Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural economics association

  1. Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

  2. Fuel ethanol and agriculture: an economic assessment. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, G.; Gavett, E.

    1986-08-01

    Increased fuel ethanol production through 1995 would raise net farm income, benefiting mainly corn and livestock producers. Production of additional byproduct feeds would depress the price of soybeans. Large ethanol subsidies, which are required to sustain the industry, would offset any savings in agricultural commodity programs. Increased ethanol production would also raise consumer expenditures for food. Any benefits of higher income to farmers would be more than offset by increased Government costs and consumer food expenditures. Direct cash payments to farmers would be more economical than attempting to boost farm income through ethanol subsidies.

  3. a Reflective Perspective Towards Agricultural Information-Based System Development in General Rural China and Farmers' Economic Association as the Entry Point of Icts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Miao; Zuo, Ting; Leninhan, Eamon

    The information-based agricultural system plays a profound role in agricultural economic and social development in long term. There are various practices worldwide, both successful and unsuccessful. In recent years new technologies blossomed, if those new technologies succeed in the developed world, does it hold true for China? The alternative choices in informationbased system development should be noticed in China. This article argues that China’s development policy should choose the way that adapts to China’s circumstances, not totally adopt the western way. In the current situation of general rural China, the theme of information-based agricultural system needs to be further addressed. It is suggested that the Farmers’ Economic Association can be considered as one of the most accessible entry-points for further development way.

  4. Agricultural Management and Economics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Kevin J.; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains four units and incorporates the needed component parts to aid agriculture teachers in the implementation of the Vocational Instructional Management System. The guide consists of these four units: economic principles in agriculture (6 lessons), business management (17 lessons), planning the farm business (9 lessons),…

  5. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF OZONE ON AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past attempts to assess the monetary impacts of ozone or other air pollutants on agriculture have had only sparse plant science information on which to base an assessment. This paper reports on an economic assessment of the effects of simulated changes in ambient ozone on U.S. ag...

  6. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  7. External Economic Drivers and U.S. Agricultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S agriculture operates in a market driven economy. As with other businesses, agricultural producers respond to economic incentives and disincentives and make decisions to maximize their welfare. In this paper we examine external economic drivers that shape agricultural systems. Specifically, we c...

  8. Agricultural Modernization and Economic Inequality: The Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Aruna Nayyar

    1978-01-01

    Argues that agriculture production in developing nations should be organized to ensure economic viability. Government policy must emphasize participants' productive capacities and integrate agricultural workers into the new organization of production. (Author/DB)

  9. Quantitative studies in public and agricultural economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Adele Cecile

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation contains three essays. The first is entitled "Property Tax Treatment of Farmland: Does Tax Relief Delay Land Development?" I investigate use-value assessment, a state policy allowing farmland to be assessed at its agriculture-only value, rather than its full market value. Using Census data from 2963 counties over 1959--1987, I test the effect of use-value assessment on the proportion of county land in farming. Estimates indicate that after adoption, use-value assessment produced a gradually increasing proportion of farmland relative to counties who did not have the policy. The effect rose to ten percentage points more land in farming after twenty years. I present a model of the landowner's decision to develop farmland for urban uses and derive the effect of use-value assessment policy on the optimal development timing. The second essay is "State and Local Government Employment: Do Governments Respond Asymmetrically to Changes in Incomes?" I develop models for changes in government employment that allow an asymmetric response to increases and decreases in per capita private income to see whether government employment increases more in years of economic growth than it decreases in years of economic decline. I develop a model that does not require special assumptions to predict a positive relationship between the dependent and independent variables, and estimate it with U.S. Census data from 1970 to 1991 for 48 states. Results demonstrate symmetrical government employment response to incomes and are quite robust, holding consistently for several functional forms and other specifications of asymmetric response. I find that Democratic and Republican governors hire equivalently, but may slow layoffs in election years. The third essay is "Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Soil Management in Crop Production." I develop a theoretical model for optimal factor intensity (input per unit output). Using cross-sectional data from USDA's 1996

  10. Intellectual Investment in Agriculture for Economic and Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In a project of agricultural research, education, and advice for economic growth and development, data was obtained from 14 countries and summarized with implications for action. Chapters in the report discuss: (1) Intellectual Investment and Economic and Social Development, (2) Intellectual Investment in Agriculture, (3) Agronomic Research, (4)…

  11. Agricultural Economics Students at Southern Land Grant Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, John L.; And Others

    Data were obtained in 1977 via mail questionnaires sent to students at all 1890 and 1860 Land Grant Universities in the South with programs in agriculture, to examine selected background characteristics and subjective perspectives of agricultural economics majors, compared with majors in production sciences and all agriculture curricula. The…

  12. Generic Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glauber, Joseph W.

    The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue generic certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity…

  13. Teaching Agricultural Ethics in the Agricultural Economics Curriculum. Faculty Paper Series 86-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Paul B.

    The undergraduate course in agricultural ethics has been under development at Texas A&M University for four years. The course that has evolved is the result of discussion between the philosophy and agriculture departments. The course attempts to incorporate basic economic principles that affect agriculture as well as to tie these principles to…

  14. Economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production within a biomass system

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Flaim, S.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production in the United States is discussed. The beverage fermentation processes are compared and contrasted with the wet milling of corn, and alternative agricultural products for alcohol production are discussed. Alcohol costs for different fermentation methods and for various agricultural crops (corn, sugar cane, sugar beets, etc.) are presented, along with a brief discussion of US government policy implications. (JMT)

  15. 76 FR 62755 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, United States Department of Agriculture..., and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education,...

  16. Agriculture sector resource and environmental policy analysis: an economic and biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    House, R; McDowell, H; Peters, M; Heimlich, R

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural pollution of the environment is jointly determined by economic decisions driving land use, production practices, and stochastic biophysical processes associated with agricultural production, land and climate characteristics. It follows that environmental and economic statistics, traditionally collected independently of each other, offer little insight into non-point pollutant loadings. We argue that effective policy development would be facilitated by integrating environmental and economic data gathering, combined with simulation modelling linking economic and biophysical components. Integrated data collection links economics, land use, production methods and environmental loadings. An integrated economic/biophysical modelling framework facilitates policy analysis because monetary incentives to reduce pollution can be evaluated in the context of market costs and returns that influence land use and production activity. This allows prediction of environmental and economic outcomes from alternative policies to solve environmental problems. We highlight steps taken to merge economic and biophysical modelling for policy analysis within the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. An example analysis of a policy to reduce agricultural nitrogen pollution is presented, with the economic and environmental results illustrating the value of linked economic and biophysical analysis. PMID:10231835

  17. Economic Effects of Technological Advances in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Comparisons of average food prices and hourly wages based on 40-hours work week in various capital cities of the world are presented. Such factors as mechanization, chemicals, and improved genetics have resulted in greater productivity, fewer but larger farms, and hardier plants and animals. The economic effects are discussed as they are felt by…

  18. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  19. An Economic Analysis of USDA Erosion Control Programs: A New Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 560.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Roger, Ed.

    A study analyzed the total (public and private) economic costs and benefits of three U.S. Department of Agriculture erosion control programs. These were the Conservation Technical Assistance Program, Great Plains Conservation Program, and Agricultural Conservation Program. Significant efforts at funding for current programs were directed to…

  20. Land Resources for Crop Production. Agricultural Economic Report Number 572.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexem, Roger; Krupa, Kenneth S.

    About 35 million acres not being cultivated have high potential for crop use and 117 million more have medium potential, according to the 1982 National Resources Inventory (NRI) conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA committees evaluated the economic potential for converting land based on physical characteristics of the soil; size…

  1. Climate change effects on agriculture: economic responses to biophysical shocks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gerald C; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-03-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change. PMID:24344285

  2. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  3. Developing Transferable Research Skills in First Year Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppi, Tony; Nolan, Elizabeth; Field, Damien

    2010-01-01

    A problem-based learning approach was adopted for a unit of study in first year agricultural economics at the University of Sydney with the aim of starting development of students' research skills earlier than usual. The novel teaching approach employed a structured and guided problem activity in the first semester and progressed to a more…

  4. 78 FR 52496 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension,...

  5. 77 FR 11064 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension,...

  6. 77 FR 58978 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY..., and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education,...

  7. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  8. Education, Off-Farm Employment and Rural Economic Development: Perspectives from States in the Southeast. Proceedings of a Rural Development Symposium at the Annual Meeting of the Southern Agricultural Economics Association (Lexington, Kentucky, February 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debertin, David L., Ed.

    This publication presents a series of five papers based on presentations given at a rural development symposium dealing with the role of education in off-farm employment and rural economic development. The first paper, "Education and Rural Economic Development" (Thomas G. Johnson), discusses linkages between the regional educational attainment…

  9. 12 CFR 614.4050 - Agricultural credit associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural credit associations. 614.4050... OPERATIONS Lending Authorities § 614.4050 Agricultural credit associations. Agricultural credit associations... participations. Subject to the requirements of subpart H of this part, agricultural credit associations may...

  10. Support for agriculture during economic transformation: impacts on poverty and undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

    2012-07-31

    This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health risks associated with rising obesity in rural as well as urban areas. Thus, the transition process must be managed better, through targeted support for smallholder agriculture and health interventions, if the negative consequences of obesity and chronic disease are to be mitigated. PMID:21173245

  11. Support for agriculture during economic transformation: Impacts on poverty and undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health risks associated with rising obesity in rural as well as urban areas. Thus, the transition process must be managed better, through targeted support for smallholder agriculture and health interventions, if the negative consequences of obesity and chronic disease are to be mitigated. PMID:21173245

  12. 12 CFR 619.9015 - Agricultural credit associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural credit associations. 619.9015... Agricultural credit associations. Agricultural credit associations are associations created by the merger of one or more Federal land bank associations or Federal land credit associations and one or...

  13. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Gerald; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Mueller, C.; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2013-12-16

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and will thus be directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the IPCC’s Representative Concentration Pathway that result in end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 watts per square meter. The mean biophysical impact on crop yield with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17 percent reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11 percent, increase area of major crops by 12 percent, and reduce consumption by 2 percent. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences includes model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  14. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d’Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2. The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change. PMID:24344285

  15. Agriculture, population, and economic planning in Ethiopia, 1953-1980.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W C; Yamazaki, F

    1986-04-01

    This paper deals with the economic development of Ethiopia in the 3 decades between 1950 and 1980. In particular, it examines governmental efforts at agricultural planning during this period compared to the actual experience of the country. The dominant forces governing the changes that occurred in this period were accelerated population growth and the declining availability of arable land, which combined to push a fragile, traditional ecosystem to the brink of disaster. Government planning efforts had little impact in the pre-1974 period, since they were too modest and small scale to affect the highly traditional and primitive mode of peasant cultivation. The sweeping structural changes introduced by the new regime since 1974 seem to have mainly adverse effects and to have decreased both productivity and yields. Ethiopia lacks the basic infrastructure and incentive system to create an environment in which technological change is possible. Presumably the declining agricultural growth rate from 1953 to 1974 suggests that the traditional, prerevolution system was failing to create these favorable conditions and hence was losing the race with population growth. The post-1974 revolutionary government's policy has been, in effect, an effort to jump to an advanced phase of agricultural development, and this seems to have been even less successful. These plans have, in all fairness, been hamstrung since 1981 by drought, famine, and civil war, but have probably themselves contributed to the severity of those events. Overall, Ethiopian agricultural planning has not been notably successful. From 1953-1980, total agricultural production is estimated to have grown at a slowly decreasing rate. The collapse of agriculture due to several years of drought obviously cannot be blamed on government planning, but its severity clearly has been at least partly a function of policy failures. PMID:12280692

  16. 12 CFR 619.9015 - Agricultural credit associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural credit associations. 619.9015 Section 619.9015 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9015 Agricultural credit associations. Agricultural credit associations are associations created by the merger...

  17. 12 CFR 619.9015 - Agricultural credit associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agricultural credit associations. 619.9015 Section 619.9015 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9015 Agricultural credit associations. Agricultural credit associations are associations created by the merger...

  18. 12 CFR 614.4050 - Agricultural credit associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural credit associations. 614.4050 Section 614.4050 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending Authorities § 614.4050 Agricultural credit associations. Agricultural credit...

  19. 12 CFR 614.4050 - Agricultural credit associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agricultural credit associations. 614.4050 Section 614.4050 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending Authorities § 614.4050 Agricultural credit associations. Agricultural credit...

  20. The economics of soil C sequestration and agricultural emissions abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.; Paustian, K.; Smith, P.; Moran, D.

    2015-04-01

    Carbon is a critical component of soil vitality and is crucial to our ability to produce food. Carbon sequestered in soils also provides a further regulating ecosystem service, valued as the avoided damage from global climate change. We consider the demand and supply attributes that underpin and constrain the emergence of a market value for this vital global ecosystem service: markets being what economists regard as the most efficient institutions for allocating scarce resources to the supply and consumption of valuable goods. This paper considers how a potentially large global supply of soil carbon sequestration is reduced by economic and behavioural constraints that impinge on the emergence of markets, and alternative public policies that can efficiently transact demand for the service from private and public sector agents. In essence, this is a case of significant market failure. In the design of alternative policy options, we consider whether soil carbon mitigation is actually cost-effective relative to other measures in agriculture and elsewhere in the economy, and the nature of behavioural incentives that hinder policy options. We suggest that reducing the cost and uncertainties of mitigation through soil-based measures is crucial for improving uptake. Monitoring and auditing processes will also be required to eventually facilitate wide-scale adoption of these measures.

  1. 76 FR 13124 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet March 30-31, 2011. The public may file written...

  2. 75 FR 61692 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet October 27-29, 2010. The public may file written...

  3. 78 FR 25691 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet May 28-30, 2013. The public may file written...

  4. 75 FR 12171 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet March 29-31, 2010. The public may file written...

  5. Understanding Canadian Agriculture. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyns, R. M. A.

    This document for secondary school Canadian students analyzes the role of agriculture in the national economy and in Canadian trade, describes characteristics of Canadian farms, and discusses governmental inlfuences on Canadian agriculture. The document stresses that agriculture is a large source of national wealth; about 30% of Canadian farm…

  6. Economic and Social Conditions Relating to Agriculture and Its Structure to Year 2000. CARD Miscellaneous Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.

    Possible economic and social trends in world agriculture by year 2000 will include increased energy costs; larger, fewer and more specialized farms; decreasing agricultural population; closer ties between farmers and large agribusinesses; more emphasis on consumer and environmental protection; and an increased importance of agriculture in…

  7. World Food and Agriculture. Economic Problems and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asefa, Sisay, Ed.

    This book contains a series of essays based on public lectures delivered by six agricultural economists during the 1986-1987 academic year at Western Michigan University. Some of the main issues and problems addressed in the essays are the role of technical change in agricultural development, the value of learning from historical and comparative…

  8. The Role of Vocational Education in Agriculture--Economic Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillion, Martin B.

