiently these incentive payments were allocated. The majority of Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) funds appear to have been spent on less cost-effective practices. Also, geographic areas with relatively low (high) soil erosion rates received relatively large (small) funding. PMID:11837427

  9. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. PMID:26998602

  10. Optimization of typical diffuse herbicide pollution control by soil amendment configurations under four levels of rainfall intensities.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Weijia; Wei, Peng; Hao, Fanghua; Yu, Yongyong

    2016-06-15

    Herbicides are a main source of agricultural diffuse pollution due to their wide application in tillage practices. The aim of this study is to optimize the control efficiency of the herbicide atrazine with the aid of modified soil amendments. The soil amendments were composed of a combination of biochar and gravel. The biochar was created from corn straw with a catalytic pyrolysis of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. The leaching experiments under four rainfall conditions were measured for the following designs: raw soil, soil amended with gravel, biochar individually and together with gravel. The control efficiency of each design was also identified. With the designed equipment, the atrazine content in the contaminant load layer, gravel substrate layer, biochar amendment layer and soil layer was measured under four types of rainfall intensities (1.25 mm/h, 2.50 mm/h, 5.00 mm/h and 10.00 mm/h). Furthermore, the vertical distribution of atrazine in the soil sections was also monitored. The results showed that the herbicide leaching load increased under the highest rainfall intensity in all designs. The soil with the combination of gravel and biochar provided the highest control efficiency of 87.85% on atrazine when the additional proportion of biochar was 3.0%. The performance assessment under the four kinds of rainfall intensity conditions provided the guideline for the soil amendment configuration. The combination of gravel and biochar is recommended as an efficient method for controlling diffuse herbicide pollution. PMID:27017267

  11. Typical agricultural diffuse herbicide sorption with agricultural waste-derived biochars amended soil of high organic matter content.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Zhao, Xuchen; Tysklind, Mats; Hao, Fanghua

    2016-04-01

    Biochar application has been identified as the effective soil amendment and the materials to control the diffuse herbicide pollution. The atrazine was selected as the typical diffuse herbicide pollutant as the dominant proportion in applications. The biochar treated from four types of crops biomass were added to soil with high organic matter content. The basic sorption characteristics of biocahrs from corn cob (CC), corn stalk (CS), soybean straw (SS), rice straw (RS) and corn stalk paralyzed with 5% of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ACS) were analyzed, along with the comparison of the sorption difference of the raw soil and soil amended with biochars at four levels of ratio (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%). It was found that the linear distribution isotherm of raw soil was much effective due to the high organic matter background concentration. The addition of five types of biochars under two kinds of initial atrazine concentration (1 mg/L and 20 mg/L) demonstrated the sorption variances. Results showed the soil amended with RS and CS biochar had the biggest removal rate in four regular biochars and the removal rate of the ACS was the biggest. The sorption coefficient and the normalized sorption coefficient from Freundlich modeling presented the isothermal sorption characteristics of atrazine with soil of high organic matter content. The normalized sorption coefficient increased with the equilibrium concentration decreased in the biochar amended soil, which indicated the sorption performance will be better due to the low atrazine concentration in practice. Results showed that biochar amendment is the effective way to prevent leakage of diffuse herbicide loss. PMID:26852289

  12. Setting priorities for research on pollution reduction functions of agricultural buffers.

    PubMed

    Dosskey, Michael G

    2002-11-01

    The success of buffer installation initiatives and programs to reduce nonpoint source pollution of streams on agricultural lands will depend the ability of local planners to locate and design buffers for specific circumstances with substantial and predictable results. Current predictive capabilities are inadequate, and major sources of uncertainty remain. An assessment of these uncertainties cautions that there is greater risk of overestimating buffer impact than underestimating it. Priorities for future research are proposed that will lead more quickly to major advances in predictive capabilities. Highest priority is given for work on the surface runoff filtration function, which is almost universally important to the amount of pollution reduction expected from buffer installation and for which there remain major sources of uncertainty for predicting level of impact. Foremost uncertainties surround the extent and consequences of runoff flow concentration and pollutant accumulation. Other buffer functions, including filtration of groundwater nitrate and stabilization of channel erosion sources of sediments, may be important in some regions. However, uncertainty surrounds our ability to identify and quantify the extent of site conditions where buffer installation can substantially reduce stream pollution in these ways. Deficiencies in predictive models reflect gaps in experimental information as well as technology to account for spatial heterogeneity of pollutant sources, pathways, and buffer capabilities across watersheds. Since completion of a comprehensive watershed-scale buffer model is probably far off, immediate needs call for simpler techniques to gage the probable impacts of buffer installation at local scales. PMID:12375085

  13. A hydro-economic modelling framework for optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Sahuquillo, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    SummaryA hydro-economic modelling framework is developed for determining optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. A holistic optimization model determines the spatial and temporal fertilizer application rate that maximizes the net benefits in agriculture constrained by the quality requirements in groundwater at various control sites. Since emissions (nitrogen loading rates) are what can be controlled, but the concentrations are the policy targets, we need to relate both. Agronomic simulations are used to obtain the nitrate leached, while numerical groundwater flow and solute transport simulation models were used to develop unit source solutions that were assembled into a pollutant concentration response matrix. The integration of the response matrix in the constraints of the management model allows simulating by superposition the evolution of groundwater nitrate concentration over time at different points of interest throughout the aquifer resulting from multiple pollutant sources distributed over time and space. In this way, the modelling framework relates the fertilizer loads with the nitrate concentration at the control sites. The benefits in agriculture were determined through crop prices and crop production functions. This research aims to contribute to the ongoing policy process in the Europe Union (the Water Framework Directive) providing a tool for analyzing the opportunity cost of measures for reducing nitrogen loadings and assessing their effectiveness for maintaining groundwater nitrate concentration within the target levels. The management model was applied to a hypothetical groundwater system. Optimal solutions of fertilizer use to problems with different initial conditions, planning horizons, and recovery times were determined. The illustrative example shows the importance of the location of the pollution sources in relation to the control sites, and how both the selected planning horizon and the target recovery time can

  14. Overcoming agricultural pollution of water: The challenge of integrating agricultural and environmental policies in the European union. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scheierling, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    In an effort to address the particular policy challenges posed by the agriculture/water quality dilemma, this study, focuses on the experience of the European Community (EC), where high levels of nitrate, phosphate, and pesticides in surface and groundwater are a source of increasing concern. Agricultural and water quality-related environmental policies at EC level, as well as national level, are examined, and new policy approaches that try to integrate agricultural and environmental considerations are discussed. This study thus provides insights into policy options for controlling agricultural water pollution, which might be useful in other parts of the world.

  15. Lead Isotopic Tracing of Coal-Based Anthropogenic Pollution in Agricultural Soils in Jianghan Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, J. N.; Ying, S.; Zhao, R.; Bu, J.; Gan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Weiss, D. J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese demand for energy is one of the greatest in the world, and the vast majority of it is generated through coal combustion - a process by which diverse pollutants are released into the atmosphere. Due to the relative proximity of croplands to power plants in much of China, these pollutants can be deposited onto agricultural soils via atmospheric transport. Relative amounts of lead (Pb) isotopes in airborne anthropogenic coal-based contaminants (fly ash) are currently understood. However, contaminants' effects on agricultural soil composition are less clear. We investigate the prevalence of anthropogenic contaminants in cropland soils using lead (Pb) isotope ratios as a tracer. Surface soil samples and deep core samples, taken from Chinese field sites in proximity to a coal combustion plant, undergo an acid extraction process and lead (Pb) isotope concentrations are measured. The results of this study illustrate the extent to which airborne contaminants have entered cropland soils and integrated themselves into the chemical processes at work. They further expand our understanding of the impacts of human coal combustion activities on the biogeochemistry of agricultural soils.

  16. Soil microbial communities as suitable bioindicators of trace metal pollution in agricultural volcanic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parelho, Carolina; dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo; do Carmo Barreto, Maria; Gonçalo Ferreira, Nuno; Garcia, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    Summary: The biological, chemical and physical properties of soil confer unique characteristics that enhance or influence its overall biodiversity. The adaptive character of soil microbial communities (SMCs) to metal pollution allows discriminating soil health, since changes in microbial populations and activities may function as excellent indicators of soil pollutants. Volcanic soils are unique naturally fertile resources, extensively used for agricultural purposes and with particular physicochemical properties that may result in accumulation of toxic substances, such as trace metals (TM). In our previous works, we identified priority TM affecting agricultural Andosols under different agricultural land uses. Within this particular context, the objectives of this study were to (i) assess the effect of soil TM pollution in different agricultural systems (conventional, traditional and organic) on the following soil properties: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, metabolic quotient, enzymatic activities (β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase) and RNA to DNA ratio; and (ii) evaluate the impact of TM in the soil ecosystem using the integrated biomarker response (IBR) based on a set of biochemical responses of SMCs. This multi-biomarker approach will support the development of the "Trace Metal Footprint" for different agricultural land uses in volcanic soils. Methods: The study was conducted in S. Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal). Microbial biomass carbon was measured by chloroform-fumigation-incubation-assay (Vance et al., 1987). Basal respiration was determined by the Jenkinson & Powlson (1976) technique. Metabolic quotient was calculated as the ratio of basal respiration to microbial biomass C (Sparkling & West, 1988). The enzymatic activities of β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase were determined by the Dick et al. (1996) method and dehydrogenase activity by the Rossel et al. (1997) method. The RNA and DNA were co-extracted from the same

  17. Organic pollutant levels in an agricultural watershed: the importance of analyzing multiple matrices for assessing stream water pollution.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Grondona, Sebastían I; Silva Barni, Maria Florencia; Martinez, Daniel E; Peña, Aránzazu

    2013-04-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the occurrence and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Quequén Grande river basin, as representative of a catchment under diffuse pollution sources. Pollutant levels in soils, river bottom sediments (RBS), streamwater (Sw), suspended particle materials (SPMs), macrophytes and muscle of silverside were determined by GC-ECD. Soil K(d) values for the current-used insecticides, endosulfans and cypermethrin, were established. Total levels (ng g(-1) dry weight) in soil ranged between 0.07–0.9 for OCPs, 0.03–0.37 for PCBs and 0.01–0.05 for PBDEs. Endosulfan insecticide (α- + b- + sulfate metabolite) represented up to 72.5% of OCPs. The low soil retention for α-endosulfan (K(d): 77) and endosulfan sulfate (K(d): 100) allows their transport to Sw, SPM and RBS. Levels of endosulfan in Sw in some cases exceeded the value postulated by international guidelines for aquatic biota protection (3 ng L(-1)). PCB and PBDE pollution was related to harbour, dumping sites and pile tire burning. Tri and hexa PCB congeners predominated in all matrices and exceeded the quality guideline value of 0.04 ng L(-1) in Sw. Considering levels in silverside muscle, none of the oral reference doses were exceeded, however, PCBs accounted for 18.6% of the total daily allowed ingest for a 70 kg individual. Although the levels of PCBs and OCPs in soil and RBS were low and did not go beyond quality guidelines, these compounds could still represent a risk to aquatic biota and humanbeings, and thus actions towards preventing this situation should be undertaken. PMID:23653907

  18. Environmental indicators to assess the risk of diffuse Nitrogen losses from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Buczko, Uwe; Kuchenbuch, Rolf O

    2010-05-01

    Diffuse Nitrogen (N) loss from agriculture is a major factor contributing to increased concentrations of nitrate in surface and groundwater, and of N(2)O and NH(3) in the atmosphere. Different approaches to assess diffuse N losses from agriculture have been proposed, among other direct measurements of N loads in leachate and groundwater, and physically-based modelling. However, both these approaches have serious drawbacks and are awkward to use at a routine base. N loss indicators (NLIs) are environmental management tools for assessing the risk of diffuse N losses from agricultural fields. They range in complexity from simple proxy variables to elaborate systems of algebraic equations. Here we present an overview of NLIs developed in different parts of the world. NLIs can be categorized into source-based, transport-based, and composite approaches. Several issues demand more attention in future studies. (1) Is incorporation of leaching losses and gaseous losses into one single NLI warranted? (2) Is it sufficient to restrict the focus on the rooted soil zone without considering the vadose zone and aquifer? (3) Calibration and validation of NLIs using field data of N loss seems not sufficient. Comparisons of several different NLIs with each other needs more attention; however, the different scaling of NLIs impedes comparability. (4) Sensitivity of input parameters with regard to the final NLI output needs more attention in future studies. (5) For environmental management purposes, factors addressing management decision by farmers deserve more attention. PMID:20306042

  19. Diffusion and reaction of pollutants in stratus clouds: application to nocturnal acid formation in plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Seigneur, C.; Saxena, P.; Mirabella, V.A.

    1985-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes the transport, turbulent diffusion, and chemical reactions of air pollutants in stratus clouds. The chemical kinetic mechanism treats 97 gaseous, heterogeneous, and aqueous reactions between 54 species. The dispersion and night-time chemistry of a power plant plume in a stratus cloud is simulated. The contributions of various chemical pathways to the formation of sulfate and nitrate, the differences between plume and background concentrations, and the effect of reduced primary emissions on secondary pollutants are discussed. Calculated sulfate and nitrate concentrations are commensurate with measured atmospheric concentrations.

  20. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, D.M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. Modeling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Using a Geographic Information System Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Lisa A.; Greene, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients, is the leading source of water-quality impacts to surface waters in North America. The overall goal of this study was to develop geographic information system (GIS) protocols to facilitate the spatial and temporal modeling of changes in soils, hydrology, and land-cover change at the watershed scale. In the first part of this article, we describe the use of GIS to spatially integrate watershed scale data on soil erodibility, land use, and runoff for the assessment of potential source areas within an intensively agricultural watershed. The agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) model was used in the Muddy Creek, Ontario, watershed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in decreasing sediment and nutrient [phosphorus (P)] pollution. This analysis was accompanied by the measurement of water-quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, hardness, alkalinity, and turbidity) as well as sediment and P loadings to the creek. Practices aimed at increasing year-round soil cover would be most effective in decreasing sediment and P losses in this watershed. In the second part of this article, we describe a method for characterizing land-cover change in a dynamic urban fringe watershed. The GIS method we developed for the Blackberry Creek, Illinois, watershed will allow us to better account for temporal changes in land use, specifically corn and soybean cover, on an annual basis and to improve on the modeling of watershed processes shown for the Muddy Creek watershed. Our model can be used at different levels of planning with minimal data preprocessing, easily accessible data, and adjustable output scales.

  2. User's Guide for the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) Pollution Model Data Generator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Michael P.; Scheidt, Douglas J.; Jaromack, Gregory M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Throughout this user guide, we refer to datasets that we used in conjunction with developing of this software for supporting cartographic research and producing the datasets to conduct research. However, this software can be used with these datasets or with more 'generic' versions of data of the appropriate type. For example, throughout the guide, we refer to national land cover data (NLCD) and digital elevation model (DEM) data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at a 30-m resolution, but any digital terrain model or land cover data at any appropriate resolution will produce results. Another key point to keep in mind is to use a consistent data resolution for all the datasets per model run. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed the Agricultural Nonpoint Source (AGNPS) pollution model of watershed hydrology in response to the complex problem of managing nonpoint sources of pollution. AGNPS simulates the behavior of runoff, sediment, and nutrient transport from watersheds that have agriculture as their prime use. The model operates on a cell basis and is a distributed parameter, event-based model. The model requires 22 input parameters. Output parameters are grouped primarily by hydrology, sediment, and chemical output (Young and others, 1995.) Elevation, land cover, and soil are the base data from which to extract the 22 input parameters required by the AGNPS. For automatic parameter extraction, follow the general process described in this guide of extraction from the geospatial data through the AGNPS Data Generator to generate input parameters required by the pollution model (Finn and others, 2002.)

  3. Comparative Analysis for Polluted Agricultural Soils with Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Yarto-Ramirez, Mario; Santos-Santos, Elvira; Gavilan-Garcia, Arturo; Castro-Diaz, Jose; Gavilan-Garcia, Irma Cruz; Rosiles, Rene; Suarez, Sara

    2004-03-31

    The use of mercury in Mexico has been associated with the mining industry of Zacatecas. This activity has polluted several areas currently used for agriculture. The main objective of this study was to investigate the heavy metal concentration (Hg, As and Pb) in soil of Guadalupe Zacatecas in order to justify a further environmental risk assessment in the site. A 2X3 km grid was used for the sampling process and 20 soil samples were taken. The analysis was developed using EPA SW 846: 3050B/6010B method for arsenic and metals and EPA SW 846: 7471A for total mercury. It was concluded that there are heavy metals in agricultural soils used for corn and bean farming. For this it is required to make an environmental risk assessment and a bioavailability study in order to determine if there's a risk for heavy metals bioaccumulation in animals or human beings or metal lixiviation to aquifers.

  4. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA. PMID:26392092

  5. Modeling of the sorption and diffusion processes of volatile organic air pollutants in grape fruits.

    PubMed

    Górna-Binkul, A; Kaczmarski, K; Buszewski, B

    2001-06-01

    A mathematical model for the description of the sorption and diffusion processes of gaseous toluene and p-xylene in fruits of grape has been proposed. This model is based on the Fick's II low regarding a particle with a spherical shape (such as the berry of grapevine) and describes changes of air pollutant concentrations in different layers of the fruit, that is, the wax, peel, and pulp, during an exposure to contaminated air. The mass transfer coefficient and diffusion coefficients in the respective layers can be estimated using the experimental values. The theoretical data and the results from the exposure under steady-state laboratory conditions were compared and showed a good applicability of the proposed model for the prediction of volatile air pollutant partitioning in grape berries. PMID:11409983

  6. Characterisation of gaseous and particulate atmospheric pollutants in the East Mediterranean by diffusion denuder sampling lines.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Catrambone, M; Esposito, G; Lahav, D; Mamane, Y

    2009-05-01

    A field study aimed to characterize atmospheric pollutants in the gaseous and the particulate phases was conducted during the fall-winter of 2004 and the summer of 2005 in the Ashdod area, Israel. The site is influenced by both anthropogenic sources (power plants, refineries, chemical and metal industries, a cargo port, road traffic) and natural sources (sea-spray and desert dust). The use of diffusion lines--a series of annular diffusion denuders for sampling gaseous compounds followed by a cyclone and a filter pack for determining PM(2.5) composition--allowed a good daily characterization of the main inorganic compounds in both the gaseous (HCl, HNO(3), SO(2), NH(3)) and the particulate phase (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(=), NH(4)(+), and base cations). During the summer campaign two other activities were added: an intensive 3-h sampling period and the determination of PM(2.5) bulk composition. The results were interpreted on the basis of meteorological condition, especially the mixing properties of the lower atmosphere as determined by monitoring the natural radioactivity due to Radon progeny, a good proxy of the atmospheric ability to dilute pollutants. Several pollution episodes were identified and the predominance of different sources was highlighted (sea-spray, desert dust, secondary photochemical pollutants). During the summer period a considerable increase of nitric acid and particulate sulphate was observed. Secondary inorganic pollutants (nitrate, sulphate and ammonium) constituted, on the average, 57% of the fine particle fraction, organic compounds 20%, primary anthropogenic compounds 14%, natural components (sea-spray and crustal elements) 9%. The advantages of the diffusion lines in determining gaseous and particulate N- and S- inorganic compounds are discussed. PMID:18535917

  7. Potential of the Conservation Reserve Program to control agricultural surface water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lant, Christopher L.

    1991-07-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), initiated by the Conservation Title of the Food Security Act of 1985, is the primary federal program to control nonpointsource pollution in agricultural watersheds of the United States. However, the program is designed primarily to reduce soil erosion rather than to retire croplands in a manner optimal for controlling runoff of sediment and associated pollutants. This study estimates potential enrollment of streamside and floodplain croplands in this ten-year retirement program in order to gauge the potential of the CRP as a water-quality improvement policy. A contingent choice survey design was employed in Fayette County, Illinois, to demonstrate that there is substantial potential for retirement of streamside and floodplain croplands in the CRP. Enrollments in each program climb from less than 6% to over 83% of eligible croplands as the annual rental rate is increased from 20 to 200/acre. Potential retirement of streamside and floodplain croplands declines, however, if tree planting, drainage removal, or a 20-year contract are required. The potential of a CRP-based water-quality program to improve water quality and aquatic ecosystems in agricultural watersheds is thus substantial but constrained by the economic trade-offs that farmers make between crop production and conservation incentives in determining the use of their riparian lands.

  8. Feasibility of point-nonpoint source trading for managing agricultural pollutant loadings to coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchfield, Stephen R.; Letson, David; Malik, Arun S.

    1994-10-01

    A recent focus of water quality policy discussions has been the trading of pollution abatement between point and nonpoint sources. Point-nonpoint trading would allow point sources to sponsor nonpoint source controls rather than install further controls of their own. If nonpoint source loadings are significant and the marginal costs of their control are lower than for additional point source controls, water quality goals could be met at lower cost with trading. We isolate difficulties particular to incentive policies such as point-nonpoint trading and then screen coastal watersheds for those satisfying conditions that play a major role in determining whether trading can improve water quality. We follow the recent Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments in emphasizing agriculture, the single largest cause of nonpoint source pollution. Our screening analysis provides an initial, empirical assessment of the feasibility of trading for managing agricultural land use to protect coastal water quality. We also illustrate the additional analysis required to quantify the potential for successful trading in those watersheds which meet our screening criteria.

  9. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadhira, Vebi; Kurniadi, Deddy; Juliastuti, E.; Sutiswan, Adeline

    2014-03-01

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  10. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    SciTech Connect

    Nadhira, Vebi Kurniadi, Deddy Juliastuti, E. Sutiswan, Adeline

    2014-03-24

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  11. Modelling long-term diffuse nitrate pollution at the catchment-scale: Data, parameter and epistemic uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.; Mathias, S. A.; Worrall, F.; Whelan, M. J.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryA model of catchment-scale nitrate transport is presented for a small, rural headwater basin (Alton Pancras: <10 km 2) in Dorset, UK, for the period 1930-2007. Estimates of annual nitrogen (N) loading were based on parish land-use data, held in the UK's National Archives, and previously reported figures of typical UK N loadings from livestock, fertiliser, ploughing of permanent pasture, atmospheric deposition, biological fixation and crop uptake. Loading calculations were performed within an uncertainty framework to allow for the reliance on literature data sources. Loading calculations show that all significant sources must be included not just fertiliser application which, at most, contributes 50% of N input in any given year. A simple algorithm was used to transform estimated catchment N loading (1930-2007) into a river nitrate response (observed data: 1980-2004). This assumed N-loads were delayed by some catchment mean travel time (MTT), t a, attenuated according to a Peclet number, P e, converted into solute concentrations by a factor, α, to increase some initial baseline river concentration, C b. Simple graphical translation of estimated catchment N loading to the river concentration data suggested a MTT of around 37 years. As P e → ∞, the transport model simplified to a linear relationship between catchment N load and river nitrate concentration response lagged by the MTT. Hence, the model results suggest that, in this catchment, advection is the dominant mechanism for transport of diffuse pollution from land to river: there is little or no dispersion present. The MTT ( t a) was then reconsidered using an estimated distribution of unsaturated zone depths in the Alton Pancras catchment. Conclusions suggest that, in modelling of long-term nutrient transport, a detailed source term is of much greater importance than a complex hydrogeological model. Implications of epistemic uncertainty, long-term prediction and management of diffuse agricultural

  12. Using molecular-scale tracers to investigate transport of agricultural pollutants in soil and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C.; Michaelides, K.; Chadwick, D.; Dungait, J.; Evershed, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    We explore the use of molecular-scale tracers to investigate the transport of potential pollutants due to the application of slurry to soil. The molecular-scale approach allows us to separate the pollutants which are moved to water bodies through sediment-bound and dissolved transport pathways. Slurry is applied to agricultural land to as a soil-improver across a wide-range of topographic and climatic regimes, hence a set of experiments were designed to assess the effect of changing slope gradient and rainfall intensity on the transport of pollutants. The experiments were carried out using University of Bristol's TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) facility. The facility includes a dual axis soil slope (6 x 2.5 x 0.3 m3) and 6-nozzle rainfall simulator, which enables the manipulation of the slope to simulate different slope gradient and rainfall scenarios. Cattle slurry was applied to the top 1 metre strip of the experimental soil slope followed by four rainfall simulations, where the gradient (5° & 10°) and the rainfall intensity (60 & 120 mm hr-1) were co-varied. Leachate was sampled from different flow pathways (surface, subsurface and percolated) via multiple outlets on the slope throughout the experiments and soil cores were taken from the slope after each experiment. Novel tracers were used to trace the pollutants in both dissolved and sediment-bound forms. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to trace dissolved slurry-derived material via water flow pathways, as the slurry was found to have a distinct signature compared with the soil. The fluorescence signatures of the leachates were compared with those of many organic compounds in order to characterise the origin of the signal. This allowed the assessment of the longevity of the signal in the environment to establish if it could be used as a robust long-term tracer of slurry material in water or if would be subject to transform processes through time. 5-βstanols, organic compounds

  13. Characterization of copper-resistant bacteria and bacterial communities from copper-polluted agricultural soils of central Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper mining has led to Cu pollution in agricultural soils. In this report, the effects of Cu pollution on bacterial communities of agricultural soils from Valparaiso region, central Chile, were studied. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA genes was used for the characterization of bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from Cu-polluted soils and characterized. Results DGGE showed a similar high number of bands and banding pattern of the bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. The presence of copA genes encoding the multi-copper oxidase that confers Cu-resistance in bacteria was detected by PCR in metagenomic DNA from the three Cu-polluted soils, but not in the non-polluted soil. The number of Cu-tolerant heterotrophic cultivable bacteria was significantly higher in Cu-polluted soils than in the non-polluted soil. Ninety two Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from three Cu-polluted agricultural soils. Five isolated strains showed high resistance to copper (MIC ranged from 3.1 to 4.7 mM) and also resistance to other heavy metals. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate that these isolates belong to the genera Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter. The Sphingomonas sp. strains O12, A32 and A55 and Stenotrophomonas sp. C21 possess plasmids containing the Cu-resistance copA genes. Arthrobacter sp. O4 possesses the copA gene, but plasmids were not detected in this strain. The amino acid sequences of CopA from Sphingomonas isolates (O12, A32 and A55), Stenotrophomonas strain (C21) and Arthrobacter strain (O4) are closely related to CopA from Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter strains, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that bacterial communities of agricultural soils from central Chile exposed to long-term Cu-pollution have been adapted by acquiring Cu genetic determinants. Five bacterial isolates

  14. Is it worth protecting groundwater from diffuse pollution with agri-environmental schemes? A hydro-economic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Hérivaux, Cécile; Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge

    2013-10-15

    In Europe, 30% of groundwater bodies are considered to be at risk of not achieving the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 'good status' objective by 2015, and 45% are in doubt of doing so. Diffuse agricultural pollution is one of the main pressures affecting groundwater bodies. To tackle this problem, the WFD requires Member States to design and implement cost-effective programs of measures to achieve the 'good status' objective by 2027 at the latest. Hitherto, action plans have mainly consisted of promoting the adoption of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES). This raises a number of questions concerning the effectiveness of such schemes for improving groundwater status, and the economic implications of their implementation. We propose a hydro-economic model that combines a hydrogeological model to simulate groundwater quality evolution with agronomic and economic components to assess the expected costs, effectiveness, and benefits of AES implementation. This hydro-economic model can be used to identify cost-effective AES combinations at groundwater-body scale and to show the benefits to be expected from the resulting improvement in groundwater quality. The model is applied here to a rural area encompassing the Hesbaye aquifer, a large chalk aquifer which supplies about 230,000 inhabitants in the city of Liege (Belgium) and is severely contaminated by agricultural nitrates. We show that the time frame within which improvements in the Hesbaye groundwater quality can be expected may be much longer than that required by the WFD. Current WFD programs based on AES may be inappropriate for achieving the 'good status' objective in the most productive agricultural areas, in particular because these schemes are insufficiently attractive. Achieving 'good status' by 2027 would demand a substantial change in the design of AES, involving costs that may not be offset by benefits in the case of chalk aquifers with long renewal times. PMID:23722175

  15. Towards a nutrient export risk matrix approach to managing agricultural pollution at source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, C. J. M.; Quinn, P. F.; Whitehead, P. G.; Heathwaite, A. L.; Flynn, N. J.

    A generic Nutrient Export Risk Matrix (NERM) approach is presented. This provides advice to farmers and policy makers on good practice for reducing nutrient loss and, hopefully, persuades them to implement such measures. Combined with a range of nutrient transport modelling tools and field experiments, NERMs can play an important role in reducing nutrient export from agricultural land. The Phosphorus Export Risk Matrix (PERM) is presented as an example NERM. The PERM integrates hydrological understanding of runoff with a number of agronomic and policy factors into a clear problem-solving framework. This allows farmers and policy makers to visualise strategies for reducing phosphorus loss through proactive land management. The risk of pollution is assessed by a series of informed questions relating to farming intensity and practice. This information is combined with the concept of runoff management to point towards simple, practical remedial strategies which do not compromise farmers’ ability to obtain sound economic returns from their crop and livestock.

  16. Impacts of input parameter spatial aggregation on an agricultural nonpoint source pollution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzHugh, T. W.; Mackay, D. S.

    2000-09-01

    The accuracy of agricultural nonpoint source pollution models depends in part on how well model input parameters describe the relevant characteristics of the watershed. The spatial extent of input parameter aggregation has previously been shown to have a substantial impact on model output. This study investigates this problem using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a distributed-parameter agricultural nonpoint source pollution model. The primary question addressed here is: how does the size or number of subwatersheds used to partition the watershed affect model output, and what are the processes responsible for model behavior? SWAT was run on the Pheasant Branch watershed in Dane County, WI, using eight watershed delineations, each with a different number of subwatersheds. Model runs were conducted for the period 1990-1996. Streamflow and outlet sediment predictions were not seriously affected by changes in subwatershed size. The lack of change in outlet sediment is due to the transport-limited nature of the Pheasant Branch watershed and the stable transport capacity of the lower part of the channel network. This research identifies the importance of channel parameters in determining the behavior of SWAT's outlet sediment predictions. Sediment generation estimates do change substantially, dropping by 44% between the coarsest and the finest watershed delineations. This change is primarily due to the sensitivity of the runoff term in the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation to the area of hydrologic response units (HRUs). This sensitivity likely occurs because SWAT was implemented in this study with a very detailed set of HRUs. In order to provide some insight on the scaling behavior of the model two indexes were derived using the mathematics of the model. The indexes predicted SWAT scaling behavior from the data inputs without a need for running the model. Such indexes could be useful for model users by providing a direct way to evaluate alternative models

  17. [Analysis of heavy metals distribution characteristics and pollution assessment in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Nan-Jing; Yuan, Jing; Ma, Ming-Jun; Fang, Li; Wang, Yin; Meng, De-Shuo; Yu, Yang; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Dai, Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2014-07-01

    By means of field sampling and laboratory analysis, the content distribution characteristics of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin in Anhui province were analyzed. Assessment of heavy metal pollutions was conducted using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the average mass fraction of Cd and Cu was 0.113 5 and 22.09 mg x kg(-1) respectively in the study area soil, which were above the background values 0.097 and 20.4 mg x kg(-1) in Anhui Province. The average mass fraction of other four heavy metals did not exceed the average values of Anhui Province. The results of the evaluations from geoaccumulation index and ecological risk assessment discovered that Cd is the strongest pollution metal among six heavy metals in the study area soil. For some samples of the study soil, Cd was slight risk for the ecosystem. The ecosystem risks caused by the other five heavy metals were not obviously for the sampling points. The entire study area soils were mid integrated potential ecological risk. PMID:25269280

  18. [Purification capacity of ditch wetland to agricultural non-point pollutants].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cui-ling; Cui, Guang-bo; Fan, Xiao-qiu; Zhang, Yi-bing

    2004-03-01

    Ditch wetlands have the capacity to remove and purify non-point pollutants from agricultural drainage by sediment retention, plant absorption and microorganism decomposition. Phragmites communis and Zizania latifolia are two main kinds of plants growing naturally in ditch wetlands in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. They can absorb N and P efficiently, which is the main mechanism of non-point source pollutants purification by wetlands. The harvest of Phragmites communis and Zizania latifolia will take away 463-515 kg/hm2 of N and 127-149 kg/hm2 of P each year, it equal to N and P discharged from 2.3-3.2 hm2 and 1.3-3.0 hm2 of fields respectively in this area. The absorption and decomposition capacity of Zizania latifolia wetland is higher than Phragmites communis wetland. After harvest of plants, wetlands are uncovered to sunlight and oxygen that speeds the transportation and decomposition of nutrients. The amount of organic matters, TN and TP are higher in sediment of harvested area than in that of control. Therefore, seasonal harvest of plants is an efficient measure for wetlands to purify nutrients and alleviate eutrophication of lakes. PMID:15202249

  19. Contribution of base flow to nonpoint source pollution loads in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution of surface water from overland flow, drainage tiles, and ground water discharge is a major cause of water quality impairment in Iowa. Nonpoint source pollution from base flow ground water was estimated in the Walnut Creek watershed by measuring chemical loads of atrazine, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate at 18 tributary creeks and 19 tiles. Loads were measured during a stable base flow period at creeks and files that discharged into Walnut Creek between two stream gauges. Chemical concentrations of atrazine (< 0.1-12 ??g/L), nitrate (0.1 to 15 mg/L, and chloride (1.5 to 26 mg/L) in water were similar for creek and tile samples. Water draining predominantly agricultural row crop areas had much higher concentrations than water draining restored prairie areas. Three methods were used to estimate base flow discharge in the watershed: (1) Darcy flux; (2) watershed discharge budget; and (3) discharge-drainage area; each yielded similar results (31.2 L/s to 62.3 L/s). Base flow loads to the main channel were estimated by subtracting the loads from the upstream gauge; creeks and tiles, from the total load measured at the downstream gauge station. Base flow concentration for atrazine ranged from 0.15 to 0.29 ??g/L and sulfate concentration ranged from 32 to 64 mg/L, whereas concentrations for nitrate and chloride were negative (-1 to -4 mg/L). Calculated base flow concentrations of atrazine and sulfate appeared to be reasonable estimates, but negative concentrations of nitrate and chloride imply either loss of chemical mass in the stream from upstream to downstream sampling points or measurement error. Load data suggest little contribution from base flow pollutants to Walnut Creek water quality, with most of the pollutant load derived from major tributary creeks. Results from this study have implications for determining total maximum daily loads in agricultural watersheds where contributions from point sources (creeks and tiles) can he used to

  20. Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: Origins, diffusion, and impact

    PubMed Central

    Zeder, Melinda A.