    1982-01-01

    Vocational agriculture is education for work. By meeting the needs of the economy and the job market, it can meet the needs of the individual. Although human resource development is important, vocational agriculture should focus on job-relevant competencies and cost effectiveness. (SK)

  9. The Agricultural Work Force of 1985. A Statistical Profile. Agricultural Economic Report 582.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Victor J.; Cox, E. Jane

    This report examines the demographic and employment characteristics, geographic distribution, and earnings of the agricultural work force in the United States as of 1985. Data are from the Agricultural Work Force Supplement to the December 1985 Current Population Survey. The three components of the agricultural work force--hired farmworkers, farm…

  10. A generic bio-economic farm model for environmental and economic assessment of agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Sander; Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K

    2010-12-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  11. A Generic Bio-Economic Farm Model for Environmental and Economic Assessment of Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  12. Government Intervention in Agriculture. Measurement, Evaluation, and Implications for Trade Negotiations. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 229.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report presents an analysis that defines and quantifies the extent of government intervention in the agricultural sectors of the market-oriented countries most active in trade. One aim is to provide usable economic information for the multilateral trade negotiations (MTN), recently launched under the auspices of the General Agreement on…

  13. Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Colleen F.; Shah, Maunank

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

  14. Analysis And Assistant Planning System Ofregional Agricultural Economic Inform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jie; Zhang, Junfeng

    For the common problems existed in regional development and planning, we try to design a decision support system for assisting regional agricultural development and alignment as a decision-making tool for local government and decision maker. The analysis methods of forecast, comparative advantage, liner programming and statistical analysis are adopted. According to comparative advantage theory, the regional advantage can be determined by calculating and comparing yield advantage index (YAI), Scale advantage index (SAI), Complicated advantage index (CAI). Combining with GIS, agricultural data are presented as a form of graph such as area, bar and pie to uncover the principle and trend for decision-making which can't be found in data table. This system provides assistant decisions for agricultural structure adjustment, agro-forestry development and planning, and can be integrated to information technologies such as RS, AI and so on.

  15. Groundwater economics: An object-oriented foundation for integrated studies of irrigated agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, David R.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.; Yang, Xiaoying; Bulatewicz, Tom; Herrera-Rodriguez, Mauricio; Mao, Dazhi; Hendricks, Nathan

    2009-05-01

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater wells and agricultural parcels is employed to couple these models using geographic information science technology and open modeling interface protocols. This approach is used to study the collective action problem of the common pool. Three different policies (existing, regulation, and incentive based) are studied in the semiarid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer in the central United States. Results show that while regulation using the prior appropriation doctrine and incentives using a water buy-back program may each achieve the same level of water savings across the study region, each policy has a different impact on spatial patterns of groundwater declines and farm level economic activity. This represents the first time that groundwater and econometric models of irrigated agriculture have been integrated at the well-parcel level and provides methods for scientific investigation of this coupled natural-human system. Results are useful for science to inform decision making and public policy debate.

  16. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

  17. 12 CFR 614.4530 - Special loans, production credit associations and agricultural credit associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special loans, production credit associations and agricultural credit associations. 614.4530 Section 614.4530 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT..., production credit associations and agricultural credit associations. Under policies approved by the...

  18. 12 CFR 614.4530 - Special loans, production credit associations and agricultural credit associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special loans, production credit associations and agricultural credit associations. 614.4530 Section 614.4530 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT..., production credit associations and agricultural credit associations. Under policies approved by the...

  19. Discovering Information Use in Agricultural Economics: A Citation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2007-01-01

    This citation study investigated the research needs and activity of U.S. agricultural economists. Journals were the dominant format of cited sources. Books, government publications, and working papers formed the other important types of references, whereas electronic sources were sparsely used. Subject scatter in this interdisciplinary field was…

  20. Agricultural injuries in Central India: nature, magnitude, and economic impact.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, P S; Gite, L P; Dubey, A K; Kot, L S

    2002-02-01

    A study was carried out in Madhya Pradesh (Central India) to collect data on injury-causing agricultural incidents during the period 1995-1999. The overall incidence rate was 1.25/1000 workers/year. About 9.2% of the incidents were fatal, and most of the fatal incidents were due to tractors and snakebites (42.9% each). About 77.6% of all incidents were due to farm machinery, 11.8% were due to hand tools, and the remaining 10.6% were due to other sources like snakes, wells, etc. Data on 1,911 incidents reported in 10 leading newspapers published during the five-year period (1995-1999) from different regions of the state were also collected and analyzed, which indicated that only major or roadside agricultural incidents were reported in newspapers. Based on the survey data, it was estimated that in the year 2000 there would have been about 17,480 agricultural incidents in Madhya Pradesh, causing death to about 2,050 workers and injuries to about 16,770 workers, including amputations of limbs, burns, cuts, etc. Total monetary loss due to agricultural injuries in the state of Madhya Pradesh has been estimated as US $27 million/year. PMID:12002378

  1. Strategies and Economics for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION Agriculture can make significant contributions to climate change mitigation by a) increasing soil organic carbon sinks, b) reducing GHG emissions, and c) off-setting fossil fuel by promoting biofuels. The latter has the potential to counter-balance fossil-fuel emissions to some degree, ...

  2. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  3. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agricultural credit association (hereinafter association(s)), such association(s) may invest in notes... total amount which an association may invest in such obligations at any one time shall not exceed 15.... In addition, the total amount which an association may invest in such obligations that are...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agricultural credit association (hereinafter association(s)), such association(s) may invest in notes... total amount which an association may invest in such obligations at any one time shall not exceed 15.... In addition, the total amount which an association may invest in such obligations that are...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... agricultural credit association (hereinafter association(s)), such association(s) may invest in notes... total amount which an association may invest in such obligations at any one time shall not exceed 15.... In addition, the total amount which an association may invest in such obligations that are...

  6. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  7. The Role of Agriculture in the Economic Development of West Virginia: An Input-Output Analysis. Miscellaneous Publication No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Gerard E.; And Others

    This study deals with the structural interrelationships among agricultural sub-sectors, and between the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors of the West Virginia economy. The study is intended to offer information on which to base sound economic development decisions. An input-output economic model is used in order to focus on the interaction…

  8. Education for Agriculture. A History of the Ohio Vocational Agriculture Teachers Association--1925-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Warren G.; Woodin, Ralph J.

    The 50-year history of the Ohio Vocational Agriculture Teachers Association (OVATA) was prepared for the purpose of enabling members and others to gain a better understanding of the history, growth, and development of the OVATA, and to identify objectives, activities, and accomplishments of the organization. The history is organized into three…

  9. Economical and environmental implications of solid waste compost applications to agricultural fields in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qazi, M Akram; Akram, M; Ahmad, N; Artiola, Janick F; Tuller, M

    2009-09-01

    Application of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) to agricultural soils is becoming an increasingly important global practice to enhance and sustain soil organic matter (SOM) and fertility levels. Potential risks associated with heavy metals and phosphorus accumulations in surface soils may be minimized with integrated nutrient management strategies that utilize MSWC together with mineral fertilizers. To explore the economic feasibility of MSWC applications, nutrient management plans were developed for rice-wheat and cotton-wheat cropping systems within the Punjab region of Pakistan. Three-year field trials were conducted to measure yields and to determine the economic benefits using three management strategies and two nutrient doses. Management strategies included the application of mineral fertilizers as the sole nutrient source and application of mineral fertilizers in combination with MSWC with and without pesticide/herbicide treatments. Fertilizer doses were either based on standard N, P and K recommendations or on measured site-specific soil plant available phosphorus (PAP) levels. It was found that combining MSWC and mineral fertilizer applications based on site-specific PAP levels with the use of pesticides and herbicides is an economically and environmentally viable management strategy. Results show that incorporation of MSWC improved soil physical properties such as bulk density and penetration resistance. The PAP levels in the surface layer increased by the end of the trials relative to the initial status. No potential risks of heavy metal (Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) accumulation were observed. Treatments comprised of MSWC and mineral fertilizer adjusted to site-specific PAP levels and with common pest management showed highest cumulative yields. A basic economic analysis revealed a significantly higher cumulative net profit and value-to-cost ratio (VCR) for all site-specific doses. PMID:19501499

  10. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section. Association of Southern Agricultural Workers, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Twenty-seven papers relating to rural sociology which were presented at the 1970 annual meeting of the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers are compiled in this volume. Areas emphasized are the educational and occupational aspirations of rural youth, community development and regional planning, and the racial composition and…

  11. Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Coccinellini) Associated with Alaskan Agricultural Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccinellid populations were monitored in agricultural areas of the Tanana and Matanuska-Susitna river valleys of Alaska from 2004 to 2005. Ten species were confirmed from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Museum of the North Insect Collection and 13 species were collected in association with Ala...

  12. The economic potential of carbon sequestration in Californian agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catala-Luque, Rosa

    This dissertation studies the potential success of a carbon sequestration policy based on payments to farmers for adoption of alternative, less intensive, management practices in California. Since this is a first approach from a Californian perspective, we focus on Yolo County, an important agricultural county of the State. We focus on the six more important crops of the region: wheat, tomato, corn, rice, safflower, and sunflower. In Chapter 1, we characterize the role of carbon sequestration in Climate Change policy. We also give evidence on which alternative management practices have greenhouse gas mitigation potential (reduced tillage, cover-cropping, and organic systems) based on a study of experimental sites. Chapter 2 advances recognizing the need for information at the field level, and describes the survey designed used to obtain data at the field level, something required to perform a complete integrated assessment of the issue. The survey design is complex in the sense that we use auxiliary information to obtain a control (subpopulation of conventional farmers)-case (subpopulation of innovative farmers) design with stratification for land use. We present estimates for population quantities of interest such as total variable costs, profits, managerial experience in different alternatives, etc. This information efficiently gives field level information for innovative farmers, a missing piece of information so far, since our sampling strategy required the inclusion with probability one of farmers identified as innovative. Using an agronomic process model (DayCent) for the sample and population units, we construct carbon mitigation cost curves for each crop and management observed. Chapter 3 builds different econometric models for cross-sectional data taking into account the survey design, and expanding the sample size constructing productivity potential under each alternative. Based on the yield productivity potential modeled for each unit, we conclude that a

  13. Review Article: Economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture - review and analysis of existing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, P.; Grelot, F.; Agenais, A.-L.

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, economic evaluation of flood management projects is increasingly used to help decision making. At the same time, the management of flood risk is shifting towards new concepts such as giving more room to water by restoring floodplains. Agricultural areas are particularly targeted by projects following those concepts since they are frequently located in floodplain areas and since the potential damage to such areas is expected to be lower than to cities or industries for example. Additional or avoided damage to agriculture may have a major influence on decisions concerning these projects and the economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture is thus an issue that needs to be tackled. The question of flood damage to agriculture can be addressed in different ways. This paper reviews and analyzes existing studies which have developed or used damage functions for agriculture in the framework of an economic appraisal of flood management projects. A conceptual framework of damage categories is proposed for the agricultural sector. The damage categories were used to structure the review. Then, a total of 42 studies are described, with a detailed review of 26 of them, based on the following criteria: types of damage considered, the influential flood parameters chosen, and monetized damage indicators used. The main recommendations resulting from this review are that even if existing methods have already focused on damage to crops, still some improvement is needed for crop damage functions. There is also a need to develop damage functions for other agricultural damage categories, including farm buildings and their contents. Finally, to cover all possible agricultural damage, and in particular loss of activity, a farm scale approach needs to be used.

  14. Hydro-economic analysis of groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture in California's Central Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellín-Azuara, Josué; MacEwan, Duncan; Howitt, Richard E.; Koruakos, George; Dogrul, Emin C.; Brush, Charles F.; Kadir, Tariq N.; Harter, Thomas; Melton, Forrest; Lund, Jay R.

    2015-09-01

    As in many places, groundwater in California (USA) is the major alternative water source for agriculture during drought, so groundwater's availability will drive some inevitable changes in the state's water management. Currently, agricultural, environmental, and urban uses compete for groundwater, resulting in substantial overdraft in dry years with lowering of water tables, which in turn increases pumping costs and reduces groundwater pumping capacity. In this study, SWAP (an economic model of agricultural production and water use in California) and C2VISim (the California Department of Water Resources groundwater model for California's Central Valley) are connected. This paper examines the economic costs of pumping replacement groundwater during drought and the potential loss of pumping capacity as groundwater levels drop. A scenario of three additional drought years continuing from 2014 show lower water tables in California's Central Valley and loss of pumping capacity. Places without access to groundwater and with uncertain surface-water deliveries during drought are the most economically vulnerable in terms of crop revenues, employment and household income. This is particularly true for Tulare Lake Basin, which relies heavily on water imported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Remote-sensing estimates of idle agricultural land between 2012 and 2014 confirm this finding. Results also point to the potential of a portfolio approach for agriculture, in which crop mixing and conservation practices have substantial roles.

  15. Spatial Modeling of Indian Agriculture, Economic Activity and Population under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, G. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present a spatial model of economic activity and human population built on physical geography that takes particular account of its effects through agricultural productivity and transport costs for trade. A major component of this work is an agricultural model, driven in part by high-resolution climate data and model output. We put forward India as the initial region for this modeling work; India is a relatively data-rich country, it exhibits significant within-country spatial and temporal variation in agricultural productivity, urbanization rates, and population growth rates, and the climate dynamics of the monsoon are well-studied and expected to change on decadal time scales. Agricultural productivity is modeled as a function of soil, climate, and technology variables. Farmers locate optimally given varying geography and transport costs; in turn, food availability defines urbanization rates and economic activity in non-agricultural sectors. This “social system” integrated assessment model is a step towards a valuable policy tool, but requires a significant mobilization of data and a grid-cell-level system of equations to describe the underlying dynamics of the model. We test against past trends of social-natural system progression in demography, human location, income, food production, etc., and argue that the model could be used to assess future trends under varying climate change scenarios, and eventually serve to model feedbacks through effects on migration, population growth rates, or economic activity.

  16. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

  17. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  18. Socio-Economic Background and Access to Internet as Correlates of Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegoke, Sunday Paul; Osokoya, Modupe M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated access to internet and socio-economic background as correlates of students' achievement in Agricultural Science among selected Senior Secondary Schools Two Students in Ogbomoso South and North Local Government Areas. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique. Simple random sampling was used to select 30 students from…

  19. PARAMETERIZING GPFARM: AN AGRICULTURAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR INTEGRATING SCIENCE, ECONOMICS, RESOURCE USE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few farmers and ranchers adopt agricultural software such as decision support systems (DSS). While numerous decision aids are available, most are too difficult for producers to use, exclude components (e.g., economic budgeting, weeds, multicriteria decision analysis) necessary for meaningful use on...

  20. Grade Performance of Face-to-Face versus Online Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina A.; Makus, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Online course offerings have been growing at a rapid pace in post-secondary education. An ordered probit model is estimated to analyze the effects of online vs. face-to-face course format in achieving specific letter grades. An upper-division agricultural economics course taught over 9 years using both formats is used for the analysis. For a…

  1. Teaching Basic Production Economic Principles to Secondary School Students of Vocational Agriculture: An Evaluative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, James E.

    Four modules of instruction on basic production economic principles were developed, tried in high school classes of students preparing for on- and off-farm agricultural occupations, and evaluated for content and teaching. Basic principles studied were supply and demand, value theory, variable proportions, and marginal analysis. Total and part…

  2. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... credit association investment in farmers' notes given to cooperatives and dealers. 615.5172 Section 615....5172 Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes... farmers and ranchers eligible to borrow from such associations. (b) Such notes and other...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... credit association investment in farmers' notes given to cooperatives and dealers. 615.5172 Section 615....5172 Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes... farmers and ranchers eligible to borrow from such associations. (b) Such notes and other...

  4. Groundwater economics: An object-oriented foundation for integrated studies of irrigated agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater we...

  5. Integrated Modeling to Assess the Impacts of Changes in Climate and Socio Economics on Agriculture in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Malek, K.; Nelson, R.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the impacts of climate change and socio economics on agriculture in the Columbia River basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. and a portion of Southwestern Canada. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of CRB water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area. Agriculture is an important component of the region's economy, with an annual value over 5 billion in Washington State alone. Therefore, the region is relevant for applying a modeling framework that can aid agriculture decision making in the context of a changing climate. To do this, we created an integrated biophysical and socio-economic regional modeling framework that includes human and natural systems. The modeling framework captures the interactions between climate, hydrology, crop growth dynamics, water management and socio economics. The biophysical framework includes a coupled macro-scale physically-based hydrology model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC model), and crop growth model (CropSyst), as well as a reservoir operations simulation model. Water rights data and instream flow target requirements are also incorporated in the model to simulate the process of curtailment during water shortage. The economics model informs the biophysical model of the short term agricultural producer response to water shortage as well as the long term agricultural producer response to domestic growth and international trade in terms of an altered cropping pattern. The modeling framework was applied over the CRB for the historical period 1976-2006 and compared to a future 30-year period centered on the 2030s. Impacts of climate change on irrigation water availability, crop irrigation demand, frequency of curtailment, and crop yields are quantified and presented. Sensitivity associated with estimates of water availability, irrigation demand, crop

  6. Analysis of economic impacts of climate change on agricultural water management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote, Luis; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    on changes in management practices due to adaptation or land use changes. These have been estimated through a socio-economic model that accounts for the evolution of population, GDP, agricultural land use and other relevant socio-economic variables linked to climate change adaptation. The combination of the results of the SARA model, the WAAPA model and the socioeconomic model allow the estimation of total economic value of agricultural production in terms of fraction of GDP.

  7. Blue water scarcity and the economic impacts of future agricultural trade and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Christoph; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Gerten, Dieter; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Biewald, Anne; Popp, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    An increasing demand for agricultural goods affects the pressure on global water resources over the coming decades. In order to quantify these effects, we have developed a new agroeconomic water scarcity indicator, considering explicitly economic processes in the agricultural system. The indicator is based on the water shadow price generated by an economic land use model linked to a global vegetation-hydrology model. Irrigation efficiency is implemented as a dynamic input depending on the level of economic development. We are able to simulate the heterogeneous distribution of water supply and agricultural water demand for irrigation through the spatially explicit representation of agricultural production. This allows in identifying regional hot spots of blue water scarcity and explicit shadow prices for water. We generate scenarios based on moderate policies regarding future trade liberalization and the control of livestock-based consumption, dependent on different population and gross domestic product (GDP) projections. Results indicate increased water scarcity in the future, especially in South Asia, the Middle East, and north Africa. In general, water shadow prices decrease with increasing liberalization, foremost in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Policies to reduce livestock consumption in developed countries not only lower the domestic pressure on water but also alleviate water scarcity to a large extent in developing countries. It is shown that one of the two policy options would be insufficient for most regions to retain water scarcity in 2045 on levels comparable to 2005.

  8. Potential ecological and economic consequences of climate-driven agricultural and silvicultural transformations in central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, Nadezhda M.; Zander, Evgeniya V.; Pyzhev, Anton I.; Parfenova, Elena I.; Soja, Amber J.

    2014-05-01

    Increased warming predicted from general circulation models (GCMs) by the end of the century is expected to dramatically impact Siberian forests. Both natural climate-change-caused disturbance (weather, wildfire, infestation) and anthropogenic disturbance (legal/illegal logging) has increased, and their impact on Siberian boreal forest has been mounting over the last three decades. The Siberian BioClimatic Model (SiBCliM) was used to simulate Siberian forests, and the resultant maps show a severely decreased forest that has shifted northwards and a changed composition. Predicted dryer climates would enhance the risks of high fire danger and thawing permafrost, both of which challenge contemporary ecosystems. Our current goal is to evaluate the ecological and economic consequences of climate warming, to optimise economic loss/gain effects in forestry versus agriculture, to question the relative economic value of supporting forestry, agriculture or a mixed agro-forestry at the southern forest border in central Siberia predicted to undergo the most noticeable landcover and landuse changes. We developed and used forest and agricultural bioclimatic models to predict forest shifts; novel tree species and their climatypes are introduced in a warmer climate and/or potential novel agriculture are introduced with a potential variety of crops by the end of the century. We applied two strategies to estimate climate change effects, motivated by forest disturbance. One is a genetic means of assisting trees and forests to be harmonized with a changing climate by developing management strategies for seed transfer to locations that are best ecologically suited to the genotypes in future climates. The second strategy is the establishment of agricultural lands in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats, because the forests would retreat northwards. Currently, food, forage, and biofuel crops primarily reside in the steppe and forest-steppe zones which are known to have favorable

  9. An overview of livestock-associated MRSA in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Harper, Abby L; Ferguson, Dwight D; Leedom Larson, Kerry R; Hanson, Blake M; Male, Michael J; Donham, Kelley J; Smith, Tara C

    2010-04-01

    Researchers, veterinary and health care practitioners, and agricultural producers gathered in Johnston, Iowa, to attend the eighth annual Midwest Rural Agricultural Safety and Health Forum (MRASH), November 2009. Among several focus areas, four plenary talks were given on the current research being conducted examining methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on swine farms in the United States. These focused on prevalence of MRSA on farms, both in swine and in human workers; the presence of MRSA in air samples and in swine barn shower facilities; and the presence of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus in retail meats. These findings begin to elucidate the overall picture of livestock-associated MRSA in the Midwestern United States. PMID:20407991

  10. CGE simulation analysis on the labor transfer, agricultural technical progress, and economic development in Chongqing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Ran, Maosheng

    2014-01-01

    The basic structure of a CGE model dividing Mainland China into two parts, including Chongqing and rest regions, is described. Based on this CGE model, both the unilateral impact and collaborative impact of two policies, agricultural technical progress and supporting policies for improving rural labor transfer on the economic development in Chongqing, are simulated and analyzed. The results demonstrate that compared with the sum of each unilateral policy effect, the collaboration of two policies has more effective impact on facilitating the labor transfer, promoting regional economic growth, and improving income and welfare of urban and rural residents. PMID:24892037

  11. CGE Simulation Analysis on the Labor Transfer, Agricultural Technical Progress, and Economic Development in Chongqing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Ran, Maosheng

    2014-01-01

    The basic structure of a CGE model dividing Mainland China into two parts, including Chongqing and rest regions, is described. Based on this CGE model, both the unilateral impact and collaborative impact of two policies, agricultural technical progress and supporting policies for improving rural labor transfer on the economic development in Chongqing, are simulated and analyzed. The results demonstrate that compared with the sum of each unilateral policy effect, the collaboration of two policies has more effective impact on facilitating the labor transfer, promoting regional economic growth, and improving income and welfare of urban and rural residents. PMID:24892037

  12. Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Walsh, M.; McLaughlin, S.

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  13. Environmental and socio-economic vulnerability of agricultural sector in Armenia.

    PubMed

    Melkonyan, Ani

    2014-08-01

    Being a mountainous country, Armenia has undergone different kinds of natural disasters, such as droughts, floods, and storms, which have a direct influence on economy and are expected to occur more frequently in terms of climate change, raising the need to estimate economic vulnerability especially in agricultural sector. Agriculture plays a great role in national economy of Armenia, with 21% share in Gross Domestic Production (GDP). For this reason, the estimation of agricultural resources of the country, their vulnerability towards current and future climate, and assessment of economical loss of the agricultural crop production due to climate change are the main goals of the given study. Crop productivity in dependence on climatic elements - temperature, radiation, precipitation, wind field, etc. has been estimated, further on interpolating these relations for future climate conditions using climate projections in the region for the time period of 2011-2040. Data on air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed and direction for the period of 1966-2011 have been taken from 30 stations from the measuring network of Armenian State Hydrometeorological Service. Other climatic parameters like potential and actual evapotranspiration, soil temperature and humidity, field capacity, and wilting point have been calculated with the help of an AMBAV/AMBETTI (agroclimatic) model (German Weather Service). The results showed that temperature increase accompanied with evapotranspiration increase and water availability decrease especially in low and mid-low altitudes (where the main national crop production is centralized) caused a significant shift in the phenological phases of crops, which is very important information for effective farming dates, giving an opportunity to raise efficiency of agricultural production through minimizing the yield loss due to unfavorable climatic conditions. With the help of macroeconomical analysis of the crop market, it was

  14. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in

  15. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  16. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; N. Tubiello, Francesco; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5′×5′ latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  17. Genotoxicity in native fish associated with agricultural runoff events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, A.; Kuivila, K.M.; Orlando, J.L.; Kotelevtsev, S.; Anderson, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to test whether agricultural chemical runoff was associated with in-stream genotoxicity in native fish. Using Sacramento sucker (Catostomus occidentalis), we combined field-caging experiments in an agriculturally dominated watershed with controlled laboratory exposures to field-collected water samples, and we coupled genotoxicity biomarker measurements in fish with bacterial mutagenicity analysis of water samples. We selected DNA strand breakage as a genotoxicity biomarker and Ames Salmonella mutagenicity tests as a second, supporting indicator of genotoxicity. Data from experiments conducted during rainfall runoff events following winter application of pesticides in 2000 and 2001 indicated that DNA strand breaks were significantly elevated in fish exposed to San Joaquin River (CA, USA) water (38.8, 28.4, and 53.6% DNA strand breakage in year 2000 field, year 2000 lab, and year 2001 field exposures, respectively) compared with a nearby reference site (15.4, 8.7, and 12.6% DNA strand breakage in year 2000 field, year 2000 lab, and year 2001 field exposures, respectively). Time-course measurements in field experiments supported a linkage between induction of DNA strand breakage and the timing of agricultural runoff. San Joaquin River water also caused significant reversion mutation in two Ames Salmonella tester strains. Salmonella mutagenicity corroborated in-stream effects, further strengthening a causal relationship between runoff events and genotoxicity. Potentially responsible agents are discussed in the context of timing of runoff events in the field, concordance between laboratory and field exposures, pesticide application patterns in the drainage, and analytical chemistry data.

  18. Coupled urbanization and agricultural ecosystem services in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z X; Li, J; Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystems offer material and environmental support for human habitation and development in those areas of the earth where people choose to live. However, urbanization is an inexorable trend of human social development and threatens the health of those ecosystems inhabited by humans. This study calculates the values of NPP (net primary productivity), carbon sequestration, water interception, soil conservation, and agricultural production in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone. At the same time, we combined DMSP/OLS (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line Scanner) night lights remote sensing data and statistical data to analyze the level of urbanization. Quantitative analysis was performed on the interactions between the ecosystem service functions and urbanization based on the calculations of their coupled coordination degrees. The results were the following: (1) The values of NPP, carbon sequestration, and agricultural production showed a trend of increase. However, water interception decreased before increasing, while soil conservation showed the reverse trend; (2) Urbanization levels in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone for the last 10 years have proceeded at a fast pace with comprehensive promotion; and (3) Coupled and coupled coordination degrees between urbanization and ecosystem services show increasing trends. This research can provide a theoretical basis for the region's rapid economic development in the balance. PMID:27117147

  19. A hydro-economic modelling framework for optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Sahuquillo, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    SummaryA hydro-economic modelling framework is developed for determining optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. A holistic optimization model determines the spatial and temporal fertilizer application rate that maximizes the net benefits in agriculture constrained by the quality requirements in groundwater at various control sites. Since emissions (nitrogen loading rates) are what can be controlled, but the concentrations are the policy targets, we need to relate both. Agronomic simulations are used to obtain the nitrate leached, while numerical groundwater flow and solute transport simulation models were used to develop unit source solutions that were assembled into a pollutant concentration response matrix. The integration of the response matrix in the constraints of the management model allows simulating by superposition the evolution of groundwater nitrate concentration over time at different points of interest throughout the aquifer resulting from multiple pollutant sources distributed over time and space. In this way, the modelling framework relates the fertilizer loads with the nitrate concentration at the control sites. The benefits in agriculture were determined through crop prices and crop production functions. This research aims to contribute to the ongoing policy process in the Europe Union (the Water Framework Directive) providing a tool for analyzing the opportunity cost of measures for reducing nitrogen loadings and assessing their effectiveness for maintaining groundwater nitrate concentration within the target levels. The management model was applied to a hypothetical groundwater system. Optimal solutions of fertilizer use to problems with different initial conditions, planning horizons, and recovery times were determined. The illustrative example shows the importance of the location of the pollution sources in relation to the control sites, and how both the selected planning horizon and the target recovery time can

  20. Agriculture and the Property Tax: A Forward Look Based on a Historical Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 392.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stam, Jerome M.; Sibold, Ann G.

    Assessing the property tax in terms of agriculture, this report analyzes the following in an historical sense in order to draw implications for the future: (1) the importance of the property tax to the agricultural sector; (2) the horizontal equity of the property tax for the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in terms of income and wealth;…

  1. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation. [economic impact and aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The economic benefits attributable to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation are discussed. Topics covered include: the ag-air industry, the data base used to estimate the potential benefits and a summary of the potential benefits from technological improvements; ag-air activities in the United States; foreign ag-air activities; major ag-air aircraft is use and manufacturers' sales and distribution networks; and estimates of the benefits to the United States of proposed technological improvements to the aircraft and dispersal equipment. A bibliography of references is appended.

  2. Policy toward individual economic holdings and private enterprises in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, November 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    On 29 November 1988, Viet Nam adopted a policy allowing individual economic holdings and private enterprises in the areas of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. The policy recognizes the positive effect of such holdings and charges the state with creating favorable conditions for them. Ownership and inheritance rights are recognized, and all citizens are entitled to apply for permission to use certain land for business purposes. The production of exports is encouraged, and such enterprises may engage in financial transactions, including borrowing money. PMID:12344312

  3. Socio-economic impacts of irrigated agriculture in Mbarali District of south west Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    Irrigation has been found to be central in curbing food scarcity not only in Tanzania but also in many other developing countries. It has been proved that continued reliability on rainfall in agriculture cannot sustain the increase in population. This study examines the impacts of smallholder irrigated agriculture in improving social and economic benefits in Igurusi Ward of Mbarali District which is located in the southern-western part of Tanzania. The study applies the Participatory Rural Appraisal Framework for data collection. The study was confined to five villages in Igurusi ward which are Majenje, Igurusi, Chamoto, Uhambule and Mahango. The study examined critically paddy production for smallholder farmers that practice irrigation and those who cultivates rain-fed paddy. The study examined both existing traditional and modern irrigation systems. It was found that, most of the respondents (79%) practice irrigated agriculture in paddy production while the remaining 21% practice rain-fed agriculture. Forty percent of households that practice irrigated agriculture harvest paddy two seasons per year. The return to labour in paddy production for smallholder farmers who irrigate their paddy fields is about US 2.5/manday which is above the poverty line of US 1.0/day. The smallest return to labour (US $ 0.85/manday) is obtained by an average smallholder farmer who cultivates rain-fed paddy using hand hoe and family labour. The potential implication of the current irrigation systems is that if irrigation is managed properly it may lead to sustainable increases in small farmer’s productivity and income, thus alleviating rural poverty.