    2008-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a quantum leap in our understanding of the origins, diffusion, and impact of early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin. In large measure these advances are attributable to new methods for documenting domestication in plants and animals. The initial steps toward plant and animal domestication in the Eastern Mediterranean can now be pushed back to the 12th millennium cal B.P. Evidence for herd management and crop cultivation appears at least 1,000 years earlier than the morphological changes traditionally used to document domestication. Different species seem to have been domesticated in different parts of the Fertile Crescent, with genetic analyses detecting multiple domestic lineages for each species. Recent evidence suggests that the expansion of domesticates and agricultural economies across the Mediterranean was accomplished by several waves of seafaring colonists who established coastal farming enclaves around the Mediterranean Basin. This process also involved the adoption of domesticates and domestic technologies by indigenous populations and the local domestication of some endemic species. Human environmental impacts are seen in the complete replacement of endemic island faunas by imported mainland fauna and in today's anthropogenic, but threatened, Mediterranean landscapes where sustainable agricultural practices have helped maintain high biodiversity since the Neolithic. PMID:18697943

  1. Improving the identification of hydrologically sensitive areas using LiDAR DEMs for the delineation and mitigation of critical source areas of diffuse pollution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, I A; Jordan, P; Mellander, P-E; Fenton, O; Shine, O; Ó hUallacháin, D; Creamer, R; McDonald, N T; Dunlop, P; Murphy, P N C

    2016-06-15

    Identifying critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments requires the accurate identification of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest propensity for generating surface runoff and transporting pollutants. A new GIS-based HSA Index is presented that improves the identification of HSAs at the sub-field scale by accounting for microtopographic controls. The Index is based on high resolution LiDAR data and a soil topographic index (STI) and also considers the hydrological disconnection of overland flow via topographic impediment from flow sinks. The HSA Index was applied to four intensive agricultural catchments (~7.5-12km(2)) with contrasting topography and soil types, and validated using rainfall-quickflow measurements during saturated winter storm events in 2009-2014. Total flow sink volume capacities ranged from 8298 to 59,584m(3) and caused 8.5-24.2% of overland-flow-generating-areas and 16.8-33.4% of catchment areas to become hydrologically disconnected from the open drainage channel network. HSA maps identified 'breakthrough points' and 'delivery points' along surface runoff pathways as vulnerable points where diffuse pollutants could be transported between fields or delivered to the open drainage network, respectively. Using these as proposed locations for targeting mitigation measures such as riparian buffer strips reduced potential costs compared to blanket implementation within an example agri-environment scheme by 66% and 91% over 1 and 5years respectively, which included LiDAR DEM acquisition costs. The HSA Index can be used as a hydrologically realistic transport component within a fully evolved sub-field scale CSA model, and can also be used to guide the implementation of 'treatment-train' mitigation strategies concurrent with sustainable agricultural intensification. PMID:26974575

  2. The Use of Passive Samplers to Reveal Industrial and Agricultural Pollution Trends in Swiss Rivers.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, Adrien; Estoppey, Nicolas; Omlin, Julien; Udrisard, Robin; Esseiva, Pierre; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe

    2014-11-01

    This study shows the efficiency of passive sampling to reveal industrial and agricultural pollution trends. Two practical applications for nonpolar and polar contaminants are presented. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samplers were deployed for one year in the Venoge River (VD) to monitor indicator PCBs (iPCBs, IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180). The results showed that the impact of PCB emissions into the river is higher in summer than in other seasons due to the low flow rate of the river during this period. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed for 4 months in the Sion-Riddes canal (VS) to investigate herbicides (terbuthylazine, diuron and linuron). Desisopropylatrazine-d5 (DIA-d5) was tested as a performance reference compound (PRC) to estimate aqueous concentration. The results showed an increase of water contamination due to the studied agricultural area. The maximal contamination was observed in April and corresponds to the period of herbicide application on the crops. PMID:26508484

  3. Operational methods for minimising soil compaction and diffuse pollution risk from wheelings in winter cereals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Bob; Silgram, Martyn; Quinton, John

    2010-05-01

    Recent UK government-funded research has shown that compacted, unvegetated tramlines wheelings can represent an important source and transport pathway, which can account for 80% of surface runoff, sediment and phosphorus losses to edge-of-field from cereals on moderate slopes. For example, recent research found 5.5-15.8% of rainfall lost as runoff, and losses of 0.8-2.9 kg TP/ha and 0.3-4.8 T/ha sediment from tramline wheelings. When compaction was released by shallow cultivation, runoff was reduced to 0.2-1.7% of rainfall with losses of 0.0-0.2 kg TP/ha and 0.003-0.3 T/ha sediment respectively i.e. close to reference losses from control areas without tramlines. Recent independent assessments using novel tracer techniques have also shown that tramline wheelings can represent important sediment sources at river catchment scale. In response to these latest findings, a new project is now underway investigating the most cost-effective and practical ways of operationalising methods for managing tramline wheelings in autumn-sown cereal systems to reduce the risk of soil compaction from the autumn spray operation and the associated risk of surface runoff and diffuse pollution loss of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen to edge of field. Research is focusing on the over-winter period when soils are close to field capacity and the physical protection of the soil surface granted by growing crop is limited. This paper outlines this new multi-disciplinary project and associated methodologies, which include hillslope-scale event-based evaluations of the effectiveness of novel mitigation methods on surface runoff and diffuse pollution losses to edge of field, assessments of the economic and practical viability of mitigation methods, and modelling the impact on water quality of implementation of the most promising techniques at both farm and catchment scale. The study involves a large consortium with 20 partners, including many industrial organisations representing tractor, crop

  4. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Benes, V; Pĕkný, V; Skorepa, J; Vrba, J

    1989-01-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneously, in regions in which shallow, vulnerable aquifers occur. The importance of the soil organic matter's stability for maintaining the groundwater quality is emphasized. Research based on nitrogen and organic carbon balance has shown that the restoration of a soil-groundwater system is a complicated process that usually requires changes in the extent and intensity of agricultural activities and consistent attention to the effects produced by natural conditions. Regional investigation of the impact of farming on shallow aquifers in the fluvial deposits of the Elbe River in Bohemia has proved the hydrochemical instability and vertical hydrochemical heterogeneity of these aquifers. The WASTEN deterministic model was used for modeling the transport and transformation of various types of inorganic fertilizers. The input data is based on laboratory and field measurements. Special topics are the verification of model calculations and the time and spatial variability of input data with respect to the unsaturated zone. The research results are being used for making regional and national agro-groundwater managerial schemes more precise, as well as for decision-making. PMID:2559844

  5. Potential pollutant sources in a Choptank River subwatershed: Influence of agricultural and residential land use and aqueous and atmospheric sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture and animal feeding operations have been implicated as sources of water pollution along the Choptank River, an estuary and tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. This study examined a subwatershed within the Choptank River watershed for effects of land use on water quality. Water and sediment...

  6. Predicting the impacts of climate change on nonpoint source pollutant loads from agricultural small watershed using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjeong; Seong, Chounghyun; Hakkwan, Kim; Park, Seungwoo; Kang, Moonseong

    2010-01-01

    This study described the development and validation of an artificial neural network (ANN) for the purpose of analyzing the effects of climate change on nonpoint source (NPS) pollutant loads from agricultural small watershed. The runoff discharge was estimated using ANN algorithm. The performance of ANN modelwas examined using observed data from s tudy watershed. The simulationresults agreed well with observed values during calibration and validation periods. NPS pollutant loads were calculated from load-discharge relationship driven by long-term monitoring data. LARS-WG (Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator) model was used to generate rainfall data. The calibrated ANN model and load-discharge relationship with the generated data from LARS-WGwere applied to analyze the effects of climate change on NPS pollutant loads from the agricultural small watershed. The results showed that the ANN model provided valuable approach i n estimating future runof f discharge, and the NPS pollutantloads. PMID:20923094

  7. Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Vincenza; Fornarino, Simona; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Rootsi, Siiri; Marjanovic, Damir; Primorac, Dragan; Hadziselimovic, Rifat; Vidovic, Stojko; Drobnic, Katia; Durmishi, Naser; Torroni, Antonio; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A Silvana; Underhill, Peter A; Semino, Ornella

    2009-01-01

    The debate concerning the mechanisms underlying the prehistoric spread of farming to Southeast Europe is framed around the opposing roles of population movement and cultural diffusion. To investigate the possible involvement of local people during the transition of agriculture in the Balkans, we analysed patterns of Y-chromosome diversity in 1206 subjects from 17 population samples, mainly from Southeast Europe. Evidence from three Y-chromosome lineages, I-M423, E-V13 and J-M241, make it possible to distinguish between Holocene Mesolithic forager and subsequent Neolithic range expansions from the eastern Sahara and the Near East, respectively. In particular, whereas the Balkan microsatellite variation associated to J-M241 correlates with the Neolithic period, those related to E-V13 and I-M423 Balkan Y chromosomes are consistent with a late Mesolithic time frame. In addition, the low frequency and variance associated to I-M423 and E-V13 in Anatolia and the Middle East, support an European Mesolithic origin of these two clades. Thus, these Balkan Mesolithic foragers with their own autochthonous genetic signatures, were destined to become the earliest to adopt farming, when it was subsequently introduced by a cadre of migrating farmers from the Near East. These initial local converted farmers became the principal agents spreading this economy using maritime leapfrog colonization strategies in the Adriatic and transmitting the Neolithic cultural package to other adjacent Mesolithic populations. The ensuing range expansions of E-V13 and I-M423 parallel in space and time the diffusion of Neolithic Impressed Ware, thereby supporting a case of cultural diffusion using genetic evidence. PMID:19107149

  8. Effects on environment and agriculture of geothermal wastewater and boron pollution in great Menderes basin.

    PubMed

    Koç, Cengiz

    2007-02-01

    Boron toxicity is an important disorder that can be limit plant growth on soils of arid and semi arid environments through the world. High concentrations of Boron may occur naturally in the soil or in groundwater, or be added to the soil from mining, fertilizers, or irrigation water. Off all the potential resources, irrigation water is the most important contributor to high levels of soil boron, boron is often found in high concentrations in association with saline soil and saline well water. Although of considerable agronomic importance, our understanding of Boron toxicity is rather fragment and limited. In this study, Boron content of Great Menderes River and Basin was researched. Great Menderes Basin is one of the consequence basins having agricultural potential, aspect of water and soil resources in Turkey. Great Menderes River, water resource of the basin was to be polluted by geothermal wastewater and thermal springs including Boron element. Great Menderes Basin has abundant geothermal water resources which contain high amounts of Boron and these ground water are brought to surface and used for various purposes such as power generation, heating or thermal spring and than discharged to Great Menderes River. In order to prevent Boron pollution and hence unproductively in soils, it is necessary not to discharged water with Boron to irrigation water. According to results, it was obtained that Boron content of River was as high in particular Upper Basin where there was a ground thermal water reservoir. Boron has been accumulated more than plant requirement in this area irrigated by this water. Boron content of River was relatively low in rainy months and irrigation season while it was high in dry season. Boron concentration in the River was to decrease from upstream to downstream. If it is no taken measure presently, about 130,000 ha irrigation areas which was constructed irrigation scheme in the Great Menderes basin will expose the Boron pollution and salinity

  9. Highly energy-efficient agricultural lighting by B+R LEDs with beam shaping using micro-lens diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Xuan-Hao; Chang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a high-performance LED agricultural luminaire that uses a beam-shaping diffuser to achieve high optical efficiency and energy saving. The agricultural luminaire performs an optical efficiency as high as 84.2%. The beam shaping effect also obtains irradiance uniformity of 1/2.56 and excellent spatial color uniformity. The enhancement ratio of optical utilization factor in the proposed agricultural luminaire is 360% in comparison with traditional lighting. Under the designed case, the total utilization factor, including optical utilization factor and spectral utilization factor, of the B+R LED lamp can save 86.1% of power consumption in comparison with compact fluorescent bulbs.

  10. Measurements of air pollution in a non-urban, non-agricultural airshed

    SciTech Connect

    Eldering, A.; Glasgow, R.; Cole, A.; Edwards, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    Pocatello, Idaho has an air quality problem that is unique, challenging, and complex. Pocatello is a city of about 46,000 located in southeastern Idaho, almost completely surrounded by national forests and an Indian reservation. It suffers from a particulate matter air pollution problem with 13 exceedances of the federal particulate air quality standard (a 24-hr average of 15- {mu}g/m{sup 3} of PM10) since 1986. In relation to other cities with a significant particulate air quality problem, Pocatello is not large and unlike the six counties which had more particulate matter exceedances than Pocatello, it is neither urban or highly agricultural. Pocatello does have an industrial area, and among the facilities present are manufacturing plants for phosphate fertilizer and for elemental phosphorus. Preliminary investigations show two of these exceedances are associated with fog and low speed winds. It has been suggested that secondary aerosols may account for a large fraction of PM 10 material. In addition, these episodes have been observed to range in duration from a few hours to a period of days, with the geography of the are contributing to complex meteorology.

  11. Protection of groundwater from agricultural pollution: institutions and incentives. [Long Island case study

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by agricultural practices presents a dilemma between protecting a vital resource and preserving a valuable part of the economy. Legal institutions to protect groundwater have been developed on an ad hoc basis. The institutions that deal with the following environmental problems are critically evaluated: prevention of water pollution, regulation of pesticides, and protection of drinking water. While these institutions mitigate the problem, they fail to solve it. Long Island is used as a case study. This unique region presents a case where groundwater contamination problems are particularly troublesome. The dominant crop of the region is potatoes. Monocultural practices have led to severe pest problems, including a large infestation of the Colorado potato beetle. Methods of pest control have employed large doses of pesticides. The hydrogeology of the region makes the underlying aquifer particularly susceptible to pesticide leaching. The resulting contamination has caused two pesticides to be banned, and a third to be withdrawn from the market. Producers have had difficulty adjusting to the unavailability of these means to reduce Colorado potato beetle damage.

  12. Propagation of uncertainty in diffuse pollution into water quality predictions: application to the River Dender in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, V; van Griensven, A; Bauwens, W; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2005-01-01

    The uncertainty of water quality predictions caused by uncertainty in the inputs related to emissions of diffuse pollution is analysed. An uncertainty analysis of the effects of diffuse pollution is essential to compare the cost and benefits of measures to lower those emissions. We focus on diffuse nitrate pollution due to fertiliser use. Using an efficient Monte Carlo method and Latin Hypercube sampling, the contribution to the overall uncertainty by each of the inputs is calculated. The modelling environment is ESWAT, an extension of SWAT, which allows for integral modelling of the water quantity and quality processes in river basins. The diffuse pollution sources are assessed by considering crop and soil processes. The crop simulations include growth, uptake of water and nutrients and several land management practices. The in-stream water quality model is based on QUAL2E. The spatial variability of the terrain strongly affects the non-point source pollution processes. The methodology is applied to the Dender basin in Belgium. Eight inputs have significant influence on the time that the nitrate content in the river is higher than 3 mg/l. The uncertainty analysis indicated wide uncertainty bounds (95% percentile bounds differ up to +/-50% from the average NO3 predictions). PMID:15850208

  13. Landscape Planning for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Reduction. II. Balancing Watershed Size, Number of Watersheds, and Implementation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T.; Diebel, Matthew W.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs—i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds—have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from 2 to 200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km2; and optimal expenditure ranged from 21,000 to 35,000/km2. The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km2. These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  14. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Benes, V.; Pekny, V.; Skorepa, J.; Vrba, J. )

    1989-11-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneously, in regions in which shallow, vulnerable aquifers occur. The importance of the soil organic matter's stability for maintaining the groundwater quality is emphasized. Regional investigation of the impact of farming on shallow aquifers in the fluvial deposits of the Elbe River in Bohemia has proved the hydrochemical instability and vertical hydrochemical heterogeneity of these aquifers. The WASTEN deterministic model was used for modeling the transport and transformation of various types of inorganic fertilizers. The input data is based on laboratory and field measurements. Special topics are the verification of model calculations and the time and spatial variability of input data with respect to the unsaturated zone. The research results are being used for making regional and national agro-groundwater managerial schemes more precise, as well as for decision-making.

  15. Comparative study of model prediction of diffuse nutrient losses in response to changes in agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Vagstad, N; French, H K; Andersen, H E; Behrendt, H; Grizzetti, B; Groenendijk, P; Lo Porto, A; Reisser, H; Siderius, C; Stromquist, J; Hejzlar, J; Deelstra, J

    2009-03-01

    This article presents a comparative study of modelled changes in nutrient losses from two European catchments caused by modifications in agricultural practices. The purpose was not to compare the actual models used, but rather to assess the uncertainties a manager may be faced with after receiving decision support from consultants using different models. Seven modelling teams were given the same data about two catchments and their management characteristics and were asked to model the same changes in management practices using the model of their own choice. This can potentially cause accumulated 'errors' due to differences in the modelling teams' interpretation of relevant processes and definitions of boundary conditions (inputs). The study was carried out within the framework of the EUROHARP project, which aimed at harmonising procedures for quantifying diffuse losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from agriculture. Models are important for assessing river basin management plans (RBMPs) as required e.g. under the EC Water Framework Directive and Action Plans under the EC Nitrates Directive. This article illustrates some challenges with respect to interpreting such modelling results. The selected management scenarios include changes in fertiliser application levels, changes in livestock numbers and changes in land-use and crop rotation systems. Seven models were applied for the same scenarios in the Enza catchment in Italy and the Zelivka catchment in the Czech Republic. All models had been calibrated and validated with respect to historical data of climatic conditions, water quality and discharge measurements. The modelling results reveal a variation in predicted effects of the management scenarios, causing different conclusions with respect to choice of best management practice for reducing nutrient losses. The study demonstrates that it is important that care is taken by modellers and involved decision makers throughout the entire modelling process, both with regard

  16. Informing policy to protect coastal coral reefs: insight from a global review of reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Schaffelke, Britta; Bartley, Rebecca

    2014-08-15

    The continuing degradation of coral reefs has serious consequences for the provision of ecosystem goods and services to local and regional communities. While climate change is considered the most serious risk to coral reefs, agricultural pollution threatens approximately 25% of the total global reef area with further increases in sediment and nutrient fluxes projected over the next 50 years. Here, we aim to inform coral reef management using insights learned from management examples that were successful in reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems. We identify multiple examples reporting reduced fluxes of sediment and nutrients at end-of-river, and associated declines in nutrient concentrations and algal biomass in receiving coastal waters. Based on the insights obtained, we recommend that future protection of coral reef ecosystems demands policy focused on desired ecosystem outcomes, targeted regulatory approaches, up-scaling of watershed management, and long-term maintenance of scientifically robust monitoring programs linked with adaptive management. PMID:24975091

  17. Comparison of policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture in the Eastern Mancha aquifer (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Stalder, A.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Henriquez-Dole, L.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture has given rise to different legal frameworks. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the most recent one. This work aims to help in the definition of the most cost-efficient policy to control non-point groundwater to attain the objectives established in the WFD. In this study we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of different policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. The policies considered were taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water price, taxes on emissions and fertilizer standards. We used a hydro-economic model, where we maximized the farmer's benefits. The benefits were calculated as sum of crop revenue minus variable and fixed cost per hectare minus the damage costs from nitrogen leaching. In the cost-effectiveness analysis we considered the costs as the reduction on benefits due to the application of a policy and the effectiveness the reduction on nitrate leaching. The methodology was applied to Eastern Mancha aquifer in Spain. The aquifer is part of the Júcar River Basin, which was declared as EU Pilot Basin in 2002 for the implementation of the WFD. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has provoked a steady decline of groundwater levels and a reduction of groundwater discharged into the Júcar River, as well as nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the WFD at certain locations (above 100 mg/l.). Crop revenue was calculated using production functions and the amount of nitrate leached was estimated by calibrated leaching functions. These functions were obtained by using an agronomic model (a GIS version of EPIC, GEPIC), and they depend on the water and the fertilizer use. The Eastern Mancha System was divided into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Given the different soil types and climatic

  18. Assessing the Success of Regional Measures for Lowering Agricultural Nutrient Pollution in Headwater Streams.

    PubMed

    Barry, C D; Foy, R H

    2016-07-01

    Lowland waters in Northern Ireland experience elevated agricultural phosphorus (P) inputs, and in response a variety of control measures targeting farm nutrient management have been implemented. Their efficacy in lowering nitrogen (N) and P exports and improving water quality is examined in 40 headwater streams from 1990 to 2009, and to 2014 for 24 of these. Over this period manure production in the study catchments declined by 7%, but regional chemical fertilizer inputs declined by 37% for N and 79% for P, and the regional nutrient surplus was lowered by 18% for N and 49% for P. Diminished pollution by organic wastes meant that 85% of streams exhibited chemistry suitable for salmonids in 2009 compared to 40% in 1990. Flow-weighted mean concentrations (FWMCs) of nutrients declined between 1990 and 2009, and their correlations with catchment stocking rates became stronger over time. For catchments with manure inputs <16.6 kg P ha, total P and nitrate FWMCs declined from 123 ± 19 μg P L and 1.92 ± 0.5 mg N L in 1990 at rates of 2.2 ± 0.5 and 30 ± 10 μg L yr, respectively. For catchments with higher manure inputs the respective rates of decline were greater at 5.8 ± 1.0 μg P L yr and 160 ± 20 μg N L yr from 1990 concentrations of 270 ± 25 μg P L and 5.99 ± 0.4 mg N L. Although now lower, P concentrations in the more highly stocked catchments still exceed regional nutrient standards so that the identification of further factors impinging on nutrient losses is critical if such standards are to be achieved. PMID:27380082

  19. Controlled drainage and wetlands to reduce agricultural pollution: a lysimetric study.

    PubMed

    Borin, M; Bonaiti, G; Giardini, L

    2001-01-01

    Controlled drainage and wetlands could be very effective practices to control nitrogen pollution in the low-lying agricultural plains of northeast Italy, but they are not as popular as in other countries. An experiment on lysimeters was therefore carried out in 1996-1998, with the double aim of obtaining local information to encourage the implementation of these practices and to gain more knowledge on the effects involved. Controlled drainage + subirrigation and wetlands were all considered as natural systems where alternative water table management could ameliorate water quality, and were compared with a typical water management scheme for crops in the open field. Eight treatments were considered: free drainage on maize (Zea mays L.) and sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), two treatments of controlled drainage on the same crops, and five wetland treatments using common reed [Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.], common cattail (Typha latifolia L.), and tufted sedge (Carex elata All.), with different water table or flooding levels. Lysimeters received about 130 g m 2 of N with fertilization and irrigation water, with small differences among treatments. The effects of treatments were more evident for NO3-N concentrations than for the other chemical parameters (total Kjeldahl nitrogen, pH, and electrical conductivity), with significantly different medians among free drainage (33 mg L(-1)), controlled drainage (1.6 and 2.6 mg L(-1)), and wetlands (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)). Referring to free drainage, NO3-N losses were reduced by 46 to 63% in controlled drainage and 95% in the average of wetlands. Wetlands also reduced losses of total dissolved solids from 253 g m(-2) (average of crop treatments) to 175 g m(-2) (average of wetlands). PMID:11476512

  20. Long-term agricultural non-point source pollution loading dynamics and correlation with outlet sediment geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Wei; Jiao, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Giubilato, Elisa; Critto, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Some agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollutants accumulate in sediments in the outlet sections of watersheds. It is crucial to evaluate the historical interactions between sediment properties and watershed NPS loading. Therefore, a sediment core from the outlet of an agricultural watershed was collected. The core age was dated using the 210Pb method, and sedimentation rates were determined using the constant rate of supply (CRS) model. The total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cr accumulations in the sediment generally showed fluctuating increases, with the highest sedimentation fluxes all occurring in approximately 1998. The measurement of specific mass sedimentation rates reflected a record of watershed soil erosion dynamics. Using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate long-term watershed agricultural NPS pollution loadings, the historical interactions between sediment properties and NPS loadings were further evaluated. The N leaching process weakened these interactions, but the historical accumulations of TP and heavy metals in sediments generally correlated well with watershed NPS TP loading. The regression analysis suggested that Pb and Cr were the most suitable indexes for assessing long-term NPS TN and TP pollution, respectively. Assessing the NPS loading dynamics using the vertical characteristics of sediment geochemistry is a new method.

  1. Scale appropriate modelling to represent dominant pollution processes in agricultural catchments, to underpin management and policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Russell; Quinn, Paul

    2014-05-01

    We present the development of scale appropriate modelling techniques to represent dominant pollution processes in agricultural catchments to underpin catchment management and its implications on policy. A quasi-physically based, spatially lumped macro-model (CRAFT), has been developed to assess mitigation options for nitrogen and phosphorus. CRAFT has been developed to use daily time series data of rainfall, stream flow and nutrient concentration data, and can be applied to catchments varying in size from a few hectares to 100s of square kilometres. If stream flow routing is added to the model then potentially larger catchments and sub-daily time steps could be represented. There are two key issues addressed here. Firstly, the model can be used to assess the usefulness of monitoring data collected at a high temporal resolution at considerable expense compared to routine grab sampling. An earlier study in the Frome catchment in southern England collected sub-daily water quality data for more than 12 months at the catchment outlet, comprising: total oxidised nitrogen (TON); soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations. The three data sets have quite different temporal signals relating to flow pathways with different residence times and the importance of runoff events in generating acute pollution. The flexible model structure was therefore developed to include different sources of runoff including overland flow from impervious areas in the catchment, where pollution hotspots will be located (e.g. farmyards). The model has been used to assess the value of collecting high resolution monitoring data, in this case by resampling the Frome sub-daily data to a daily timestep, and comparing these model simulations against those calibrated using all the samples. The usefulness of the high resolution data can be assessed on whether a daily model would undepredict (for example) high nutrient concentrations that can be identified in the sub

  2. Cross-sectional health study in polluted and nonpolluted agricultural settlements in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, A.I.; Brenner, S.; Hellmann, S.

    1988-08-01

    During the summer of 1984 a health survey was carried out among the population of six rural settlements, three in a polluted and three in a low polluted area. Residents of these settlements between 6 and 65 years of age filled out an ATS-NHLI health questionnaire and performed the following pulmonary function tests (PFT): FVC, FEV/sub 1/, FEV/sub 1//FVC, PEF, FEF/sub 50/, and FEF/sub 75/. A trend of higher prevalence of reported respiratory symptoms and diseases characterizes children growing up in a polluted rural as compared with a low polluted rural area. The relative risks (calculated from logistic models) for children from the polluted area to have sputum with cold is 2.13, cough accompanied by sputum 3.89, and for their siblings to have respiratory diseases 3.02, as compared with 1.00 in the low polluted area. A trend of lower PFT characterizes children from the polluted area, with significantly reduced PEF. The trends for adults in the two areas were similar to those for the children. The relative risks for adults from the polluted area to have sputum is 1.7 and cough accompanied by sputum 2.6, as compared with 1.0 in the low polluted area. PEF is significantly lower among adults from the polluted area, while FEF/sub 50/ and FEF/sub 75/ are lower (not significantly) among adults from the low polluted area.

  3. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  4. A geographic information system screening tool to tackle diffuse pollution through the use of sustainable drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Zorica; Breton, Neil P

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable drainage systems (SUDS) offer many benefits that traditional solutions do not. Traditional approaches are unable to offer a solution to problems of flood management and water quality. Holistic consideration of the wide range of benefits from SUDS can result in advantages such as improved flood resilience and water quality enhancement through consideration of diffuse pollution sources. Using a geographical information system (GIS) approach, diffuse pollutant sources and opportunities for SUDS are easily identified. Consideration of potential SUDS locations results in source, site and regional controls, leading to improved water quality (to meet Water Framework Directive targets). The paper will discuss two different applications of the tool, the first of which is where the pollutant of interest is known. In this case the outputs of the tool highlight and isolate the areas contributing the pollutants and suggest the adequate SUDS measures to meet the required criteria. The second application is where the tool identifies likely pollutants at a receiving location, and SUDS measures are proposed to reduce pollution with assessed efficiencies. PMID:24845322

  5. Source apportionment of groundwater pollutants in Apulian agricultural sites using multivariate statistical analyses: case study of Foggia province

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ground waters are an important resource of water supply for human health and activities. Groundwater uses and applications are often related to its composition, which is increasingly influenced by human activities. In fact the water quality of groundwater is affected by many factors including precipitation, surface runoff, groundwater flow, and the characteristics of the catchment area. During the years 2004-2007 the Agricultural and Food Authority of Apulia Region has implemented the project “Expansion of regional agro-meteorological network” in order to assess, monitor and manage of regional groundwater quality. The total wells monitored during this activity amounted to 473, and the water samples analyzed were 1021. This resulted in a huge and complex data matrix comprised of a large number of physical-chemical parameters, which are often difficult to interpret and draw meaningful conclusions. The application of different multivariate statistical techniques such as Cluster Analysis (CA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Absolute Principal Component Scores (APCS) for interpretation of the complex databases offers a better understanding of water quality in the study region. Results Form results obtained by Principal Component and Cluster Analysis applied to data set of Foggia province it’s evident that some sampling sites investigated show dissimilarities, mostly due to the location of the site, the land use and management techniques and groundwater overuse. By APCS method it’s been possible to identify three pollutant sources: Agricultural pollution 1 due to fertilizer applications, Agricultural pollution 2 due to microelements for agriculture and groundwater overuse and a third source that can be identified as soil run off and rock tracer mining. Conclusions Multivariate statistical methods represent a valid tool to understand complex nature of groundwater quality issues, determine priorities in the use of ground waters as irrigation water

  6. The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of Σ7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), Σ3HCH (α-HCH + β-HCH + γ-HCH) and Σ3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 μg kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 μg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ΣDDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the γ isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group. PMID:23877573

  7. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  8. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  9. Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin.