  4. Identifying and mitigating risks for agricultural injury associated with obesity.

    PubMed

    King, Nathan; Janssen, Ian; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Lawson, Joshua; Trask, Catherine; Pickett, William

    2016-12-01

    In some occupational contexts overweight and obesity have been identified as risk factors for injury. The purpose of this study was to examine this hypothesis within farm work environments and then to identify specific opportunities for environmental modification as a preventive strategy. Data on farm-related injuries, height and weight used to calculate body mass index (BMI), and demographic characteristics were from the Phase 2 baseline survey of the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort; a large cross-sectional mail-based survey conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada from January through May 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between BMI and injury. Injury narratives were explored qualitatively. Findings were inconsistent and differed according to gender. Among women (n = 927), having overweight (adjusted OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.29 to 6.70) but not obesity (1.10; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.43) was associated with an increased odds of incurring a farm-related injury. No strong or statistically significant effects were observed for men (n = 1406) with overweight or obesity. While injury-related challenges associated with obesity have been addressed in other occupational settings via modification of the worksite, such strategies are challenging to implement in farm settings because of the diversity of work tasks and associated hazards. We conclude that the acute effects of overweight in terms of injury do require consideration in agricultural populations, but these should also be viewed with a differentiation based on gender. PMID:27413685

  5. From plantation agriculture to oil storage: economic development and social transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines two separate concepts of development. At the macrolevel, development is viewed as an advance in the organization of production and the extension of capitalist relations of production. At the community level, it is viewed as a process leading to qualitative change in a people's say of life. Focusing on a rural coastal valley and bay ecosystem in St. Lucia, a Windward Island in the Lesser Antilles, this research distinguished three separate stages in this ecosystem's economic development and examines the consequences of these economic transitions on a single rural village and group of fisherman living within it. The economic stages described begin with the terminal era of sugar cane cultivation, followed by the rationalization of commercial agriculture under translational control and the introduction of bananas, and concludes with the breaking up of the valley plantation and the introduction of a petroleum transshipment terminal. Each of these enterprises defined the valley's resources differently and each had a distinct organization of production. The relationship between hillside households and these enterprises varied accordingly. Households went from being an essential part of the productive process to being marginalized by it. Fishermen also became excluded from this environment. For these rural St. Lucians, large-scale economic development has not lead to qualitative improvement in their lives.

  6. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  7. Satellite-guided hydro-economic analysis for integrated management and prediction of the impact of droughts on agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta, M. P.; Howitt, R.; Kimball, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural activity can exacerbate or buffer the impact of climate variability, especially droughts, on the hydrologic and socioeconomic conditions of rural areas. Potential negative regional impacts of droughts include impoverishment of agricultural regions, deterioration or overuse of water resources, risk of monoculture, and regional dependence on external food markets. Policies that encourage adequate management practices in the face of adverse climatic events are critical to preserve rural livelihoods and to ensure a sustainable future for agriculture. Diagnosing and managing drought effects on agricultural production, on the social and natural environment, and on limited water resources, is highly complex and interdisciplinary. The challenges that decision-makers face to mitigate the impact of water shortage are social, agronomic, economic and environmental in nature and therefore must be approached from an integrated multidisciplinary point of view. Existing observation technologies, in conjunction with models and assimilation methods open the opportunity for novel interdisciplinary analysis tools to support policy and decision making. We present an integrated modeling and observation framework driven by satellite remote sensing and other ancillary information from regional monitoring networks to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of drought impacts on agricultural production, water resources, management decisions and socioeconomic policy. The core of this framework is a hydroeconomic model of agricultural production that assimilates remote sensing inputs to quantify the amount of land, water, fertilizer and labor farmers allocate for each crop they choose to grow on a seasonal basis in response to changing climatic conditions, including drought. A regional hydroclimatologic model provides biophysical constraints to an economic model of agricultural production based on a class of models referred to as positive mathematical programming (PMP

  8. Modelling the economic consequences of the EU Water Framework Directive for Dutch agriculture.

    PubMed

    Helming, John; Reinhard, Stijn

    2009-10-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires member states to take measures to ensure that bodies of water will be in good chemical and ecological condition by 2015. Important measures to achieve this goal include reducing emissions of nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P(2)O(5)) from manure and mineral fertilizers into the environment. In regions with a high livestock density, this measure is expected to affect agricultural production and income. To quantify these effects, an environmental economic model is required that can assess alternatives capable of reducing N and P(2)O(5) potential emissions to water. In this paper, we develop a model that is capable of analysing changes in potential emissions to water of N and P(2)O(5) and apply it to the Netherlands, a country with large nutrient emissions. Compared to a 2015 reference scenario based on current efforts to reduce nutrient emissions, we found that the WFD measures will increase regional transport and export of manure and reduce the number of animals in the Netherlands. Fodder adjustments (defined as lower N and P(2)O(5) input in purchased fodder) to decrease nutrient excretion in manure were a less attractive option than amongst others export, transportation of manure to another region, land use changes or reduction of the number of livestock. Compared to the reference scenario in 2015, total agricultural income will decrease by about 81.5 million euros per year (about 49 euros /ha per year), although the effects will differ among parts of the Netherlands and agricultural sectors. The average predicted decrease in N emissions from agricultural sites, vulnerable to leaching into bodies of water will be almost 20% or approximately 14.7 kg N/ha per year. The reduction in N emissions to air from animal sheds, manure storage systems, application of animal manure and mineral fertilisers to the crops and grazing animals equals 6.5% or 5 kg ammonia (NH(3)) per hectare. PMID:19716645

  9. Association Between Parkinsonism and Participation in Agriculture in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin-whan; Jeon, Beom S.; Jeong, Dushin; Choi, Yoon-Jae; Lee, Jun-Young; Lee, Hae-Sung

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose Environmental factors might influence the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) or multiple-system atrophy (MSA), and previous examinations of pesticide exposure, well-water drinking, and farming have produced inconclusive results. Because agriculture has been of considerable importance to Korean society, and hence the risk of exposure to pesticides was high in Korea, this study investigated whether such exposure is associated with elevated risks of developing PD and MSA. Methods Two hundred and thirty-five PD patients, 133 MSA patients, and 77 normal control subjects were examined. Data concerning environmental factors were collected by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by binary logistic regression. Results ORs for environmental risk factors for developing PD were 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.10] for age and 2.37 (95% CI = 1.32-4.27) for rural well-water drinking for >10 years. Smoking >10 pack-years (OR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.11-0.64) was a preventable factor for developing PD in this study. However, no significant risk factors were identified for MSA. Conclusions These results suggest that exposure to certain environmental risk factors plays a role in the development of PD. However, the development of MSA appears to be independent of environmental risk factors in Korean patients. PMID:19513320

  10. Selected examples of dispersal of arthropods associated with agricultural crop and animal production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The economic importance of arthropods in agricultural production systems and the possibilities of using dispersal behavior to develop and manipulate control are examined. Examples of long and short distance dispersal of economic insect pests and beneficial species from cool season host reservoirs and overwintering sites are presented. Significant dispersal of these species often occurring during crop and animal production is discussed.

  11. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  12. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  13. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  14. Economic and energetic evaluation of alcohol fuel production from agriculture: Yolo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Meo, M.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation reviews the technical aspects of alcohol fuel production and consumption, examines the set of policy-related issues that affect both the private and the public sectors, and investigates the economic and energetic feasibility of small-scale on-farm production on a representative Sacramento Valley field and vegetable crop farm. Candidate feedstocks, including both starch and sugar-rich crops, are: barley, corn, fodder beet, grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, tomatoes, and wheat. The leading fuel crops were found to be sweet sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, corn, fodder beet, and grain sorghum in order of declining preference. With better than average crop yields and the current mix of financial incentives, the breakeven cost of alcohol fuel is $1.03 per gallon when diesel fuel and gasoline prices are $1.30 and $1.46, respectively. Without subsidy, the breakeven cost is $1.62 per gallon. An energy analysis was calculated for each of the feedstocks under consideration. With the exception of sweet sorghum, wheat, and barley, all feedstocks showed a negative net energy balance. The use of agricultural residues as a boiler fuel, however, made a significant difference in the overall energy balance. The role of government in energy policy is reviewed and typical policy instruments are discussed. Although on-farm alcohol fuel production is not currently economically competitive with gasoline and diesel fuel, technological innovation and the return of increasing petroleum prices could alter the situation.

  15. 77 FR 67329 - Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment... collection associated with the Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) of 1978. DATES: We will... Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) Program Manager, Natural Resources Analysis Group, Economic...

  16. Water quality issues associated with agricultural drainage in semiarid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, Marc A.

    High incidences of mortality, birth defects, and reproductive failure in waterfowl using Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif., have occurred because of the bioaccumulation of selenium from irrigation drainage. These circumstances have prompted concern about the quality of agriculture drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish and wildlife, and beneficial uses of water. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California (Berkeley, Calif.) organized a 1-day session at the 1986 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., to provide an interdisciplinary forum for hydrologists, geochemists, and aquatic chemists to discuss the processes controlling the distribution, mobilization, transport, and fate of trace elements in source rocks, soils, water, and biota in semiarid regions in which irrigated agriculture occurs. The focus of t h e session was the presentation of research results on the source, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in agricultural drainage.

  17. Factors Associated with Research Productivity of Agricultural Education Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotrlik, Joe W.; Bartlett, James E., II; Higgins, Chadwick C.; Williams, Heather A.

    2002-01-01

    Factors influencing the research productivity of full-time agriculture professors (n=114) included the following: number of doctoral students advised to completion, self-perceptions of research confidence, and number of graduate assistant hours allocated. Not influential were percent of time on research, salary, age, gender, rank, or years in…

  18. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices. PMID:18296310

  19. Reorienting Agricultural Education towards a Free Market Model Emphasizing Economic Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberson, Max L.

    Agricultural education has grown and flourished in the past because it took students with farm backgrounds and helped them become better managers and producers, thus improving agriculture in general. Now that fewer students are coming from farms into agricultural education, agricultural education has lost its protected status and become just…

  20. Structural Changes in Illinois Agriculture and Industry: Impact on Illinois School Finance. Series E. Agricultural Economics. No. 85-E-335.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicoine, David L.; Langston, Suzanne W.

    Simulation of changes through 1988-89 in the distribution of general school aid (GSA) in Illinois demonstrated implications of a dual state economy for educational finance. Agricultural and heavy manufacturing areas were found to have suffered loss of tax revenue while service and light industry areas experienced increased revenue. Downstate…

  1. Increasing organic carbon stocks in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Eriksson, Jan O.; Lundblad, Mattias; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Management changes can induce significant alterations of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Including trends in SOC within a certain land-use category can thus strongly influence the annual national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. In 2013, the European Union has therefore decided that all member states shall report the evolvement of SOC within agricultural soils to increase the incentives to mitigate climate change by improving the management of those soils. Here, we present the country and county-wise SOC trends in Swedish agricultural mineral soils on the basis of three soil inventories conducted between 1988 and 2013. In the past two decades, the average topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC content of the whole country increased from 2.48% to 2.67% representing a relative change of 7.7% or 0.38% yr-1. This is in contrast to trends observed in neighboring countries such as Norway and Finland. We attributed this positive SOC trend to the increasing cultivation of leys throughout the country. Indeed, the below-ground carbon input of perennial grasses is up to fourfold as compared to cereals, which leads to a significant soil carbon sequestration potential under cropping systems with ley. The increase in ley proportion was significantly correlated to the increase in horse population in each county (R2=0.71), which has more than doubled in the past three decades. Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area as long-term set-aside land (mostly old leys) also contributed to an increase in leys. This discloses the strong impact of rather local socio-economic trends on soil carbon storage, which also need to be considered in larger-scale model applications. This database is used in the continuous validation process of the Swedish national system for reporting changes in SOC stocks.

  2. Status of Teaching Pre-Vocational Subjects in the Junior Secondary School Level (Agricultural Science and Home Economics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndem, J. U.; Akubue, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the status of teaching pre-vocational subjects in junior secondary school level. The study adopted descriptive survey method. The population of the study was 2,916, while the sample for the study was 215 pre-vocational teachers and agricultural science and home economics students. The study was carried out in Afikpo Education…

  3. A Comparison of Transfer and Nontransfer Agriculture and Home Economics Undergraduate Students: Academic Aptitude, Achievement, and Degree Persistence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of data on 82 agricultural and home economics transfer students from community colleges and 103 regular undergraduates revealed transfer students had lower academic aptitude; ag majors had higher ACT composite scores than home ec majors; transfers' cumulative quality point averages were equal to those earned by nontransfers; and transfers…

  4. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries:Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AgroAtlas is a comprehensive on-line bilingual reference on the geographic distribution of economic plants, their diseases, pests and weeds, and environmental factors that influence agricultural production through out the Former Soviet Union. Online users can read about and examine maps and ima...

  5. Teaching the Principles of Economics: Reconciling the Canon of the American Economics Association to Catholic Social Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The American Economics Association, through its Committee on Economic Education, has worked since 1950 to develop a set of standards for what is taught in introductory economics courses. The result is the Test for Understanding in College Economics. The TUCE has come to define a canon of expectations for students in college business schools. Some…

  6. Meanings in Economics Education (Presidential Address at the Annual Conference of the Economics Association, Torquay, April 3rd, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Keith

    1991-01-01

    Discusses British economics education between 1951 and 1991. Reports the scarcity of economics courses and materials during the 1950s, growth the discipline in the 1960s, the inception of the Economics Association's 14-16 Project during the 1970s, and the increased curriculum integration of the 1980s. Examines prospects for economics education in…

  7. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen losses from cropland soil in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leip, A.; Marchi, G.; Koeble, R.; Kempen, M.; Britz, W.; Li, C.

    2007-07-01

    For the comprehensive assessment of the policy impact on greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape are important factors that must be considered. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI with the bio-geochemistry model DNDC to simulate greenhouse gas fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (greenhouse gas emissions), air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analysed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists in four steps (i) the definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii) downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii) setting up of environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv) aggregating results for interpretation. We show first results of the nitrogen budget in cropland for the area of fourteen countries of the European Union. These results, in terms of estimated nitrogen fluxes, must still be considered as illustrative as needs for improvements in input data (e.g. the soil map) and management data (yield estimates) have been identified and will be the focus of future work. Nevertheless, we highlight inter-dependencies between farmer's choices of land uses and the environmental impact of different cultivation systems.

  8. The Impacts and Economic Costs of Climate Change in Agriculture and the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, A.; Quiroga, S.; Garrote, L.; Cunningham, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides monetary estimates of the effects of agricultural adaptation to climate change in Europe. The model computes spatial crop productivity changes as a response to climate change linking biophysical and socioeconomic components. It combines available data sets of crop productivity changes under climate change (Iglesias et al 2011, Ciscar et al 2011), statistical functions of productivity response to water and nitrogen inputs, catchment level water availability, and environmental policy scenarios. Future global change scenarios are derived from several socio-economic futures of representative concentration pathways and regional climate models. The economic valuation is conducted by using GTAP general equilibrium model. The marginal productivity changes has been used as an input for the economic general equilibrium model in order to analyse the economic impact of the agricultural changes induced by climate change in the world. The study also includes the analysis of an adaptive capacity index computed by using the socio-economic results of GTAP. The results are combined to prioritize agricultural adaptation policy needs in Europe.

  9. 17 CFR 3.13 - Registration of agricultural trade option merchants and their associated persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Registration of agricultural trade option merchants and their associated persons. 3.13 Section 3.13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGISTRATION Registration § 3.13 Registration of agricultural trade option merchants and their...

  10. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    SciTech Connect

    Mccarl, Bruce A.; Schneider, Uwe; Murray, Brian; Williams, Jimmy; Sands, Ronald D.

    2001-05-14

    This paper examines the relative contribution of agricultural and forestry activities in an emission reduction program, focusing in part on the relative desirability of sequestration in forests and agricultural soils. The analysis considers the effects of competition for land and other resources between agricultural activities, forestry activities and traditional production. In addition, the paper examines the influence of saturation and volatility.

  11. Evaluating the relative impact of climate and economic changes on forest and agricultural ecosystem services in mountain regions.

    PubMed

    Briner, Simon; Elkin, Ché; Huber, Robert

    2013-11-15

    Provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) in mountainous regions is predicted to be influenced by i) the direct biophysical impacts of climate change, ii) climate mediated land use change, and iii) socioeconomic driven changes in land use. The relative importance and the spatial distribution of these factors on forest and agricultural derived ES, however, is unclear, making the implementation of ES management schemes difficult. Using an integrated economic-ecological modeling framework, we evaluated the impact of these driving forces on the provision of forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region of southern Switzerland. Results imply that forest ES will be strongly influenced by the direct impact of climate change, but that changes in land use will have a comparatively small impact. The simulation of direct impacts of climate change affects forest ES at all elevations, while land use changes can only be found at high elevations. In contrast, changes to agricultural ES were found to be primarily due to shifts in economic conditions that alter land use and land management. The direct influence of climate change on agriculture is only predicted to be substantial at high elevations, while socioeconomic driven shifts in land use are projected to affect agricultural ES at all elevations. Our simulation results suggest that policy schemes designed to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on forests should focus on suitable adaptive management plans, accelerating adaptation processes for currently forested areas. To maintain provision of agricultural ES policy needs to focus on economic conditions rather than on supporting adaptation to new climate. PMID:23995509

  12. Using Coupled Hydrologic and Agro-economic Models to Evaluate the Impact of Agricultural Activity on Streamflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugger, D. R.; Maneta, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation substantially alters the timing and magnitude of surface water flows, and continued agricultural intensification to keep up with demand means perpetual stress on surface water resources. A critical challenge is to manage irrigation in a way that balances ecosystem health with sustaining agricultural economies. Coupled hydrologic-agroeconomic models are promising tools for meeting this challenge: the models can quantify 1) how water withdrawal for irrigation impacts streamflows, 2) how these impacts propagate through a surface water system, 3) how the amount of water available for irrigation changes the allocation of resources (e.g. land, water) to available crops, and 4) the impact of water availability on agricultural economies. However, these models can be very data intensive, which limits their applicability. We present a parsimonious coupled hydrologic-agroeconomic model that uses the Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) method, extensively used in agricultural resource economics, and calibrates to data on allotment of agricultural inputs, available from sources such as the USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service. PMP assumes that farmers allocate resources to maximize net revenues, justifying the use of optimality conditions to constrain the parameters of the agroeconomic model. We improve the standard PMP model by 1) having the calibrated model reproduce not only the observed input allotment but also the observed yield, and 2) using the ensemble Kalman filter equations to solve the mathematical programming problem recursively, which permits refinement of the model calibration as new observations become available. We demonstrate the proposed agroeconomic model by coupling it to HEC-HMS, a hydrologic model capable of simulating regional natural and man-made water distribution networks, to investigate the sensitivity of streamflows to the allocation of agricultural inputs (land and water) in response to changes in climatic and economic

  13. 77 FR 64794 - Cancellation of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board scheduled for October 23-25, 2012 has been cancelled. The..., and Economics Advisory Board; telephone: (202) 720-3684; fax: (202) 720-6199; or email:...

  14. National Economic Burden Associated with Management of Periodontitis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Dom, Tuti Ningseh; Ayob, Rasidah; Abd Muttalib, Khairiyah; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden associated with the management of periodontitis in Malaysia from the societal perspective. Methods. We estimated the economic burden of periodontitis by combining the disease prevalence with its treatment costs. We estimated treatment costs (with 2012 value of Malaysian Ringgit) using the cost-of-illness approach and included both direct and indirect costs. We used the National Oral Health Survey for Adults (2010) data to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis and 2010 national census data to estimate the adult population at risk for periodontitis. Results. The economic burden of managing all cases of periodontitis at the national level from the societal perspective was approximately MYR 32.5 billion, accounting for 3.83% of the 2012 Gross Domestic Product of the country. It would cost the nation MYR 18.3 billion to treat patients with moderate periodontitis and MYR 13.7 billion to treat patients with severe periodontitis. Conclusion. The economic burden of periodontitis in Malaysia is substantial and comparable with that of other chronic diseases in the country. This is attributable to its high prevalence and high cost of treatment. Judicious application of promotive, preventive, and curative approaches to periodontitis management is decidedly warranted. PMID:27092180

  15. National Economic Burden Associated with Management of Periodontitis in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ayob, Rasidah; Abd Muttalib, Khairiyah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden associated with the management of periodontitis in Malaysia from the societal perspective. Methods. We estimated the economic burden of periodontitis by combining the disease prevalence with its treatment costs. We estimated treatment costs (with 2012 value of Malaysian Ringgit) using the cost-of-illness approach and included both direct and indirect costs. We used the National Oral Health Survey for Adults (2010) data to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis and 2010 national census data to estimate the adult population at risk for periodontitis. Results. The economic burden of managing all cases of periodontitis at the national level from the societal perspective was approximately MYR 32.5 billion, accounting for 3.83% of the 2012 Gross Domestic Product of the country. It would cost the nation MYR 18.3 billion to treat patients with moderate periodontitis and MYR 13.7 billion to treat patients with severe periodontitis. Conclusion. The economic burden of periodontitis in Malaysia is substantial and comparable with that of other chronic diseases in the country. This is attributable to its high prevalence and high cost of treatment. Judicious application of promotive, preventive, and curative approaches to periodontitis management is decidedly warranted. PMID:27092180

  16. Assessment of China's economic loss resulting from the degradation of agricultural land in the end of 20th century.

    PubMed

    Hao, Fang-hua; Chang, Ying; Ning, Da-tong

    2004-01-01

    Land degradation is a consequence stemming from both natural processes and social economic activities. On the bases of analyzing general situation of agricultural land degradation in China, the monetary estimating methods such as market value method and shadow engineering method were used to quantitatively assess the economic loss resulting from land deterioration. Results showed that the economic loss in 1999 was 326.81 billion RMB Yuan, which accounted for 4.1% of GDP in the same year of China. If taking five items namely farmland conversion, soil erosion, salinization, decline in reservoir functions, and siltation in waterways and, comparing with that in 1992, the percentage of economic loss to GDP has increased by 1.5 in the only 7 years. PMID:15137638

  17. Factors associated with hospital bankruptcies: a political and economic framework.

    PubMed

    Landry, Amy Yarbrough; Landry, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2006, 42 U.S. acute care hospitals filed for bankruptcy protection under federal law. This article explores hospital bankruptcies over a six-year period. Bankrupt hospitals are compared with their competitors, and hospitals surviving bankruptcy are compared with those organizations that eventually close. Finally, this article identifies nonfinancial factors associated with the filings and categorizes these factors into a political and economic framework. A literature review of hospital trade publications is used to identify organizations filing for bankruptcy during this period. Data gathered from these resources are used in concert with American Hospital Association data to identify hospital characteristics and publicly available information on factors surrounding hospital bankruptcy filings. Data on the status of hospitals after filing are also collected to determine whether bankruptcy reorganization is successful or results in hospital closure. Results indicate that 67 percent of hospitals filing for bankruptcy during this time eventually ceased operating. Bankrupt hospitals are smaller than their competitors. They are also less likely to belong to a system and more likely to be investor owned. Factors associated with filing organizations are placed into a political and economic framework derived from Park's work on municipal bankruptcy filings. Common nonfinancial factors associated with hospital bankruptcies include mismanagement, increased competition, and reimbursement changes. PMID:19681358

  18. Agro-ecology, household economics and malaria in Uganda: empirical correlations between agricultural and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper establishes empirical evidence relating the agriculture and health sectors in Uganda. The analysis explores linkages between agricultural management, malaria and implications for improving community health outcomes in rural Uganda. The goal of this exploratory work is to expand the evidence-base for collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors in Uganda. Methods The paper presents an analysis of data from the 2006 Uganda National Household Survey using a parametric multivariate Two-Limit Tobit model to identify correlations between agro-ecological variables including geographically joined daily seasonal precipitation records and household level malaria risk. The analysis of agricultural and environmental factors as they affect household malaria rates, disaggregated by age-group, is inspired by a complimentary review of existing agricultural malaria literature indicating a gap in evidence with respect to agricultural management as a form of malaria vector management. Crop choices and agricultural management practices may contribute to vector control through the simultaneous effects of reducing malaria transmission, improving housing and nutrition through income gains, and reducing insecticide resistance in both malaria vectors and agricultural pests. Results The econometric results show the existence of statistically significant correlations between crops, such as sweet potatoes/yams, beans, millet and sorghum, with household malaria risk. Local environmental factors are also influential- daily maximum temperature is negatively correlated with malaria, while daily minimum temperature is positively correlated with malaria, confirming trends in the broader literature are applicable to the Ugandan context. Conclusions Although not necessarily causative, the findings provide sufficient evidence to warrant purposefully designed work to test for agriculture health causation in vector management. A key constraint to modeling the

  19. Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

  20. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Pederson, Gregory; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Prato, Tony; Qui, Zeyuan; Williams, Jimmie R.

    2010-01-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960–2005) and future climate period (2006–2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting

  1. Investigating the Time Lag Effect between Economic Recession and Suicide Rates in Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry Workers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Junger, Washington; Kim, Boo-Wook; Kim, Young-Joo; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies on the vast increase in suicide mortality in Southeast Asia have indicated that suicide rates increase in parallel with a rise in unemployment or during periods of economic recession. This paper examines the effects of economic recession on suicidal rates amongst agriculture, fisheries, and forestry workers in Korea. Monthly time-series gross domestic product (GDP) data were linked with suicidal rates gathered from the cause of death records between1993-2008. Data were analyzed using generalized additive models to analyze trends, while a polynomial lag model was used to assess the unconstrained time lag effects of changes in GDP on suicidal rate. We found that there were significant inverse correlations between changes in GDP and suicide for a time lag of one to four months after the occurrence of economic event. Furthermore, it was evident that the overall relative risks of suicide were high enough to bring about social concern. PMID:23251845

  2. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  3. Economic Analysis of Energy Crop Production in the U.S. - Location, Quantities, Price, and Impacts on Traditional Agricultural Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.E.; De La Torre Ugarte, D.; Slinsky, S.; Graham, R.L.; Shapouri, H.; Ray, D.

    1998-10-04

    POLYSYS is used to estimate US locations where, for any given energy crop price, energy crop production can be economically competitive with conventional crops. POLYSYS is a multi-crop, multi-sector agricultural model developed and maintained by the University of Tennessee and used by the USDA-Economic Research Service. It includes 305 agricultural statistical districts (ASD) which can be aggregated to provide state, regional, and national information. POLYSYS is being modified to include switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow on all land suitable for their production. This paper summarizes the preliminary national level results of the POLYSYS analysis for selected energy crop prices for the year 2007 and presents the corresponding maps (for the same prices) of energy crop production locations by ASD. Summarized results include: (1) estimates of energy crop hectares (acres) and quantities (dry Mg, dry tons), (2) identification of traditional crops allocated to energy crop production and calculation of changes in their prices and hectares (acres) of production, and (3) changes in total net farm returns for traditional agricultural crops. The information is useful for identifying areas of the US where large quantities of lowest cost energy crops can most likely be produced.

  4. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product ‘Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  5. Coupled Hydro-Economic Dynamics of Groundwater Irrigated Agriculture in a Hard Rock Region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, V.; Fishman, R.; Siegfried, T. U.; Raj, P.; Vasquez, V.; Narula, K.; Lall, U.

    2009-12-01

    We analyze the dynamics of groundwater and irrigated agriculture in a semi-arid, hard rock region of India, which is characterized by low-yield, limited storativity aquifers. Telengana, in western Andhra Pradesh has witnessed a relentless expansion of the total irrigated area. Total crop irrigation water requirements have increased by more than 50 percent over the last 30 years. Nowadays, more than 80 percent of the net irrigated area in the region is irrigated from groundwater. Given limited, period monsoonal recharge to the aquifers, it can be estimated that groundwater irrigation intensity is surpassing sustainable allocation levels by a factor of 3. It is not further surprising that the region is increasingly affected by widespread groundwater depletion, with negative consequences for farmers and the energy sector as well as the natural environment. Using data on water tables, precipitation and agricultural land use, we show how both rainfall and farmers’ choices effect water tables and how these, in turn, re-effect farmers choices and agricultural outcomes in a dynamic relationship that allows us to model the interaction between the natural hydrological and agricultural-social dynamics. We use the model to elucidate and quantify the meaning of groundwater mining in this hard rock environment. In contrast to deep alluvial aquifers, excessive extraction does not lead to sustained long term deepening of the water table, but to increased fluctuations in the supply of groundwater for irrigation and the loss of the buffering capacity. For the farmers, this potentially translates into increasingly perilous agricultural production outcomes during monsoonal failures. Furthermore, the dry season agricultural production that entirely depends on the availability of sufficient amounts of irrigation water is progressively threatened under the current allocation scenario. Alternative management practices to address the aquifer depletion issues are discussed. We show that

  6. Taking Agricultural Education to The Next Level: Distinguished Lecture Presented at the 2010 Annual Conference of the American Association for Agricultural Education, Omaha, Nebraska, May 25, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ed

    2011-01-01

    This article is the author's Distinguished Lecture presented at the 2010 Annual Conference of the American Association for Agricultural Education (AAAE), in Omaha, Nebraska, on May 25, 2010. In this lecture, the author looks back at the significant changes in agricultural education in the last 100 or so years and discusses four major ways that one…

  7. Crop diversity effects on productivity and economic returns under dryland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing crop diversity has been identified as a method to improve agronomic performance of cropping systems and increase provision of ecosystem services. However, there is a need to understand the economic performance of more diverse cropping systems. Crop productivity and economic net returns we...

  8. Health economics and the European Heart Rhythm Association.

    PubMed

    Vardas, Panos; Boriani, Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    The management of healthcare is becoming extremely complex in developed countries, as a result of increasing age of the population and increasing costs of care, coupled with diminishing resources due to global financial crisis. This situation threatens access to appropriate care, and a more or less explicit rationing of some types of treatment may occur in 'real world' clinical practice. This is particularly true for those treatments or interventions with a relatively high up-front cost, such as cardioverter defibrillators, devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy or ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) is strongly convinced that the skills of electrophysiologists and cardiologists responsible for the management of rhythm disorders have to evolve, also embracing the knowledge of health economics, clinical epidemiology, health-care management and outcome research. These disciplines do not belong to what is considered as the conventional cultural background of physicians, but knowledge of comparative cost effectiveness and of other economic approaches nowadays appears fundamental for a dialogue with a series of stakeholders, such as policy makers, politicians, and administrators, involved in budgeting the activity of hospitals and health-care services, as well as in approaching health technology assessment. PMID:21518741

  9. Pesticides and other agricultural factors associated with self‐reported farmer's lung among farm residents in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; Kullman, Greg J; Henneberger, Paul K; London, Stephanie J; Alavanja, Michael C R; Sandler, Dale P

    2007-01-01

    Background Farmer's lung, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis, is an important contributor to respiratory morbidity among farmers. Methods Using the 1993–7 enrolment data from the Agricultural Health Study, we conducted a cross‐sectional study of occupational risk factors for farmer's lung among ∼50 000 farmers and farm spouses in Iowa and North Carolina using hierarchical logistic regression controlling for age, state, and smoking status. Participants provided information on agricultural exposures, demographic characteristics, and medical history via self‐administered questionnaires. Approximately 2% of farmers (n = 481) and 0.2% of spouses (n = 51) reported doctor‐diagnosed farmer's lung during their lifetime. We assessed farmers and spouses separately due to different information on occupational exposure history. Only pesticide exposures represented lifetime exposure history, all other farm exposures represented current activities at enrolment. Results Among farmers, handling silage (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.82), high pesticide exposure events (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.21), and ever use of organochlorine (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.74) and carbamate pesticides (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.68) were associated with farmer's lung in mutually‐adjusted models. The insecticides DDT, lindane, and aldicarb were positively associated with farmer's lung among farmers. Current animal exposures, while not statistically significant, were positively associated with farmer's lung, particularly for poultry houses (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.58) and dairy cattle (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.89). The occupational data were more limited for spouses; however, we saw similar associations for dairy cattle (OR = 1.50, 95% CI 0.72 to 3.14) and organochlorine pesticides (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.59). Conclusion While historic farm exposures may contribute to the observed associations with pesticides, these results suggest that

  10. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Agricultural Economics. Planning for Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Michael; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on farm management for energy savings was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their…

  11. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  12. Agricultural Employment and Economic Growth in the Lower Rio Grande Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Conrad F.