    PubMed

    Giang, P H; Harada, H; Fujii, S; Lien, N P H; Hai, H T; Anh, P N; Tanaka, S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic development in suburban areas of developing countries has induced changes in agricultural waste and nutrient management, resulting in water pollution. The study aimed at estimating agricultural nutrient cycles and their contribution to the water environment. A material flow model of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was developed focusing on agricultural activities from 1980 to 2010 in Trai hamlet, an agricultural watershed in Nhue-Day River basin, Vietnam. The model focused on the change in household management of human excreta and livestock excreta, and chemical fertilizer consumption. The results showed that the proportion of nutrients from compost/manure applied to paddy fields decreased from 85 to 41% for both N and P between 1980 and 2010. The nutrient inputs derived from chemical fertilizer decreased 6% between 1980 and 2000 for both N and P. Then, these nutrients increased 1.4 times for N and 1.2 times for P from 2000 to 2010. As of 2010, the total inputs to paddy fields have amounted to 435 kg-N/ha/year and 90 kg-P/ha/year. Of these nutrient inputs, 40% of N and 65% of P were derived from chemical fertilizer. Thirty per cent (30%) of total N input was discharged to the water bodies through agricultural runoff and 47% of total P input accumulated in soil. PMID:26398021

  10. A whole sample toxicity assessment to evaluate the sub-lethal toxicity of water and sediment elutriates from a lake exposed to diffuse pollution.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, N; Pereira, R; de Figueiredo, D R; Marques, C R; Pereira, M J; Gonçalves, F

    2009-06-01

    The impact of diffuse pollution in aquatic systems is of great concern due to the difficult to measure and regulate it. As part of an ecological risk assessment (ERA), this study aims to use a whole sample toxicity assessment to evaluate the toxicity of water and sediment from Lake Vela, a lake that has been exposed to diffuse pollution. In this way, standard (algae: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata; cladoceran: Daphnia magna) and local species (algae: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; cladoceran: Daphnia longispina) were exposed to surface water, and sediment elutriates were collected seasonally from two sites at Lake Vela: one near the east bank (ES), surrounded by agricultural lands; and the other near the west bank (WS), surrounded by a forest. The results confirmed the seasonal contamination of both environmental compartments by pesticides, including organochlorine pesticides, and the presence of high concentrations of nutrients. Although both sites were contaminated, higher levels of pesticides and nutrients were detected in ES, particularly in the sediments. Bioassays showed that water samples (100% concentration) collected in summer and autumn significantly affected the growth rate of P. subcapitata, which could be attributed to the presence of pesticides. Likewise, they revealed an apparent toxicity of elutriates for P. subcapitata and for both daphnids, in summer and autumn. In fact, although pesticides were not detected in elutriates, high levels of un-ionized ammonia were recorded, which is considered highly toxic to aquatic life. By comparing the several species, P. subcapitata was revealed to be the most sensitive one, followed by the daphnids, and then by A. flos-aquae. Results obtained in this study underlined the importance of whole samples toxicity assessment for characterizing the ecological effects of complex mixtures from diffuse inputs, in the ERA processes. PMID:18655178

  11. A multi-criteria approach to Great Barrier Reef catchment (Queensland, Australia) diffuse-source pollution problem.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R; Herr, A; Brodie, J; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria based tool for assessing the relative impact of diffuse-source pollution to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) from the river basins draining into the GBR lagoon. The assessment integrates biophysical and ecological data of water quality and pollutant concentrations with socio-economic information pertaining to non-point source pollution and (potential) pollutant impact. The tool generates scores for each river basin against four criteria, thus profiling the basins and enabling prioritization of management alternatives between and within basins. The results support policy development for pollution control through community participation, scientific data integration and expert knowledge contributed by people from across the catchment. The results specifically provided support for the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan, released in October 2003. The aim of the plan is to provide a framework for reducing discharge of sediment, nutrient and other diffuse-source loads and (potential) impact of that discharge and for prioritising management actions both between and within river basins. PMID:15757715

  12. Are changes in weather masking the efficacy of measures aimed at mitigating diffuse pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Phil; Shore, Mairead; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger

    2016-04-01

    Interpretations of the efficacy of mitigation measures for reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural sources to water bodies are challenged by the temporal variability of air temperature and rainfall. Influences are different depending on flow controls, associated time lags and nutrient transformations that may occur along the pathways. In Europe weather patterns and trends are influenced by large-scale weather systems over the North Atlantic. One of the most prominent teleconnection patterns that affect the weather across all seasons is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In northwestern Europe a positive phase in the NAO index over the winter period is often associated with elevated air temperatures in summer and more frequent large rain events in winter than normal. The objective of this study was to investigate the catchment-scale influences and relationships of naturally altered hydro-meteorological processes on the diffuse N and P losses to waters, in order to distinguish natural climate effects from those caused by adaptive management (increased agricultural intensity, decreased nutrient use etc.). Here we present six years of monthly nitrate-N and total reactive P concentrations in stream water (aggregated from sub-hourly monitoring) in six, ca. 10 km2, Irish agricultural catchments with different hydrological flow controls and land use. The locations of the catchments make them susceptible to sudden and/or seasonal shifts in weather. Changes in long term air temperatures and rainfall were investigated and annual N and P concentrations were compared to the NAO. During the monitored period (2009-2015) there was a steady increase in wintertime NAO index, reaching positive values in recent years, resulting in higher air temperatures and more frequent large rain events in winter. In some settings annual N and/or P concentrations were positively correlated to the three-year moving average NAO index (R2 > 0.90). Catchments with free

  13. Environmental impacts of modern agricultural technology diffusion in Bangladesh: an analysis of farmers' perceptions and their determinants.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sanzidur

    2003-06-01

    Farmers' perception of the environmental impacts of modern agricultural technology diffusion and factors determining such awareness were examined using survey data from 21 villages in three agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh. Results reveal that farmers are well aware of the adverse environmental impacts of modern agricultural technology, although their awareness remains confined within visible impacts such as soil fertility, fish catches, and health effects. Their perception of intangible impacts such as, toxicity in water and soils is weak. Level and duration of modern agricultural technology adoption directly influence awareness of its adverse effects. Education and extension contacts also play an important role in raising awareness. Awareness is higher among farmers in developed regions, fertile locations and those with access to off-farm income sources. Promotion of education and strengthening extension services will boost farmers' environmental awareness. Infrastructure development and measures to replenish depleting soil fertility will also play a positive role in raising awareness. PMID:12781758

  14. A Methodological Approach for Spatiotemporally Analyzing Water-Polluting Effluents in Agricultural Landscapes Using Partial Triadic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J J; Darwiche-Criado, N; Sorando, R; Comín, F A; Sánchez-Pérez, J M

    2015-09-01

    Multivariate techniques for two-dimensional data matrices are normally used in water quality studies. However, if the temporal dimension is included in the analysis, other statistical techniques are recommended. In this study, partial triadic analysis was used to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in water quality variables sampled in a northeastern Spain river basin. The results highlight the spatiality of the physical and chemical properties of water at different sites along a river over 1 yr. Partial triadic analysis allowed us to clearly identify the presence of a stable spatial structure that was common to all sampling dates across the entire catchment. Variables such as electrical conductivity and Na and Cl ions were associated with agricultural sources, whereas total dissolved nitrogen, NH-N concentrations, and NO-N concentrations were linked to polluted urban sites; differences were observed between irrigated and nonirrigated periods. The concentration of NO-N was associated with both agricultural and urban land uses. Variables associated with urban and agricultural pollution sources were highly influenced by the seasonality of different activities conducted in the study area. In analyzing the impact of land use and fertilization management on water runoff and effluents, powerful statistical tools that can properly identify the causes of pollution in watersheds are important. Partial triadic analysis can efficiently summarize site-specific water chemistry patterns in an applied setting for land- and water-monitoring schemes at the landscape level. The method is recommended for land-use decision-making processes to reduce harmful environmental effects and promote sustainable watershed management. PMID:26436278

  15. Modelling Common Agricultural Policy-Water Framework Directive interactions and cost-effectiveness of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Russell, Graham; Topp, Cairistiona; Louhichi, Kamel; Moran, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Selecting cost-effective measures to regulate agricultural water pollution to conform to the Water Framework Directive presents multiple challenges. A bio-economic modelling approach is presented that has been used to explore the water quality and economic effects of the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy Reform and to assess the cost-effectiveness of input quotas and emission standards against nitrate leaching, in a representative case study catchment in Scotland. The approach combines a biophysical model (NDICEA) with a mathematical programming model (FSSIM-MP). The results indicate only small changes due to the Reform, with the main changes in farmers' decision making and the associated economic and water quality indicators depending on crop price changes, and suggest the use of target fertilisation in relation to crop and soil requirements, as opposed to measures targeting farm total or average nitrogen use. PMID:20453343

  16. Non-point pollution of groundwater from agricultural activities in Mediterranean Spain: the Balearic Islands case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, L.; Wallis, K. J.; Mateos, R. M.

    2008-04-01

    Mediterranean Spain is a region with intensive agricultural production combined with an important seasonal water demand for water supply. High application rates of inorganic nitrogen fertiliser, input of plant protection products and intensive irrigation, sometimes with treated wastewater, is a common practice. As a result, most aquifers show nitrate contamination problems of agricultural origin. Data on pesticide residues is scarce, as systematic monitoring is not currently done. In Majorca Island, values up to 700 mg/l of nitrate in groundwater have been observed. To analyse the current situation derived from non-point pollution, several actions have been taken at different scales: declaration of a nitrate vulnerable zone, field experiments to evaluate nitrogen transport to the aquifer and the development of a GIS-simulation model to generate nitrate risk maps.

  17. Identifying major pesticides affecting bivalve species exposed to agricultural pollution using multi-biomarker and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Damásio, Joana; Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Tauler, Romà; Lacorte, Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Soares, Amadeu M V M; López, Miguel Angel; Riva, Mari Carmen; Barata, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify major pesticides that may cause detrimental effects in bivalve species affected by agricultural pollution. Investigations were carried out using freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea) transplanted in the main drainage channels that collect the effluents coming from agriculture fields in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain) during the main growing season of rice (from May to August). Environmental hazards were assessed by measuring simultaneous up 46 contaminant levels and 9 biomarker responses. Measured biological responses showed marked differences across sites and months. Antioxidant and esterase enzyme responses were in most cases inhibited. Lipid peroxidation levels increased steadily from May in upstream stations to August in drainage channels. Principal Component (PCA) and Partial Least Squares to Latent Structure regression (PLS) analyses allowed the identification of endosulfan, propanil, and phenylureas as being the chemical contaminants causing the most adverse effects in the studied species. PMID:20369380

  18. Nitrous oxide and methane emission in an artificial wetland treating polluted runoff from an agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo; Tournebize, Julien; Soosaar, Kaido; Chaumont, Cedric; Hansen, Raili; Muhel, Mart; Teemusk, Alar; Vincent, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    An artificial wetland built in 2010 to reduce water pollution in a drained agricultural watershed showed real potential for pesticide and nitrate removal. The 1.2 ha off-shore wetland with a depth of from 0.1 to 1 m intercepts drainage water from a 450 ha watershed located near the village of Rampillon (03°03'37.3'' E, 48°32'16.7'' N, 70 km south-east of Paris, France). A sluice gate installed at the inlet makes it possible to close the wetland during the winter months (December - March), when no pesticides are applied and rainfall events are more frequent. The flow entering the wetland fluctuates from 0 to 120 L/s. The wetland is partially covered by Carex spp., Phragmites australis, Juncus conglomeratus, Typha latifolia and philamentous algae. Since 2011, an automatic water quality monitoring system measures water discharge, temperature, dissolved O2, conductivity pH, NO3- and DOC in both inlet and outlet. In May 2014, an automatic weather station and Campbell Irgason system for the measurement of CO2 and H2O fluxes were installed in the middle of the wetland. In May and November 2014 one-week high frequency measurement campaigns were conducted to study N2O and CH4 fluxes using 6 manually operated opaque floating static chambers and 12 floating automatic dynamic chambers. The latter were operated via multiplexer and had an incubation time of 5 minutes, whereas the gas flow was continuously measured using the Aerodyne TILDAS quantum cascade laser system. During the campaign, the reduction of NO3- concentration was measured in nine reactor pipes. Also, water samples were collected for N2O and N2 isotope analysis, and sediments were collected for potential N2 emission measurements. In May, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 30 days, and the average NO3- concentration decreased from 24 in the inflow to 0 mg/L in the outflow. Methane flux was relatively high (average 1446, variation 0.2-113990 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1), while about 2/3 was emitted via ebullition

  19. Major pollutants in soils of abandoned agricultural land contaminated by e-waste activities in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Man, Yu Bon; Zhao, Yin Ge; Zheng, Jin Shu; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Yao, Jun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds and five heavy metals (cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and zinc) were determined in soil samples collected from six sites of abandoned agricultural land affected by electronic-waste: e-waste dismantling workshop [EW (DW)], e-waste open burning site [EW (OBS)], e-waste storage [EW (S)], and agricultural (A) in the New Territories, Hong Kong. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals were detected in all soil samples. EW (DW) contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas EW (OBS) had the highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, Cd, and Pb. PAH at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) and PCB concentrations at EW (OBS) exceeded the target values of the New Dutch list, whereas Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn levels exceeded the Chinese legislation for the protection of agricultural production and safeguarding of human health, by 3-11 times at EW (OBS) and 5-8 times at EW (DW). Lead at EW (OBS) and EW (DW) and Cr at EW (DW) greatly exceeded the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines by 46 and 20 times and 27 times, respectively. Concentrations of POPs and heavy metals at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) were significantly higher than at EW (S) and A. It was concluded that e-waste activities led to increases of toxic chemicals at these abandoned agricultural land, which would hinder the redevelopment of the land. PMID:20811881

  20. Biological cycling of carbon and nitrogen to reduce agricultural pollution by nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon and nitrogen are two key elements of global significance, playing large roles in the production of food, feed, fiber, and fuel for human existence, as well as providing numerous other ecosystem services. Although nitrogen is often a limiting element in natural systems, it can become a pollut...

  1. The impact of environmental and agricultural pollutants on the prevalence of allergic diseases in people from Qassim, KSA

    PubMed Central

    Elshabrawy, Walaa Othman; Ismail, Hisham Abdel-Sadek; Hassanein, Khaled Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background There are multiple environmental factors that influence a sensitized (IgE antibody positive) patient’s predisposition to manifest allergic symptoms following allergen exposure. The majority of allergens are known to induce morbidity with chronic symptoms such as rhinitis, pruritis, dermatitis and urticaria. Aim To study the impact of environmental and agricultural pollutants with different pollens on the immunological, hematological and biochemical markers and to determine the prevalence of sensitization to allergens among exposed individuals as well as to identify the eliciting allergens. Subjects and Methods Ninety six highly exposed individuals to environmental and agricultural pollution in addition to 20 as controls were selected. A solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the EUROLINE test kit were used for the quantitative determination of total IgE concentration and semi-quantitative in vitro assay of human IgE antibodies to some of the inhalant, ingestant and contactant allergens in serum samples, respectively. Percentage and absolute eosinophil counts and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results Thirteen (13.5%) out of the 96 studied highly exposed subjects were manifesting allergic symptoms. Higher significant total serum IgE levels and absolute eosinophil counts in groups 1 and 3 of the highly exposed individuals compared to the control group were found (p1=0.00, p3=0.001 and p1=0.016, p3=0.028, respectively). Higher sensitization with inhalant Timothy grass, Aspergillus fumigatus, Der. Farinae and Olive; ingestant Egg yolk, Mango, Strawberry and Codfish and with contactant Latex/plastic and Crude oil was found in the studied groups compared with the controls. Conclusion The present data suggest that the highly exposed subjects to pollution are at high risk of developing an allergy. For the screening of those with suspected allergen sensitization, the determination of specific IgE antibodies is a suitable marker of type I

  2. Risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution through agricultural activity on the catchment area of the Shelek River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubairov, Bulat; Dautova, Assel

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural activity in rural areas of Kazakhstan can create a potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. In our contribution, we will focus on the risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution in the catchment area of the Shelek River basin in southeast Kazakhstan. Since soviet time, in the research area an intensive cultivation of tobacco was performed which means to use a big amount of pesticides during the growing-process. Therefore, this research was conducted in order to receive reliable data for management decisions justification and for practical testing of approach which is recommended by WHO for drinking water supply based on risks mapping. For our study, the soil and water samples from tobacco fields, artesian spring, and surface water source were taken for analysis on pesticides content. The samples were investigated in laboratory of Centre of Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise of Almaty city (CSEE) according to approved methods from the national standards which are accepted in Kazakhstan. For the first time, in artesian spring small amount of nitrate pollution was found whose groundwater is one of the drinking water supplies of the region.

  3. Evolution over time of the agricultural pollution of waters in an area of Salamanca and Zamora (Spain).

    PubMed

    Carabias-Martínez, Rita; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Fernández-Laespada, M Esther; Calvo-Seronero, Lorenzo; Sánchez-San Román, Francisco Javier

    2003-02-01

    A survey of the herbicides present in surface and groundwaters was conducted in 1999 in an area of the provinces of Salamanca and Zamora (Central-Western Spain) to assess the degree of pollution of the agricultural land and seasonal changes in the presence of herbicide residues. Ten sites were sampled and screened for 17 herbicides commonly used in the area; the compounds were ureas, triazines, amides, and others. A previously optimised method involving solid-phase extraction with polymeric cartridges, followed by HPLC with diode array detection, was used to monitor the herbicides. Of the 17 compounds examined, eight were found: chlorotoluron (41% of total detections), terbutryn (21%), atrazine (14%), linuron (7%), isoproturon and metolachlor (5.5% each), lenacil (4%) and metamitron (2%). Of the detections, 66% corresponded to river water samples (three sites). The herbicides found in groundwaters (seven sites) were: chlorotoluron, atrazine, terbutryn, linuron, and isoproturon, all of which are classified as probable or transient leachers in Europe. The temporal evolution of the herbicide content in river waters shows that the observed pollution is a function of time and is related to the application and use of the herbicides. By contrast, the pollution found in groundwaters was lower than that seen in surface waters, except that due to chlorotoluron, which, additionally, remained almost constant throughout the study period. PMID:12531276

  4. A coupled stochastic inverse-management framework for dealing with nonpoint agriculture pollution under groundwater parameter uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llopis-Albert, Carlos; Palacios-Marqués, Daniel; Merigó, José M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper a methodology for the stochastic management of groundwater quality problems is presented, which can be used to provide agricultural advisory services. A stochastic algorithm to solve the coupled flow and mass transport inverse problem is combined with a stochastic management approach to develop methods for integrating uncertainty; thus obtaining more reliable policies on groundwater nitrate pollution control from agriculture. The stochastic inverse model allows identifying non-Gaussian parameters and reducing uncertainty in heterogeneous aquifers by constraining stochastic simulations to data. The management model determines the spatial and temporal distribution of fertilizer application rates that maximizes net benefits in agriculture constrained by quality requirements in groundwater at various control sites. The quality constraints can be taken, for instance, by those given by water laws such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Furthermore, the methodology allows providing the trade-off between higher economic returns and reliability in meeting the environmental standards. Therefore, this new technology can help stakeholders in the decision-making process under an uncertainty environment. The methodology has been successfully applied to a 2D synthetic aquifer, where an uncertainty assessment has been carried out by means of Monte Carlo simulation techniques.

  5. WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE APPLICATORS: EPA'S POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is preparing a guide to be published later this year for non-agricultural pesticide applicators which will provide specific information about waste minimization for pesticide users in industries such as commercial lawn care, structura...

  6. FILTRATION OF AGRICULTURAL NON-POINT SOURCE PHOSPHORUS POLLUTION WITH INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of phosphorus (P) from agricultural lands to water bodies is an environmental concern. Ditch drainage from lands with heavy poultry manure application on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay provides a pathway to deliver dissolved P to the bay. Best management practices designed to reduce ...

  7. Combining Land Use Information and Small Stream Sampling with PCR-Based Methods for Better Characterization of Diffuse Sources of Human Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffuse sources of human fecal pollution allow for the direct discharge of waste into receiving waters with minimal or no treatment. Traditional culture-based methods are commonly used to characterize fecal pollution in ambient waters, however these methods do not discern between...

  8. Assessing the dynamics of fluvial nitrate over short stream reaches in watersheds impacted by agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurley, J. W.; Showers, W. J.; Osburn, C. L.; Levine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    Elevated nitrate levels in many aquatic systems can be related to changes in land use/land cover and agricultural practices. However, these relations are often based on synoptic point sampling of independent drainage basins, neglecting in-stream processes that may affect nitrate dynamics upstream and resulting in correlations based on large spatial coverage. Understanding regional trends and implementing effective management strategies are hindered by the inability to determine the sources and dynamics of nitrate over stream reaches at small scales. To address this issue, continuous downstream measurements were made on two low-order streams draining small watersheds of mixed agricultural and natural land cover. Small, yet significant changes in nitrate concentration were observed at river lengths ranging from a few hundred meters to kilometers. This variability was related to the inputs of smaller streams and artificial drainages as well as the presence of natural dams. These patterns represent downstream nitrate variation as a stepped progression with little to no gradual in-stream processing over short distances. On both streams, average nitrate concentration downstream of inputs showed a positive correlation with proportion of agricultural land use within the input drainage basin while proportion of wetland cover correlated negatively with nitrate concentration in one stream. Reduction of nitrate downstream of natural dams indicates that these structures may serve as zones of nitrate removal in these low-order streams. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of nitrate and suggest that small-scale terrestrial and in-stream processes are of ecological importance when determining riverine nitrate influences in agricultural watersheds.

  9. Viscoelastic modeling of the diffusion of polymeric pollutants injected into a pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyoka, T.; Makinde, O. D.

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on the transient analysis of nonlinear dispersion of a polymeric pollutant ejected by an external source into a laminar pipe flow of a Newtonian liquid under axi-symmetric conditions. The influence of density variation with pollutant concentration is approximated according to the Boussinesq approximation and the nonlinear governing equations of momentum, pollutant concentration are obtained together with and Oldroyd-B constitutive model for the polymer stress. The problem is solved numerically using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Solutions are presented in graphical form for various parameter values and given in terms of fluid velocity, pollutant concentration, polymer stress components, skin friction and wall mass transfer rate. The model can be a useful tool in understanding the dynamics of industrial pollution situations arising from improper discharge of hydrocarbon pollutants into, say, water bodies. The model can also be quite useful for available necessary early warning methods for detecting or predicting the scale of pollution and hence help mitigate related damage downstream by earlier instituting relevant decontamination measures.

  10. Economic and legal analysis of strategies for managing agricultural pollution of ground water. Final report, 1 October 1986-15 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Batie, S.S.; Kramer, R.A.; Cox, W.E.

    1989-10-15

    The overall objectives were to identify constitutional and legal strategies for the management of ground-water quality, to design alternative state and/or federal strategies for the management of environmental risks associated with agricultural pollution of ground water, and to estimate first-round impacts of farm income, land use, government revenues, and ground-water pollution levels resulting from implementation of alternative management strategies in a case-study context.

  11. Using lidar to characterize particles from point and diffuse sources in an agricultural field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides the means to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of particulate emissions from agricultural activities. Aglite is a three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system built at the Energy Dynamics Laboratory (EDL) to measure the spati...

  12. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes.

    PubMed

    Pham, Manh Hoai; Sebesvari, Zita; Tu, Binh Minh; Pham, Hung Viet; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2011-12-01

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. PMID:21920648

  13. Antibiotic resistance marker genes as environmental pollutants in GMO-pristine agricultural soils in Austria.

    PubMed

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Zeinzinger, Josef; Gottsberger, Richard Alexander; Pascher, Kathrin; Hufnagl, Peter; Indra, Alexander; Fuchs, Reinhard; Hofrichter, Johannes; Kopacka, Ian; Korschineck, Irina; Schleicher, Corina; Schwarz, Michael; Steinwider, Johann; Springer, Burkhard; Allerberger, Franz; Nielsen, Kaare M; Fuchs, Klemens

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic emission and manipulations increase their prevalence above usually occurring background levels. The prevalence of aph(3')-IIa/nptII and aph(3')-IIIa/nptIII - frequent marker genes in plant biotechnology conferring resistance to certain aminoglycosides - was determined in Austrian soils from 100 maize and potato fields not yet exposed to but eligible for GMO crop cultivation. Total soil DNA extracts were analysed by nptII/nptIII-specific TaqMan real time PCR. Of all fields 6% were positive for nptII (median: 150 copies/g soil; range: 31-856) and 85% for nptIII (1190 copies/g soil; 13-61600). The copy-number deduced prevalence of nptIII carriers was 14-fold higher compared to nptII. Of the cultivable kanamycin-resistant soil bacteria 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0-3.3%) were positive for nptIII, none for nptII (0-0.8%). The nptII-load of the studied soils was low rendering nptII a typical candidate as environmental pollutant upon anthropogenic release into these ecosystems. PMID:26232739

  14. Reclamation of DPK hydrocarbon polluted agricultural soil using a selected bulking agent.

    PubMed

    Nwankwegu, Amechi S; Onwosi, Chukwudi O; Orji, Michael U; Anaukwu, Chika G; Okafor, Uchenna C; Azi, Fidelis; Martins, Paul E

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, laboratory scale bioremediation of dual purpose kerosene (DPK) hydrocarbon polluted soil using bulking agent (saw dust) was carried out. The effect of different parameters such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), dehydrogenase activity (DHase) and pH on bioremediation performance were evaluated. Studied parameters such as microbial dynamics, percentage degradation (95.20%), DHase (8.20 ± 0.43) were found to be higher in saw dust amended system and significantly differed with control at p < 0.05. Experimental data adequately fitted the first order kinetic thus, generated r(2) values (0.966), first order degradation constant (0.659 d(-1)), and degradation half-life t1/2 = ln2/k (1.05 d). Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus sp., Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus sp. were isolated from the study. The use of saw dust as bulking agent greatly increased biodegradation rate and resulted in effective DPK hydrocarbon clean up. Therefore, saw dust could serve as an effective biostimulant towards improved bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted environment. PMID:26934642

  15. Assessment of selenium pollution in agricultural soils in the Xuzhou District, Northwest Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shunsheng; Hua, Ming; Feng, Jinshun; Zhong, Xinyong; Jin, Yang; Zhu, Baiwan; Lu, Hua

    2009-01-01

    Xuzhou City is an important base for coal production and coal-fired power. To evaluate selenium contamination in this area, we sampled agricultural soil, soil profile, irrigation water, bedrock, coal, fly ash, paddy rice, and vegetables from the north of Xuzhou City, and determined their selenium contents. The background level of selenium in the soil profile was 0.08 mg/kg. The selenium concentrations in agricultural soils and irrigation water were in the range of 0.21-4.08 mg/kg and 0.002-0.29 mg/L, respectively. Soils with high selenium content were located closely to coalmines and power plants. The average selenium concentrations in coal and coal fly ash were 5.46 and 2.81 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, the concentrations of selenium in bedrock and in the soil profile were very low. These results imply that the high selenium level in agricultural soils is mainly caused by anthropogenic activities, rather than by parent material. The arithmetic mean of selenium concentration in paddy rice was 0.116 mg/kg, and in cabbage was 0.05 mg/kg. The selenium concentration in rice was positively correlated with total selenium concentration in soil, suggesting that selenium in soil is readily transferred into the crops. Furthermore, the estimated dietary intake (88.8 microg) of selenium from paddy rice and cabbage exceeds the recommended dietary allowance (55 microg). Therefore, there is a potential health risk from consumption of local staple food in the study area. PMID:19634423

  16. Nitrate pollution from agriculture in different hydrogeological zones of the regional groundwater flow system in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Sakura, Yasuo; Yu, Jingjie; Fukushima, Yoshihiro

    2005-06-01

    A survey of the quality of groundwater across a broad area of the North China Plain, undertaken in 1998 to 2000, indicates that nitrate pollution is a serious problem affecting the drinking water for a vast population. The use of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer in agriculture has greatly increased over the past 20 years to meet the food needs of the rapidly expanding population. During the study, 295 water samples were collected from wells and springs to determine the water chemistry and the extent of nitrate pollution. High concentrations of nitrate, especially in a recharge area along the western side, but also in the vicinity of Beijing and locally in other parts of the plain, pose a serious problem for the drinking water supply. In places, the nitrate concentration exceeds the maximum for safe drinking water of 45 mg/L. The intense use of N-fertilizer and the widespread use of untreated groundwater for crop irrigation contribute greatly to the problem, but no doubt the disposal of industrial and municipal waste into streams and infiltrating the aquifer also contribute to the problem; however, the lack of data prevents evaluation of those sources. In the recharge area, nitrate is found at depths of as much as 50 m. Near Beijing, relatively high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of as much as 80 m. In the discharge area, in the vicinity of the Yellow River, high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of <8 m.

  17. Assessment of diffuse heavy metal pollution, mass transfer and flows at a gold mining site within the Lake Baikal Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorslund, Josefin; Jarsjö, Jerker; Chalov, Sergey; Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    The flux, transfer and accumulation of heavy metals in aquatic systems pose a potential danger to the ecosystem at various scales, due to their toxicity and non-destroyable nature. Mining and ore excavation can cause heavy metal pollution of both local and downstream water systems, including groundwater sources. The Zaamar Goldfield, located in the upper Lake Baikal Basin (Mongolia), is an example of an extensive gold mining site, which significantly contributes to downstream increases in riverine concentrations of heavy metals, both in dissolved and suspended phases. However, the placer mining area is large and the pollution is diffuse by nature. Due to lack of detailed monitoring, it is unclear how the pollution is transported from the mine tailings to the river. There are several potentially important pathways, such as mobilization of bank sediments, in-stream dissolution from metal-rich suspended/bottom sediments, and through polluted groundwater. We here aim at estimating diffuse mass flows from the source zone to the river, in addition to riverine mass flows. Additionally, the behaviour of heavy metals under varying geochemical conditions (such as pH) is investigated, to be able to understand the solubility of various heavy metals and their partitioning between particulate and dissolved phase. We base our analysis on on-site hydrogeochemical field campaigns. These include concentration measurements in different media (groundwater, waste ponds, ditches, river water, suspended sediments, and bottom sediments). Runoff estimations from the site as well as solubility calculations are also main analytical methods. Results show a net increase in both dissolved and suspended riverine mass flows over the Zaamar site. Concentrations in the deep groundwater system are generally in the same order of magnitude as river concentrations, which suggest important inputs of dissolved heavy metals to the river through groundwater flows. The input of dissolved concentrations are

  18. Implementing the Water Framework Directive: Contract Design and the Cost of Measures to Reduce Nitrogen Pollution from Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, Fabio; Gallerani, Vittorio; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide

    2007-10-01

    The performance of different policy design strategies is a key issue in evaluating programmes for water quality improvement under the Water Framework Directive (60/2000). This issue is emphasised by information asymmetries between regulator and agents. Using an economic model under asymmetric information, the aim of this paper is to compare the cost-effectiveness of selected methods of designing payments to farmers in order to reduce nitrogen pollution in agriculture. A principal-agent model is used, based on profit functions generated through farm-level linear programming. This allows a comparison of flat rate payments and a menu of contracts developed through mechanism design. The model is tested in an area of Emilia Romagna (Italy) in two policy contexts: Agenda 2000 and the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform. The results show that different policy design options lead to differences in policy costs as great as 200-400%, with clear advantages for the menu of contracts. However, different policy scenarios may strongly affect such differences. Hence, the paper calls for greater attention to the interplay between CAP scenarios and water quality measures.

  19. Implementing the water framework directive: contract design and the cost of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Fabio; Gallerani, Vittorio; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide

    2007-10-01

    The performance of different policy design strategies is a key issue in evaluating programmes for water quality improvement under the Water Framework Directive (60/2000). This issue is emphasised by information asymmetries between regulator and agents. Using an economic model under asymmetric information, the aim of this paper is to compare the cost-effectiveness of selected methods of designing payments to farmers in order to reduce nitrogen pollution in agriculture. A principal-agent model is used, based on profit functions generated through farm-level linear programming. This allows a comparison of flat rate payments and a menu of contracts developed through mechanism design. The model is tested in an area of Emilia Romagna (Italy) in two policy contexts: Agenda 2000 and the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform. The results show that different policy design options lead to differences in policy costs as great as 200-400%, with clear advantages for the menu of contracts. However, different policy scenarios may strongly affect such differences. Hence, the paper calls for greater attention to the interplay between CAP scenarios and water quality measures. PMID:17879126

  20. Cotton production and water quality: Economic and environmental effects of pollution prevention. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Crutchfield, S.R.; Ribaudo, M.O.; Hansen, L.T.; Quiroga, R.

    1992-12-01

    Cotton production, compared with other crops, is less likely to cause erosion-induced water-quality problems because cotton acreage is not the major source of erosion in most regions. For cotton production, the most widespread potential damages to water quality are nitrates from fertilizer polluting ground water and pesticides contaminating surface water. This damage could be reduced by restricting chemical and fertilizer use on all cotton production, but doing so could reduce cotton yields and raise cotton prices. The same level of water-quality improvement could be achieved at less cost by targeting the chemical use or erosion restrictions only to cotton farms with the most vulnerable soils. Data come from a 1989 USDA survey of cotton producers.

  1. Tracing organic and inorganic pollution sources of agricultural crops and water resources in Güzelhisar Basin of the Aegean Region - Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Colak Esetlili, Bihter; Esetlili, Tolga; Tepecik, Mahmut; Anac, Dilek; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The study area Güzelhisar Basin is 6 km far from the city Aliaga, Aegean Region in Turkey which represents a rather industrialized area having five large iron and steel factories, but also areas of agriculture. Steel industry in Aliaga is causing metal pollution. Around Güzelhisar Basin and nearby, the dominant crop fields are cotton, maize, vegetables, olive trees and vineyards. Güzelhisar stream and dam water is used for irrigation of the agricultural land. Due to contamination from metal industry in Aliaga, organic farming is not allowed in this region. Industrial activities in the region present a threat on sustainable agriculture. The region is a multi-impacted area in terms of several pollutant sources affecting soil and water quality. The overall objective of the project is to trace back plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B), hazardous substances (i. e. persistent organic pollutants), radionuclides (40K, 232Th, 226Ra/238U), and metal contents (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by examining the soils, agricultural crops and natural plants from Güzelhisar Basin and water and sediments from Güzelhisar stream and dam. Spatial distribution of pollution will be evaluated by regionalization methods. For this, an advanced analytical methodology will be applied which provides an understanding of sources and occurrence of the respective substances of concern. An innovative multi-tracer approach comprising organic and inorganic marker substances, will identify and quantitatively assess sources and their impact on water pollution and the pollutant pathways in this agricultural crop production system.

  2. Agriculture Crop Burning in Northwestern India and Its Impact on Atmospheric Pollution and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Chauhan, A.; Gonzalez Abad, G.

    2014-12-01

    Crop burning season, over northern India, occurs during October-November and April-May after harvesting season. The mechanized harvesting started in 1986, and every year crop residues are burnt in the northwestern parts of India. During post-monsoon season, October - November, the boundary layer is shallow; as a result the crop burning greatly impacts the regional air quality and climate of the northern parts of south Asia. Due to intense burning episodes, heavy smoke pollution-laden plumes are transported all along the Indo-Gangetic basin in the northern parts of India, depending upon diurnal changes in the wind patterns. We find that, in general, the dominant westerly winds transport the plumes and emissions far away from the source region up to the eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic basin, further dispersing over central India to the south. We use retrievals of formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide and Aerosol Index from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA Aura satellite together with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA Terra and Aqua fire counts to assess the seasonal variation and geographical extent of the emissions due to burning of crop residues. In addition, our results, based on satellite measurements, indicate that the smoke plumes and biomass burning emissions are also transported over the Himalayan region and beyond, resulting in enhanced concentrations of aerosol loading and trace gases. Overall, our findings suggest that, during post-monsoon season, crop burning smoke plumes and emissions are the main cause of poor air quality, high atmospheric pollution and dense haze/smog, especially in the Indo-Gangetic basin.

  3. Fertilizer standards for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture: El Salobral-Los Llanos case study, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Pulido-Velazquez, D.

    2010-10-01

    SummaryAlthough the legislation on groundwater quality targets pollutant concentration, the effects of measures on non-point source pollution control are often evaluated in terms of their emission reduction potential at the source, not on their capacity of reducing the pollutant concentration in groundwater. This paper applies a hydro-economic modelling framework to an aquifer, El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer (Mancha Oriental, Spain), where nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive are locally found due to the intense fertilizer use in irrigated crops. The approach allows defining the economically optimal allocation of spatially variable fertilizer standards in agricultural basins using a hydro-economic model that links the fertilizer application with groundwater nitrate concentration at different control sites while maximizing net economic benefits. The methodology incorporates results from agronomic simulations, groundwater flow and transport into a management framework that yields the fertilizer allocation that maximizes benefits in agriculture while meeting the environmental standards. The cost of applying fertilizer standards was estimated as the difference between the private net revenues from actual application and the scenarios generated considering the application of the standards. Furthermore, the cost of applying fertilizer standards was compared with the cost of taxing nitrogen fertilizers in order to reduce the fertilizer use to a level that the nitrate concentration in groundwater was below the limit. The results show the required reduction of fertilizer application in the different crop areas depending on its location with regards to the control sites, crop types and soil-plant conditions, groundwater flow and transport processes, time horizon for meeting the standards, and the cost of implementing such a policy (as forgone benefits). According to the results, a high fertilizer price

  4. Long-term transfer of diffuse pollution at catchment scale: Respective roles of soil, and the unsaturated and saturated zones (Brévilles, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, A.; Baran, N.