    Using the basic input-output model developed by the Texas Input-Output Project for a 19 county South Texas Region, income transfer effects from the extension of unemployment insurance to the agricultural sector were derived. Total income transferred would have ranged from $1.5 million to $2.3 million depending upon coverage provisions. About…

  13. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…

  14. [Association study between water quality of Chaohu Lake and resources input in agriculture of basin].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Hong

    2012-09-01

    In order to discuss the association between the water quality of Chaohu Lake and the resources input in agriculture of the basin, factors that may affect the lake eutrophication are chosen, such as surplus fertilizer, irrigated area with saved water, agricultural films, water and soil loss control and so on. The methods of correlation analysis and stepwise regression are used. Furthermore, a new method, combined with the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method, calculating the surplus fertilizer is designed. The results indicate that among various resources input in agriculture of the basin the surplus fertilizer, irrigated area with saved water and agricultural films have a great influence on Chaohu Lake eutrophication. And one year's lag phase between the water quality of Chaohu Lake and the surplus fertilizer is confirmed. Therefore, it is necessary to raise the utilization efficiency of fertilizer, to improve the irrigation way and to decrease the agricultural water consumption in order to conserve resources and to reduce the influence of agricultural production on the water quality of Chaohu Lake. PMID:23243852

  15. Temperatures and cyclones strongly associated with economic production in the Caribbean and Central America.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, Solomon M

    2010-08-31

    Understanding the economic impact of surface temperatures is an important question for both economic development and climate change policy. This study shows that in 28 Caribbean-basin countries, the response of economic output to increased temperatures is structurally similar to the response of labor productivity to high temperatures, a mechanism omitted from economic models of future climate change. This similarity is demonstrated by isolating the direct influence of temperature from that of tropical cyclones, an important correlate. Notably, output losses occurring in nonagricultural production (-2.4%/+1 degrees C) substantially exceed losses occurring in agricultural production (-0.1%/+1 degrees C). Thus, these results suggest that current models of future climate change that focus on agricultural impacts but omit the response of workers to thermal stress may underestimate the global economic costs of climate change. PMID:20713696

  16. Is Economics Coursework, or Majoring in Economics, Associated with Different Civic Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgood, Sam; Bosshardt, William; van der Klaauw, Wilbert; Watts, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from graduates who attended four large public universities in 1976, 1986, or 1996, the authors investigate the relationship between studying economics and civic behaviors. They compare students who majored in economics, business, or other majors, and by the number of undergraduate economics courses completed. Coursework is…

  17. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationship. Volume II--Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane; Stanton, Marge

    Information on the supply of new college graduates seeking home economics-related positions, home economics job openings, and projected levels of employment is presented. Based on a Department of Agriculture manpower assessment project, supply and demand relationships through 1990 were analyzed, and supply data were aggregated by 11 educational…

  18. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, Benjamin; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295–728 million annually. PMID:27441108

  19. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Waterhouse, Benjamin; Boyer, Stephane; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295-728 million annually. PMID:27441108

  20. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen and carbon losses from arable soils in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leip, A.; Marchi, G.; Koeble, R.; Kempen, M.; Britz, W.; Li, C.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of policy impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural soils requires careful consideration of both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact assessment) with the biogeochemistry model DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition) to simulate GHG fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on a wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (GHG emissions), air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analyzed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists of four steps: (i) definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii) downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii) designing environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv) aggregating results for interpretation. We show the first results of the nitrogen budget in croplands in fourteen countries of the European Union and discuss possibilities to improve the detailed assessment of nitrogen and carbon fluxes from European arable soils.

  1. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

  2. The U.S. Soybean Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 588.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, James; And Others

    This report describes the U.S. soybean industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on soybeans. Highlights are as follows: U.S. soybean production has increased sevenfold since 1950, making soybeans the second highest valued crop after corn. Soybean production has risen in response to…

  3. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  4. Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

  5. THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE OF 1966, A STATISTICAL REPORT. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REPORT NO. 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    INFORMATION ON THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE, AND ON THE EMPLOYMENT AND CASH EARNINGS FROM FARM AND NONFARM WAGE WORK FOR 1966 IS PRESENTED. THE DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM THE ANNUAL SURVEY CONDUCTED FOR THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE BY THE BUREAU OF CENSUS. THE SAMPLE INCLUDED APPROXIMATELY 35,000 HOUSEHOLDS INTERVIEWED…

  6. Economic analysis of small-scale agricultural digesters in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic digestion is a manure treatment option that is gaining popularity throughout the world due to its multiple environmental and economic benefits. However, further research is needed for anaerobic technology to become more readily available, cost effective and manageable for small-scale to m...

  7. Food Stamp Participation of Hired Farmworker Families. Agriculture Economic Report No. 403.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leslie Whitener; Rowe, Gene

    The Food Stamp Program allows low-income households to purchase a nutritionally adequate diet through normal channels of trade. Because of the generally low income of hired farmworkers, food stamp assistance is an important addition to the economic and nutritional status of these workers and their families. This report presents a socioeconomic…

  8. Balancing limiting factors and economic drivers for sustainable midwestern U.S. agricultural residue feedstock supplies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading the soil and other natural resources. This review examine...

  9. An Economic Study of the Investment Effects of Education in Agriculture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Edgar A.; And Others

    To determine the absolute economic return to adult farm business management education, the diminishing marginal return effect from added increments of education, and benefit-cost ratio of the educational program for participants and the sponsoring community, data were collected from 3,578 farm business records representing farmers enrolled in farm…

  10. Economic Benefits of Predictive Models for Pest Control in Agricultural Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various forms of crop models or decision making tools for managing crops have existed for many years. The potential advantage of all of these decision making tools is that more informed and economically improved crop management or decision making is accomplished. However, examination of some of thes...

  11. The U.S. Oats Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 573.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Linwood A.; Livezey, Janet

    This report describes the United States oats industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on oats. Background information on oats is provided first. The report then examines the basic factors of supply, demand, and price to determine what caused the decline in the importance of oats and…

  12. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Eriksson, J.; Lundblad, M.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-03-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past two decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988-1997 (Inventory I), 2001-2007 (Inventory II) and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III), and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr-1) over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72). Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys) also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  13. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Eriksson, J.; Lundblad, M.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past 2 decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988-1997 (Inventory I), 2001-2007 (Inventory II) and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III), and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr-1) over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72). Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys) also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  14. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI): methodology and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatewicz, T.; Yang, X.; Peterson, J. M.; Staggenborg, S.; Welch, S. M.; Steward, D. R.

    2010-03-01

    Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI). This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  15. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI): methodology and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatewicz, T.; Yang, X.; Peterson, J. M.; Staggenborg, S.; Welch, S. M.; Steward, D. R.

    2009-11-01

    Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI). This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  16. Applications of remote sensing to precision agriculture with dual economic and environmental benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, George; Laguette, Soizik; Seelan, Santhosh K.; Lawrence, Rick; Nielsen, Gerald A.; Clay, David; Dalsted, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    In the U.S. Northern Great Plains, growing seasons are short but extremely productive. Farms and ranches are large, so many of precision agriculture's early adopters reside in the region. Crop yield maps at season's end reveal sizable variations across fields. Farm management relying upon uniform chemical applications is ineffective and wasteful. We provided information about crop and range status in near- real-time, so that in-season decisions could be made to optimize final yields and minimize environmental degradation. We created learning communities, in which information is shared among scientists, farmers, ranchers, and data providers. The new information for agricultural producers was satellite and aerial imagery. Value-added information was derived from ETM+, AVHRR, IKONOS, and MIDOS sensors. The emphasis was on reducing the time between acquisition of data by a satellite and delivery of value-added products to farmers and ranchers. To distribute large spatial data sets in short times to rural users we relied upon satellite transmission (Direct PC). Results include: (1) management zone delineation, (2) variable-rate fertilizer applications, (3) weed detection, (4) irrigation efficiency determination, (5) detection of insect infestation, (6) specification of crop damage due to inadvertent chemical application, and (7) determination of livestock carrying capabilities on rangelands.

  17. Future Projections for Southern High Plains Agriculture Using Coupled Economic and Hydrologic Models and Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainwater, K.; Tewari, R.; Willis, D.; Stovall, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Hernandez, A.; Mauget, S. A.; Leiker, G.; Johnson, J.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the hypothesis that predicted climate change will affect the useful life of the Ogallala aquifer in the Southern High Plains (SHP) through its impact on the amount of irrigation withdrawals, and thus affect the yields and economic costs and net income. A ninety-year time frame has been considered, although the research team recognizes that long-term predictions of crop prices and selections are perhaps even more uncertain than long-term weather projections. Previous work by the research team recently demonstrated the development of regionally downscaled climate projections for the SHP. Quantitative projections of precipitation, potential evaporation, and temperature trends for the 90-yr duration were selected from a downscaled set of high-resolution (one-eighth degree) daily climate and hydrological simulations covering the entire Great Plains region, driven by the latest IPCC AR4 climate model outputs. These projections were used as input to the Ogallala Ag Tool software developed by the USDA-ARS to predict daily and seasonal values of those variables, which directly affect irrigation, at different locations in the study area. Results from the Ogallala Ag Tool were then used to drive future projected crop production functions for cotton, corn, wheat, and sorghum using the DSSAT crop model. These production functions were then included in an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling approach that coupled an economic optimization model with a groundwater hydrological model. The groundwater model was based on the Texas Water Development Board's Southern Ogallala Groundwater Availability Model, which has been recalibrated by the research team for previous applications. The coupling of the two models allowed better recognition of spatial heterogeneity across the SHP, such that irrigation water availability was better represented through the spatial variations in pumping demands and saturated thickness. With this hydrologic

  18. Economic Impact of Water Allocation on Agriculture in the Lower Chattahoochee River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Paudel, Krishna P.; Musleh, Fuad; Cruise, James F.; Hatch, L. Upton

    2004-01-01

    The relative value of irrigation water was assessed for three important crops (corn, cotton, and peanuts) grown in the southeastern United States. A decision tool was developed with the objective of allocating limited available water among competing crops in a manner that would maximize the economic returns to the producers. The methodology was developed and tested for a hypothetical farm located in Henry County, Alabama in the Chattahoochee river basin. Crop yield - soil moisture response functions were developed using Monte Carlo simulated data for cotton, corn, and peanuts. A hydrologic model was employed to simulate runoff over the period of observed rainfall the county to provide inflows to storage facilities that could be used as constraints for the optimal allocation of the available water in the face of the uncertainty of future rainfall and runoff. Irrigation decisions were made on a weekly basis during the critical water deficit period in the region. An economic optimization model was employed with the crop responses, and soil moisture functions to determine the optimum amount of water place on each crop subject to the amount of irrigation water availability and climatic uncertainty. The results indicated even small amounts of irrigation could significantly benefit farmers in the region if applied judiciously. A weekly irrigation sequence was developed that maintained the available water on the crops that exhibited the most significant combination of water sensitivity and cash value.

  19. Developing Livestock Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C; Robertson, A; Hullinger, P

    2006-10-24

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of livestock diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each livestock facility within the US. At the present time, the only national database of livestock facilities that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data.' The NASS data provides facility data at the county level for various livestock types (i.e., beef cows, milk cows, cattle on feed, other cattle, total hogs and pigs, sheep and lambs, milk goats, and angora goats). However, the number and sizes of facilities for the various livestock types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of livestock, and some livestock are of more than one type (e.g., 'other cattle' that are being fed for slaughter are also 'cattle on feed'). In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of animals or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D.'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or animals. At the same time, it must account for all the animals, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual livestock operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national livestock facility database with twenty-eight facility types. The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed within the NASS database. The second step converts the NASS livestock types into the operational facility

  20. Economic evaluation and conceptual design of optimal agricultural systems for production of food and energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    The major technical and economic considerations which determined the scope of the study and the structure of the linear programming (LP) models are discussed. Four models, each representing a typical crop, beef, dairy, or swine farm in conjunction with ethanol facilities are characterized by the same general behavioral and mathematical model structure. Specific activities, constraints, and data for each of the four models are presented. An overview of the model structure is provided in the context of the general scope and background assumptions, and of its LP implementation. Simulated initial conditions and outcomes are reported for typical Illinois farms. Policy implications are discussed as related to agriculture, energy, and inter-industry coordination. (MHR)

  1. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  2. Climate, Health, Agricultural and Economic Impacts of Tighter Vehicle-Emission Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; VanDingen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-01-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  3. Energy potential from livestock and poultry wastes in the South. Agricultural Economic Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H.B.; Ogden, E.A.

    1984-11-01

    Livestock and poultry wastes could produce significant amounts of biomass energy if conventional energy prices continue to rise. This study estimates the economically recoverable energy available through anaerobic digestion or direct burning of animal wastes in the South for the base year 1980 with projections for 1985 and 1990. Potential thermal energy from livestock and poultry wastes in 1990 could total more than 79.5 trillion Btu, or about 30 percent of the energy from such sources nationwide. The total potential farm value of biomass energy from livestock and poultry enterprises in the South could range from $344 million to $1.08 billion in 1990 depending upon the types of conventional energy displaced. Energy products from these wastes attained their highest value when substituted for LP gas.

  4. Environmental economics reality check: a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project.

    PubMed

    Isla, Ana; Thompson, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project in the Arenal Conservation Area, Costa Rica. Microenterprise is the Sustainable Development and the Women in Development model for gender equity and environment of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and large non-government organizations, like the World Wildlife Fund-Canada. The authors of this paper argue that debt-for-nature investment in microenterprise and ecological economic models are not distinct from neoclassical economic and development models that created the environmental, social and cultural crises in the first place. This case study shows that the world market accommodates only one model of development: unsustainable export-oriented production based on flexible labour markets, low wages, indebtedness and low cost production. Working standards in those micro-enterprises are eroded due to many factors,including indebtedness. What happened at a national level in non-industrial countries with the international debt crisis is now mirrored in individual indebtedness through microenterprise. Is current development policy creating a new form of indentured servitude? Medicinal plants, prior to commodification, were a source of women's power and upon commodification in international development projects, are the source of their exploitation. PMID:12859005

  5. The economic impact of climate change on Kenyan crop agriculture: A Ricardian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Karanja, Fredrick K.