    2009-05-01

    SummaryEnvironmental management such as recommended by the European Water Framework Directive requires actions regarding diffuse pollution. However, the efficiency of these actions depends on the reaction time of the hydrosystem. In order to predict future groundwater-quality trends, especially after implementation of environmental measures such as substitution of pesticides or reduction of nitrogen loads, the response time has to be determined. In the case of diffuse pollution, the response time between fertilizer or pesticide application and the subsequent contamination of a spring or well may depend on the distance between the area where the products are spread and the point where water quality is measured. However, some aquifer systems may appear particularly slow, independently of the size of the catchment. At Montreuil-sur-Epte (Val d'Oise, France), no significant change in groundwater quality can be related to the suppression of atrazine application over the small agricultural catchment (4 sq km) of the Brévilles spring, 8 years ago (4 years before the national ban of atrazine). Besides the 8 year monitoring of groundwater quality at the spring and in several observation wells in its catchment, a particular attention was paid to the characterization of water and solute-infiltration rates at different scales. The role of each compartment (soil, and unsaturated and saturated zones) in the slowing down of flow and the transfer of solutes (pesticides and nitrate) from top soil to aquifer, and then to the spring, was determined by a multidisciplinary approach involving mainly soil science, hydrogeology and geochemistry. Detailed investigations aimed at identifying and quantifying the parameters that contribute to the inertia of the system, resulting in a long-term transfer of diffuse pollution. Data covering the monitoring of pesticide transfer in soil, the physico-chemical characteristics of soils, profiles of water contents, tritium activities, and nitrate

  5. Alarming nutrient pollution of Chinese rivers as a result of agricultural transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strokal, Maryna; Ma, Lin; Bai, Zhaohai; Luan, Shengji; Kroeze, Carolien; Oenema, Oene; Velthof, Gerard; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-02-01

    Transitions in Chinese agriculture resulted in industrial animal production systems, disconnected from crop production. We analyzed side-effects of these transitions on total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and phosphorus (TDP) inputs to rivers. In 2000, when transitions were ongoing, 30%-70% of the manure was directly discharged to rivers (range for sub-basins). Before the transition (1970) this was only 5%. Meanwhile, animal numbers more than doubled. As a result, TDN and TDP inputs to rivers increased 2- to 45-fold (range for sub-basins) during 1970-2000. Direct manure discharge accounts for over two-thirds of nutrients in the northern rivers and for 20%-95% of nutrients in the central and southern rivers. Environmental concern is growing in China. However, in the future, direct manure inputs may increase. Animal production is the largest cause of aquatic eutrophication. Our study is a warning signal and an urgent call for action to recycle animal manure in arable farming.

  6. Multiple tree-ring isotopes as environmental indicators of diffuse atmospheric pollution in a peri-urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucet, A.; Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Ouarda, T. B.; Marion, J.

    2010-12-01

    The combined analyses of tree-ring δ13C, δ18O, δ15N, 206Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/208Pb isotope ratios of three red spruce specimens from the Tantaré ecological reserve located 40 km northwest of Québec City (Canada) were studied with the aim of reconstructing environmental conditions and unravel past air-quality changes of the 1880-2007 period. To separate the tree-ring δ18O and δ13C patterns induced by natural conditions from those generated by anthropogenic perturbations, a linear regression was applied between the most explicative meteorological parameters and the isotopic series for the period of low pollution (1880 to 1909). The model equations were then applied to the most recent part of the series (1910-2007) to verify if climatic conditions have remained the main driver of the tree-ring isotopic variations. The good fit between the modeled and measured δ18O series for the entire studied period suggests that the assimilation of oxygen by red spruce trees is not significantly affected by pollution stress near Québec City. However, the deviation between the measured and modeled δ13C values for the 1944-2007 period indicates that diffuse pollution affected carbon assimilation by the investigated trees. To independently validate if atmospheric pollution could have generated the deviation between the measured and the estimated δ13C values, a linear regression was applied between the portion of the residual δ13C values and atmospheric pollution (Canadian fossil fuel proxy from 1958 to 2000). The nice fit between the modeled δ13C values from the combination of the two regression analyses based on climate and emission proxy strongly supports the hypothesis that there is a natural and an anthropogenic portion in the δ13C variations of the studied specimens. The short-term variations of the red spruce δ15N series are correlated with the instrumentally measured amounts of provincial N emissions for the 1990 to 2006 period (longest measurements

  7. Estimation of diffuse and point source microbial pollution in the ribble catchment discharging to bathing waters in the north west of England.

    PubMed

    Wither, A; Greaves, J; Dunhill, I; Wyer, M; Stapleton, C; Kay, D; Humphrey, N; Watkins, J; Francis, C; McDonald, A; Crowther, J

    2005-01-01

    Achieving compliance with the mandatory standards of the 1976 Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC) is required at all U.K. identified bathing waters. In recent years, the Fylde coast has been an area of significant investments in 'point source' control, which have not proven, in isolation, to satisfactorily achieve compliance with the mandatory, let alone the guide, levels of water quality in the Directive. The potential impact of riverine sources of pollution was first confirmed after a study in 1997. The completion of sewerage system enhancements offered the potential for the study of faecal indicator delivery from upstream sources comprising both point sources and diffuse agricultural sources. A research project to define these elements commenced in 2001. Initially, a desk study reported here, estimated the principal infrastructure contributions within the Ribble catchment. A second phase of this investigation has involved acquisition of empirical water quality and hydrological data from the catchment during the 2002 bathing season. These data have been used further to calibrate the 'budgets' and 'delivery' modelling and these data are still being analysed. This paper reports the initial desk study approach to faecal indicator budget estimation using available data from the sewerage infrastructure and catchment sources of faecal indicators. PMID:15850190

  8. Tubular carbon nanotube-based gas diffusion electrode removes persistent organic pollutants by a cyclic adsorption - Electro-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Roth, Hannah; Gendel, Youri; Buzatu, Pompilia; David, Oana; Wessling, Matthias

    2016-04-15

    We report a novel tubular electrochemical cell which is operated in a cyclic adsorption - electro-Fenton process and by this means overcomes the drawbacks of the traditional electro-Fenton process. A microtube made only of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) functions as a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) and highly porous adsorber. In the process, the pollutants were first removed electroless from the wastewater by adsorption on the MWCNT-GDE. Subsequently, the pollutants are electrochemically degraded in a defined volume of electrolyte solution using the electro-Fenton process. Oxygen was supplied into the lumen of the saturated microtubular GDE which was surrounded by a cylindrical anode made of Ti-felt coated with Pt/IrO2 catalysts. For the proof of concept the model pollutant Acid Red 14 (AR14), an azo dye, was used. The decomposition of AR14 was studied at different applied current densities and initial concentrations of ferrous iron in the electrolyte solution. At optimal conditions, complete regeneration of the adsorption capacity of the MWCNT-GDE, complete decolorization and TOC and COD removal rates of 50% and 70% were achieved, respectively. The MWCNT-GDE is regenerated and again available for adsorption. This approach allows water treatment independent of its composition, thus does not require any addition of chemicals to the wastewater. PMID:26775104

  9. Organic carbon concentration profiles in recent cave sediments: records of agricultural pollution or diagenesis?

    PubMed

    Bottrell, S H

    1996-01-01

    Recent (<7 years old) cave sediments in Speedwell Cavern, Derbyshire, show an approximately exponential decay of organic carbon with depth. This phenomenon was thought to be due to one of two causes: (i) changing agricultural practice within the catchment feeding the cave, especially the increased use of sewage sludge and animal slurry as fertilizer; (ii) a relatively constant organic carbon concentration over time in the input sediment, with subsequent carbon mineralization during diagenesis. Carbon isotope composition of the organic material and the evolution of H/C ratio with depth indicate that the latter hypothesis is correct and that the profiles result from microbial diagenesis, not increased organic carbon inputs. By comparison with sediment of known (7 years) age, temporal decay constants for organic matter can be derived; these lie between rates previously determined for organic matter decomposition in marine sediments and soils. The H/C ratio of organic matter can be modelled as a function of time and proceeds in a similar fashion to soil organic material. PMID:15091425

  10. Exploration of diffusion kernel density estimation in agricultural drought risk analysis: a case study in Shandong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Shao, Z.; Tiong, L. K.

    2015-11-01

    Drought caused the most widespread damage in China, making up over 50 % of the total affected area nationwide in recent decades. In the paper, a Standardized Precipitation Index-based (SPI-based) drought risk study is conducted using historical rainfall data of 19 weather stations in Shandong province, China. Kernel density based method is adopted to carry out the risk analysis. Comparison between the bivariate Gaussian kernel density estimation (GKDE) and diffusion kernel density estimation (DKDE) are carried out to analyze the effect of drought intensity and drought duration. The results show that DKDE is relatively more accurate without boundary-leakage. Combined with the GIS technique, the drought risk is presented which reveals the spatial and temporal variation of agricultural droughts for corn in Shandong. The estimation provides a different way to study the occurrence frequency and severity of drought risk from multiple perspectives.

  11. Trade-off between water pollution prevention, agriculture profit, and farmer practice--an optimization methodology for discussion on land-use adjustment in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information. PMID:25391462

  12. Mitigating diffuse phosphorus transfer from agriculture according to cost and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Haygarth, P M; Apsimon, H; Betson, M; Harris, D; Hodgkinson, R; Withers, P J A

    2009-01-01

    Potential options for mitigating phosphorus (P) transfer from agriculture to water in England and Wales (E&W) were collated across a range of farm systems to assess their potential effectiveness in reducing mass of P transferred and potential cost (pounds sterling [ pound]) to the farming industry. A simple model framework (called PEASE) incorporating a number of assumptions was used to identify 15 methods for mitigating inputs of P to agricultural systems, 19 methods for preventing mobilization of P, and six methods for controlling the transport of P to streams. The scope for largest reductions in P inputs was to grassland and horticulture. Potential reductions in P mobilization were up to 1.2 kg P ha(-1). Reductions in P transfer associated with transport mitigation were larger than those associated with input and mobilization methods (up to 2.2 kg P ha(-1)). The largest estimated reductions were achieved by installing buffer zones and constructed wetlands, the former being very cost effective ( pound3-5 kg(-1) P saved). Plots of cost curves helped identify where the combined and cumulative P transfer reductions were attainable; these were approximately 0.2 kg ha(-1) for uplands, 0.6 kg ha(-1) for outdoor pigs, 0.9 kg ha(-1) for intensive dairy, and 2.2 kg ha(-1) for arable examples. We concluded that established catchment-scale evidence for mitigation is sparse, especially for specific farm systems in E&W. Sensitivities and uncertainties in the approach, especially associated with expert coefficients, are noted. This approach is nonetheless considered useful for prioritizing where and how best options might be most effectively targeted for least cost but greatest benefit. PMID:19704144

  13. Organic Pollutant Penetration through Fruit Polyester Skin: A Modified Three-compartment Diffusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yungui; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Baoliang

    2016-01-01

    The surface of plants is covered by a continuous but heterogeneous cuticular membrane (CM). Serving as the first protective barrier, the uptake and transport behavior of organic pollutants at this interface continue to engage the research efforts of environmental chemist. To date, the contributions of cuticular components as a defense against the organic pollutants penetration remain unresolved. In this study, the unsteady-state penetration characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) through isolated fruit CM was investigated. PHE penetration was differentiated by three cuticular compartments: epicuticular waxes (EW), cuticle proper (CP) and cuticular layer (CL). The driving force for PHE penetration was ascribed to the sharp concentration gradient built up endogenously by cuticular compartments with different lipophilic affinities. A modified penetration model was established and verified in terms of its general suitability for the hydrophobic chemicals and CMs of various plant species (apple, tomato and potato). The new three-compartment model demonstrates much higher accuracy in characterizing the uptake and transport behavior of semivolatile chemicals with fewer limitations in terms of environmental conditions and complexity (e.g., coexisting contaminants and temperature). This model could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding on the role of polymeric lipids in the organic pollutant sorption and transport into plants. PMID:27009902

  14. Organic Pollutant Penetration through Fruit Polyester Skin: A Modified Three-compartment Diffusion Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yungui; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Baoliang

    2016-01-01

    The surface of plants is covered by a continuous but heterogeneous cuticular membrane (CM). Serving as the first protective barrier, the uptake and transport behavior of organic pollutants at this interface continue to engage the research efforts of environmental chemist. To date, the contributions of cuticular components as a defense against the organic pollutants penetration remain unresolved. In this study, the unsteady-state penetration characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) through isolated fruit CM was investigated. PHE penetration was differentiated by three cuticular compartments: epicuticular waxes (EW), cuticle proper (CP) and cuticular layer (CL). The driving force for PHE penetration was ascribed to the sharp concentration gradient built up endogenously by cuticular compartments with different lipophilic affinities. A modified penetration model was established and verified in terms of its general suitability for the hydrophobic chemicals and CMs of various plant species (apple, tomato and potato). The new three-compartment model demonstrates much higher accuracy in characterizing the uptake and transport behavior of semivolatile chemicals with fewer limitations in terms of environmental conditions and complexity (e.g., coexisting contaminants and temperature). This model could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding on the role of polymeric lipids in the organic pollutant sorption and transport into plants. PMID:27009902

  15. Organic Pollutant Penetration through Fruit Polyester Skin: A Modified Three-compartment Diffusion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yungui; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Baoliang

    2016-03-01

    The surface of plants is covered by a continuous but heterogeneous cuticular membrane (CM). Serving as the first protective barrier, the uptake and transport behavior of organic pollutants at this interface continue to engage the research efforts of environmental chemist. To date, the contributions of cuticular components as a defense against the organic pollutants penetration remain unresolved. In this study, the unsteady-state penetration characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) through isolated fruit CM was investigated. PHE penetration was differentiated by three cuticular compartments: epicuticular waxes (EW), cuticle proper (CP) and cuticular layer (CL). The driving force for PHE penetration was ascribed to the sharp concentration gradient built up endogenously by cuticular compartments with different lipophilic affinities. A modified penetration model was established and verified in terms of its general suitability for the hydrophobic chemicals and CMs of various plant species (apple, tomato and potato). The new three-compartment model demonstrates much higher accuracy in characterizing the uptake and transport behavior of semivolatile chemicals with fewer limitations in terms of environmental conditions and complexity (e.g., coexisting contaminants and temperature). This model could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding on the role of polymeric lipids in the organic pollutant sorption and transport into plants.

  16. A model-based assessment of the potential use of compound-specific stable isotope analysis in river monitoring of diffuse pesticide pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, S. R.; van Meerveld, H. J.; Waterloo, M. J.; Broers, H. P.; van Breukelen, B. M.

    2013-11-01

    two different reaction pathways (aerobic and anaerobic) to overall degradation, which gave further insight into the transport routes in the modelled system. The simulations supported the use of the commonly applied Rayleigh equation for the interpretation of CSIA data, since this led to an underestimation of the real extent of degradation of less than 12% at the hillslope outlet. Overall, this study emphasizes the applicability and usefulness of CSIA in the assessment of diffuse river pollution, and represents a first step towards a theoretical framework for the interpretation of CSIA data in agricultural catchments.

  17. Sensitivity of Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) calculated air pollutant concentrations to the vertical diffusion parameterization during convective meteorological situations

    SciTech Connect

    Nowacki, P.; Samson, P.J.; Sillman, S.

    1996-10-01

    It is shown that Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) calculated air pollutant concentrations during photochemical smog episodes in Atlanta, Georgia, depend strongly on the numerical parameterization of the daytime vertical diffusivity. Results found suggest that vertical mixing is overestimated by the UAM-IV during unstable daytime conditions, as calculated vertical diffusivity values exceed measured and comparable literature values. Although deviations between measured and UAM-IV calculated air pollutant concentrations may only in part be due the UAM-IV diffusivity parameterization, results indicate the large error potential in vertical diffusivity parameterization. Easily implemented enhancements to UAM-IV algorithms are proposed, thus improving UAM-IV modeling performance during unstable stratification. 38 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Designing Schemes to Mitigate Non-Point Source Water Pollution from Agriculture: The Value of High-Resolution Hydrochemical and Hydrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, N.; Reaney, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    To effectively mitigate non-point source water pollution from agriculture, first it is vital to have an awareness of a watershed's hydrological and contaminant regime. Understanding the magnitude and timing of pollutant export, as well as the pathways by which different constituents are delivered to a water course, is paramount. One approach to gaining this type of knowledge is to observe pollutant fluxes at the watershed outlet. The River Eden Demonstration Test Catchments programme uses in-situ monitoring equipment to provide high-resolution (30 minute) data for three mixed-agriculture watersheds (ca. 10km2) in north western England. Determinands measured include turbidity, phosphorus, nitrate, chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH and temperature, along with river discharge and rainfall. Provided with these data, and an awareness of significant agricultural activities carried out in the watershed on an annual basis, this study demonstrates how it is possible to identify different pollutant transfer pathways, along with their spatio-temporal nature, and their relative importance. This information is then used to inform appropriate mitigation design. In relation to this purpose, the pros and cons of the different hydrochemical and hydrophysical data are described, and recommendations made for other determinands that should be considered for measurement in future similar studies.

  19. Design of best management practice applications for diffuse phosphorus pollution using interactive GIS.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, A S; Honti, M; Clement, A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a complex environmental engineering tool, which is appropriate to support decision making in watershed management. The PhosFate tool allows planning best management practices (BMPs) in catchments and simulating their possible impacts on immissions. The method has two parts: (a) a simple phosphorus (P) fate model to calculate diffuse P emissions and their surface transport, and (b) an interactive tool to design BMPs in small catchments. The fate model calculates diffuse P emissions via surface pathways. It is a conceptual, distributed parameter and long-term (annual) average model. The model also follows the fate of emitted P from each cell to the catchment outlets and calculates the field and in-stream retention. The fate model performed well in the Zala River catchment as a case study. Finally, an interactive design tool was developed to plan BMPs in the catchments and simulate their possible impacts on diffuse P fluxes. Different management scenarios were worked out and their effects evaluated and compared to each other. The results show that the approach is suitable to test BMP scenarios at small catchment scale. PMID:18547923

  20. A Comparison of Y-Chromosome Variation in Sardinia and Anatolia Is More Consistent with Cultural Rather than Demic Diffusion of Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Santoni, Federico; Whalen, Michael B.; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Two alternative models have been proposed to explain the spread of agriculture in Europe during the Neolithic period. The demic diffusion model postulates the spreading of farmers from the Middle East along a Southeast to Northeast axis. Conversely, the cultural diffusion model assumes transmission of agricultural techniques without substantial movements of people. Support for the demic model derives largely from the observation of frequency gradients among some genetic variants, in particular haplogroups defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Y-chromosome. A recent network analysis of the R-M269 Y chromosome lineage has purportedly corroborated Neolithic expansion from Anatolia, the site of diffusion of agriculture. However, the data are still controversial and the analyses so far performed are prone to a number of biases. In the present study we show that the addition of a single marker, DYSA7.2, dramatically changes the shape of the R-M269 network into a topology showing a clear Western-Eastern dichotomy not consistent with a radial diffusion of people from the Middle East. We have also assessed other Y-chromosome haplogroups proposed to be markers of the Neolithic diffusion of farmers and compared their intra-lineage variation—defined by short tandem repeats (STRs)—in Anatolia and in Sardinia, the only Western population where these lineages are present at appreciable frequencies and where there is substantial archaeological and genetic evidence of pre-Neolithic human occupation. The data indicate that Sardinia does not contain a subset of the variability present in Anatolia and that the shared variability between these populations is best explained by an earlier, pre-Neolithic dispersal of haplogroups from a common ancestral gene pool. Overall, these results are consistent with the cultural diffusion and do not support the demic model of agriculture diffusion. PMID:20454687

  1. Estimation and characterization of gaseous pollutant emissions from agricultural crop residue combustion in industrial and household sectors of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Saleem, Farhan; -Rahman, Naveed-ur; van den Berg, Leon; Abbas, Farhat

    2014-02-01

    A long-term energy crisis has resulted in increased combustion of biomass fuel in industrial and household sectors in Pakistan. We report results of a study on the emission characteristics of rice husk, rice straw, corncobs and bagasse since they are frequently used as biomass fuel and differed remarkably in physico-chemical and combustion characteristics. Emission concentrations and emission factors were determined experimentally by burning the biomass fuel using a burning tower. Modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of rice husk, rice straw, corncobs and bagasse was >0.97 indicating that combustion was dominated by flaming mode. Emission factors of gaseous pollutants CO, CO2, NO2, NO, NOx and SO2 for rice straw were calculated to be 17.19 ± 0.28, 1090.07 ± 24.0, 0.89 ± 0.03, 1.48 ± 0.04, 3.16 ± 0.08 and 0.38 ± 0.03 g kg-1 respectively which were significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared to those from rice husk (14.05 ± 0.18, 880.48 ± 8.99, 0.19 ± 0.01, 1.38 ± 0.02, 2.31 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.03 g kg-1), corncobs (8.63 ± 0.12, 595.44 ± 10.38, 0.16 ± 0.01, 0.70 ± 0.01, 1.23 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.00 g kg-1) and bagasse (12.39 ± 0.08, 937.03 ± 9.07, 0.36 ± 0.03, 1.44 ± 0.02, 2.57 ± 0.04 and 0.18 ± 0.02 g kg-1). Total emissions of CO, CO2, NO2, NO, NOx and SO2 were estimated to be 3.68, 230.51, 0.05, 0.36, 0.60 and 0.03 Gg for rice husk, 33.75, 2140.35, 1.75, 2.91, 6.20 and 0.75 Gg for rice straw, 1.11, 76.28, 0.02, 0.02 and 0.03 Gg for corncobs and 42.12, 3185.53, 1.22, 4.90, 8.74 and 0.61 Gg for bagasse respectively. Rice straw, however, had significantly (p < 0.05) higher potential of gaseous pollutant emission factors. Bagasse had the highest values of total emissions followed by rice straw, rice husk and corncobs. Rice straw and bagasse, on cumulative basis, contributed more than 90% of total emissions of gaseous pollutants. Results reported in this study are important in formulating provincial and regional emission budgets of gaseous pollutants

  2. High pressure flame system for pollution studies with results for methane-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I. M.; Maahs, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    A high pressure flame system was designed and constructed for studying nitrogen oxide formation in fuel air combustion. Its advantages and limitations were demonstrated by tests with a confined laminar methane air diffusion flame over the pressure range from 1 to 50 atm. The methane issued from a 3.06 mm diameter port concentrically into a stream of air contained within a 20.5 mm diameter chimney. As the combustion pressure is increased, the flame changes in shape from wide and convex to slender and concave, and there is a marked increase in the amount of luminous carbon. The height of the flame changes only moderately with pressure.

  3. A simulation-based interval two-stage stochastic model for agricultural non-point source pollution control through land retirement.

    PubMed

    Luo, B; Li, J B; Huang, G H; Li, H L

    2006-05-15

    This study presents a simulation-based interval two-stage stochastic programming (SITSP) model for agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution control through land retirement under uncertain conditions. The modeling framework was established by the development of an interval two-stage stochastic program, with its random parameters being provided by the statistical analysis of the simulation outcomes of a distributed water quality approach. The developed model can deal with the tradeoff between agricultural revenue and "off-site" water quality concern under random effluent discharge for a land retirement scheme through minimizing the expected value of long-term total economic and environmental cost. In addition, the uncertainties presented as interval numbers in the agriculture-water system can be effectively quantified with the interval programming. By subdividing the whole agricultural watershed into different zones, the most pollution-related sensitive cropland can be identified and an optimal land retirement scheme can be obtained through the modeling approach. The developed method was applied to the Swift Current Creek watershed in Canada for soil erosion control through land retirement. The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate the sediment information for this case study. Obtained results indicate that the total economic and environmental cost of the entire agriculture-water system can be limited within an interval value for the optimal land retirement schemes. Meanwhile, a best and worst land retirement scheme was obtained for the study watershed under various uncertainties. PMID:16242757

  4. CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ala Qubbaj

    2001-03-30

    The advanced CFDRC software package was installed on a SUN-SPARC dual processor workstation (UTPA funded). The literature pertinent to the project was collected. The physical model was set and all parameters and variables were identified. Based on the physical model, the geometric modeling and grid generation processes were performed using the CFD-GEOM (Interactive Geometric Modeling and Grid Generation software). A total number of 11160 cells (248 x 45) were generated. The venturis in the cascade were modeled as two-dimensional axisymmetric convergent nozzles around the jet. With the cascade being added to the jet, the geometric complexity of the problem increased; which required multi-domain structured grid systems to be connected and matched on the boundaries. The natural gas/propane jet diffusion flame is being numerically analyzed. The numerical computations are being conducted using the CFDRC-ACE+ (advanced computational environment) software package. The results are expected soon.

  5. Agricultural nitrate monitoring in a lake basin in Central Italy: a further step ahead towards an integrated nutrient management aimed at controlling water pollution.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Monica; Recanatesi, Fabio; Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    Water pollution from point sources has been considerably reduced over the last few decades. Nevertheless, some water quality problems remain, which can be attributed to non-point pollution sources, and in particular to agriculture. In this paper the results of a study intended to assess the consequences, in terms of NO3 water pollution, of growing a crop, whose impact in terms of P pollution is already well known, are presented. The potential consequences, in terms of water pollution from nitrates of a BMP expressly applied to reduce P pollution are also discussed. The study site is the Lake Vico basin, Central Italy, which has suffered a shift in trophic state since the mid 1990s, caused by P compounds used for intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees. The results of the monitoring campaign described in this paper allow to assert that hazelnut tree cropping has probably caused a considerable increase in nitrate concentration in the groundwater, although not in the lake water, because of the specific hydrogeological characteristics of the basin. The main conclusion is that monitoring is essential to single out environmental characteristics peculiar of a specific area, which even the most sophisticated model would not have been able to highlight. This is why monitoring and model simulations should be integrated. PMID:19911291

  6. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    PubMed

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution. PMID:27441855

  7. Interannual climate variability and spatially heterogeneous improvement of agricultural management impede detection of a decreasing trend in nitrate pollution in an agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovet, Ophélie; Dupas, Rémi; Durand, Patrick; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Gruau, Gérard; Hamon, Yannick; Petitjean, Patrice

    2016-04-01

    Despite widespread implementation of the nitrate directive in the European Union since the 1990s, the impact on nitrate concentration in rivers is limited (Bouraoui and Grizzetti, 2011). To assess whether this lack of response is due to the long time lags of nitrate transfer or to inadequate programs of measure, long term river and groundwater monitoring data are necessary. This study analyses 15 years of daily nitrate concentration data at the outlet of an intensively farmed catchment in Western France (Kervidy-Naizin, 5 km²) and quarterly nitrate concentration data in the groundwater of two hillslopes equipped with piezometers (Kerroland and Gueriniec) within the same catchment. In this catchment groundwater contribution to annual stream flow is dominant. The objectives of this study were to i) disentangle the influence of interannual climate variability and improvement of agricultural practices (i.e. reduction in N surplus) in the stream chemistry and ii) discuss the reasons for slow catchment recovery from nitrate pollution by comparing trends in groundwater and stream concentrations. Analysis of stream data showed that flow-weighted mean annual concentration at the outlet of the Kervidy-Naizin catchment has decreased by 1.2 mg NO3- l-1 yr-1 from 1999 to 2015. This decrease was slow but significant (p value < 0.01) even though interannual climate variability (i.e. annual cumulated runoff) added noise to the signal: i) deviation in the linear model of nitrate decrease with time was negatively correlated with annual runoff (r = -0.54, p < 0.01) and ii) local minimums in the nitrate time series were coincident with local maximums in the annual runoff. Thus high runoff during wet years led to dilution of the nitrate originating from groundwater, which added variability to the signal of linear decrease in stream concentration. Analysis of groundwater data showed a significant and sharp decrease in nitrate concentration in the Kerroland piezometer transect (4.0 mg

  8. Reducing urban diffuse pollution and surface water flooding using retrofit street trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwell, James; Stringer, Pete; Causer, Katherine; Ryan, Matt; Mangan, Steve; Appleton, Ian; Savage, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Nature-based solutions for the management of urban stormwater have been growing in popularity, but there is a lack of empirical performance data for field-scale installations, especially in a UK context. To address this deficiency, a novel retrofit street tree demonstration project was commissioned in the City of Salford, near Manchester (UK). Three fifteen year-old London Plane trees were planted within a large roadside tree trench on an urban residential street. The DeepRoot Silvia Cell modular suspended pavement system was used to maximise soil volume, avoid compaction and support large tree growth. Road runoff is directed to the tree trench via AKO Slot Kerbs. Water is then distributed evenly throughout the whole system via a perforated pipe. Excess water is conveyed out of the system via an underdrain, which is subsequently connected to the sewer network. The tree trench is lined with an impermeable membrane. Access chambers are positioned on the inflow and outflow of the tree trench to facilitate hydrological and water quality monitoring. Installation was completed in autumn 2015 and monitoring will be conducted over a three year period. This paper will provide an overview of the installation process and present initial results on the pollutant removal performance and hydrological functioning of the system.

  9. Spatial Optimization of Cropping Pattern in an Agricultural Watershed for Food and Biofuel Production with Minimum Downstream Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pv, F.; Sudheer, K.; Chaubey, I.; RAJ, C.; Her, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Biofuel is considered to be a viable alternative to meet the increasing fuel demand, and therefore many countries are promoting agricultural activities that help increase production of raw material for biofuel production. Mostly, the biofuel is produced from grain based crops such as Corn, and it apparently create a shortage in food grains. Consequently, there have been regulations to limit the ethanol production from grains, and to use cellulosic crops as raw material for biofuel production. However, cultivation of such cellulosic crops may have different effects on water quality in the watershed. Corn stover, one of the potential cellulosic materials, when removed from the agricultural field for biofuel production, causes a decrease in the organic nutrients in the field. This results in increased use of pesticides and fertilizers which in turn affect the downstream water quality due to leaching of the chemicals. On the contrary, planting less fertilizer-intensive cellulosic crops, like Switch Grass and Miscanthus, is expected to reduce the pollutant loadings from the watershed. Therefore, an ecologically viable land use scenario would be a mixed cropping of grain crops and cellulosic crops, that meet the demand for food and biofuel without compromising on the downstream water quality. Such cropping pattern can be arrived through a simulation-optimization framework. Mathematical models can be employed to evaluate various management scenarios related to crop production and to assess its impact on water quality. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is one of the most widely used models in this context. SWAT can simulate the water and nutrient cycles, and also quantify the long-term impacts of land management practices, in a watershed. This model can therefore help take decisions regarding the type of cropping and management practices to be adopted in the watershed such that the water quality in the rivers is maintained at acceptable level. In this study, it

  10. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. [Pollution of agricultural soils by a wastewater outflow from a metal smelter in Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2011-11-01

    Pollution characteristics of heavy metals in the farmland soil nearby a metal smelter were studied. Soil samples were collected and the contents of elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb, U and As in the bulk samples of soil profiles were measured, with the objectives to identify the pollution status and pollution characteristics of the farmland soil that were suffered from smelter effluents flooding, an acute pollution accident. The results indicate that the concentrations of heavy metals Zn, Mn, As, Pb, Cd,Sb in the soil were 113.28-212.22, 251.67-2 429.29, 34.44-130.28, 50.63-544.74, 63.44-317.33, 39.41-551.17 mg/kg, respectively, higher than the background level. These polluted soils not only have high concentrations of As, but also of the Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd and Sb. According to correlation analysis, pollution level is closely with local nonferrous metal exploitation, and principal pollutants have the same source. Some trace metals, such as Zn, Cr, Cd, show increasing concentration first and then decreasing trend in the soil profile. Soil acidification appears in the topsoil. This study has characterized the metal pollution in soils flooded by sudden smelting effluents spilling, and provided a theory base for pollution treatment. PMID:22295629

  12. Predictive modeling of groundwater nitrate pollution using Random Forest and multisource variables related to intrinsic and specific vulnerability: a case study in an agricultural setting (Southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Mendes, Maria Paula; Garcia-Soldado, Maria Jose; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Ribeiro, Luis

    2014-04-01

    Watershed management decisions need robust methods, which allow an accurate predictive modeling of pollutant occurrences. Random Forest (RF) is a powerful machine learning data driven method that is rarely used in water resources studies, and thus has not been evaluated thoroughly in this field, when compared to more conventional pattern recognition techniques key advantages of RF include: its non-parametric nature; high predictive accuracy; and capability to determine variable importance. This last characteristic can be used to better understand the individual role and the combined effect of explanatory variables in both protecting and exposing groundwater from and to a pollutant. In this paper, the performance of the RF regression for predictive modeling of nitrate pollution is explored, based on intrinsic and specific vulnerability assessment of the Vega de Granada aquifer. The applicability of this new machine learning technique is demonstrated in an agriculture-dominated area where nitrate concentrations in groundwater can exceed the trigger value of 50 mg/L, at many locations. A comprehensive GIS database of twenty-four parameters related to intrinsic hydrogeologic proprieties, driving forces, remotely sensed variables and physical-chemical variables measured in "situ", were used as inputs to build different predictive models of nitrate pollution. RF measures of importance were also used to define the most significant predictors of nitrate pollution in groundwater, allowing the establishment of the pollution sources (pressures). The potential of RF for generating a vulnerability map to nitrate pollution is assessed considering multiple criteria related to variations in the algorithm parameters and the accuracy of the maps. The performance of the RF is also evaluated in comparison to the logistic regression (LR) method using different efficiency measures to ensure their generalization ability. Prediction results show the ability of RF to build accurate models

  13. Effects of co-cropping Bidens pilosa (L.) and Tagetes minuta (L.) on bioaccumulation of Pb in Lactuca sativa (L.) growing in polluted agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Cid, Carolina Vergara; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Salazar, María Julieta; Blanco, Andrés; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Polluted agricultural soils are a serious problem for food safety, with phytoremediation being the most favorable alternative from the environmental perspective. However, this methodology is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate two potential phytoextractor plants (the native species Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta) co-cropped with lettuce growing on agricultural lead-polluted soils. The concentrations of Pb, as well as of other metals, were investigated in the phytoextractors, crop species, and in soils, with the potential risk to the health of consumers being estimated. The soil parameters pH, EC, organic matter percentage and bioavailable lead showed a direct relationship with the accumulation of Pb in roots. In addition, the concentration of Pb in roots of native species was closely related to Fe (B. pilosa, r = 0.81; T. minuta r = 0.75), Cu (T. minuta, r = 0.93), Mn (B. pilosa, r = 0.89) and Zn (B. pilosa, r = 0.91; T. minuta, r = 0.91). Our results indicate that the interaction between rhizospheres increased the phytoextraction of lead, which was accompanied by an increase in the biomass of the phytoextractor species. However, the consumption of lettuce still revealed a toxicological risk from Pb in all treatments. PMID:26940382

  14. Agricultural runoff pollution control by a grassed swales coupled with wetland detention ponds system: a case study in Taihu Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhui; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a field grassed swales (GSs) coupled with wetland detention ponds (WDPs) system was monitored under four typical rainfall events to assess its effectiveness on agricultural runoff pollution control in Taihu Basin, China. The results indicated that suspended solids (SS) derived from the flush process has significant influence on pollution loads in agricultural runoff. Determination of first flush effect (FFE) indicated that total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) exhibited moderate FFE, while chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) showed weak FFE. Average removal efficiencies of 83.5 ± 4.5, 65.3 ± 6.8, 91.6 ± 3.8, and 81.3 ± 5.8 % for TSS, COD, TN, and TP were achieved, respectively. The GSs played an important role in removing TSS and TP and acted as a pre-treatment process to prevent clogging of the subsequent WDPs. Particle size distributions (PSDs) analysis indicated that coarse particles larger than 75 μm accounted for 80 % by weight of the total particles in the runoff. GSs can effectively reduce coarse particles (≥75 μm) in runoff, while its removal efficiency for fine particles (<75 μm) was low, even minus results being recorded, especially for particles smaller than 25 μm. The length of GSs is a key factor in its performance. The WDPs can remove particles of all sizes by sedimentation. In addition, WDPs can improve water quality due to their buffering and dilution capacity during rainfall as well as their water purification ability during dry periods. Overall, the ecological system of GSs coupled with WDPs is an effective system for agricultural runoff pollution control. PMID:26832867

  15. Support vector machine-an alternative to artificial neuron network for water quality forecasting in an agricultural nonpoint source polluted river?