    2007-06-01

    This paper measures the economic impact of climate on crops in Kenya. We use cross-sectional data on climate, hydrological, soil and household level data for a sample of 816 households. We estimate a seasonal Ricardian model to assess the impact of climate on net crop revenue per acre. The results show that climate affects crop productivity. There is a non-linear relationship between temperature and revenue on one hand and between precipitation and revenue on the other. Estimated marginal impacts suggest that global warming is harmful for crop productivity. Predictions from global circulation models confirm that global warming will have a substantial impact on net crop revenue in Kenya. The results also show that the temperature component of global warming is much more important than precipitation. Findings call for monitoring of climate change and dissemination of information to farmers to encourage adaptations to climate change. Improved management and conservation of available water resources, water harvesting and recycling of wastewater could generate water for irrigation purposes especially in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  6. Dynamic adjustment in agricultural practices to economic incentives aiming to decrease fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shanxia; Delgado, Michael S; Sesmero, Juan P

    2016-07-15

    Input- and output-based economic policies designed to reduce water pollution from fertilizer runoff by adjusting management practices are theoretically justified and well-understood. Yet, in practice, adjustment in fertilizer application or land allocation may be sluggish. We provide practical guidance for policymakers regarding the relative magnitude and speed of adjustment of input- and output-based policies. Through a dynamic dual model of corn production that takes fertilizer as one of several production inputs, we measure the short- and long-term effects of policies that affect the relative prices of inputs and outputs through the short- and long-term price elasticities of fertilizer application, and also the total time required for different policies to affect fertilizer application through the adjustment rates of capital and land. These estimates allow us to compare input- and output-based policies based on their relative cost-effectiveness. Using data from Indiana and Illinois, we find that input-based policies are more cost-effective than their output-based counterparts in achieving a target reduction in fertilizer application. We show that input- and output-based policies yield adjustment in fertilizer application at the same speed, and that most of the adjustment takes place in the short-term. PMID:27100331

  7. Developing Poultry Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C

    2007-12-05

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of poultry diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each poultry type operation within the US. At the present time, the only national database of poultry operations that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data'. The NASS data provides census data at the county level on poultry operations for various operation types (i.e., layers, broilers, turkeys, ducks, geese). However, the number of farms and sizes of farms for the various types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of operation. Furthermore, some data on the number of birds represents the number sold, which does not represent the number of birds present at any given time. In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of birds or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or birds. At the same time, it must account for all the birds, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual poultry operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national poultry facility database with twenty-six facility types (7 egg-laying, 6 broiler, 1 backyard, 3 turkey, and 9 others, representing ducks, geese, ostriches, emus, pigeons, pheasants, quail, game fowl breeders and 'other'). The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed

  8. An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38

  9. Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

    2012-05-01

    In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have

  10. Why Do Global Long-term Scenarios for Agriculture Differ? An overview of the AgMIP Global Economic Model Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    von Lampe, Martin; Willenbockel, Dirk; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Cai, Yongxia; Calvin, Katherine V.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Nelson, Gerald; Sands, Ronald; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; van Meijl, Hans

    2013-12-02

    Recent studies assessing plausible futures for agricultural markets and global food security have had contradictory outcomes. Ten global economic models that produce long-term scenarios were asked to compare a reference scenario with alternate socio-economic, climate change and bioenergy scenarios using a common set of key drivers. Results suggest that, once general assumptions are harmonized, the variability in general trends across models declines, and that several common conclusions are possible. Nonetheless, differences in basic model parameters, sometimes hidden in the way market behavior is modeled, result in significant differences in the details. This holds for both the common reference scenario and for the various shocks applied. We conclude that agro-economic modelers aiming to inform the agricultural and development policy debate require better data and analysis on both economic behavior and biophysical drivers. More interdisciplinary modeling efforts are required to cross-fertilize analyses at different scales.

  11. Associations between Schistosomiasis and the Use of Human Waste as an Agricultural Fertilizer in China

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Elizabeth J.; Liu, Yang; Zhong, Bo; Hubbard, Alan; Spear, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human waste is used as an agricultural fertilizer in China and elsewhere. Because the eggs of many helminth species can survive in environmental media, reuse of untreated or partially treated human waste, commonly called night soil, may promote transmission of human helminthiases. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an open cohort study in 36 villages to evaluate the association between night soil use and schistosomiasis in a region of China where schistosomiasis has reemerged and persisted despite control activities. We tested 2,005 residents for Schistosoma japonicum infection in 2007 and 1,365 residents in 2010 and interviewed heads of household about agricultural practices each study year. We used an intervention attributable ratio framework to estimate the association between night soil use and S. japonicum infection. Night soil use was reported by half of households (56% in 2007 and 46% in 2010). Village night soil use was strongly associated with human S. japonicum infection in 2007. We estimate cessation of night soil use would lead to a 49% reduction in infection prevalence in 2007 (95% CI: 12%, 71%). However, no association between night soil and schistosomiasis was observed in 2010. These inconsistent findings may be due to unmeasured confounding or temporal shifts in the importance of different sources of S. japonicum eggs on the margins of disease elimination. Conclusions/Significance The use of untreated or partially treated human waste as an agricultural fertilizer may be a barrier to permanent reductions in human helminthiases. This practice warrants further attention by the public health community. PMID:25590142

  12. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96€ before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO3-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N2O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. PMID:27471980

  13. Is Economics Coursework, or Majoring in Economics, Associated with Different Civic Behaviors? Staff Report No. 450

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgood, Sam; Bosshardt, William; van der Klaauw, Wilbert; Watts, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Studies regularly link levels of educational attainment to civic behavior and attitudes, but only a few investigate the role played by specific coursework. Using data collected from students who attended one of four public universities in our study, we investigate the relationship between economics coursework and civic behavior after graduation.…

  14. Age-Related Changes in Children’s Associations of Economic Resources and Race

    PubMed Central

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children’s associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5–6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10–11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African–American (n = 93), European–American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian–American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African–American and European–American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children’s associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African–American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European–American targets. Finally, children associated African–American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European–American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants’ own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children’s associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  15. Age-Related Changes in Children's Associations of Economic Resources and Race.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children's associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5-6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10-11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African-American (n = 93), European-American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian-American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African-American and European-American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children's associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African-American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European-American targets. Finally, children associated African-American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European-American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants' own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children's associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  16. Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Use Among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Slager, Rebecca E.; Simpson, Sean L.; LeVan, Tricia D.; Poole, Jill A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well-characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993–7, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related exposures. Sixty-seven % of farmers reported current rhinitis and 39% reported three or more rhinitis episodes. The herbicides glyphosate [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) = 1.05–1.13] and petroleum oil (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05–1.19) were associated with current rhinitis and increased rhinitis episodes. Of the insecticides, 4 organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion), carbaryl and use of permethrin on animals were predictors of current rhinitis. Diazinon was significant in the overall polytomous model and was associated with an elevated OR of 13+ rhinitis episodes (13+ episodes OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09–1.38). The fungicide captan was also a significant predictor of rhinitis. Use of petroleum oil, malathion, permethrin and the herbicide metolachlor were significant in exposure-response polytomous models. Specific pesticides may contribute to rhinitis in farmers; agricultural activities did not explain these findings. PMID:20818537

  17. Economic Assessment of the Association of Northern California Oncologists Member Practices

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Roberta; Falconer, Patricia; González, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    In late 2009 and early 2010, the Association of Northern California Oncologists conducted an economic assessment on a volunteer sample (n = 14) of northern California state oncology society member practices to measure key economic factors, diagnose economic viability, and prescribe changes to practice management to enhance practice economic viability. Recommendations for individual member practices as well as for the state oncology society were made as a result of the findings of this study. Results from follow-up interviews conducted with study practices approximately 1 year after the original assessments reveal that most recommendations were implemented and seem to have generally strengthened the economic performance of the practices. PMID:22211125

  18. Environmental and economic evaluation of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems are examined by quantifying the residuals generated and the land, water, and material requirements per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy generated. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. These data are also computed on the basis of 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy recovered. The cost, residual, material, land, and water data were then organized into a format acceptable for input into the SEAS data management program. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

  19. Research, Education, and Economics Information System: An Engine for Strategic Planning and Information Policy Development at the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes the implementation of a strategic information policy audit as a key component in the development of the Research, Education, and Economics Information System (REEIS) at the Department of Agriculture that helps analyze the organization's infrastructure. Discusses the process as a generalized systems model for organizational research.…

  20. Multi-scale associations between vegetation cover and woodland bird communities across a large agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S; Stirnemann, Ingrid A; Stein, John R; Michael, Damian; Crane, Mason; Okada, Sachiko; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Improving biodiversity conservation in fragmented agricultural landscapes has become an important global issue. Vegetation at the patch and landscape-scale is important for species occupancy and diversity, yet few previous studies have explored multi-scale associations between vegetation and community assemblages. Here, we investigated how patch and landscape-scale vegetation cover structure woodland bird communities. We asked: (1) How is the bird community associated with the vegetation structure of woodland patches and the amount of vegetation cover in the surrounding landscape? (2) Do species of conservation concern respond to woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover differently to other species in the community? And (3) Can the relationships between the bird community and the woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover be explained by the ecological traits of the species comprising the bird community? We studied 103 woodland patches (0.5 - 53.8 ha) over two time periods across a large (6,800 km(2)) agricultural region in southeastern Australia. We found that both patch vegetation and surrounding woody vegetation cover were important for structuring the bird community, and that these relationships were consistent over time. In particular, the occurrence of mistletoe within the patches and high values of woody vegetation cover within 1,000 ha and 10,000 ha were important, especially for bird species of conservation concern. We found that the majority of these species displayed similar, positive responses to patch and landscape vegetation attributes. We also found that these relationships were related to the foraging and nesting traits of the bird community. Our findings suggest that management strategies to increase both remnant vegetation quality and the cover of surrounding woody vegetation in fragmented agricultural landscapes may lead to improved conservation of bird communities. PMID:24830684

  1. Multi-Scale Associations between Vegetation Cover and Woodland Bird Communities across a Large Agricultural Region

    PubMed Central

    Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S.; Stirnemann, Ingrid A.; Stein, John R.; Michael, Damian; Crane, Mason; Okada, Sachiko; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Improving biodiversity conservation in fragmented agricultural landscapes has become an important global issue. Vegetation at the patch and landscape-scale is important for species occupancy and diversity, yet few previous studies have explored multi-scale associations between vegetation and community assemblages. Here, we investigated how patch and landscape-scale vegetation cover structure woodland bird communities. We asked: (1) How is the bird community associated with the vegetation structure of woodland patches and the amount of vegetation cover in the surrounding landscape? (2) Do species of conservation concern respond to woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover differently to other species in the community? And (3) Can the relationships between the bird community and the woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover be explained by the ecological traits of the species comprising the bird community? We studied 103 woodland patches (0.5 - 53.8 ha) over two time periods across a large (6,800 km2) agricultural region in southeastern Australia. We found that both patch vegetation and surrounding woody vegetation cover were important for structuring the bird community, and that these relationships were consistent over time. In particular, the occurrence of mistletoe within the patches and high values of woody vegetation cover within 1,000 ha and 10,000 ha were important, especially for bird species of conservation concern. We found that the majority of these species displayed similar, positive responses to patch and landscape vegetation attributes. We also found that these relationships were related to the foraging and nesting traits of the bird community. Our findings suggest that management strategies to increase both remnant vegetation quality and the cover of surrounding woody vegetation in fragmented agricultural landscapes may lead to improved conservation of bird communities. PMID:24830684

  2. Economic viability of phytoremediation of a cadmium contaminated agricultural area using energy maize. Part I: effect on the farmer's income.

    PubMed

    Thewys, T; Witters, N; Van Slycken, S; Ruttens, A; Meers, E; Tack, F M G; Vangronsveld, J

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with the economic viability of using energy maize as a phytoremediation crop in a vast agricultural area moderately contaminated with metals. The acceptance of phytoremediation as a remediation technology is, besides the extraction rate, determined by its profitability, being the effects it has on the income of the farmer whose land is contaminated. This income can be supported by producing renewable energy through anaerobic digestion of energy maize, a crop that takes up only relatively low amounts of metals, but that can be valorised as a feedstock for energy production. The effect on the income per hectare of growing energy maize instead of fodder maize seems positive, given the most likely values of variables and while keeping the basic income stable, originating from dairy cattle farming activities. We propose growing energy maize aiming at risk-reduction, and generating an alternative income for farmers, yet in the long run also generating a gradual reduction of the pollution levels. In this way, remediation is demoted to a secondary objective with sustainable risk-based land use as primary objective. PMID:21166274

  3. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  4. Insights from EMF Associated Agricultural and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian; Kim, Man-Keun; Lee, Heng-Chi; Sands, Ronald D.; Schneider, Uwe

    2007-11-19

    Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) as employed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) generally involves a multi-sector appraisal of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) mitigation alternatives and climate change effects typically at the global level. Such a multi-sector evaluation encompasses potential climate change effects and mitigative actions within the agricultural and forestry (AF) sectors. In comparison with many of the other sectors covered by IAM, the AF sectors may require somewhat different treatment due to their critical dependence upon spatially and temporally varying resource and climatic conditions. In particular, in large countries like the United States, forest production conditions vary dramatically across the landscape. For example, some areas in the southern US present conditions favorable to production of fast growing, heat tolerant pine species, while more northern regions often favor slower-growing hardwood and softwood species. Moreover, some lands are currently not suitable for forest production (e.g., the arid western plains). Similarly, in agriculture, the US has areas where citrus and cotton can be grown and other areas where barley and wheat are more suitable. This diversity across the landscape causes differential GHGE mitigation potential in the face of climatic changes and/or responses to policy or price incentives. It is difficult for a reasonably sized global IAM system to reflect the full range of sub-national geographic AF production possibilities alluded to above. AF response in the face of climate change altered temperature precipitation regimes or mitigation incentives will likely involve region-specific shifts in land use and agricultural/forest production. This chapter addresses AF sectoral responses in climate change mitigation analysis. Specifically, we draw upon US-based studies of AF GHGE mitigation possibilities that incorporate sub-national detail drawing largely on a body of studies done by the authors in association with

  5. The Impact of Changing Climate on Ammonia Emissions from Agriculture and the Associated Climate Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Riddick, S. N.; Hess, P. G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest anthropogenic source of ammonia (NH3) on a global scale with major contributions from the application of synthetic fertilizer and manure from livestock. While strict controls are placed on the emissions of many industrial pollutants, NH3 concentrations are expected to increase this century. In addition to future expansion of agricultural activities that could lead to greater NH3 emissions, NH3 emissions are affected by changes in temperature and precipitation. Here we use a newly developed agricultural N pathways model running in a global terrestrial model (Community Land Model v4.0) to estimate future NH3 emissions from manure and synthetic fertilizer application, and the impact of changing climate on these emissions and other N pathways (runoff, denitrification, etc.). We include future increases in the application of manure and synthetic fertilizer that are consistent with a middle-of-the-road projection of population growth and per capita caloric intake. Combined with atmospheric forcing that follows RCP8.5, NH3 emissions increase by about 50% and 90% between years 2010 and 2100 from synthetic fertilizer and manure, respectively. Roughly 25% of this increase can be attributed to the changing climate, mainly increased global temperatures over the 21st century. We show associated changes in ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosol concentrations and radiative forcings, the results of a set of additional simulations using the Community Atmosphere Model v5.0 and an offline radiative transfer scheme. This work suggests that projections of global NH3 concentrations need to take changes in climate into account.