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Lu, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Water quality forecasting in agricultural drainage river basins is difficult because of the complicated nonpoint source (NPS) pollution transport processes and river self-purification processes involved in highly nonlinear problems. Artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector model (SVM) were developed to predict total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations for any location of the river polluted by agricultural NPS pollution in eastern China. River flow, water temperature, flow travel time, rainfall, dissolved oxygen, and upstream TN or TP concentrations were selected as initial inputs of the two models. Monthly, bimonthly, and trimonthly datasets were selected to train the two models, respectively, and the same monthly dataset which had not been used for training was chosen to test the models in order to compare their generalization performance. Trial and error analysis and genetic algorisms (GA) were employed to optimize the parameters of ANN and SVM models, respectively. The results indicated that the proposed SVM models performed better generalization ability due to avoiding the occurrence of overtraining and optimizing fewer parameters based on structural risk minimization (SRM) principle. Furthermore, both TN and TP SVM models trained by trimonthly datasets achieved greater forecasting accuracy than corresponding ANN models. Thus, SVM models will be a powerful alternative method because it is an efficient and economic tool to accurately predict water quality with low risk. The sensitivity analyses of two models indicated that decreasing upstream input concentrations during the dry season and NPS emission along the reach during average or flood season should be an effective way to improve Changle River water quality. If the necessary water quality and hydrology data and even trimonthly data are available, the SVM methodology developed here can easily be applied to other NPS-polluted rivers. PMID:24894753

  16. [Cumulative risk assessment for consumers of agricultural crops polluted with one chemical class pesticide residues (case of triazole fungicides)].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, N M; Omel'chuk, S T

    2011-01-01

    Different indices of cumulative risk assessment of combination of residues of pesticides which may simultaneously be present in raw agricultural crops, based on toxic evaluation of such combination have been presented. Risk for population health due to consumption of raw agricultural crops with triazole residues is acceptable on hazard index, point of departure index and cumulative risk index, exceeds allowable level on criterion "total margin of exposure". PMID:22768736

  17. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  18. Managing agricultural phosphorus for water quality protection: principles for progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eutrophication of aquatic systems due to diffuse pollution of agricultural phosphorus (P) is a local, even regional, water quality problem that can be found world-wide. Sustainable management of P requires prudent tempering of agronomic practices, recognizing that additional steps are often requ...

  19. [Effects of long-term petroleum and heavy metals pollution on the diversity and community structure of Pesudomonas populations in agricultural soils].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Hui-wen; Su, Zhen-cheng; Li, Xin-yu; Zhang, Cheng-gang

    2007-06-01

    By using PCR-DGGE method, this paper studied the diversity and community structure of Pseudomonas populations in long-term petroleum- and heavy metals-contaminated agricultural soils in Northeast China. The results showed that the Shannon diversity index of Pseudomonas was significantly higher in petroleum- than in heavy metals-contaminated soils. The diversity of Pseudomonas in petroleum-contaminated soil was approached to that in clean soil but lower than that in polluted lowland rice soil, suggesting that contaminant type and cultivation mode were the main factors affecting the diversity of Pseudomonas in agricultural soils. The sequences of V6/V7 regions in 16S rRNA gene indicated that P. mendocina, P. stutzeri and P. aeruginosa were the dominant species in both petroleum- and heavy metals-contaminated soils, demonstrating that these three species were enriched under the stress of long-term pollution, which might correlate with the natural degradation of petroleum and the resistance of Pseudomonas to heavy metals. PMID:17763738

  20. The Impact of Post Harvest Agricultural Crop Residue Fires on Volatile Organic Compounds and Formation of Secondary Air Pollutants in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, V.; Chandra, P.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.

    2015-12-01

    The N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) is an agriculturally and demographically important region of the world. Every year during the post harvest months of April-May and October-November, large scale open burning of wheat straw and paddy straw occurs in the region impairing the regional air quality and resulting in air pollution episodes. Here, using online in-situ measurements from the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry Facility (Sinha et al., Atmos Chem Phys, 2014), which is located at a regionally representative suburban site in the agricultural state of Punjab, India, we investigated the effects of this activity on gas phase chemistry. The online data pertaining to the pre harvest and post harvest paddy residue fires in 2012, 2013 and 2014 were analyzed to understand the effect of this anthropogenic activity on atmospheric chemistry and regional air quality with respect to health relevant VOCs such as benzenoids and isocyanic acid and trace gases such as ozone and carbon monoxide. These compounds showed marked increases (factor of 2-3 times higher) in their concentrations which correlated with the biomass combustion tracers such as acetonitrile. Emissions from the paddy residue fires did not result in significant enhancement of ambient ozone in 2012 but instead sustained hourly daytime ozone concentrations at ~ 50 ppb during the late post monsoon season, despite decreases in solar radiation and temperature. Results of such massive perturbations to ambient chemical composition, reactivity and formation of secondary pollutants and its implications for human health will be presented in this paper.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in residential and agricultural soils from an electronic waste polluted region in South China: distribution, compositional profile, and sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohui; Xu, Xijin; Wu, Yousheng; Ge, Jingjing; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2014-05-01

    A detailed investigation was conducted to understand the concentration, distribution, profile and possible source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in residential and agricultural soils from Guiyu, Shantou, China, one of the largest electronic waste (e-waste) recycling and dismantling areas in the world. Ten PBDEs were analyzed in 46 surface soil samples in terms of individual and total concentrations, together with soil organic matter concentrations. Much higher concentrations of the total PBDEs were predicted in the residential areas (more than 2000 ng g(-1)), exhibiting a clear urban source, while in the agricultural areas, concentrations were lower than 1500 ng g(-1). PBDE-209 was the most dominant congener among the study sites, indicating the prevalence of commercial deca-PBDE. However signature congeners from commercial octa-PBDE were also found. The total PBDE concentrations were significantly correlated with each individual PBDE. Principal component analysis indicated that PBDEs were mainly distributed in three groups according to the number of bromine atoms on the phenyl rings, and potential source. This study showed that the informal e-waste recycling has already introduced PBDEs into surrounding areas as pollutant which thus warrants an urgent investigation into the transport of PBDEs in the soil-plant system of agricultural areas. PMID:24374188

  2. A HIGHWAY MODEL FOR THE ADVECTION, DIFFUSION AND CHEMICAL REACTION OF POLLUTANTS RELEASED BY AUTOMOBILES: PART I. ADVECTION AND DIFFUSION OF SF6 TRACER GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference model simulating a highway has been developed which is able to handle linear and nonlinear chemical reactions. Transport of the pollutants is accomplished by use of an upstream-flux-corrected algorithm developed at the Naval Research Laborator...

  3. Delimitation of areas under the real pressure from agricultural activities due to nitrate water pollution in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, E.; Nasilowska, S.; Jarocinska, A.; Igras, J.; Stolarska, M.; Bernoussi, A. S.; Karaczun, Z.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the performed research was to determine catchments under the nitrogen pressure in Poland in period of 2007-2010. National Water Management Authority in Poland uses the elaborated methodology to fulfil requirements of Nitrate Directive and Water Framework Directive. Multicriteria GIS analysis was conducted on the base on various types of environmental data, maps and remote sensing products. Final model of real agricultural pressure was made using two components: (i) potential pressure connected with agriculture (ii) the vulnerability of the area. The agricultural pressure was calculated using the amount of nitrogen in fertilizers and the amount of nitrogen produced by animal breeding. The animal pressure was based on the information about the number of bred animals of each species for communes in Poland. The spatial distribution of vegetation pressure was calculated using kriging for the whole country base on the information about 5000 points with the amount of nitrogen dose in fertilizers. The vulnerability model was elaborated only for arable lands. It was based on the probability of the precipitation penetration to the ground water and runoff to surface waters. Catchment, Hydrogeological, Soil, Relief or Land Cover maps allowed taking into account constant environmental conditions. Additionally information about precipitation for each day of analysis and evapotranspiration for every 16-day period (calculated from satellite images) were used to present influence of meteorological condition on vulnerability of the terrain. The risk model is the sum of the vulnerability model and the agricultural pressure model. In order to check the accuracy of the elaborated model, the authors compared the results with the eutrophication measurements. The model accuracy is from 85,3% to 91,3%.

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Food and Agricultural Materials Using a Transient Plane-Source Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties essential for designing any food engineering processes. Recently a new transient plane-source method was developed to measure a variety of materials, but its application in foods has not been documented. Therefore, ...

  5. Calculating the diffusive flux of persistent organic pollutants between sediments and the water column on the Palos Verdes shelf superfund site using polymeric passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Loretta A; Lao, Wenjian; Maruya, Keith A; Burgess, Robert M

    2014-04-01

    Passive samplers were deployed to the seafloor at a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA, and used to determine water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface sediments and near-bottom water. A model of Fickian diffusion across a thin water boundary layer at the sediment-water interface was used to calculate flux of contaminants due to molecular diffusion. Concentrations at four stations were used to calculate the flux of DDE, DDD, DDMU, and selected PCB congeners from sediments to the water column. Three passive sampling materials were compared: PE strips, POM strips, and SPME fibers. Performance reference compounds (PRCs) were used with PE and POM to correct for incomplete equilibration, and the resulting POP concentrations, determined by each material, agreed within 1 order of magnitude. SPME fibers, without PRC corrections, produced values that were generally much lower (1 to 2 orders of magnitude) than those measured using PE and POM, indicating that SPME may not have been fully equilibrated with waters being sampled. In addition, diffusive fluxes measured using PE strips at stations outside of a pilot remedial sand cap area were similar to those measured at a station inside the capped area: 240 to 260 ng cm(-2) y(-1) for p,p'-DDE. The largest diffusive fluxes of POPs were calculated at station 8C, the site where the highest sediment concentrations have been measured in the past, 1100 ng cm(-2) y(-1) for p,p'-DDE. PMID:24564763

  6. Influence of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in water and sediments on edible seafoods within Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ololade, Isaac A; Lajide, Labunmi; Olumekun, Victor O; Ololade, Olusola O; Ejelonu, Benjamin C

    2011-01-01

    The bioconcentration levels of 3 non-essential elements (Pb, Cd and Ni) have been investigated in three different seafoods; Fish (Tilapia zilli), Crab (Callinectes sapidus) and periwinkle (Littorina littorea), to investigate the ecosystem health status in Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria. The seafood samples were chosen based on their popularity as a food source and the potential of the species to contain high levels of metals based on past research results. Metal concentrations in the biota showed marked interspecific differences with C. sapidus recording the highest concentrations of all the metals. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) showed that C. sapidus and T. zilli have the greatest potential to concentrate Cd (BCF = 3-10) and Pb (BCF = 11-84) respectively. Lead uptake from both water and sediment (BCF ≈ BSAF: 0.003-0.018) were abysmally low in L. littorea as compared with other organisms. The high concentrations of Pb in fish species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd in species of crab and periwinkles, as well as very high BSAF of Ni found in species of crab indicated a strong influence from anthropogenic pollutant source on the biotic community. Oil pollution appears to be a major source of bioavailable metal contaminants for the selected biota. The study shows that C. sapidus and L. littorea can effectively compartmentalize potentially toxic metals such as Cd, Pb and Ni within their tissues. In terms of toxicity, C. sapidus had Cd concentrations greater than the 3,000 ng/g limit set by the Commission of the European Communities while Pb concentration exceeded their limits in both C. sapidus and T. zilli. All levels of Ni were below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels for these metals in fish, crustaceans and shellfish. The study revealed anthropogenic enrichment of the metals studied which can possibly pose potential threats to the ecology of the area. PMID:21714630

  7. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Agricultural Soils of Siling Reservoir Watershed in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Naveedullah; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Yu, Chunna; Shen, Hui; Duan, Dechao; Lou, Liping; Chen, Yingxu

    2013-01-01

    Presence of heavy metals in agriculture soils above the permissible limit poses threats to public health. In this study, concentrations of seven metals were determined in agricultural soils from Yuhang county, Zhejiang, China. Multivariate statistical approaches were used to study the variation of metals in soils during summer and winter seasons. Contamination of soils was evaluated on the basis of enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (Cf), and degree of contamination (Cdeg). Heavy metal concentrations were observed higher in winter as compared to summer season. Cr and Cd revealed random distribution with diverse correlations in both seasons. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed significant anthropogenic intrusions of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu in the soils. Enrichment factor revealed significant enrichment (EF > 5) of Zn, Cd, and Pb, whereas geoaccumulation index and contamination factor exhibited moderate to high contamination for Zn, Cr, Cd, and Pb. In light of the studied parameters, permissible limit to very high degree of contamination (Cdeg > 16) was observed in both seasons. PMID:24151611

  8. Distribution and mobility of heavy elements in floodplain agricultural soils along the Ibar River (Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo). Chemometric investigation of pollutant sources and ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barać, Nemanja; Škrivanj, Sandra; Bukumirić, Zoran; Živojinović, Dragana; Manojlović, Dragan; Barać, Milan; Petrović, Rada; Ćorac, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the influence of a high-magnitude flood event on heavy elements (HEs) pollution and mobility in the agricultural soils along Ibar River in Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo. The study area was one of the most important Pb/Zn industrial regions in Europe. Soil samples (n = 50) collected before and after the floods in May 2014 were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The results indicated that the floods significantly increased not only the pseudo total concentrations of HEs in the soil but also their mobile and potentially bioavailable amounts. Moreover, higher concentrations (both pseudo total and potentially bioavailable) were found in the agricultural soils closer to the industrial hotspots. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis successfully grouped the analyzed elements according to their anthropogenic or natural origin. The floods significantly increased the potential ecological risk of HEs associated with Pb/Zn industrial activities in the study area. The potential ecological risk of Cd after the floods was highest and should be of special concern. PMID:26822217

  9. The use of GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) to identify agricultural land management practices which cause surface water pollution in drinking water supply catchments.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Richard; Kay, Paul; Foulger, Miles

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse pollution poses a threat to water quality and results in the need for treatment for potable water supplies which can prove costly. Within the Yorkshire region, UK, nitrates, pesticides and water colour present particular treatment problems. Catchment management techniques offer an alternative to 'end of pipe' solutions and allow resources to be targeted to the most polluting areas. This project has attempted to identify such areas using GIS based modelling approaches in catchments where water quality data were available. As no model exists to predict water colour a model was created using an MCE method which is capable of predicting colour concentrations at the catchment scale. CatchIS was used to predict pesticide and nitrate N concentrations and was found to be generally capable of reliably predicting nitrate N loads at the catchment scale. The pesticides results did not match the historic data possibly due to problems with the historic pesticide data and temporal and spatially variability in pesticide usage. The use of these models can be extended to predict water quality problems in catchments where water quality data are unavailable and highlight areas of concern. PMID:19029721

  10. The combined use of MODFLOW and precipitation-runoff modeling to simulate groundwater flow in a diffuse-pollution prone watershed.

    PubMed

    Elçi, A; Karadaş, D; Fistikoğlu, O

    2010-01-01

    A numerical modeling case study of groundwater flow in a diffuse pollution prone area is presented. The study area is located within the metropolitan borders of the city of Izmir, Turkey. This groundwater flow model was unconventional in the application since the groundwater recharge parameter in the model was estimated using a lumped, transient water-budget based precipitation-runoff model that was executed independent of the groundwater flow model. The recharge rate obtained from the calibrated precipitation-runoff model was used as input to the groundwater flow model, which was eventually calibrated to measured water table elevations. Overall, the flow model results were consistent with field observations and model statistics were satisfactory. Water budget results of the model revealed that groundwater recharge comprised about 20% of the total water input for the entire study area. Recharge was the second largest component in the budget after leakage from streams into the subsurface. It was concluded that the modeling results can be further used as input for contaminant transport modeling studies in order to evaluate the vulnerability of water resources of the study area to diffuse pollution. PMID:20595769

  11. Atmospheric pollutant emission factors from open burning of agricultural and forest biomass by wind tunnel simulations. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Williams, R.B.; Goronea, M.; Abd-el-Fattah, H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutant emission factors were determined by wind tunnel simulations of spreading and pile fires for 8 different types of fuel including barley, rice and wheat straw, corn stover, almond and walnut tree prunings, and Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine slash. Cereal straws and stover were burned in fires spreading against an impressed wind, pile burns in wood fuels were naturally ventilaled through the side doors. Emission factors were determined for each fuel for CO, NO, NOx, SO2, total hydrocarbons, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, total sulfur, CO2, particulate matter, volatile organic matter (VOC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Elemental compositions of particulate matter were determined by size category. Bulk aerosol absorption coefficients were determined from light transmission measurements through filter samples. Emission rates were correlated against burning conditions and fuel compositions. Factor affecting the burning rates and emission factors included inlet air temperature, loading rate, and wind speed.

  12. Steady-state solution of the semi-empirical diffusion equation for area sources. [air pollution studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebedeff, S. A.; Hameed, S.

    1975-01-01

    The problem investigated can be solved exactly in a simple manner if the equations are written in terms of a similarity variable. The exact solution is used to explore two questions of interest in the modelling of urban air pollution, taking into account the distribution of surface concentration downwind of an area source and the distribution of concentration with height.

  13. Sulphate leaching from diffuse agricultural and forest sources in a large central European catchment during 1900-2010.

    PubMed

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Porcal, Petr; Posch, Maximilian

    2014-02-01

    Using dynamic, mass budget, and empirical models, we quantified sulphate-sulphur (SO4-S) leaching from soils in a large central European catchment (upper Vltava river, Czech Republic) over a 110-year period (1900-2010). SO4-S inputs to soils with synthetic fertilisers and atmospheric deposition increased in the 1950s-1980s, then rapidly decreased (~80%), and remained low since the middle 1990s. The proportion of drained agricultural land rapidly increased from 4 to 43% between the 1950s and 1990s; then the draining ability of the system slowly decreased due to its ageing. Sulphate concentrations in the Vltava exhibited similar trends as the external SO4-S inputs, suggesting that they could be explained by changes in atmospheric and fertiliser S inputs. The available data and modelling, however, showed that (i) internal SO4-S sources (mineralization of soil organic S in the drained agricultural land), (ii) a hysteresis in SO4-S leaching from forest soils (a net S retention at the high S inputs and then a net release at the lowered inputs), and (iii) hydrology must be taken into account. An empirical model was then employed, based on parameters representing hydrology (discharge), external SO4-S sources (inputs by synthetic fertilisers and atmospheric deposition), and internal SO4-S sources (mineralization related to soil drainage). The model explained 84% of the observed variability in annual SO4-S concentrations in the Vltava river during 1900-2010 and showed that forest soils were a net sink (105 kg ha(-1)) while agricultural land was a net source (55 kg ha(-1)) of SO4-S during 1960-2010. In the late 1980s, forest soils changed from a sink to a source of S, and the present release of SO4-S accumulated in forest soils thus delays recovery of surface waters from acidification, while S losses from agricultural soils increase the risk of future S deficiency in S-demanding crops. PMID:24176702

  14. Using lumped modelling for providing simple metrics and associated uncertainties of catchment response to agricultural-derived nitrates pollutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RUIZ, L.; Fovet, O.; Faucheux, M.; Molenat, J.; Sekhar, M.; Aquilina, L.; Gascuel-odoux, C.

    2013-12-01

    The development of simple and easily accessible metrics is required for characterizing and comparing catchment response to external forcings (climate or anthropogenic) and for managing water resources. The hydrological and geochemical signatures in the stream represent the integration of the various processes controlling this response. The complexity of these signatures over several time scales from sub-daily to several decades [Kirchner et al., 2001] makes their deconvolution very difficult. A large range of modeling approaches intent to represent this complexity by accounting for the spatial and/or temporal variability of the processes involved. However, simple metrics are not easily retrieved from these approaches, mostly because of over-parametrization issues. We hypothesize that to obtain relevant metrics, we need to use models that are able to simulate the observed variability of river signatures at different time scales, while being as parsimonious as possible. The lumped model ETNA (modified from[Ruiz et al., 2002]) is able to simulate adequately the seasonal and inter-annual patterns of stream NO3 concentration. Shallow groundwater is represented by two linear stores with double porosity and riparian processes are represented by a constant nitrogen removal function. Our objective was to identify simple metrics of catchment response by calibrating this lumped model on two paired agricultural catchments where both N inputs and outputs were monitored for a period of 20 years. These catchments, belonging to ORE AgrHys, although underlain by the same granitic bedrock are displaying contrasted chemical signatures. The model was able to simulate the two contrasted observed patterns in stream and groundwater, both on hydrology and chemistry, and at the seasonal and pluri-annual scales. It was also compatible with the expected trends of nitrate concentration since 1960. The output variables of the model were used to compute the nitrate residence time in both the

  15. Airborne pollutant characteristics in an urban, industrial and agricultural complex metroplex with high emission loading and ammonia concentration.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Li-Peng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-10-01

    The size distribution of particulate mass and water-soluble ionic constituents and their gaseous precursors was investigated in a subtropical area, southern Taiwan. Field sampling and chemical analysis of particulate matter (PM) were conducted using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) and a Nano-MOUDI, and gaseous pollutants were determined by a denuder-filter pack system. PM size mass distribution, mass concentration and ionic species concentration were measured during the day and at night in the winter and summer. Average PM concentrations in the winter were as high as 132 ± 42 μg/m(3), and PM mass concentrations in the summer were as low as 38 ± 19 μg/m(3). Generally, PM concentration was 111 ± 60 μg/m(3) at night, which was 20% higher than that in the daytime. The size-segregated mass distribution of PM mass concentration was over 85% in the 0.1-3.2 μm range. Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate were the dominant water-soluble ionic species in PM, contributing 34%-48% of PM mass. High ammonia (12.9-49 μg/m(3)) and SO2 (2.6-27 μg/m(3)) were observed in the gas precursors. The molar ratio [Formula: see text] was 3.18 ± 1.20 at PM1.0, which indicated that the PM was rich in ammonium. Therefore, the excess ammonium could neutralize nitrate to form ammonium nitrate, after the more stable ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate formation. PMID:25037046

  16. Pollution of River Mahaweli and farmlands under irrigation by cadmium from agricultural inputs leading to a chronic renal failure epidemic among farmers in NCP, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bandara, J M R S; Wijewardena, H V P; Bandara, Y M A Y; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Rajapaksha, H

    2011-10-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) associated with elevated dietary cadmium (Cd) among farming communities in the irrigated agricultural area under the River Mahaweli diversion scheme has reached a significantly higher level of 9,000 patients. Cadmium, derived from contaminated phosphate fertilizer, in irrigation water finds its way into reservoirs, and finally to food, causing chronic renal failure among consumers. Water samples of River Mahaweli and its tributaries in the upper catchment were analyzed to assess the total cadmium contamination of river water and the possible source of cadmium. Except a single tributary (Ulapane Stream, 3.9 μg Cd/l), all other tested tributaries carried more than 5 μg Cd/l, the maximum concentration level accepted to be safe in drinking water. Seven medium-sized streams carrying surface runoff from tea estates had 5.1-10 μg Cd/l. Twenty larger tributaries (Oya), where the catchment is under vegetable and home garden cultivation, carried 10.1-15 μg Cd/l. Nine other major tributaries had extremely high levels of Cd, reaching 20 μg Cd/l. Using geographic information system (GIS), the area in the catchment of each tributary was studied. The specific cropping system in each watershed was determined. The total cadmium loading from each crop area was estimated using the rates and types of phosphate fertilizer used by the respective farmers and the amount of cadmium contained in each type of fertilizer used. Eppawala rock phosphate (ERP), which is mostly used in tea estates, caused least pollution. The amount of cadmium in tributaries had a significant positive correlation with the cadmium loading of the cropping system. Dimbula Tea Estate Stream had the lowest Cd loading (495.9 g/ha/year), compared with vegetable-growing areas in Uma Oya catchment with 50,852.5 g Cd/ha/year. Kendall's τ rank correlation value of total Cd loading from the catchment by phosphate fertilizer used in all crops in the catchment to the Cd content in

  17. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture.

    PubMed

    Adl, S; Iron, D; Kolokolnikov, T

    2011-05-01

    Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region. PMID:21420722

  18. Comparing Environmental Conditions Using Indicators of Pollution Hazard

    PubMed

    Turner; Ruffio; Roberts

    1997-07-01

    / Land use/land cover classifications for 1973 and 1991, derived from the interpretation of satellite imagery, are quantified on the basis of biophysical land units in a study area in southeastern Australia. Nutrient export potentials are estimated for each land unit based on their composition of land use/land cover classes. Spatial and temporal comparisons are made of the land units based on the calculated pollution hazard indicators to provide an insight into changes in the state of the environment and the regional significance of land use changes. For example, one ecosystem, unique to the study, showed a large increase in pollution hazard over the study period as a manifestation of an 11-fold rise in cleared area and an expansion of cropping activities. The benefits to environmental management in general are discussed.KEY WORDS: Land cover change; Nutrient export; Environmental condition; Pollution hazard; Agricultural pollution; Nonpoint source pollution; Diffuse pollution; Environmental degradation PMID:9175549

  19. Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.

    Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical

  20. Combined impacts of precipitation and temperature on diffuse phosphorus pollution loading and critical source area identification in a freeze-thaw area.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Gao, Xiang; Yu, Yongyong

    2016-05-15

    The loss of diffuse phosphorus (P) presented different characteristics in the freeze-thaw area due to the combined impacts of precipitation and temperature, which caused spatiotemporal variations of the critical source area of diffuse P (CSAP). The temperature and precipitation classification (TPC) method was proposed to identify the spatiotemporal characteristics of the CSAP in the cold area, and each year was divided into a freeze-thaw season and a growing season according to the average monthly temperature. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) provided the spatiotemporal patterns of the diffuse P loads. The years were also reclassified into dry, normal and wet years according to the annual precipitation levels. The CSAP with the 1st cumulative load level shared 9.68% of the same area between the two seasons, which had dry land as the dominant land use with direct P fertilization. The spatial distributions of the potential areas and the CSAP with the 2nd cumulative load level were more sensitive to the variation in temperature, which had 30.8%-46.1% of unvaried area between seasons. The cumulative load level analysis indicated that 14 subbasins in the freeze-thaw season and 7 subbasins in the growing season, which covered 61.2% and 48.6% of the total basin area, respectively, changed with the traditional CSAP identification among dry, normal and wet years. The fluctuation level analysis was carried out to compare the distributional difference of the CSAP and the potential areas between the TPC method and the traditional method, which highlighted the advantages of the TPC method. The results would be useful in identifying the distribution of the CSAP in cold areas, which improved the efficiency of diffuse pollution control. PMID:26970198

  1. Geospatial data resampling and resolution effects on watershed modeling: A case study using the agricultural non-point source pollution model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Finn, M.P.; Scheidt, D.J.; Ruhl, S.; Beard, T.; Bearden, M.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers have been coupling geographic information systems (GIS) data handling and processing capability to watershed and waterquality models for many years. This capability is suited for the development of databases appropriate for water modeling. However, it is rare for GIS to provide direct inputs to the models. To demonstrate the logical procedure of coupling GIS for model parameter extraction, we selected the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) pollution model. Investigators can generate data layers at various resolutions and resample to pixel sizes to support models at particular scales. We developed databases of elevation, land cover, and soils at various resolutions in four watersheds. The ability to use multiresolution databases for the generation of model parameters is problematic for grid-based models. We used database development procedures and observed the effects of resolution and resampling on GIS input datasets and parameters generated from those inputs for AGNPS. Results indicate that elevation values at specific points compare favorably between 3- and 30-m raster datasets. Categorical data analysis indicates that land cover classes vary significantly. Derived parameters parallel the results of the base GIS datasets. Analysis of data resampled from 30-m to 60-, 120-, 210-, 240-, 480-, 960-, and 1920-m pixels indicates a general degradation of both elevation and land cover correlations as resolution decreases. Initial evaluation of model output values for soluble nitrogen and phosphorous indicates similar degradation with resolution. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  2. Geospatial data resampling and resolution effects on watershed modeling: A case study using the agricultural non-point source pollution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usery, E. Lynn; Finn, Michael P.; Scheidt, Douglas J.; Ruhl, Sheila; Beard, Thomas; Bearden, Morgan

    2004-10-01

    Researchers have been coupling geographic information systems (GIS) data handling and processing capability to watershed and water-quality models for many years. This capability is suited for the development of databases appropriate for water modeling. However, it is rare for GIS to provide direct inputs to the models. To demonstrate the logical procedure of coupling GIS for model parameter extraction, we selected the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) pollution model. Investigators can generate data layers at various resolutions and resample to pixel sizes to support models at particular scales. We developed databases of elevation, land cover, and soils at various resolutions in four watersheds. The ability to use multiresolution databases for the generation of model parameters is problematic for grid-based models. We used database development procedures and observed the effects of resolution and resampling on GIS input datasets and parameters generated from those inputs for AGNPS. Results indicate that elevation values at specific points compare favorably between 3- and 30-m raster datasets. Categorical data analysis indicates that land cover classes vary significantly. Derived parameters parallel the results of the base GIS datasets. Analysis of data resampled from 30-m to 60-, 120-, 210-, 240-, 480-, 960-, and 1920-m pixels indicates a general degradation of both elevation and land cover correlations as resolution decreases. Initial evaluation of model output values for soluble nitrogen and phosphorous indicates similar degradation with resolution.

  3. Associations of autophagy with lung diffusion capacity and oxygen saturation in severe COPD: effects of particulate air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Yun; Chiang, Ling-Ling; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Liu, Wen-Te; Chen, Tzu-Tao; Feng, Po-Hao; Su, Chien-Ling; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Although traffic exposure has been associated with the development of COPD, the role of particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in the pathogenesis of COPD is not yet fully understood. We assessed the 1-year effect of exposure to PM10 on the pathogenesis of COPD in a retrospective cohort study. We recruited 53 subjects with COPD stages III and IV and 15 healthy controls in a hospital in Taiwan. We estimated the 1-year annual mean levels of PM10 at all residential addresses of the cohort participants. Changes in PM10 for the 1-year averages in quintiles were related to diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide levels (r=−0.914, P=0.029), changes in the pulse oxygen saturation (ΔSaO2; r=−0.973, P=0.005), receptor for advanced glycation end-products (r=−0.881, P=0.048), interleukin-6 (r=0.986, P=0.002), ubiquitin (r=0.940, P=0.017), and beclin 1 (r=0.923, P=0.025) in COPD. Next, we observed that ubiquitin was correlated with ΔSaO2 (r=−0.374, P=0.019). Beclin 1 was associated with diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (r=−0.362, P=0.028), ΔSaO2 (r=−0.354, P=0.032), and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (r=−0.471, P=0.004). Autophagy may be an important regulator of the PM10-related pathogenesis of COPD, which could cause deterioration in the lung diffusion capacity and oxygen saturation. PMID:27468231

  4. Measuring the Quality of Communication Linkages between Farmers and the Agricultural Agencies Responsible for the Diffusion of Innovations in the South West Province of Cameroon. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Bridget Ayuk

    The quality of communication linkages between farmers and the agricultural agencies responsible for diffusion of innovations in the South West Province of Cameroon was examined in a study of all 25 researchers and 150 extension agents in the province and 385 farmers who were randomly selected from the province's 3,000 farmers. Data were collected…

  5. The Other Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  6. Application of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique for available potassium measurement in agricultural soils: effects of competing cations on potassium uptake by the resin gel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulin; Mason, Sean; McNeill, Ann; McLaughlin, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The utilization of Amberlite (IRP-69 ion-exchange resin, 100-500 wet mesh) as the binding phase in the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique has shown potential to improve the assessment of plant-available K in soils. The binding phase has recently been optimized by using a mixed Amberlite and ferrihydrite (MAF) gel which results in linear K uptake over extended deployment periods and in solutions with higher K concentrations. As restriction of K uptake by Ca on the Amberlite based resin gel has been previously proposed, potential competing effects of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and NH(4+) on K uptake by the MAF gel were investigated. These cations had no effect on K elution efficiency which was 85%. However, K uptake by the MAF gel was restricted in the presence of competing cations in solution. Consequently, the diffusion coefficient of K decreased in the presence of cations compared to previous studies but was stable at 1.12×10(-5)cm(2)s(-1) at 25°C regardless of cation concentrations. Uptake of K by the DGT device was affected by the presence of excessive Ca in more than 30% of twenty typical Australian agricultural soils. However, this problem could be circumvented by using a shorter deployment time than the normal 24 h. Moderate correlation of concentrations of K extracted by DGT with Colwell K (extracted by NaHCO(3), R(2)=0.69) and NH4OAc K (R(2)=0.61) indicates that DGT measures a different pool of K in soils than that measured by the standard extractants used. In addition, the MAF gel has the ability to measure Ca and Mg simultaneously. PMID:25127648

  7. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). PMID:25602550

  8. Nitrous oxide and nitrate concentration in under-drainage from arable fields subject to diffuse pollution mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama-Aziz, Zanist; Hiscock, Kevin; Adams, Christopher; Reid, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentrations are increasing by 0.3% annually and a major source of this greenhouse gas is agriculture. Indirect emissions of nitrous oxide (e.g. from groundwater and surface water) account for about quarter of total nitrous oxide emissions. However, these indirect emissions are subject to uncertainty, mainly due to the range in reported emission factors. It's hypothesised in this study that cover cropping and implementing reduced (direct drill) cultivation in intensive arable systems will reduce dissolved nitrate concentration and subsequently indirect nitrous oxide emissions. To test the hypothesis, seven fields with a total area of 102 ha in the Wensum catchment in eastern England have been chosen for experimentation together with two fields (41 ha) under conventional cultivation (deep inversion ploughing) for comparison. Water samples from field under-drainage have been collected for nitrate and nitrous oxide measurement on a weekly basis from April 2013 for two years from both cultivation areas. A purge and trap preparation line connected to a Shimadzu GC-8A gas chromatograph fitted with an electron capture detector was used for dissolved nitrous oxide analysis. Results revealed that with an oilseed radish cover crop present, the mean concentration of nitrate, which is the predominant form of N, was significantly depleted from 13.9 mg N L-1 to 2.5 mg N L-1. However, slightly higher mean nitrous oxide concentrations under the cover crop of 2.61 μg N L-1 compared to bare fields of 2.23 μg N L-1 were observed. Different inversion intensity of soil tended to have no effect on nitrous oxide and nitrate concentrations. The predominant production mechanism for nitrous oxide was nitrification process and the significant reduction of nitrate was due to plant uptake rather than denitrification. It is concluded that although cover cropping might cause a slight increase of indirect nitrous oxide emission, it can be a highly effective

  9. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape. PMID:26855226

  10. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  11. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of BMPs in controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China based on the SWAT model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruimin; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used in managing agricultural nonpoint source pollution (ANSP) at the watershed level. Most BMPs are related to land use, tillage management, and fertilizer levels. In total, seven BMP scenarios (Reforest1, Reforest2, No Tillage, Contour tillage, and fertilizer level 1-4) that are related to these three factors were estimated in this study. The objectives were to investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of these BMPs on ANSP reduction in a large tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, which are based on the simulation results of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The results indicated that reforestation was the most economically efficient of all BMPs, and its net benefits were up to CNY 4.36×10(7) years(-1) (about USD 7.08×10(6) years(-1)). Regarding tillage practices, no tillage practice was more environmentally friendly than other tillage practices, and contour tillage was more economically efficient. Reducing the local fertilizer level to 0.8-fold less than that of 2010 can yield a satisfactory environmental and economic efficiency. Reforestation and fertilizer management were more effective in reducing total phosphorus (TP), whereas tillage management was more effective in reducing total nitrogen (TN). When CNY 10,000 (about USD 162) was applied to reforestation, no tillage, contour tillage, and an 0.8-fold reduction in the fertilizer level, then annual TN load can be reduced by 0.08, 0.16, 0.11, and 0.04 t and annual TP load can be reduced by 0.04, 0.02, 0.01 and 0.03 t, respectively. The cost-benefit (CB) ratios of the BMPs were as follows: reforestation (207 %) > contour tillage (129 %) > no tillage (114 %) > fertilizer management (96 and 89 %). The most economical and effective BMPs can be designated as follows: BMP1 (returning arable land with slopes greater than 25° to forests and those lands with slopes of 15-25° to orchards), BMP2 (implementing no tillage

  12. Agricultural Science Protects Our Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    Included are a 49 frame filmstrip and a script for narrating a presentation. The presentation is aimed at the secondary school level with an emphasis on how agricultural scientists investigate problems in farmland erosion, stream pollution, road building erosion problems, air pollution, farm pollution, pesticides, and insect control by biological…

  13. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  14. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  15. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article. PMID:27620104

  16. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  17. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: II. Residential, agricultural and informal industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Rao, Anand B.; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Dispersed traditional combustion technologies, characterized by inefficient combustion and significant emissions, are widely used in residential cooking and "informal industries" including brick production, food and agricultural product processing operations like drying and cooking operations related to sugarcane juice, milk, food-grain, jute, silk, tea and coffee. In addition, seasonal agricultural residue burning in field is a discontinuous source of significant emissions. Here we estimate fuel consumption in these sectors and agricultural residue burned using detailed technology divisions and survey-based primary data for 2010 and projected between 1996 and 2015. In the residential sector, a decline in the fraction of solid biomass users for cooking from 79% in 1996 to 65% in 2010 was offset by a growing population, leading to a nearly constant population of solid biomass users, with a corresponding increase in the population of LPG users. Emissions from agriculture followed the growth in agricultural production and diesel use by tractors and pumps. Trends in emissions from the informal industries sector followed those in coal combustion in brick kilns. Residential biomass cooking stoves were the largest contributors to emissions of PM2.5, OC, CO, NMVOC and CH4. Highest emitting technologies of BC were residential kerosene wick lamps. Emissions of SO2 were largely from coal combustion in Bull's trench kilns and other brick manufacturing technologies. Diesel use in tractors was the major source of NOx emissions. Uncertainties in emission estimates were principally from highly uncertain emission factors, particularly for technologies in the informal industries.

  18. Toxic metal dispersion in mining areas: from point source to diffusion pollution. The case of the Mt. Amiata Hg mining district (Southern Tuscany - Italy): new results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colica, Antonella; Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilario; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario; Rinaldi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    .9 mg/kg), whereas older terraces (Pleistocenic and pre 1880) show low Hg concentrations (0.05÷5 and 0.05÷1.1 mg/kg, respectively), within the natural geochemical background level of Mt. Amiata region (2÷6 mg/kg after Rimondi (2013 - Ph.D Thesis, Univ. of Florence - Italy). Our estimates indicat that along the 43 km of analyzed Paglia River reach, the various sedimentary units contain a total mass of about 60 tons of Hg. The largest amount of Hg is hosted by terraces coeval with mining activity (about 74% of total Hg), whereas minor amounts are stored in the floodplains (about 26%). Present day stream sediments and bars contribute to a negligible extent to the Hg mass balance in the Paglia system, because of the limited thickness of fine sediments deposited. During large floods, heavily contaminated materials resulting from these terraces and floodplains can be partially eroded and then transported further downstream, contributing to the diffusion of the pollutants toward the sea. Future goals of the study will include the determination of the vulnerability of fluvial reaches, and the formulation of hypothesis for controlling the erosion and the deposition of toxic materials.

  19. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  20. AnnAGNPS – A United States Department of Agriculture Watershed Conservation Management Planning Tool for Non-Point Source Pollution Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A watershed scale assessment of the effect of conservation practices on the environment is critical when recommending best management practices to agricultural producers. The environmental benefits of these practices have not been widely quantified at the watershed scale, which would require extens...

  1. AGRICULTURAL BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE EFFECTIVENESS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Agricultural Best Management Practice Effectiveness Database contains the results of research projects which have collected water quality data for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of agricultural management practices in reducing pollutants ...

  2. Perceived Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Impacting the Diffusion of Distance Education Technologies in a College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Dooley, Kim E.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with administrators, faculty, and support staff (n=42) in a university agriculture department revealed that they recognized distance technology as a means of reaching new audiences; policies and procedures must expand to address technology issues; competition, external dependence, and Internet misinformation were threats.…

  3. Concept of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T

    2012-01-01

    Unlike in urban areas where intensive water reclamation systems are available, development of decentralized technologies and systems is required for water use to be sustainable in agricultural areas. To overcome various water quality issues in those areas, a research project entitled 'Development of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas under the consideration of climate change' was launched in 2009. This paper introduces the concept of this research and provides detailed information on each of its research areas: (1) development of a diffuse agricultural pollution control technology using catch crops; (2) development of a decentralized differentiable treatment system for livestock and human excreta; and (3) development of a cascading material-cycle system for water pollution control and value-added production. The author also emphasizes that the innovative water management system for agricultural areas should incorporate a strategy for the voluntary collection of bio-resources. PMID:22828292

  4. INNOVATIVE USES OF VEGETATED DRAINAGE DITCHES FOR REDUCING AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing concerns over agricultural contributions to water quality degradation have resulted in increased emphasis on discovering new, innovative best management practices (BMPs) to decrease effects of storm water runoff containing potential agricultural pollutants. Vegetated agricultural ditches pla...

  5. Agricultural management change effects on river nutrient yields in a catchment of Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Modelling efforts are strongly recommended nowadays by European legislation for investigating non-structural mitigation measures against water pollution on catchment scale. Agricultural diffuse pollution is considered to be the main responsible human activity for the Eutrophication of inland waters with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The physically-based water quality model SWAT is implemented in an agricultural medium-size agricultural catchment of Central Greece with the purpose to simulate the baseline situation and subsequently to predict the effects that realistic non-structural interventions, applied on the agricultural land, have on water quality and crop yields. SWAT was successfully calibrated according to measured flows and water quality data and subsequently scenarios were developed by changing chemical fertilizer application rates and timing on corn, cotton and wheat cultivations. All scenarios resulted in a decrease of nutrient emissions to surface waters but with a simultaneous small decrease in crop yields. The model predicted explicitly the consequences of non-structural mitigation measures against water pollution sustaining that the understanding of land management changes in relation to its driving factors provides essential information for sustainable management of the agricultural sector in an agricultural country like Greece.

  6. Linking trace metals and agricultural land use in volcanic soils--a multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Parelho, C; Rodrigues, A S; Cruz, J V; Garcia, P

    2014-10-15

    The concern about the environmental impacts caused by agriculture intensification is growing as large amounts of nutrients and contaminants are introduced into soil ecosystems. Volcanic soils are unique naturally fertile resources extensively used for agricultural purposes, with particular physical and chemical properties that may result in possible accumulation of toxic substances, such as metals. Within this particular geological context, the present study aims to evaluate the impact of different agricultural systems (conventional, traditional and organic) in trace metal (TM) soil pollution and define the tracers for each one. Physicochemical properties and TM contents in agricultural topsoils were determined. Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated to distinguish geogenic and anthropogenic contribution to TM contents in agricultural soils. An ensemble of multivariate statistical analyses (PCA and FDA) was performed to reduce the multidimensional space of variables and samples, thus defining a set of TM as tracers of distinct agricultural farming systems. Results show that agricultural soils have low organic matter content (<5%) compared to reference soil (>30%); in addition, electric conductivity in conventional farming soils is higher (262.3 ± 162.6 μS cm(-1)) while pH is lower (5.8 ± 0.3). Regarding metal inputs, V, Ba and Hg soil contents are mainly of geogenic origin, while Li, P, K, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd and Pb result primarily from anthropogenic inputs. Li revealed to be a tracer of agricultural pollution in conventional farming soils, whereas V allowed the discrimination of traditional farming soils. This study points to agriculture as a diffuse source of anthropogenic TM soil pollution and is the first step to identify priority chemicals affecting agricultural Andosols. PMID:25093299

  7. COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL employees at the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, are sharing in a unique community agriculture program that supports EPA environmental goals?off the job as well as on. Every Wednesday afternoon, bags of farm-fresh org...

  8. The nitrate and phosphorus response to dynamic control of tile drain levels in a Dutch lowland area with high agricultural pollution loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borren, W.; Rozemeijer, J.; Visser, A.; Broers, H.

    2011-12-01

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes from upstream agriculture threaten aquatic ecosystems in surface waters and estuaries, especially in areas characterized by high agricultural N and P inputs and densely drained catchments like the Netherlands. Previous studies (Rozemeijer et al. 2010a,b, vdVelde 2010) revealed that tile drains are a dominant transport route for nitrate in a Dutch lowland catchment. Overland flow is an important transport route for P. Local measures aimed at reducing the solute inputs from agriculture to surface water are studied, in addition to national management approaches. We designed a small scale (1 ha) field experiment to investigate whether nutrient outflow from tile drains can be reduced by dynamically controlling the outflow level of the drains. Our hypothesis was that higher water tables in spring and summer may increase denitrification rates in the soil and reduce N fluxes, but this could also increase overland flow and P transport by reducing storage capacity. Controlling the drain levels may also promote water storage in catchments, which may enhance agricultural productivity in dry summers. In our two-year experiment we adjusted the tile drain levels for periods of 2 months or longer. We measured precipitation rates and the response of water tables and drain fluxes at the agricultural field and measured N and P concentrations continuously using auto-analyzers. This yielded continuous time series for all relevant hydrological and chemical parameters. Moreover, we measured monthly-averaged N and P concentrations using passive samplers, installed at the field experiment and in 20 drains distributed over the catchment. We concluded that raising drain outflow levels in early spring until end of summer has a positive effect on water storage in the catchment and effectively reduces nitrate outflow to the surface water by reducing the water fluxes. However, the eventual effects of reduction of nitrate fluxes and storage of water

  9. Atmospheric pollutant emission factors from open burning of agricultural and forest biomass by wind tunnel simulations. Volume 3. Results, wood fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Williams, R.B.; Goronea, M.; Abd-el-Fattah, H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutant emission factors were determined by wind tunnel simulations of spreading and pile fires for 8 different types of fuel including barley, rice and wheat straw, corn stover, almond and walnut tree prunings, and Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine slash. Emission factors were determined for each fuel for CO, NO, NOx, SO2, total hydrocarbons, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, total sulfur, CO2, particulate matter, volatile organic matter (VOC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined from light transmission measurements through filter samples. Emission rate were correlated against burning conditions and fuel compositions. Factors affecting the buring rates and emission factors included inlet air temperature, loading rate, and wind speed. Volume 3 contains data from wood fuels.

  10. Atmospheric pollutant emission factors from open burning of agricultural and forest biomass by wind tunnel simulations. Volume 2. Results, cereal crop residues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Williams, R.B.; Goronea, M.; Abd-el-Fattah, H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutant emission factors were determined by wind tunnel simulations of spreading and pile fires for 8 different types of fuel including barley, rice and wheat straw, corn stove, almond and walnut tree prunings, and Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine slash. Emission factors were determined for each fuel for CO, NO, NOx, SO2, total hydrocarbons, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, total sulfur, CO2, particulate matter, volatile organic matter (VOC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Elemental compositions of particulate matter were determined by size category. Bulk aerosol absorption coefficients were determined from light transmission measurements through filter samples. Emission rates were correlated against burning conditions and fuel compositions. Factors affecting the burning rates and emission factors included inlet air temperature, loading rate, and wind speed. Vol. 2 contains data from cereal straws and stovers.

  11. Modern Agriculture in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanegran, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the four sections of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course focusing on agriculture: (1) development and diffusion of agriculture; (2) major agricultural production regions; (3) rural land use and change; and (4) impacts of modern agricultural change. Includes references and a resource list. (CMK)

  12. Calculating the Diffusive Flux of Persistent Organic Pollutants between Sediments and the Water Column on the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site using Polymeric Passive Samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers were used to determine water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface sediments and near-bottom water of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Measured concentrations in the porewater and water column at...

  13. Diffuse pollution (pesticides and nitrate) at catchment scale on two constrasted sites: mass balances and characterization of the temporal variability of groundwater quality.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, N.; Gutierrez, A.

    2009-04-01

    Enhanced monitoring of groundwater quality over several years has revealed a nitrate and /or pesticide contamination of aquifers in North America and Europe (Gilliom et al., 2006; Ifen, 2004). In many countries (France, United Kingdom, Denmark, Switzerland), drinking water is partly or dominantly supplied by groundwater. Assessing the extent of nitrate or pesticide contamination in aquifer and understanding the transport of the solutes to groundwater is, therefore, of major importance for the management of groundwater resources. Besides, the objective set by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD - 2000/60/EC, OJEC 2000) is for "all groundwater bodies to achieve the good quantitative and chemical status … at the latest by 2015". The Directive demands that European Union Member States not only characterize their levels of groundwater contamination, but also that they study the evolutionary trends of their pollutant concentrations. Monitoring groundwater quality for nitrate and pesticide is thus particularly relevant as well as the characterization of the transfer of solutes to and in groundwater is essential for effective water resource management. Several countries have approached the stage of characterization of their groundwater bodies either by using data derived from various measurement networks, as in France or by establishing specific sampling and analysis protocols (NAQUA network in Switzerland; NAWQA network in the United States). Pesticide monitoring networks, where they exist, are often less than 10 years old with a fairly low measurement frequency (1 to 4 analyses per year). Chemical status and trend interpretations are thus difficult and limited. Characterizing an entire groundwater body from observations limited in time and space remains a challenge. Little published data exists concerning intensive monitoring over several years, whether at the catchment outlet or at observation points spread over a basin, that would allow these

  14. Stronger management needed to protect agricultural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Shikui

    1983-01-01

    This article examines environmental issues and management in developed agricultural areas of China. Agricultural environmental management is defined as the adoption of countermeasures by applying the theories and methods of environmental science and management science and abiding by economic laws and ecological laws to prevent pollution of the agricultural environment and destruction of the agro-ecology by man; to coordinate the relationship between the development of agricultural production and the protection of the agricultural environment and to satisfy increasing demands for agricultural by-products. Topics considered include the basis for developing agricultural environmental management, the present condition of the agricultural environment in China, and several management proposals.

  15. [Vibration on agricultural tractors].

    PubMed

    Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed. PMID:24303716

  16. Results of the clean-up operation to reduce pollution on flooded agricultural fields after the red mud spill in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Uzinger, Nikolett; Anton, Áron Dániel; Ötvös, Károly; Tamás, Péter; Anton, Attila

    2015-07-01

    In Hungary, the dam of a red mud reservoir breached shortly after noon on October 4, 2010. Approximately 0.7-1 million m(3) highly alkaline red mud with very low dry matter content flowed into the Torna Creek and the surrounding area, covering 1017 ha of agricultural land. Results of the risk assessment of the accident indicated that the red mud should be removed from the surface of fields where it formed a continuous layer of more than 5 cm. After the removal, samples were taken manually from depths of 0.0-0.2 m and 0.2-0.4 m in a sampling grid and background samples unaffected by red mud from the depth of 0.0-0.3 m. Total element contents (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn, and Na) and pH values were measured, and the results were analysed using correlation analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis probe. Dependence of the measured variables from elevation above sea level was studied using a 10 m by 10 m digital elevation model. Only ∼6.5% of the flooded area was temporarily designated as unsuitable for the production of food and fodder crops. In summary, the clean-up operation can be said to have been a success. PMID:25647492

  17. Diffusion of innovative agricultural production systems for sustainable development of small islands: A methodological approach based on the science of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Guiseppe; Butera, Federico M.

    1992-09-01

    In order to develop small islands, not only must a vital agricultural system be maintained, but the range of opportunities for tourism must be increased with respect to both the seaside and the environmental features of the rural landscape. As an alternative to the traditional and economically declining ones, many innovative production processes can be identified, but their success depends on their interaction with the physical, biological, economic and social environment. In order to identify the main nodes and the most critical interactions, so as to increase the probability of success of a new productive process, a methodological approach based on the science of complexity is proposed for the cultivation of capers ( Capparis spinosa L.) on the island of Pantelleria. The methodology encompasses the identification of actors and factors involved. the quantitative evaluation of their interactions with the different stages of the productive process, and a quasiquantitative evaluation of the probability that the particular action will be performed successfully. The study of “traditional,” “modernized,” and “modernized-sustainable” processes, shows that the modernized-sustainable process offers mutually reinforcing opportunities in terms of an integrated development of high-quality agricultural products and the enhancement of environmental features, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in a way that suits the development of Pantelleria. There is a high probability of failure, however, as a result of the large number of critical factors. Nevertheless, the present study indicates which activities will enhance the probability of successful innovation in the production process.

  18. Optimal Pollution Trading without Pollution Reductions : A Note

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  19. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  20. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of mitigation methods for multiple pollutants at farm scale.

    PubMed

    Gooday, R D; Anthony, S G; Chadwick, D R; Newell-Price, P; Harris, D; Duethmann, D; Fish, R; Collins, A L; Winter, M

    2014-01-15

    Reductions in agricultural pollution are essential for meeting nationally and internationally agreed policy targets for losses to both air and water. Numerous studies quantify the impact of relevant mitigation methods by field experimentation or computer modelling. The majority of these studies have addressed individual methods and frequently also individual pollutants. This paper presents a conceptual model for the synthesis of the evidence base to calculate the impact of multiple methods addressing multiple pollutants in order to identify least cost solutions for multiple policy objectives. The model is implemented as a farm scale decision support tool that quantifies baseline pollutant losses for identifiable sources, areas and pathways and incorporates a genetic algorithm based multi-objective procedure for determining optimal suites of mitigation methods. The tool is generic as baseline losses can be replaced with measured data and the default library of mitigation methods can be edited and expanded. The tool is demonstrated through application to two contrasting farm systems, using survey data on agricultural practices typical of England and Wales. These examples show how the tool could be used to help target the adoption of mitigation options for the control of diffuse pollution from agriculture. The feedback from workshops where Farmscoper was demonstrated is included to highlight the potential role of Farmscoper as part of the farm advisory process. PMID:23706481

  1. NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-point source pollution is a diffuse source that is difficult to measure and is highly variable due to different rain patterns and other climatic conditions. In many areas, however, non-point source pollution is the greatest source of water quality degradation. Presently, stat...

  2. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... here: EPA Home Air and Radiation Noise Pollution Noise Pollution This page has moved. You should be ... epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/title-iv-noise-pollution Local Navigation Air & Radiation Home Basic Information ...

  4. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  5. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  6. [Quantification of Agricultural In-Situ Surface Soil Moisture Content Using Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy: A Comparison of Modeling Methods].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-feng; Dong, Yi-wei; Hu, Xin; Lu, Guo-hua; Ren, De-chao; Song, Ji-qing

    2015-12-01

    At field scale, surface soil had special characteristics of volumetric moisture content (VMC) with a relatively little difference and spatial heterogeneity induced by physical and chemical properties, roughness, straw residues, etc. It has been a great challenge for near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIR-DRS) measurement of surface soil moisture in situ. In this study, exonential decay models based on seven water-related wavelengths (1200, 1400, 1450, 1820, 1940, 2000 and 2250 nm), linear models of normalized difference soil moisture index (NSMI) and relative absorption depth (RAD) based on wave-length combinations, linear or quadratic model of width of the inflection (σ), center amplitude of the function (Rd) and area under the Gaussian curve (A) from soil moisture Gaussian model (SMGM), and partial least square (PLS) regression models based on bands were used to quantify VMC. The results indicated that (1) of all the single wavelengths, 2 000 nm showed the best validation result, indicated by the lowest RMSEp (2.463) and the highest RPD value (1.060). (2) Comparing with RAD, the validation of NSMI was satisfactory with higher R² (0.312), lower RMSEp (2.133) and higher RPD value (1.224). (3) In the validation results of SMGM parameters and PLS fitting, Rd was found to produce the best fitting quality identified by the highest R² (0.253), the lowest RMSEp (2.222), and the highest RPD value (1.175). (4) Comprehensively, a linear model based on NSMI showed the highest validation accuracy of all the methods. What is more, its calculation process is simple and easy to operate, and therefore become the preferred method to quantify surface soil moisture content in situ. PMID:26964221

  7. Pollution caused by peoples' use for socio-economic purposes (agricultural, recreation and tourism) in the Gölcük Plain Settlement at Bozdağ Plateau (Ödemiş-İzmir/Turkey): a case study.

    PubMed

    Kurtaslan, Banu Ozturk; Demirel, Öner

    2011-04-01

    Mountainous areas, which form the largest geography of our country and are called reserves of resources owing to their difficulty of accessibility, have been increasingly under threat of exploitation and overuse in recent years. The area in question from among the mountainous areas, which are sensitive ecosystems with their environmental components, is the Bozdağ mass located in Gölcük Plateau Settlement, which has been subject to intensive construction and use. This study is intended to reveal the current uses of Gölcük Plateau (agricultural, recreation, and tourism) and determine the sources and effects of pollution as a result of these uses and aims at revealing how the permanent residents of Gölcük Plateau Settlement on Bozdağ Plateau, which is a center of attraction with respect of recreation and tourism activities, and those who go there only in certain periods, use the environment for tourism and recreational purposes, and determine their positive and negative impacts on environment through SWOT analysis. PMID:20585852

  8. Identification of a time-varying point source in a system of two coupled linear diffusion-advection- reaction equations: application to surface water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Adel

    2009-11-01

    This paper deals with the identification of a point source (localization of its position and recovering the history of its time-varying intensity function) that constitutes the right-hand side of the first equation in a system of two coupled 1D linear transport equations. Assuming that the source intensity function vanishes before reaching the final control time, we prove the identifiability of the sought point source from recording the state relative to the second coupled transport equation at two observation points framing the source region. Note that at least one of the two observation points should be strategic. We establish an identification method that uses these records to identify the source position as the root of a continuous and strictly monotonic function. Whereas the source intensity function is recovered using a recursive formula without any need of an iterative process. Some numerical experiments on a variant of the surface water pollution BOD-OD coupled model are presented.

  9. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  10. Metal pollution of river Msimbazi, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Ak'habuhaya, J.; Lodenius, M. )

    1988-01-01

    The Misimbazi River in Dar es Salaam is polluted with industrial, urban and agricultural waste waters. A preliminary investigation on the extent of metal pollution (Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Mn, Al) was made from samples of sediments and biological indicators. The metal concentrations were in general low, but some of our results indicated industrial pollution.

  11. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  12. Extending the Agricultural Extension Model. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.; And Others

    The purposes of this report are: to describe the main elements of the U.S. agricultural extension model and its effects on the agricultural revolution; to analyze attempts to extend this model to non-agricultural technology and/or to less developed countries; and to draw general conclusions about the diffusion of technological innovations, with…

  13. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  14. A synthetic method for atmospheric diffusion simulation and environmental impact assessment of accidental pollution in the chemical industry in a WEBGIS context.

    PubMed

    Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen; Cheng, Liang

    2014-09-01

    The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information) management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents. PMID:25198686

  15. A Synthetic Method for Atmospheric Diffusion Simulation and Environmental Impact Assessment of Accidental Pollution in the Chemical Industry in a WEBGIS Context

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen; Cheng, Liang

    2014-01-01

    The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information) management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents. PMID:25198686

  16. Analysis of a five-year high resolution phosphorus dataset for signals of diffuse and point source pollution change in rural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Julie; Jordan, Phil

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring the efficacy of phosphorus (P) mitigation measures for both diffuse and point sources is difficult due to sample resolution and processes related to seasonality and hydrology. High-resolution monitoring by bankside analysers has increased in catchment studies, capturing the variation of P signals in flowing water from multiple sources and hydrological dependencies. However, while these high-resolution data can offer new insights into P patterns related to process, there is no theory on how these data should be used to investigate catchment change influences on stream P chemistry over time. Here we demonstrate the analysis of a five-year sub-hourly dataset of total P spanning a period of voluntary and mandatory mitigation measures to reduce soil P in high status fields and also replacement of defective septic systems. These two mitigation measures were deemed to have influences on both diffuse, storm dependent P transfers during high flows, and point, storm-independent P transfers during low flows. The data were gathered by Hach-Lange Phosphax systems linked to hydrometric stations in two 5km2 rural catchments (in the Irish border region) so that P concentration and discharge were measured synchronously. A series of ranked percentile high flow and low flow discharge ranges (e.g. Q5-Q10 and Q90-Q95, respectively) were determined for the five year period and, in each year, the P concentration data were extracted, which corresponded to these ranges. Each discharge percentile range was associated with several hundred mean hourly total P concentrations in each year and were compared using ANOVA to determine the magnitude and significance of change on a year-by-year basis. Over the five year period, the high flow analysis indicated that diffuse stream P concentrations had increased in both catchments (0.152 to 0.280 mg l-1, and 0.228 to 0.391 mg l-1), despite efforts to reduce soil P status. Subsequently, it was shown that the potency of high flow P transfers

  17. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  18. Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eddie; And Others

    To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural…

  19. Evaluation of the effect of different sampling time periods and ambient air pollutant concentrations on the performance of the Radiello diffusive sampler for the analysis of VOCs by TD-GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Gallego, E; Roca, F J; Perales, J F; Guardino, X

    2011-09-01

    The effect of different sampling exposure times and ambient air pollutant concentrations on the performance of Radiello® samplers for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is evaluated. Quadruplicate samples of Radiello® passive tubes were taken for 3, 4, 7 and 14 days. Samples were taken indoors during February and March 2010 and outdoors during July 2010 in La Canonja (Tarragona, Spain). The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with capillary gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry detection (MS). The results show significant differences (t-test, p < 0.05) between the amounts of VOCs obtained from the sum of two short sampling periods and a single equivalent longer sampling period for 65% of all the data. 17% of the results show significantly larger amounts of pollutant in the sum of two short sampling periods. Back diffusion due to changes in concentrations together with saturation and competitive effects between the compounds during longer sampling periods could be responsible for these differences. The other 48% of the results that are different show significantly larger amounts in the single equivalent longer sampling period. The remaining 35% of the results do not show significant differences. Although significant differences are observed in the amount of several VOCs collected over two shorter sampling intervals compared to the amount collected during a single equivalent longer sampling period, the ratios obtained are very close to unity (between 0.7 and 1.2 in 75% of cases). We conclude that Radiello® passive samplers are useful tools if their limitations are taken into account and the manufacturer's recommendations are followed. PMID:21829856

  20. Agriculture, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remotely sensed data in agriculture are enumerated. These include: predictions of forage for range animal consumption, forest management, soil mapping, and crop inventory and management.

  1. The Classical Diffusion Paradigm in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooks, Gregory

    The erosion of the credibility of the classical diffusion paradigm by recent challenges to its fundamental assumptions has resulted in a "paradigmatic crisis" as related to research on the diffusion of agricultural innovations. Such basic assumptions as that of a harmonious and cooperative society and of agricultural research guided by endogenous…

  2. Screening model for volatile pollutants in dual porosity soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hantush, Mohamed M.; Govindaraju, Rao. S.; Mariño, Miguel A.; Zhang, Zhonglong

    2002-03-01

    This paper develops mass fraction models for transport and fate of agricultural pollutants in structured two-region soils. Mass fraction index models, based on a semi-infinite domain solution, are derived that describe leaching at depth, vapor losses through soil surface, absorption, and degradation in the dynamic- and stagnant-water soil regions. The models predict that leaching is the result of the combined effect of the upward vapor-phase transport relative to downward advection, residence time relative to half-life, dispersion, and lateral diffusive mass transfer. Simulations show that leached fraction of volatile compounds does not always decrease monotonically with increased residence time relative to the pollutant half-life, as a result of complex interactions among the different physical and biochemical processes. The results show that leaching, volatilization, and degradation losses can be affected significantly by lateral diffusive mass transfer into immobile-water regions and advection relative to dispersion (i.e. Peclet number) in the mobile-water regions. It is shown that solute diffusion into the immobile phase and subsequent biochemical decay reduces leaching and vapor losses through soil surface. Potential use of the modified leaching index for the screening of selected pesticides is illustrated for different soil textures and infiltration rates. The analysis may be useful to the management of pesticides and the design of landfills.

  3. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  4. Social Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Aristide Henri

    1971-01-01

    Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

  5. Geospatial measurements of soil electrical conductivity to assess soil salinity and diffuse salt loading from irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, James D.; Corwin, Dennis L.; Lesch, Scott M.

    Irrigated agriculture is necessary to meet the food demands of the world, but excessive irrigation has wasted water and drainage from it has degraded the productivity and altered the ecology of vast areas of land. Irrigated agriculture also has polluted associated surface water and groundwater resources. The extent of soil degradation from salinization and waterlogging and, especially, the extent of water salinization resulting from excessive irrigation have not been well quantified. Additionally, the diffuse sources of deep percolation and salt loading from irrigation have not been well established. This paper describes basic principles of soil electrical conductivity, recent technology developed to assess the magnitude and distribution of soil salinity in fields, and ways to infer the areal sources and amounts of diffuse salt loading from irrigation.

  6. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  7. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  8. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  9. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  10. Can spectroscopic analysis improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes in agricultural streams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieroza, Magdalena; Heathwaite, Ann Louise

    2015-04-01

    In agricultural catchments diffuse fluxes of nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from arable land and livestock are responsible for pollution of receiving waters and their eutrophication. Organic matter (OM) can play an important role in mediating a range of biogeochemical processes controlling diffuse pollution in streams and at their interface with surrounding land in the riparian and hyporheic zones. Thus, a holistic and simultaneous monitoring of N, P and OM fractions can help to improve our understanding of biogeochemical functioning of agricultural streams. In this study we build on intensive in situ monitoring of diffuse pollution in a small agricultural groundwater-fed stream in NW England carried out since 2009. The in situ monitoring unit captures high-frequency (15 minutes to hourly) responses of water quality parameters including total phosphorus, total reactive phosphorus and nitrate-nitrogen to changing flow conditions. For two consecutive hydrological years we have carried out additional spectroscopic water analyses to characterise organic matter components and their interactions with nutrient fractions. Automated and grab water samples have been analysed using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance and excitation-emission (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, a tryptophan sensor was trialled to capture in situ fluorescence dynamics. Our paper evaluates patterns in nutrient and OM responses to baseflow and storm flow conditions and provides an assessment of storage-related changes of automated samples and temperature and turbidity effects on in situ tryptophan measurements. The paper shows the value of spectroscopic measurements to understand biogeochemical and hydrological nutrient dynamics and quantifies analytical uncertainty associated with both laboratory-based and in situ spectroscopic measurements.

  11. Nitrate concentrations and fluxes in the River Thames, London UK 1868 to 2008: catchment-scale modelling of diffuse agricultural sources and groundwater response using the world's longest water quality time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howden, N. J.; Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Mathias, S.; Whelan, M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents analyses of the world's longest water quality record: 140 years of monthly-average nitrate concentrations (1868 to 2008) and fluxes (1883 to 2008) for the River Thames north of London. We show how short- and long- term patterns in these time series are influenced by both climatic and anthropogenic pressures, in the case of the latter, particularly land use and land management practices. Climate change does not play a significant role in controlling annual average concentrations or fluxes, rather large-scale land conversions from permanent grassland to arable farming have created sustained diffuse sources of nitrate that have caused (almost four-fold) increases in concentrations and fluxes that persist for many decades after the initial changes. Our analyses of this unique time series highlight four areas of particular interest: (1) Despite several layers of regulation and source control, fluvial concentrations and fluxes remain in- tractably high - no decrease has been observed since the early 1970s; (2) Catchment response to changing nitrogen inputs from land use and land management is subject to considerable lag: present conditions in the river reflect land practices from some years ago; (3) Following (2), we suggest that current changes to land use and land management practices will not be reflected in river water quality for some time to come; (4) Overall, the long-term view afforded by this record questions the derivation of "baseline conditions" that are formulated from records that do not reflect the massive changes in land use and land management in the mid-20th century. Overall, a better understanding of the links, and time delays, between cause (i.e. changing land use / land management) and fluvial response (i.e. concentration increase/decrease) will improve our ability both to predict changes in the coming decades, and inform management decision making now, to ensure the appropriate balance between agricultural development and

  12. A MODELING-GIS APPROACH FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND GROUND WATER VULNERABILITY TO NONPOINT SOURCE IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water pollution due to agriculture activities is a major source of concern. Vast agricultural lands constitute a nonpoint source for pollutants, such as pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, which threatens ground water resources and the integrity of aquatic and terrestria...

  13. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse herbicide and nitrate pollution. Based on the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's diversity indices the diversity in the microbial communities was high. The response from the EcoPlates™ showed which substrates support groundwater bacteria, and all 31 carbon sources were utilized by organisms from at least one water sample. However, only nine carbon sources were utilized by all water samples: D-Mannitol, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, putrescine, D-galacturonic acid, itaconic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, tween 40, tween 80, and L-asparagine. In all water samples the microorganisms preferred D-mannitol, D-galacturonic acid, tween 40, and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid as substrates, whereas none preferred 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, α-D-lactose, D,L-α-glycerol phosphate, α-ketobutyric acid, L-threonine and glycyl-L-glutamic acid. Principal Component Analysis of the CLPP's clustered the most agriculturally affected groundwater samples, indicating that the agricultural land use affects the groundwater microbial communities. Furthermore, the ability to mineralize atrazine and isoproturon, which have been used in the catchment, was also associated with this cluster.

  14. Modelling Regional Hotspots of Water Pollution Induced by Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, M.; Floerke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient water quality is one of the main global topics causing risk to human health, biodiversity, and food security. At this, salinization of water and land resources is widely spread especially in arid to semi-arid climates, where salinization, often induced by irrigation agriculture, is a fundamental aspect of land degradation. High salinity is crucial to water use for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes, and therefore poses a risk to human health and ecosystem status. However, salinization is also an economic problem, in particular in those regions where agriculture makes a significant contribution to the economy and/or where agriculture is mainly based on irrigation. Agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water resulting in lower yields. Hence, not only the quantity of irrigation water is of importance for growing cops but also its quality, which may further reduce the available resources. Thereby a major concern for food production and security persists, as irrigated agriculture accounts for over 30% of the total agricultural production. In this study, the large scale water quality model WorldQual was applied to simulate recent total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to food security. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries, as these are most threatened by water pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use were examined, indicating limitations to crop production. For this purpose, model simulations were conducted for the year 2010 to show the recent status of surface water quality and to identify hotspots and main causes of pollution. Our results show that salinity hotspots mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is by far the dominant sector contributing to water abstractions as

  15. Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Paola; Iavazzo, Pietro; Albanese, Stefano; Agrelli, Diana; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria

    2014-12-01

    Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. PMID:25217740

  16. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  17. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  18. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste. PMID:26420088

  19. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book addresses air pollution's sources and movement; biochemical, cellular, and whole-plant effects, impacts on agricultural and natural systems; and control. The effects of convective turbulence and atmospheric stability are well illustrated. The diagnosis of air pollution injury to plants and mimicking symptoms are discussed. The environmental and source variables that affect pollutant dispersion are explained by use of the Gaussian dispersion model. An overview is presented of the effects of sulfur dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and fluoride on stomatal function, photosynthesis, respiration, and metabolic processes and products. Information is discussed concerning combinations of air pollutants, impacts on lichens, and effects of trace metals on plants. The relationship between air pollutants and diseases or other stress factors is evaluated.

  20. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  1. Impact of agriculture on groundwater in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwell, C. R.; Burdon, D. J.; Sherwood, M.

    1983-03-01

    Ireland has large water resources. Only 5.3% of developable waters are as yet developed, to supply some 650 I/day/per capita to the population of some 3.37 million people. State of development varies in each of the seven water resources regions. Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed over the year, but the percentage infiltrating to form groundwater varies quite sharply. Some 61% of infiltration occurs in the four winter months November to February, when agricultural activities are low. Only 10% infiltrates in the four summer months, May to August, when agricultural activities are high. In all, annual groundwater amounts to some 24.8 km3, of which 50% is considered to be recoverable. Capital groundwater reserves must be large, but are unquantified. Under these conditions, the impact of agriculture on groundwater quantities is negligible. Of the annual extraction of some 170 × 106m3 of groundwater, some 66 × 106m3/year are used in different agricultural activities. Drainage operations, however, have effects on Irish groundwater. Such lands may overlie impermeable strata or pans, or may receive concealed or visible groundwater discharge. Their drainage will affect the groundwater in various ways. There has been a considerable impact of agriculture on groundwater quality. The effects on the atmosphere and on precipitation are not identifiable. Effects of diffuse infiltration are treated with respect to: (a) application of ground limestone (lime); (b) application of K.N.P. inorganic fertilizer; (c) spreading of organic slurries; (d) development of organic nitrogen in soils, mainly after ploughing of grasslands; and (e) residues from herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides. The infiltration of these substances spread on the land is closely related to the interaction between times of ground-water recharge and times of fertilizer application. Effects of concentrated infiltration are treated under seven sub-heads: (a) infiltration of polluted surface waters; (b

  2. Diffusion from a line source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The problem with predicting pollutant diffusion from a line source of arbitrary geometry is treated. The concentration at the line source may be arbitrarily varied with time. Special attention is given to the meteorological inputs which act as boundary conditions for the problem, and a mixing layer of arbitrary depth is assumed. Numerical application of the derived theory indicates the combinations of meteorological parameters that may be expected to result in high pollution concentrations.

  3. User's Manual for the APRAC-1A Urban Diffusion Model Computer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, R. L.; And Others

    The APRAC-1A diffusion model was developed as a versatile and practical model for computing the concentrations of pollutants at any point within a city. The model calculates pollutant contributions from diffusion on various scales, including: extra-urban diffusion, mainly from sources in upwind cities; intra-urban diffusion from freeway, arterial,…

  4. Pollution par les nitrates des eaux souterraines du bassin d'Essaouira (Maroc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Vanclooster, Marnik; Jalal, Mohammed; Witam, Omar; Aboufirassi, Mohamed; Bahir, Mohamed; Persoons, Étienne

    2003-03-01

    The Essaouira Basin (Morocco) contains a multi-layered aquifer situated in fractured and karstic materials from the Middle and Upper Cretaceous (the Cenomanian, Turonian and Senonian). Water percolates through the limestone and dolomite formations of the Turonian stage either through the marls and calcareous marls of the Cenomanian or through the calcareous marly materials of the Senonian. The aquifer system may be interconnected since the marl layer separating the Turonian, Cenomanian and Senonian aquifers is thin or intensively fractured. In that case, the water is transported through a network of fractures and stratification joints. This paper describes the extent of the nitrate pollution in the area and its origin. Most of the wells and drillholes located in the Kourimat perimeter are contaminated by nitrates with some concentrations over 400 mg l-1. Nitrate contamination is also observed in the surface water of the Qsob River, which constitutes the natural outlet of the multi-layered complex aquifer system. In this area, agriculture is more developed than in the rest of the Essaouira Basin. Diffuse pollution of the karstic groundwater body by agricultural fertiliser residues may therefore partially explain the observed nitrate pollution. However, point pollution around the wells, springs and drillholes from human wastewater, livestock faeces and the mineralisation of organic debris close to the Muslim cemeteries cannot be excluded.

  5. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is likely to reach levels that could be ... high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while you're outside. ... pollution levels are usually lower. Choose easier outdoor activities ( ...

  6. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  7. Tile drainage as karst: Conduit flow and diffuse flow in a tile-drained watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Keith E.; Helmers, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThe similarity of tiled-drained watersheds to karst drainage basins can be used to improve understanding of watershed-scale nutrient losses from subsurface tile drainage networks. In this study, short-term variations in discharge and chemistry were examined from a tile outlet collecting subsurface tile flow from a 963 ha agricultural watershed. Study objectives were to apply analytical techniques from karst springs to tile discharge to evaluate water sources and estimate the loads of agricultural pollutants discharged from the tile with conduit, intermediate and diffuse flow regimes. A two-member mixing model using nitrate, chloride and specific conductance was used to distinguish rainwater versus groundwater inputs. Results indicated that groundwater comprised 75% of the discharge for a three-day storm period and rainwater was primarily concentrated during the hydrograph peak. A contrasting pattern of solute concentrations and export loads was observed in tile flow. During base flow periods, tile flow consisted of diffuse flow from groundwater sources and contained elevated levels of nitrate, chloride and specific conductance. During storm events, suspended solids and pollutants adhered to soil surfaces (phosphorus, ammonium and organic nitrogen) were concentrated and discharged during the rapid, conduit flow portion of the hydrograph. During a three-day period, conduit flow occurred for 5.6% of the time but accounted for 16.5% of the total flow. Nitrate and chloride were delivered primarily with diffuse flow (more than 70%), whereas 80-94% of total suspended sediment, phosphorus and ammonium were exported with conduit and intermediate flow regimes. Understanding the water sources contributing to tile drainage and the manner by which pollutant discharge occurs from these systems (conduit, intermediate or diffuse flow) may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating non-point source reduction strategies in tile-drained landscapes.

  8. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  9. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  10. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEALTON, ERNEST L.

    TODAY'S SUCCESSFUL FARMER MUST POSSESS THE SKILLS OF A BUSINESSMAN, SCIENTIST, AND MECHANIC TO SURVIVE COMPETITION IN AGRICULTURE, THE LARGEST INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS COMPETITION HAS CAUSED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF FARMS AND RANCHES IN AN ATTEMPT TO CURTAIL OPERATIONAL EXPENSES AND TO INCREASE PRODUCTION. WITH THE SCIENTIFIC…

  11. Holographic diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadle, Stephen; Wuest, Daniel; Cantalupo, John; Lakes, Roderic S.

    1994-01-01

    Holographic diffusers are prepared using silver halide (Agfa 8E75 and Kodak 649F) and photopolymer (Polaroid DMP 128 and DuPont 600, 705, and 150 series) media. It is possible to control the diffusion angle in three ways: by selection of the properties of the source diffuser, by control of its subtended angle, and by selection of the holographic medium. Several conventional diffusers based on refraction or scattering of light are examined for comparison.

  12. Diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  13. River eutrophication: irrigated vs. non-irrigated agriculture through different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Laura; Moreno, José Luis; Picazo, Félix

    2012-05-15

    The main objective of this study was to determine how spatial scale may affect the results when relating land use to nutrient enrichment of rivers and, secondly, to investigate which agricultural practices are more responsible for river eutrophication in the study area. Agriculture was split into three subclasses (irrigated, non-irrigated and low-impact agriculture) which were correlated to stream nutrient concentration on four spatial scales: large scale (drainage area of total subcatchment and 100 m wide subcatchment corridors) and local scale (5 and 1 km radius buffers). Nitrate, ammonium and orthophosphate concentrations and land use composition (agriculture, urban and forest) were measured at 130 river reaches in south-central Spain during the 2001-2009 period. Results suggested that different spatial scales may lead to different conclusions. Spatial autocorrelation and the inadequate representation of some land uses produced unreal results on large scales. Conversely, local scales did not show data autocorrelation and agriculture subclasses were well represented. The local scale of 1 km buffer was the most appropriate to detect river eutrophication in central Spanish rivers, with irrigated cropland as the main cause of river pollution by nitrate. As regards river management, a threshold of 50% irrigated cropland within a 1 km radius buffer has been obtained using breakpoint regression analysis. This means that no more than 50% of irrigation croplands should be allowed near river banks in order to avoid river eutrophication. Finally, a methodological approach is proposed to choose the appropriate spatial scale when studying river eutrophication caused by diffuse pollution like agriculture. PMID:22417740

  14. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  15. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  16. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... to survive. Many different pollutants can harm our rivers, streams, lakes, and oceans. The three most common ... and bacteria. Rain washes soil into streams and rivers. The soil can kill tiny animals and fish ...

  17. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  18. Assessing the hydrological impacts of agricultural changes upstream of the Tunisian World Heritage sea-connected Ichkeul Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouissi, J.; Chabaane, Z. L.; Benabdallah, S.; Cudennec, C.

    2015-03-01

    The impact of changes in agricultural land use and practices as a controlling driver of hydrologic response and as a source of diffuse pollution, are studied in the Joumine River basin, discharging into the Ichkeul Lake, northern Tunisia, a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1979. The lake is characterized by a very specific hydrological functioning based on a seasonal alternation of water levels and salinity through its link to the Mediterranean Sea. Three Landsat images, in situ surveys and SWAT modelling were used to simulate and assess streamflows and nitrate loads under retrospective land uses.

  19. A review of methods for predicting air pollution dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, J. J., Jr.; Grose, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Air pollution modeling, and problem areas in air pollution dispersion modeling were surveyed. Emission source inventory, meteorological data, and turbulent diffusion are discussed in terms of developing a dispersion model. Existing mathematical models of urban air pollution, and highway and airport models are discussed along with their limitations. Recommendations for improving modeling capabilities are included.

  20. Air pollution modeling and its application III

    SciTech Connect

    De Wispelaere, C.

    1984-01-01

    This book focuses on the Lagrangian modeling of air pollution. Modeling cooling tower and power plant plumes, modeling the dispersion of heavy gases, remote sensing as a tool for air pollution modeling, dispersion modeling including photochemistry, and the evaluation of model performances in practical applications are discussed. Specific topics considered include dispersion in the convective boundary layer, the application of personal computers to Lagrangian modeling, the dynamic interaction of cooling tower and stack plumes, the diffusion of heavy gases, correlation spectrometry as a tool for mesoscale air pollution modeling, Doppler acoustic sounding, tetroon flights, photochemical air quality simulation modeling, acid deposition of photochemical oxidation products, atmospheric diffusion modeling, applications of an integral plume rise model, and the estimation of diffuse hydrocarbon leakages from petrochemical factories. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Thirteenth International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application held in France in 1982.

  1. Secondary Agricultural Education Teachers as Agents of Change in Oklahoma and the Adoption of Precision Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickeson, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that precision agricultural education (PAE) in Oklahoma affects environmental quality, water conservation, and crop yields. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the nature and perceived effectiveness of PAE in Oklahoma secondary agricultural education classes. The study was framed by the diffusion of…

  2. Modelling the impacts of agricultural management practices on river water quality in Eastern England.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sam D; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin M

    2016-09-15

    Agricultural diffuse water pollution remains a notable global pressure on water quality, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems, human health and water resources and as a result legislation has been introduced in many parts of the world to protect water bodies. Due to their efficiency and cost-effectiveness, water quality models have been increasingly applied to catchments as Decision Support Tools (DSTs) to identify mitigation options that can be introduced to reduce agricultural diffuse water pollution and improve water quality. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the River Wensum catchment in eastern England with the aim of quantifying the long-term impacts of potential changes to agricultural management practices on river water quality. Calibration and validation were successfully performed at a daily time-step against observations of discharge, nitrate and total phosphorus obtained from high-frequency water quality monitoring within the Blackwater sub-catchment, covering an area of 19.6 km(2). A variety of mitigation options were identified and modelled, both singly and in combination, and their long-term effects on nitrate and total phosphorus losses were quantified together with the 95% uncertainty range of model predictions. Results showed that introducing a red clover cover crop to the crop rotation scheme applied within the catchment reduced nitrate losses by 19.6%. Buffer strips of 2 m and 6 m width represented the most effective options to reduce total phosphorus losses, achieving reductions of 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. This is one of the first studies to quantify the impacts of agricultural mitigation options on long-term water quality for nitrate and total phosphorus at a daily resolution, in addition to providing an estimate of the uncertainties of those impacts. The results highlighted the need to consider multiple pollutants, the degree of uncertainty associated with model predictions and the risk of

  3. The Impact of Farm Radio Forum on the Diffusion of Innovations in Lahore and Gujrat Districts of West Pakistan. American University of Beirut, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Publication No. 51, January 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoub, Salah M.; And Others

    A random sample of 150 farmers (75 participants and 75 non-participants in radio forums) from Lahore and Gujrat districts in West Pakistan were surveyed via personal interview in 1971 to determine whether there was a relationship between: certain socioeconomic variables and farmer forum participation; radio forums and agricultural change,…

  4. Global Gray Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels Related to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loads to Fresh Water.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-11-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related to anthropogenic N loads in the period 2002-2010 was 13×10(12) m3/y. China contributed about 45% to the global total. Three quarters of the GWF related to N loads came from diffuse sources (agriculture), 23% from domestic point sources and 2% from industrial point sources. Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the N-related GWF (18%), followed by vegetables (15%) and oil crops (11%). The river basins with WPL>1 (where the N load exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity), cover about 17% of the global land area, contribute about 9% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to 48% of the global population. PMID:26440220

  5. Development paths of China's agricultural Pharmaceutical industry under Eco-agriculture background.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinkai; Gong, Liutang; Ji, Xi; Zhang, Jin; Miao, Pei

    2014-07-01

    Using pesticides has double effects. On one hand, it contributes to pests control and regulates the growth of crops; On the other hand, it does harm to the environment. To develop ecological agriculture should not only emphasize the output level of agriculture to pursuit of economic efficiency, but also need to keep the ecological environment protected and focus on the social benefits during the development of the industry. As a large agricultural country in the world, China is vigorously promoting the development of ecological agriculture, which is bound to put forward to developing the pesticide industry and green ecological development requirements to promote the transformation and upgrading of agricultural pharmaceutical industry. This paper discusses the mechanism of pesticide pollution on the ecological environment and analyzes China's agricultural problems in the pharmaceutical industry. Then study on the development of Chinese green pesticides and try to find the proper paths of agricultural pharmaceutical to achieve industrial upgrading. PMID:25016265

  6. Technology transfer in agriculture. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in agriculture. Topics include applications of technology transfer in aquaculture, forestry, soil maintenance, agricultural pollution, agricultural biotechnology, and control of disease and insect pests. Use of computer technology in agriculture and technology transfers to developing countries are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 235 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. PLANT SENESCENCE: A MECHANISM FOR NUTRIENT RELEASE IN TEMPERATE AGRICULTURAL WETLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture drainage ditches are primary intercept wetlands in amelioration of nutrient pollution from agricultural fields. Drainage ditches, as integral components of the agricultural landscape, remove surface run-off and act as major conduits of nutrients from agricultural lands to receiving water...

  8. Technology transfer in agriculture. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in agriculture. Topics include applications of technology transfer in aquaculture, forestry, soil maintenance, agricultural pollution, agricultural biotechnology, and control of disease and insect pests. Use of computer technology in agriculture and technology transfers to developing countries are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 178 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  10. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  11. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  12. Vaneless diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Y.

    The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.

  13. Phosphorus reductions following riparian restoration in two agricultural watersheds in Vermont, USA.

    PubMed

    Meals, D W; Hopkins, R B

    2002-01-01

    Achievement of management goals for Lake Champlain (Vermont/New York, USA and Quebec, Canada) will require significant reductions of phosphorus (P) loads from agriculture, the dominant diffuse source in the basin. Cost-effective P reduction strategies must be based on reliable treatment techniques beyond basic erosion control and animal waste storage practices. The Lake Champlain Basin Agricultural Watersheds National Monitoring Program (NMP) Project evaluates the effectiveness of low-cost livestock exclusion, streambank protection, and riparian restoration practices in reducing concentrations and loads of diffuse-source pollutants from grazing land at the watershed level. Treatment and control watersheds in northwestern Vermont have been monitored since 1994 according to a paired-watershed design. Monitoring includes continuous stream discharge recording, flow-proportional sampling for total P and other pollutants, and documentation of land use and agricultural management activities. Strong statistical calibration between the control and treatment watersheds has been achieved. Landowner participation in the land treatment program was entirely voluntary and all treatments were 100% cost-shared by the project and cooperators. Installation of riparian fencing, alternative water supplies, protected stream crossings, and streambank bioengineering was completed in 1997 at a cost of less than US$40,000. The paired-watershed design was effective in controlling for the influence of extreme variations in precipitation and streamflow over six years of monitoring. Two years of post-treatment data have documented significant reductions in P concentrations and loads from both treated watersheds. Reductions of approximately 20% in mean total P concentration and approximately 20-50% in mean total P load have been observed, with greater reductions occurring in the watershed receiving more extensive treatment. The effectiveness of riparian zone restoration in P reduction tended to

  14. Nitrate concentrations under irrigated agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been expressed in the nitrate content of water supplies. The most notable toxic effect of nitrate is infant methemoglobinemia. The risk of this disease increases significantly at nitrate-nitrogen levels exceeding 10 mg/l. For this reason, this concentration has been established as a limit for drinking water in many countries. In natural waters, nitrate is a minor ionic constituent and seldom accounts for more than a few percent of the total anions. However, nitrate in a significant concentration may occur in the vicinity of some point sources such as septic tanks, manure pits, and waste-disposal sites. Non-point sources contributing to groundwater pollution are numerous and a majority of them are related to agricultural activities. The largest single anthropogenic input of nitrate into the groundwater is fertilizer. Even though it has not been proven that nitrogen fertilizers are responsible for much of nitrate pollution, they are generally recognized as the main threat to groundwater quality, especially when inefficiently applied to irrigated fields on sandy soils. The biggest challenge facing today's agriculture is to maintain the balance between the enhancement of crop productivity and the risk of groundwater pollution. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  15. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  16. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  17. PREDICTING THE BUILDUP OF POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA'S VISUAL PLUMES MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic sources contribute pollutants to estuaries that are significantly influenced by tides, frequently exhibiting velocity reversals. Flow reversals, even in the absence of diffusion, can cause a buildup of pollution from a particular discharge in the receiving water. ...

  18. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  19. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF OZONE ON AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past attempts to assess the monetary impacts of ozone or other air pollutants on agriculture have had only sparse plant science information on which to base an assessment. This paper reports on an economic assessment of the effects of simulated changes in ambient ozone on U.S. ag...

  20. Recent trends in water quality in an agricultural catchment in Eastern Scotland: elucidating the roles of hydrology and land use.

    PubMed

    Dunn, S M; Sample, J; Potts, J; Abel, C; Cook, Y; Taylor, C; Vinten, A J A

    2014-07-01

    Across the EU, programmes of measures have been introduced as part of river basin management planning as a means of tackling problems of diffuse pollution from agriculture. Evidence is required to demonstrate the effectiveness of these measures and with this overarching objective, monitoring of an agricultural catchment in Eastern Scotland was initiated in 2007. As a precursor to evaluating the effect of new management measures it is essential to understand how other factors, including hydrology and land use changes, could have influenced water quality. This study undertook an analysis of the trends in concentrations and loads of nitrate, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suspended solids (SS) and turbidity measured at six points in the catchment over a six year period. The results identified both differing trends between determinands and differing trends occurring over varying spatial scales. The only direct relationships between land use and water quality that could be identified based on annual data was a positive link between arable cropping and nitrate concentrations. At the sub-catchment scale some temporal changes in land use and management explained short-term trends in nitrate but not in SRP. Lags in the system were identified due to soil adsorption, in-stream/loch processing and groundwater transport making the identification of cause and effect problematic. The results have implications for the demonstration of effectiveness of measures over the shorter term and the timescales of recovery from diffuse pollution. Longer term monitoring at small scales will be important in this regard. PMID:24718675

  1. [Analysis of an Air Pollution Process Using LiDAR in Nanjing, Spring of 2014].

    PubMed

    Bao, Qing; He, Jun-liang; Zha, Yong; Cheng, Feng; Li, Qian-nan

    2015-04-01

    Based on environmental monitoring data, meteorological data and the results of numerical simulation, a typical air pollution process in Nanjing, from 26th May to 1st June, 2014 was deeply analyzed combining aerosol extinction coefficient derived from LiDAR system. Experimental results showed that the entire pollution process was affected by both local pollution and exogenous inputs including dust and smoke. Meteorological factors played a significant role in the generation and elimination of pollutants. Low pressure and temperature inversion also hindered the diffusion of pollutants, while strong rainfall terminated the pollution process. During the pollution, the height of atmospheric boundary layer was lower than normal situation and changed little during the pollution period, which provided a poor diffusion condition for pollutants. LiDAR could accurately detect aerosol vertical structure which was able to capture the temporal and spatial variation of pollutant distributions. Therefore, LiDAR can be of great significance for the atmospheric pollution monitoring. PMID:26164889

  2. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  3. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, M. F.; Eriksson, E.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants impacting the water quality of a stream at catchment scale. Grindsted stream in western Jutland, Denmark was used as a study site. The stream passes both urban and agricultural areas and is impacted by severe groundwater contamination in Grindsted city. Along a 12 km reach of Grindsted stream, the potential pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along the stream and analyzed for general water quality parameters, inorganic constituents, pesticides, sulfonamides, chlorinated solvents, BTEXs, and paracetamol and ibuprofen. The latter two groups were not detected. The general water quality showed typical conditions for a stream in western Jutland. Minor impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 - 8.8 μg/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most frequently detected and some rarely detected pesticides in Danish water courses. The concentrations were generally consistent with other findings in Danish streams and in the range 0.01 - 0.09 μg/l; except for metribuzin-diketo that showed high concentrations up to 0.74 μg/l. The groundwater contamination at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl

  4. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  5. Managing agricultural drainage ditches for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are essential for the removal of surface and ground water to allow for crop production in poorly drained agricultural landscapes. Ditches also mediate the flow of pollutants from agroecosystems to downstream water bodies. This paper provides an overview of the science, ...

  6. 7 CFR 2.79 - Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193, under the following... pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service....

  7. 7 CFR 2.79 - Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter... delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193, under the following... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service....

  8. 7 CFR 2.79 - Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter... delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193, under the following... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service....

  9. The impact of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbow lakes in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Mississippi Delta, agricultural activity is a major source of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants. Sediment, nutrients and pesticides have been considered as priority NPS pollutants and greatly affect the water quality in this area. The impacts of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbo...

  10. Effects of agricultural conservation practices on oxbow lake watersheds in the Mississippi River alluvial plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, agricultural lands are considered to major sources of nonpoint source pollutants such as sediment, pesticides and nutrients in the United States. While conservation practices have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing agricultural related pollutants on test plot scales, they typ...

  11. Agricultural Drainage Ditches Mitigate N and P Loads as a Function of Hydrological Variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities play a substantial role in non-point pollution of receiving waters. Several efforts to remediate pollution sources include constructed wetlands, buffer strips and best management practices. However, agricultural drainage ditches are primary intercept wetlands that have not be...

  12. Pollution and the protection of water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Risebrough, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book reports on research and development in the study of pollution and methodologies to protect water quality, with emphasis on arid countries. Topics covered include overview of the effects of pollution on natural and human environments; water cycle and groundwater resources in arid countries; salinization; standards and technologies for waste water treatment; uses of recycled water; solid waste disposal; assessment of wastes from industry, agriculture, and shipping; methodologies of quality control; synthetic organic pollutants, including pesticides and PCBs; analytical techniques; quality control; sampling methodologies for organics, metals, and trace elements, including data acquisition techniques and instrumentation; data management; bioindicator organisms; assimilative capacity of receiving waters; application of appropriate water quality standards.

  13. Transport of particle-associated elements in two agriculture-dominated boreal river systems.

    PubMed

    Marttila, Hannu; Saarinen, Tuomas; Celebi, Ahmet; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-09-01

    Transport of particulate pollutants in fluvial systems can contribute greatly to total loads. Understanding transport mechanics under different hydrological conditions is key in successful load estimation. This study analysed trace elements and physico-chemical parameters in time-integrated suspended sediment samples, together with dissolved and total concentrations of pollutants, along two agriculture- and peatland-dominated boreal river systems. The samples were taken in a spatially and temporally comprehensive sampling programme during the ice-free seasons of 2010 and 2011. The hydrochemistry and transport of particle-bound elements in the rivers were strongly linked to intense land use and acid sulphate soils in the catchment area, with arable, pasture and peat areas in particular being main diffuse sources. There were significant seasonal and temporal variations in dissolved and particulate fluxes, but spatial variations were small. Continuous measurements of EC, turbidity and discharge proved to be an accurate indicator of dissolved and particulate fluxes. Overall, the results show that transport of particle-bound elements makes a major contribution to total transport fluxes in agriculture-dominated boreal rivers. PMID:23770550

  14. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  15. Relativistic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Z.

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  16. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  17. Relativistic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed. PMID:19391727

  18. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  19. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP. PMID:27612146

  20. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  1. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  2. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  3. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

  4. Study of atmospheric diffusion using LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torsani, J. A.; Viswanadham, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The parameters of diffusion patterns of atmospheric pollutants under different conditions were investigated for use in the Gaussian model for calculation of pollution concentration. Value for the divergence pattern of concentration distribution along the Y axis were determined using LANDSAT images. Multispectral scanner images of a point source plume having known characteristics, wind and temperature data, and cloud cover and solar elevation data provided by LANDSAT, were analyzed using the 1-100 system for image analysis. These measured values are compared with pollution transport as predicted by the Pasquill-Gifford, Juelich, and Hoegstroem atmospheric models.

  5. EFFECTS OF WIND SHEAR ON POLLUTION DISPERSION. (R827929)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using an accurate numerical method for simulating the advection and diffusion of pollution puffs, it is demonstrated that point releases of pollution grow into a shape reflecting the vertical wind shear profile experienced by the puff within a time scale less than 4 h. Fo...

  6. APPLICATIONS OF DECISION THEORY TECHNIQUES IN AIR POLLUTION MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study applies methods of operations research to two basic areas of air pollution modeling: (1) the generation of wind fields for use in models of regional scale transport, diffusion and chemistry; and (2) the application of models in studies of optimal pollution control strat...

  7. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  8. Understanding Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Marquita K.

    2004-09-01

    Introducing pollution issues to students and others with little scientific background, this new edition of a well-received textbook has been completely revised and updated. Starting with the definition of pollution and how pollutants behave, it progresses to covering air and water pollution basics, pollution and global change, solid waste, and pollution in the home. First Edition Hb (1997): 0-521-56210-4 First Edition Pb (1997): 0-521-56680-0

  9. Pollution in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rheinheimer, G

    1998-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is almost totally surrounded by land and therefore more endangered by pollution than other marine areas. The sources of marine pollution are municipal and industrial waste inputs directly into the sea or via rivers, and atmospheric inputs mainly from traffic and agriculture. The increase of inorganic plant nutrients (NH3, NOx, PO4) caused eutrophication and consequent oxygen depletion in coastal bottom waters as well as in the depths of the open sea. In the anoxic sediments, hydrogen sulfide can be produced by protein-decomposing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The bottom fauna will be destroyed and only H2S tolerant microorganisms can survive. Originating from cellulose manufacturing and from paper mills, large amounts of poisonous chlorinated compounds contaminated the coastal waters of Sweden and Finland until the 1980s. Most of this material is still present in sediments of the central Baltic Sea and can be resuspended by near bottom currents. To reduce pollution and improve the situation in the Baltic Sea, the surrounding countries organized the Helsinki Convention, which came into force on 3.5.1980. The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) founded in 1974 acts as coordinator and is responsible for the enforcement of the Baltic monitoring program and international research projects. The activities of HELCOM have led to the reduction of dangerous pollutants which in turn has caused the regeneration of flora and fauna in some areas. Further improvements can be expected. PMID:9722964

  10. Combine the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) with sediment geochemistry to evaluate diffuse heavy metal loadings at watershed scale.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Shan, Yushu; Geng, Xiaojun

    2014-09-15

    Assessing the diffuse pollutant loadings at watershed scale has become increasingly important when formulating effective watershed water management strategies, but the process was seldom achieved for heavy metals. In this study, the overall temporal-spatial variability of particulate Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni losses within an agricultural watershed was quantitatively evaluated by combining SWAT with sediment geochemistry. Results showed that the watershed particulate heavy metal loadings displayed strong variability in the simulation period 1981-2010, with an obvious increasing trend in recent years. The simulated annual average loadings were 20.21 g/ha, 21.75 g/ha, 47.35 g/ha and 21.27 g/ha for Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni, respectively. By comparison, these annual average values generally matched the estimated particulate heavy metal loadings at field scale. With spatial interpolation of field loadings, it was found that the diffuse heavy metal pollution mainly came from the sub-basins dominated with cultivated lands, accounting for over 70% of total watershed loadings. The watershed distribution of particulate heavy metal losses was very similar to that of soil loss but contrary to that of heavy metal concentrations in soil, highlighting the important role of sediment yield in controlling the diffuse heavy metal loadings. PMID:25169808

  11. Quantum diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, S.

    1994-10-01

    We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ``quantum diffusion`` terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source.

  12. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  13. Agricultural Aircraft for Site-Specific Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a convenient platform to aid in precision agriculture, in which pesticide, fertilizer or other field inputs are applied only where they are needed. This saves on chemical and farm resources, and reduces environmental loading. Remote sensing is used to spot areas of the ...

  14. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  15. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  16. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  17. LOWER PASSAIC RIVER SEDIMENT POLLUTION STUDY USING GIS, NEW JERSEY, USA.

    SciTech Connect

    FENG,H.; ONWUEME,V.; JASLANEK,W.J.; STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.W.

    2005-04-01

    The Passaic River is located in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area. This river has been heavily polluted by dioxins, PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals due to agricultural, industrial activities, and urbanization. Contaminated sediments in the Passaic River have received considerable attention because contaminants (metals, PCBs. PAHs, dioxins) in the sediments have potential to release into the aquatic system and air through diffusion and/or volatilization, causing human health hazards. Identification of high concentration areas of these Contaminants in the river-estuarine system is critical to the Passaic River environmental restoration and watershed protection. In this study, we analyzed portion of 10 years (1991-2000) data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a tool to study the distributions of contaminants in the sediments. The results from this study provide important information for developing environmental management strategies for the lower Passaic River system.

  18. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  19. Cross-country disparity in agricultural productivity: quantifying the role of modern seed adoption.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Melanie; Pandey, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Inequality of agricultural labour productivity across the developing world has increased substantially over the past 40 years. This article asks: to what extent did the diffusion of Green Revolution seed varieties contribute to increasing agricultural labour productivity disparity across the developing countries? We find that 22 per cent of cross-country variation in agricultural labour productivity can be attributed to the diffusion of high-yielding seed varieties across countries, and that the impact of such diffusion differed significantly across regions. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy directed at increasing agricultural labour productivity in the developing world. PMID:21280414

  20. Identification of phosphorus emission hotspots in agricultural catchments

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Adam; Honti, Mark; Zessner, Matthias; Eder, Alexander; Clement, Adrienne; Blöschl, Günter

    2012-01-01

    An enhanced transport-based management approach is presented, which is able to support cost-effective water quality management with respect to diffuse phosphorus pollution. Suspended solids and particulate phosphorus emissions and their transport were modeled in two hilly agricultural watersheds (Wulka River in Austria and Zala River in Hungary) with an improved version of the catchment-scale PhosFate model. Source and transmission areas were ranked by an optimization method in order to provide a priority list of the areas of economically efficient (optimal) management alternatives. The model was calibrated and validated at different gauges and for various years. The spatial distribution of the emissions shows that approximately one third of the catchment area is responsible for the majority of the emissions. However, only a few percent of the source areas can transport fluxes to the catchment outlet. These effective source areas, together with the main transmission areas are potential candidates for improved management practices. In accordance with the critical area concept, it was shown that intervention with better management practices on a properly selected small proportion of the total area (1–3%) is sufficient to reach a remarkable improvement in water quality. If soil nutrient management is also considered in addition to water quality, intervention on 4–12% of the catchment areas can fulfill both aspects. PMID:22771465

  1. Agriculture and forestry: Identification, vigor, and disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The agricultural and forestry areas which comprise the watershed of the Chesapeake Bay are described. Major problems of watershed creation and management with emphasis on the erosion problem are discussed. Remote sensing as it relates to the identification of plant species and vigor, pollution, disease, and insect infestation are examined. The application of infrared photography, multispectral sensing, and sequential survey is recommended to identify ecological changes and improve resources management.

  2. Influence of teleconnection on water quality in agricultural river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Phil; Shore, Mairead; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger

    2015-04-01

    that monitored changes in water quality due to nutrient management could be confounded by the effect of a larger weather cycle. These results need to be considered in the context of existing measures to mitigate diffuse pollution, possible reviews of measures and the expectation of water quality trends and targets.

  3. Biotechnology Enters Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Points out that the agriculture industry is changing and that vocational agriculture students must learn more science than before to be prepared. Iowa formed groups of educators and business representatives to advise on which curricula should be funded. (JOW)

  4. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  5. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  6. Modeling diffuse sources of surface water contamination with plant protection products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendland, Sandra; Bock, Michael; Böhner, Jürgen; Lembrich, David

    2015-04-01

    Entries of chemical pollutants in surface waters are a serious environmental problem. Among water pollutants plant protection products (ppp) from farming practice are of major concern not only for water suppliers and environmental agencies, but also for farmers and industrial manufacturers. Lost chemicals no longer fulfill their original purpose on the field, but lead to severe damage of the environment and surface waters. Besides point-source inputs of chemical pollutants, the diffuse-source inputs from agricultural procedures play an important and not yet sufficiently studied role concerning water quality. The two most important factors for diffuse inputs are erosion and runoff. The latter usually occurs before erosion begins, and is thus often not visible in hindsight. Only if it has come to erosion, it is obvious to expect runoff in foresight at this area, too. In addition to numerous erosion models, there are also few applications to model runoff processes available. However, these conventional models utilize approximations of catchment parameters based on long-term average values or theoretically calculated concentration peaks which can only provide indications to relative amounts. Our study aims to develop and validate a simplified spatially-explicit dynamic model with high spatiotemporal resolution that enables to measure current and forecast runoff potential not only at catchment scale but field-differentiated. This method allows very precise estimations of runoff risks and supports risk reduction measures to be targeted before fields are treated. By focusing on water pathways occurring on arable land, targeted risk reduction measures like buffer strips at certain points and adapted ppp use can be taken early and pollution of rivers and other surface waters through transported pesticides, fertilizers and their products could be nearly avoided or largely minimized. Using a SAGA-based physical-parametric modeling approach, major factors influencing runoff

  7. GUIDELINES FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    AREAS OF TRAINING WHICH ARE OFFERED IN THE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENTS OF MARYLAND ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. AGRICULTURE TEACHERS AND ADVISORY GROUPS MAY SELECT AREAS OF TRAINING FROM THE TOPICAL OUTLINE OR ADD NEW AREAS AS NEEDED IN THE LOCAL INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM. PHILOSOPHY, SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES, GROUPS SERVED, AGRICULTURAL TRENDS…

  8. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  9. Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.

    Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…

  10. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  11. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  12. Dutch Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hauge.

    Agricultural Education in the Netherlands is categorized as Scientific, Higher Secondary, Middle Secondary, and Lower Secondary. Scientific education is given at the agricultural university which has a 6- or 7-year curriculum. Higher secondary education is given at agricultural and horticultural colleges with a 3- to 4-year curriculum. Middle…

  13. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  14. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  15. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  16. Sources identification of antibiotic pollution combining land use information and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Yongshan; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-07-01

    To quantify the extent of antibiotic contamination and to identity the dominant pollutant sources in the Tiaoxi River Watershed, surface water samples were collected at eight locations and analyzed for four tetracyclines and three sulfonamides using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The observed maximum concentrations of tetracycline (623 ng L(-1)), oxytetracycline (19,810 ng L(-1)), and sulfamethoxazole (112 ng L(-1)) exceeded their corresponding Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. In particular, high concentrations of antibiotics were observed in wet summer with heavy rainfall. The maximum concentrations of antibiotics appeared in the vicinity of intensive aquaculture areas. High-resolution land use data were used for identifying diffuse source of antibiotic pollution in the watershed. Significant correlations between tetracycline and developed (r = 0.93), tetracycline and barren (r = 0.87), oxytetracycline and barren (r = 0.82), and sulfadiazine and agricultural facilities (r = 0.71) were observed. In addition, the density of aquaculture significantly correlated with doxycycline (r = 0.74) and oxytetracycline (r = 0.76), while the density of livestock significantly correlated with sulfadiazine (r = 0.71). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were from aquaculture and domestic sources, whereas sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine were from livestock wastewater. Flood or drainage from aquaculture ponds was identified as a major source of antibiotics in the Tiaoxi watershed. A hot-spot map was created based on results of land use analysis and multi-variable statistics, which provided an effective management tool of sources identification in watersheds with multiple diffuse sources of antibiotic pollution. PMID:27338264

  17. Impact of agriculture on surface water in Ireland Part II. Prospects for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Marie

    1986-02-01

    Agricultural activity is estimated to be responsible for only 6% (8 km) of the total length (135 km) of seriously polluted river channel, but for over 30% (294 km) of the slightly or moderately polluted length (963 km) of channel recorded to date in the state. This article examines the present sources and causes of pollution from agricultural wastes, and speculates on the likely direction of future trends. The most common sources of surface water pollution are animal manures, silage effluent, runoff from land following spreading, and fertilizers.

  18. [Agricultural environment quality of China and its improving countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xibai; Yang, Zhengli

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzed the present status of China agricultural water and soil environment. It was indicated that the agricultural water environment in this country was more serious, with the affected area being approximately 20% of the total farmland, and 5% of it being severely affected. More attention should be paid to the pollution of agricultural chemicals in soil environment. The impacts of industrial wastes, urban sewage and garbage, agricultural chemicals, and soil erosion on agro-environment were discussed, with the impact degree of these factors analyzed. The major problems in China agricultural environment melioration were presented, related researches and major countermeasures in this country and developed countries were reviewed, and relevant measures and suggestions on improving the agricultural environment quality of China were put forward. PMID:16689249

  19. Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that

  20. Evaluation of fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria originating from swine manure applied to agricultural lands using culture-based and quantitative real-time PCR methods.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  1. Evaluation of Fecal Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria Originating from Swine Manure Applied to Agricultural Lands Using Culture-Based and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  2. A palaeolimnological investigation into nutrient impact and recovery in an agricultural catchment.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Barry; Crockford, Lucy; Jordan, Phil; Hislop, Lindsay; Taylor, David

    2013-07-30

    Widespread deterioration in water quality as a result of anthropogenic activity has led to the development and implementation of measures aimed at the protection of water resources in the EU. To date, however, relatively little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of these measures. Evidence from an enrichment-sensitive lake permitted reconstructions of changes in ecological and chemical water quality over the last c. 150-200 years, a period that includes a mid to late 20th century intensification of agriculture that was widely experienced across the European Union and the subsequent implementation of measures aimed at protecting water resources against pollution from farming. The data show the development of a more nutrient-tolerant diatom community from early in the 20th century, while the main trophic changes occurred from the 1950s, with the site becoming eutrophic by the 1960s. Heightened enrichment is thought to be linked to enhanced levels of phosphorus (P) transfers from the surrounding grassland catchment owing to an intensification of agricultural activities locally. Most recently, since the late 1990s and particularly post-2007, evidence suggests a decrease in aquatic enrichment, despite continued increases in agricultural intensification. This decoupling is likely to mark a successful implementation in 2006 of measures aimed at decreasing diffuse nutrient transfers from catchments linked to agri-environmental policies in Europe. The research highlights the importance of enrichment-sensitive water bodies as sentinel sites in the monitoring of both external and internal nutrient loadings as agricultural activities and other pressures change within the context of implementing regulatory responses to earlier declines in water quality. PMID:23490624

  3. Monitoring strategy to assessment the air pollution level in Salamanca (México)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Adame, J. M.; Cortina-Januchs, M. G.; Andina, D.; Vega-Corona, A.

    2009-04-01

    Air pollution affects not only the quality of life and the health of the urban population but also forests and agriculture. Agricultural crops can be injured when exposed to high concentrations of various air pollutants. Air pollutants can generally be classed as either local or widespread. Local pollutants are those emitted from a specific stationary source and result in a well-defined zone of vegetation injury or contamination. Most common among the local pollutants are sulphur dioxide, fluorides, ammonia and particulate matter. The paper presents an air monitoring strategy based on data fusion and Artificial Neural Networks. The main objective is to classify automatically the air pollution level as a proposal to assessment the air pollution level affecting the agriculture in Salamanca (Mexico). Salamanca is catalogued as one of the most polluted cities in Mexico. Pollutant concentrations and meteorological variables have been consider in data fusion process in order to build a Representative Pollution Vector (RPV). Meteorological variables (Wind Direction and Wind Speed) are taken as a decision factor in the air pollutant concentration level. RPV is used to train an Artificial Neural Network in order to classify new pollutant events. In the experiments, real time series gathered from the Automatic Environmental Monitoring Network (AEMN) in Salamanca have been used.

  4. Global baseline data on phosphorus pollution of large lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Gabriel; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Lakes are exposed to harmful eutrophication which is the most concerning water quality issue on global scale. Eutrophication is caused by phosphorous pollution in most lakes. Hence, global consistent base line data on phosphorus loadings are needed to assess future sustainable development. We used the modeling framework WaterGAP3 to calculate present total phosphorus loadings to the world's largest lakes. Estimates of modeled total phosphorus (TP) loadings as well as the contributions of different sectors were successfully validated against measured data. Based on these findings, annual total phosphorus loadings to lakes were calculated for diffuse and point sources according to the different sectors domestic, manufacturing, urban surface runoff, agriculture and background for the time period 1990 to 2010. Our results show high phosphorus loadings into lakes in southern latitudes. On global average, industrial fertilizer is the main anthropogenic source while background loadings are low in comparison. Nevertheless, both features indicate a high potential to reduce the exposure to eutrophication in lakes which are faced with high phosphor inputs. The global average of TP loadings was 7% higher in the time period 2005-2010 than in the period 1990-1995. The global average in 2005-2010 results from an increase in TP loadings of 79% in South America, which was dampened by a decrease in Europe, North America, and Asia. Chinese lakes were exposed to massive increasing phosphorus loadings, too. Both increasing and decreasing trends are caused primarily by changing industrial fertilizer application rates. In conclusion, this study provides a consistent and model based synopsis of global trends and sources of phosphorus loadings to large lakes. The estimates of phosphorus pollution of lakes present a basis for assessing and managing the global eutrophication problem.

  5. Detection of Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golueke, Clarence G.

    1971-01-01

    To develop a means of detecting pollution, it s necessary to know something about the source and nature of the pollution. The type of pollution rising from solid wastes differs considerably from hat from liquid wastes or that from gaseous wastes ni its effect on the immediate environment. It may be "defined" by a series of negatives. When solid wastes are discarded on land, the resulting pollution is not land pollution in the sense of air and water pollution. For one thing, the solid wastes do not become a "part" of the land in that the wastes are neither intimately mixed nor homogenized into the land as are liquid and gaseous wastes into their respective media. The waste particles retain not only their chemical identity but also their visible (i.e., physical) characteristics. When buried, for example, the soil is under, above, and around the solids, because the wastes are there as discrete units. Secondly, solid wastes neither diffuse nor are they carried from the place at which they were deposited. In other words they remain stationary, providing of course the disposal site is land and not moving water. In a given area, solid wastes be not distributed uniformly over that area. Even the solid wastes falling into the specification of letter meets these specifications. In contrast liquid and gaseous wastes become intimately mixed, homogenized, and even dissolved in their media. Because solid wastes remain stationary, pollution constituted by their presence is highly localized and heavily concentrated, even to the extent that the pollution could be termed "micro" when compared to the macro-pollution arising from liquid and gasequs wastes.

  6. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Es, Bram van; Koren, Barry; Blank, Hugo J. de

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  7. [Literature review of pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-01

    This review focuses on the following: the measurement and monitoring of pollutants; treatment systems, including physicochemical processes, as well as biological processes; industrial wastes (management); hazardous wastes (waste management as well as remediation); and the fate and effects of pollutants.

  8. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  9. The Pollution Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lillian

    1981-01-01

    Presented are methods to help teachers continue the environmental awareness programs they have already started by providing up-to-date information and activities dealing with air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste disposal. (Author/KC)

  10. Kookaburras and Polluted Streams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Julie; Harrison, Terry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of teachers in environmental education. Presents two simulations on water pollution in order to explore pollution of the environment and investigate the life and ecology of a native bird or investigate predator/prey relationships. (ASK)

  11. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  12. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  13. NIST Diffusion Data Center

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Diffusion Data Center (Web, free access)   The NIST Diffusion Data Center is a collection of over 14,100 international papers, theses, and government reports on diffusion published before 1980.

  14. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  15. Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

  16. Selenium pollution: Occurrence and environmental fate. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sources and abatement of pollution caused by selenium and selenium compounds. The citations examine the effects of selenium on the reproductive success of birds and fish, uptake of selenium in plants, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Other topics include selenium chemistry and persistence in soil, water, and the atmosphere; the relative toxicities of selenium and selenium compounds; and decontamination of polluted environments. Special attention is given to agricultural effluent as a source of selenium pollution and to the development of long-term monitoring programs to determine the rate at which pollution declines.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Selenium pollution: Occurrence and environmental fate. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sources and abatement of pollution caused by selenium and selenium compounds. The citations examine the effects of selenium on the reproductive success of birds and fish, uptake of selenium in plants, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Other topics include selenium chemistry and persistence in soil, water, and the atmosphere; the relative toxicities of selenium and selenium compounds; and decontamination of polluted environments. Special attention is given to agricultural effluent as a source of selenium pollution and to the development of long-term monitoring programs to determine the rate at which pollution declines. (Contains a minimum of 143 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

  19. Emissions from Combustion of Open Area Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural Burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural burns generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...

  20. PESTICIDE LEACHING ANALYTICAL MODEL AND GIS-BASED APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater contamination by pesticides and other organic pollutants has been detected across agricultural areas and is on the increase. Because groundwater monitoring is too costly to define the geographic extent of contamination at such large scales, indirect methods are needed...

  1. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  2. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  3. FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has developed the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide for those who are interested in and responsible for pollution prevention in industrial or service facilities. t summarizes the benefits of a company-wide pollution prevention...

  4. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  5. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  6. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  7. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  8. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  9. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  10. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  11. Hydrological Controls on Nutrient Concentrations and Fluxes in Agricultural Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petry, J.; Soulsby, C.

    2002-12-01

    This investigation into diffuse agricultural pollution and the hydrological controls that exert a strong influence on both nutrient concentrations and fluxes, was conducted in an intensively farmed lowland catchment in north-east Scotland. The study focuses on spatial and seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations and fluxes at the catchment scale, over a 15-month period. The water quality of the 14.5 km2 Newmills Burn catchment has relatively high nutrient levels with mean concentrations of NO3-N and NH3-N at 6.09 mg/l and 0.28 mg/l respectively. Average PO4-P concentrations are 0.06 mg/l. Over short timescales nutrient concentrations and fluxes are greatest during storm events when PO4-P and NH3-N are mobilised by overland flow in riparian areas, where soils have been compacted by livestock or machinery. Delivery of deeper soil water in subsurface storm flow, facilitated by agricultural under-drainage, produces a marked increase in NO3-N (6.9 mg/l) concentrations on the hydrograph recession limb. A more detailed insight into the catchment response to storm events, and in particular the response of the hydrological pathways which provide the main sources of runoff during storm events, was gained by sampling stream water at 2-hourly intervals during 5 events. End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) was carried out using event specific end-member chemistries to differentiate three catchment-scale hydrological pathways (overland flow, subsurface storm flow, groundwater flow) on the basis of observed Si and NO3-N concentrations in sampled source waters. Results show that overland flow generally dominates the storm peak and provides the main flow path by which P is transferred to stream channels during storm events, whilst subsurface storm flows usually dominate the storm hydrograph volumetrically and route NO3-rich soil water to the stream. The study shows that altering hydrological pathways in a catchment can have implications for nutrient management. Whilst buffer

  12. The impact of mining activities on agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghatelyan, A.; Sahakyan, L.

    2009-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess environmental status of the territory of the city of Kapan and neighboring agricultural farms with an emphasis on the impact of the tailing repository and operation of the Kapan copper plant on soil, water and plant pollution. The region has long been known for its abundant copper and polymetallic deposits with vein- and stockwork-type mineralization. Moreover, historically Kapan was the miners' city and a powerful copper mining and dressing plant has been operating there since 1846. The performed geochemical survey and a sanitary-hygienic assessment of pollution of the Kapan's soils have indicated high contents of Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo and As vs. the background and Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MAC). The assessment of pollution levels of surface water, including natural and industrial streams, has indicated that unlike natural stream waters, mining waters from the adit and industrial stream waters were high in a number of toxic (Cd, As, Hg) and ore (Cu, Zn) elements. Activation of most chemical elements and particularly of heavy metals in water environment rapidly brings to pollution of environmental components (soils, plants, etc.), and as a result heavy metals enter the human organism via trophic chains. So, in the frame of the research eco-toxicological studies were performed on accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Sn, Mo), including high toxic elements (As, Hg, Pb, Cd) in agricultural soils and in the basic assortment of agricultural crops. The research covered agricultural lands within the bounds of the city and private plots in neighboring villages. Wholly, 24 vegetable, melon field, cereal (corn), oil-bearing (sunflower) species adding spicy herbs and fruits were studied. It should be stressed that agricultural crops growing on the study sites are used provide food products not only by the population of this particular city and neighboring villages, but of other cities, too. It means that the average number of

  13. Application of TABU Search Algorithm with a Coupled ANNAGNPS-CCHE1D Model to Optimize Agricultural Land Use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A principal contributor to soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution, agricultural activities have a major influence on the environmental quality of a watershed. Impact of agricultural activities on the quality of water resources can be minimized by implementing suitable agriculture land-use types....

  14. Vocational Agriculture Education: Agricultural Livestock Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Greg

    Ten units of instruction are provided in this curriculum guide on agricultural livestock skills. Unit topics are as follow: (1) restraining, (2) vaccination, (3) livestock castration, (4) dehorning, (5) docking, (6) growth stimulants, (7) identification, (8) shearing, (9) hoof trimming, and (10) birth assistance. Each instructional unit generally…

  15. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  16. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE RECORD BOOK FOR PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    FORMS ARE PROVIDED FOR RECORDING FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT SUPERVISED FARM PROGRAM ENTERPRISES BY INDIVIDUAL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS. THE BOOK IS DESIGNED ON AN ENTERPRISE BASIS AND PROVIDES SPACE FOR AGREEMENTS, INVENTORIES, EXPENSES, INCOME, SUMMARIES, AND ANALYSES. ASSISTANCE FOR TEACHERS USING THIS RECORD BOOK IS AVAILABLE IN "GUIDE…

  17. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  18. Remote measurement of pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A summary of the major conclusions and recommendations developed by the panels on gaseous air pollution, water pollution, and particulate air pollution is presented. It becomes evident that many of the trace gases are amenable to remote sensing; that certain water pollutants can be measured by remote techniques, but their number is limited; and that a similar approach to the remote measurement of specific particulate pollutants will follow only after understanding of their physical, chemical, and radiative properties is improved. It is also clear that remote sensing can provide essential information in all three categories that can not be obtained by any other means.

  19. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  20. Control of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Noyes, O R; Hamdy, M K; Muse, L A

    1976-01-01

    When a 203Ng(NO3)2 solution was kept at 25 degrees C in glass or polypropylene containers, 50 and 80% of original radioactivity was adsorbed to the containers' walls after 1 and 4 days, respectively. However, no loss in radioactivity was observed if the solution was supplemented with HgCl as carrier (100 mug Hg2+/ml) and stored in either container for 13 days. When 203Hg2+ was dissolved in glucose basal salt broth with added carrier, levels of 203Hg2+ in solution (kept in glass) decreased to 80 and 70% of original after 1 and 5 days and decreased even more if stored in polypropylene (60 and 40% of original activity after 1 and 4 days, respectively). In the absence of carrier, decreases of 203Hg2+ activities in media stored in either container were more pronounced due to chemisorption (but) not diffusion. The following factors affecting the removal of mercurials from aqueous solution stored in glass were examined: type and concentration of adsorbent (fiber glass and rubber powder); pH; pretreatment of the rubber; and the form of mercury used. Rubber was equally effective in the adsorption of organic and inorganic mercury. The pH of the aqueous 203Hg2+ solution was not a critical factor in the rate of adsorption of mercury by the rubber. In addition, the effect of soaking the rubber in water for 18 hr did not show any statistical difference when compared with nontreated rubber. It can be concluded that rubber is a very effective adsorbent of mercury and, thus, can be used as a simple method for control of mercury pollution. PMID:1549

  1. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...

  2. Personal Achievement Reading: Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozeboom, Deborah A.

    Exercises are provided in a set of five workbooks designed to aid students in agricultural programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from terminology of agriculture to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on the ability to determine word…

  3. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  4. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  5. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  6. Agriculture in the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...

  7. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  8. Vocational Agriculture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

    These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

  9. Ecological Models: Agricultural Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural research community is faced with a wide array of complex problems to solve. Continued population increases in developing countries require increased agricultural production, while agroecosystems are being stressed and negatively impacted by greater use of water and agrochemicals. F...

  10. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  11. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  12. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  13. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  14. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  15. RESPONSE OF SKINNER LAKE (INDIANA) TO AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    During 1976-1981, various land management practices were initiated on the agricultural watershed of Skinner Lake in Noble County, Indiana. Land treatment practices implemented on the watershed were chosen from the data and experience gained from the nonpoint source pollution stud...

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF RESTORED WETLANDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The integration of the tax ditches into a drainage management system provides obvious benefits, but can also present a source of significant nonpoint source pollution from agricultural runoff. Many of Delaware's tax ditches have been listed on Delaware's Clean
    Water Act 303(d)...

  17. Denitrification of agricultural drainage line water via immobilized denitrification sludge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpoint source nitrogen is recognized as a significant water pollutant worldwide. One of the major contributors is agricultural drainage line water. One potential method of reducing this nitrogen discharge to water bodies is the use of immobilized denitrifying sludge (IDS). Our objectives were to 1...

  18. CHEMICALS, RUNOFF, AND EROSION FROM AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - CREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CREAMS model can simulate pollutant movement on and from a field site, including such constituents as fertilizers (N and P), pesticides, and sediment. The effects of various agricultural practices can be assessed by simulation of the potential water, soil, nutrient, and pesti...

  19. Applications of WEPS and SWEEP to non-agricultural lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion by wind is a serious problem on agricultural lands throughout the United States and the world. Dust from wind erosion obscures visibility and pollutes the air. It fills road ditches where it can impact water quality, causes automobile accidents, fouls machinery, and imperils animal an...

  20. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMCs) from rainfall runoff on mixed agricultural land use in the shoreline zone of the Yamuna River in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Gupta, Ruchi; Singh, Ram Karan; Kansal, Arun

    2012-03-01

    This paper is focused on the monitoring of the diffuse pollution characteristics from the agricultural land confining the River Yamuna in Delhi (capital of India). Agricultural fields surrounding the Yamuna river are direct nonpoint source of pollution impacting the river quality. The study includes watershed delineation for the River Yamuna using SWAT (2005) and land use classification for the city using GIS and remote sensing. Thereafter, the rainfall-runoff pollutant concentrations from the mixed agricultural land use were assessed for the 2006 and 2007 monsoon period (July-September). Runoff was measured using SCS method and grab samples of rainfall runoff were collected at three stations namely Old Delhi Railway Bridge (ODRB), Nizamuddin and Okhla bridge in Delhi. The samples were analysed for physico-chemical and biological parameters. Rainfall runoff and event mean concentrations (EMCs) for different water quality parameters were characterized and the effect of land use was analyzed. The average EMCs for BOD, COD, ammonia, nitrate, TKN, hardness, TDS, TSS, chlorides, sulfates, phosphate, fluorides and TC were 21.82 mg/L, 73.48 mg/L, 72.68 μg/L, 229.87 μg/L, 15.32 μg/L, 11.36 mg/L, 117.44 mg/L, 77.60 mg/L, 117.64 mg/L, 135.82 mg/L, 0.08 mg/L, 0.85 mg/L and 2,827.47 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The EMCs of TSS, nitrogen and its compounds, phosphate and BOD were high.

  1. Market Aspects of Diffusion: A Spatial Perspective on the Diffusion of Innovations in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    How market factors affected the diffusion of four agricultural inputs (fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide) among farmers on the Central Plain of Thailand is examined. Market factors investigated were the distribution policies of the propagators and the travel behavior of the potential adopters. Data were gathered through personal…

  2. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-01-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  3. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-05-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  4. Periphyton responses to nutrient and atrazine mixtures introduced through agricultural runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural runoff often contains pollutants with potential antagonistic impacts on periphyton, such as nutrients and atrazine. The individual influence of these pollutants on periphyton has been extensively studied, but their impact when introduced in a more realistic scenario of multiple agricult...

  5. VALMET: a valley air pollution model. Final report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1985-04-01

    An air quality model is described for predicting air pollution concentrations in deep mountain valleys arising from nocturnal down-valley transport and diffusion of an elevated pollutant plume, and the fumigation of the plume on the valley floor and sidewalls after sunrise. Included is a technical description of the model, a discussion of the model's applications, the required model inputs, sample calculations and model outputs, and a full listing of the FORTRAN computer program. 55 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. LINEAR MODELS FOR MANAGING SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Gustafson, Sven-Ake

    1984-01-01

    Mathematical models for the problem of maintaining a specified groundwater quality while permitting solute waste disposal at various facilities distributed over space are discussed. The pollutants are assumed to be chemically inert and their concentrations in the groundwater are governed by linear equations for advection and diffusion. The aim is to determine a disposal policy which maximises the total amount of pollutants released during a fixed time T while meeting the condition that the concentration everywhere is below prescribed levels.

  7. A Qualitative Study of Prospective Elementary Teachers' Grasp of Agricultural and Science Educational Benchmarks for Agricultural Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary J.; Meischen, Deanna

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with eight preservice elementary teachers regarding benchmarks related to agricultural technology for food and fiber showed that those from rural areas had more complex understanding of the trade-offs in technology use; urban residents were more concerned with ethical dilemmas. Pesticide pollution was most understood, genetic…

  8. Bioenergy residues as novel sorbents to clean up pesticide pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Santanu

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, water contamination from agricultural use of pesticides has received increasing attention within the last decades. In general, sources of pesticide water pollution are categorized into diffuse (stemming from treated fields) and point sources (stemming from farmyards and spillages). Research has demonstrated that 40 to 90% of surface water pesticide contamination is due to point source pollution. To reduce point pollution from farm yards, where the spray equipment is washed, biobed or biofilter systems are used to treat the washing water. The organic material usually used in these systems is often not environmentally sustainable (e.g. peat) and incorporated organic material such as straw leads to a highly heterogeneous water flow, with negative effects on the retention and degradation behavior of the pesticides. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the suitability of alternative materials based on bioenergy residues (biochar and digestate) for use in biofilters. To this aim the sorption-desorption potential of three contrasting pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) on mixtures of soil with digestate and/or biochar were investigated in laboratory batch equilibrium experiments. The results indicate that the mixture of digestate and biochar increased pesticide sorption potential, whereby in all cases, the Kd des / Kf des values were lower than the Kd ads / Kf ads values indicating that the retention of the pesticides was weak. Thus, as Kf des were lower than the Kf ads values and H values were below 1, it can be concluded that the biomixtures presented negative desorption (higher hysteresis) in those cases. A higher Kd (>78 L kg-1), Kf (>400 μM1-1/nf L1/nfkg-1) and KL (>40 L kg-1) was obtained for all pesticides for the digestate and biochar based mixtures, which had a higher organic matter content. However, lower sorption of the pesticides was observed in blank soil compared to the other biomixtures, which was attributed to the

  9. Agricultural lung disease.

    PubMed

    Spurzem, John R; Romberger, Debra J; Von Essen, Susanna G

    2002-12-01

    Agricultural work is associated with high rates of injury, disability, and illness. Agricultural workers are at increased risk for a variety of illnesses including respiratory disorders, dermatologic conditions, and cancer. The recognition of ODTS led to increased understanding of acute illness in farmers and grain workers. Previously, many cases of acute illness were probably erroneously called farmer's lung. The same agents that are responsible for ODTS are responsible for the high prevalence of bronchitis in certain agricultural workers. The recent description of the innate immune system is very exciting because it will lead to increased understanding of the pathogenesis of organic dust induced disorders. PMID:12512166

  10. Pollution control system

    SciTech Connect

    Voliva, B.H.; Bernstein, I.B.

    1984-09-25

    A pollution control system is disclosed wherein condensable pollutants are removed from a high-temperature gas stream by counterflow contact in a vertical tower with downwardly flowing, relatively cool absorbent oil. The absorbent is at a sufficiently low temperature so as to rapidly condense a portion of the pollutants in order to form a fog of fine droplets of pollutant entrained by the gas stream, which fog is incapable of being absorbed by the absorbent. The remainder of the condensable pollutants is removed by downwardly flowing absorbent oil, and the gas and entrained fog are directed from the tower to gas/droplet separation means, such as an electrostatic precipitator. The fog is thereby separated from the gas and substantially pollutant-free gas is discharged to the atmosphere.

  11. Evaluation of the AnnAGNPS model for predicting runoff and sediment yield in a small Mediterranean agricultural watershed in Navarre (Spain)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Model) is a system of computer models developed to predict non-point source pollutant loadings within agricultural watersheds. It contains a daily time step distributed parameter continuous simulation surface runoff model designed to assis...

  12. Green roofs as a means of pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Rowe, D Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Green roofs involve growing vegetation on rooftops and are one tool that can help mitigate the negative effects of pollution. This review encompasses published research to date on how green roofs can help mitigate pollution, how green roof materials influence the magnitude of these benefits, and suggests future research directions. The discussion concentrates on how green roofs influence air pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, carbon sequestration, longevity of roofing membranes that result in fewer roofing materials in landfills, water quality of stormwater runoff, and noise pollution. Suggestions for future directions for research include plant selection, development of improved growing substrates, urban rooftop agriculture, water quality of runoff, supplemental irrigation, the use of grey water, air pollution, carbon sequestration, effects on human health, combining green roofs with complementary related technologies, and economics and policy issues. PMID:21074914

  13. Industrial waste pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and effects of industrial waste pollution in the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of inorganic and organic pollution entering the bay are described. The four types of pollutants are defined as: (1) inorganic chemical wastes, (2) naturally occurring organic wastes, (3) synthetic organic wastes (exotics) and (4) thermal effluents. The ecological behavior of industrial wastes in the surface waters is analyzed with respect to surface film phenomena, interfacial phenomena, and benthis phenomena

  14. An Urban Agricultural Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Parker V.

    1974-01-01

    A program of Agricultural Education (primarily horticulture) was started in the San Diego, California school district in 1967. The philosophy behind the program, the growth in terms of students involved, and the structural framework of the program are outlined. (KP)

  15. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  16. Agricultural chemistry and bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in converting biomass to biofuels such as ethanol, other forms of bioenergy, and bioenergy byproducts or coproducts of commercial value opens opportunities for chemists, including agricultural chemists and related disciplines. Applications include feedstock characterization and quan...

  17. Department of Agriculture

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel and Recreation USDA for Kids Programs and ... and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency News Releases ...

  18. Agricultural Research Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quality Review Office of Technology Transfer National Program Research Areas Animal Production and Protection Crop Production and Protection Natural Resources and Sustainable Agricultural Systems Nutrition, Food Safety, and Quality Overseas ...

  19. The Agriculture Grants Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogmann, David W.; Key, Joe

    1981-01-01

    Reviews historical background surrounding the origins of the Competitive Research Grants Office, established in 1978 to support basic research related to agriculture. Describes current controversy within the legislature which threatens its existence. (CS)

  20. GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...