  6. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  7. HEALTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH KHAT CONSUMPTION

    PubMed Central

    Ageely, Hussein M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of the stimulant leaf Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is widespread in several countries of East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The leaf comes from a small evergreen shrub that can grow to the size of a tree. Young buds and tender leaves are chewed to attain a state of euphoria and stimulation. Khat leaves contain cathinones, an active brain stimulant that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamines. Like amphetamines, Khat ingestion in low doses results in decreased appetite, euphoria, increased intellectual efficiency, and hyperalertness. High doses and chronic use of Khat can cause more serious adverse neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular, dental, gastrointestinal and genitourinary effects. Besides damaging health, Khat has adverse socio-economic consequences effects on many other aspects of life including the loss of thousands of acres of arable land and billions of hours of work. The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the adverse consequences of habitual chewing of Khat on health, and help educate the general public. The study is based on literature review that includes internet search and journals. PMID:23012161

  8. Hot Spots and Hot Moments of Methylmercury Production Associated With Agricultural and Non-agricultural Wetlands of the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin-Dipasquale, M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Agee, J. L.; Kakouros, E.; Cox, M. H.; Fleck, J.; Alpers, C. N.; Stephenson, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area (YBWA) is part of the larger Yolo Bypass floodwater protection zone associated with the Sacramento River and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, in California. While mercury contamination is widespread throughout the region due to historic mining practices, the Yolo Bypass is responsible for a high proportion of the aqueous methylmercury (MeHg) entering the Delta, and biota from the Yolo Bypass are particularly elevated in toxic MeHg. Land use in the YBWA includes seasonally flooded agricultural fields (white rice, wild rice, fallow fields), and permanently and seasonally flooded non-agricultural wetlands used for resident and migratory waterfowl. Mercury biogeochemistry was examined in 0-2 cm surface sediment, as a function of habitat type, wetland management, and agricultural practices during the 2007-08 crop year. In permanently flooded wetlands, MeHg concentrations varied within a narrow range (ca. 0.5-1.5 ng/g dry wt) throughout the study period. In contrast, the three types of agricultural fields had higher MeHg concentrations throughout the rice-growing season (June-Sept; ca. 1.5-3.5 ng/g), and exhibited the highest levels (ca. 3.3-6.3 ng/g) in the post-harvest winter period (Dec-Feb). Further, naturally dried sediment, sampled during July '08 from post-harvest drained fallow agricultural fields (prior to reflooding) had MeHg concentrations that were also quite elevated (3.1 +/- 1.5 ng/g). This suggests that the initial elevated concentrations of overlying water MeHg, sometimes measured soon after flooding previously dried fields, may be related to the release of MeHg formed during the previous wet season and trapped in dried sediment, as opposed to being MeHg newly produced by bacteria upon soil rewetting. These results indicate that the 'hot spots and hot moments' associated with MeHg production in this system are linked to hydrologic manipulations (wetting and drying) in the agricultural fields, and that the practice of post

  9. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  10. Factors Associated with Knowledge Level Attained by Vocational Agriculture II Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotrlik, Joe W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the technical agriculture knowledge level attained by Vocational Agriculture II students on a criterion-referenced test developed from Louisiana's Vocational Agriculture II basic curriculum; and determine if students' scores on the test differed according to selected variables: Future Farmers of America…

  11. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  12. Environmental and economic development consequences of forest and agricultural sector policies in Latin America (a synthesis of case studies of Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Bolivia)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.; Gibson, D.

    1994-04-15

    This paper draws heavily on the results of case studies in Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador to explain how sectoral policies have tilted land use decisions against forestry and in favor of agriculture, and to present estimates of the economic development effects of those decisions. The paper summarizes information on forests and forest industries of the three countries, and it describes the framework within which policies are designed. It presents the effects of sectoral policies on land use and forest management, and then quantifies and discusses economic costs of relevant sectoral policies. Conclusions and recommendations for policy reform are offered.

  13. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  14. Geo-spatial analysis of land-water resource degradation in two economically contrasting agricultural regions adjoining national capital territory (Delhi).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Minhas, P S; Jain, P C; Singh, P; Dubey, D S

    2009-07-01

    The present study was aimed at characterizing the soil-water resource degradation in the rural areas of Gurgaon and Mewat districts, the two economically contrasting areas in policy zones-II and III of the National Capital Region (NCR), and assessing the impact of the study area's local conditions on the type and extent of resource degradation. This involved generation of detailed spatial information on the land use, cropping pattern, farming practices, soils and surface/ground waters of Gurgaon and Mewat districts through actual resource surveys, standard laboratory methods and GIS/remote sensing techniques. The study showed that in contrast to just 2.54% (in rabi season) to 4.87% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Gurgaon district, about 11.77% (in rabi season) to 24.23% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Mewat district were irrigated with saline to marginally saline canal water. Further, about 10.69% of agricultural lands in the Gurgaon district and 42.15% of agricultural lands in the Mewat district were drain water irrigated. A large part of this surface water irrigated area, particularly in Nuh (48.7%), Nagina (33.5%), and Punhana (24.1%) blocks of Mewat district, was either waterlogged (7.4% area with agricultural lands in the Mewat district. Geo-spatial analysis showed that due to seepage of these degraded waters from unlined drains and canals, ground waters of about 39.6% of Mewat district were salt affected (EC(m)ean = 7.05 dS/m and SAR(m)ean = 7.71). Besides, sub-surface drinking waters of almost the entire Mewat district were contaminated with undesirable concentrations of chromium (Cr 2.0-3.23 ppm

  15. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture, C.E.E.M.A., version 1.0, report 1: Model description

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, S.N.

    1999-09-01

    This is one of three technical reports which document an integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to simultaneously assess the economic and the greenhouse gas emission impacts of agricultural policies at the regional and national levels. After an introduction on the background to the model and on the importance of agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases, chapter 2 outlines a conceptual basis for developing a sub-model for emission of greenhouse gases. It includes the conceptual linkages between agricultural production activities and the nature of greenhouse gas emissions. An overview of the sub-model and considerations involved in its development are provided in chapter 3. Chapter 4 follows with a description of the methodology adopted in the estimation of various emission coefficients for crop and livestock production activities. Results of a baseline scenario, agricultural production in 1994 as estimated in the CRAM model, are shown in chapter 5, and results of two alternative scenarios are presented in chapter 6. The final chapter summarizes the report and discusses areas of further research.

  16. Economic and Physical Modeling of Land Use in GCAM 3.0 and an Application to Agricultural Productivity, Land, and Terrestrial Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Edmonds, James A.

    2014-09-01

    We explore the impact of changes in agricultural productivity on global land use and terrestrial carbon using the new agriculture and land use modeling approach developed for Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) version 3.0. This approach models economic land use decisions with regional, physical, and technological specificity while maintaining economic and physical integration with the rest of the GCAM model. Physical land characteristics and quantities are tracked explicitly, and crop production practices are modeled discretely to facilitate coupling with physical models. Economic land allocation is modeled with non-linear functions in a market equilibrium rather than through a constrained optimization. In this paper, we explore three scenarios of future agriculture productivity in all regions of the globe over this century, ranging from a high growth to a zero growth level. The higher productivity growth scenario leads to lower crop prices, increased production of crops in developing nations, preservation of global forested lands and lower terrestrial carbon emissions. The scenario with no productivity improvement results in higher crop prices, an expansion of crop production in the developed world, loss of forested lands globally, and higher terrestrial carbon emissions.

  17. Variations in Bacterial Community in a Temperate Lake Associated with an Agricultural Watershed.

    PubMed

    Song, Liyan; Li, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Terrestrially derived carbon and nutrients are washed into lakes, providing nutritional drivers for both microbial heterotrophy and phototrophy. Changes in the quantity and diversity of carbon and nutrients exported from watersheds in response to alterations in long-term land use have led to a need for evaluation of the linkage between watershed-exported carbon and nutrients and bacterial community structure in watershed associated lakes. To learn more about these interactions, we investigated Muskrat Lake in Michigan, which has a well-defined moderately sized watershed dominated by agriculture. We measured the water chemistry, characterized the dissolved organic carbon, and determined the structure of the bacterial communities at the inlet and center of this lake (five depths per site) over the summer and fall of 2008. The lake had temporal and rain event-based fluctuations in water chemistry, as well as temporal and rain event-dependent shifts in bacterial communities as measured by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Agricultural watershed inputs were observed in the lake during and after rain events. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial communities indicated that there were differences over time and that the dominant phylotypes shifted between summer and late fall. Some populations (e.g., Polynucleobacter and Mycobacterium) increased during fall, while others (e.g., Gemmatimonas) diminished. Redundancy and partitioning analyses showed that water chemistry is highly correlated with variations in the bacterial community of the lake, which explained 34 % of the variations in the bacterial community. Dissolved organic carbon had the greatest effects on variations in the Muskrat Lake bacterial community (2 %). The results of this study provide information that will enable a better understanding of the interaction between the bacterial community of lakes and changes in chemical properties as a

  18. Low-Income Rural People in East Central Arkansas Face Roadblocks to Jobs. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural Economic Report No. 290.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Richard N.; And Others

    From 1967 to 1971, a total of 742 low income, rural people in east central Arkansas were trained with funds provided by the Economic Opportunity Act (Title III-B). A total of 133 of these people were interviewed and divided into the following subgroups for purposes of comparison; (1) 74 respondents (46 blacks and 28 whites) who had been and…

  19. Quality of Rural Economic Development Data. Testimony to the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation, Joint Economic Committee, Ninety-Ninth Congress (June 13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulver, Glen C.

    Although the private sector has the primary role for job generation in the U.S. market economy, local community leaders can play a significant part in creating a growth-stimulating economic environment. A comprehensive economic development strategy appropriate to a community's specific goals and conditions requires careful analysis of the…

  20. Associations between economic loss, financial strain and the psychological status of Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunong; Wong, Hung; Tan, Ngoh Tiong

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the effects of economic loss on the life satisfaction and mental health of Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Economic loss is measured by earthquake impacts on the income and houses of the survivors. The correlation analysis shows that earthquake impact on income is significantly correlated with life satisfaction and depression. The regression analyses indicate that earthquake impact on income is indirectly associated with life satisfaction and depression through its effect on financial strain. The research highlights the importance of coping strategies in maintaining a balance between economic status and living demands for disaster survivors. PMID:25754768

  1. Uncertainties in the current knowledge of some atmospheric trace gases associated with U.S. agriculture: a review.

    PubMed

    Krupa, Sagar; Booker, Fitzerald; Bowersox, Van; Lehmann, Christopher; Lehmann, Chris Topher; Grantz, David

    2008-08-01

    Approximately 80 different crop species are grown in the United States in widely differing geographic areas, climatic and edaphic conditions, and management practices. Although the majority of cultivated acreage in the United States is planted with only about 10 primary crops, uncertainties associated with trace gas emissions arise from: (1) limited data availability, (2) inaccurate estimates because of large temporal and spatial variability in trace gas composition and magnitude of trace gas emissions from agricultural activities, (3) differing characteristics of pollutant emissions from highly dispersed animal feed-lots, and (4) limited understanding of the emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) associated with agriculture. Although emission issues are of concern, so also is atmospheric deposition to cropping systems, including wet and dry nitrogen, minerals, and organic compounds. These can have feedback effects on trace gas emissions. Overall, the many gaps in our understanding of these aspects of agricultural systems deserve serious attention. PMID:18720648

  2. Assessing the biophysical and socio-economic potential of Sustainable Land Management and Water Harvesting Technologies for rainfed agriculture across semi-arid Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Brian; Fleskens, Luuk; Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Stakeholders in recent EU projects identified soil erosion as the most frequent driver of land degradation in semi-arid environments. In a number of sites, historic land management and rainfall variability are recognised as contributing to the serious environmental impact. In order to consider the potential of sustainable land management and water harvesting techniques stakeholders and study sites from the projects selected and trialled both local technologies and promising technologies reported from other sites . The combined PESERA and DESMICE modelling approach considered the regional effects of the technologies in combating desertification both in environmental and socio-economical terms. Initial analysis was based on long term average climate data with the model run to equilibrium. Current analysis, primarily based on the WAHARA study sites considers rainfall variability more explicitly in time series mode. The PESERA-DESMICE approach considers the difference between a baseline scenario and a (water harvesting) technology scenario, typically, in terms of productivity, financial viability and scope for reducing erosion risk. A series of 50 year rainfall realisations are generated from observed data to capture a full range of the climatic variability. Each realisation provides a unique time-series of rainfall and through modelling can provide a simulated time-series of crop yield and erosion risk for both baseline conditions and technology scenarios. Subsequent realisations and model simulations add to an envelope of the potential crop yield and cost-benefit relations. The development of such envelopes helps express the agricultural and erosional risk associated with climate variability and the potential for conservation measures to absorb the risk, highlighting the probability of achieving a given crop yield or erosion limit. Information that can directly inform or influence the local adoption of conservation measures under the climatic variability in semi

  3. Agriculture's Impact on Microbial Diversity and Associated Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are two gases most responsible for contemporary increases in the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Fluxes of both gases are affected by agriculture. Soil comprises the largest terrestrial reservoir of carbon, which is oxidized to CO2 upon agricultural conv...

  4. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Agricultural Practices; Kampong Bukit Kapar, Selangor, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesson, Lynn L.

    The focus of this study was to procure data about adoption behavior of Malaysian smallholders (farmers) that would be useful in the instructional program in extension education at the College of Agriculture, Malaysia. Students interviewed 76 persons in a rural village of two hundred families, all engaged in agriculture. The major sources of income…

  5. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture, C.E.E.M.A., version 1.0, report 2: Preliminary results of selected scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, S.N.

    1999-09-01

    This is one of three technical reports which document an integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to simultaneously assess the economic and the greenhouse gas emission impacts of agricultural policies at the regional and national levels. After an introduction on the importance of agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases and the need for a study of this issue, chapter 2 reviews the greenhouse gas emission model. Chapter 3 contains model-based estimates of greenhouse gas emission levels for the base year of 1990. Chapter 4 predicts future levels of emissions under medium-term baseline projections. Chapter 5 reviews some of the mitigation strategies available to Canadian farmers and assesses their impact on greenhouse emissions. Implications of trends in livestock production are also examined as a separate scenario. Using the scenarios developed in chapter 5, chapter 6 presents results of greenhouse gas emission estimates for individual gases, various production regions, and various emissions activities. The final chapter summarizes major results and discusses their implications for agricultural policy. Appendices include a description of the modelling methodology and a table showing estimates of the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions by crop and livestock production activities under various scenarios.

  6. Economic effects of subsidence from underground coal mining on agricultural land in Illinois. Open file report, 1 September 1982-30 November 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Guither, H.D.

    1984-01-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the economic impact of subsidence from underground coal mining on agricultural lands in Illinois. In a survey of Illinois agricultural extension advisers, the presence of subsidence from underground coal mining was reported in 31 counties. The most frequently reported problems were the presence of depressions or potholes, standing water in depressed areas, surface drainage disruption, broken tile lines, and reduced crop yields. The most frequently reported attempts to restore productivity from subsidence damage were to dig surface drainage ditches, haul in fill dirt, fill in depressions with tractor and blade or land leveler, and replace tile lines; success was varied. Positive identification of all subsidence occurrences and measurement of the area affected is very elusive.

  7. Economic Development Impacts from Wind Power in the Western Governors' Association States (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

    2007-06-01

    The Western Governors' Association created the Clean and Diversified Energy Advisory Committee (CDEAC) "to utilize the region's diverse resources to produce affordable, sustainable, and environmentally reponsible energy." This conference poster, prepared for WINDPOWER 2007 in Los Angeles, outlines the economic impact to the Western United States from new wind energy projects.

  8. We Are Tomorrow's Past. History of the Canadian Home Economics Association 1939-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Home Economics Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This publication traces the history of the Canadian Home Economics Association (CHEA) during the 50 years 1939-1989. The following articles are included: "The Beginning: Our Founding Convention" (Elizabeth Feniak); "Leading the Way: The Presidents"; "The Symbols: Crest, Chain of Office, and Ring" (Fran Genereux); "Keeping Us Informed: The…

  9. Narrow grass hedges reduce tylosin and associated antimicrobial resistance genes in agricultural runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural runoff from areas receiving livestock manure can potentially contaminate surface water with antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of narrow grass hedges (NGHs) on reducing the transport of antimicrobial...

  10. Distribution and toxicity of sediment-associated pesticides in urban and agricultural waterways from Illinois, USA.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuping; Harwood, Amanda D; Foslund, Heather M; Lydy, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    A statewide investigation of insecticide presence and sediment toxicity was conducted in Illinois, USA, from June to August 2008. Twenty sediment samples were collected from urban areas throughout Illinois, and 49 sediment samples were collected from 14 agriculture-dominated counties in central and southern Illinois. Ten-day sediment toxicity tests were conducted using the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and 59% of the urban sites and 2% of the agricultural locations sampled caused significant mortality in the amphipods. The field sediments were analyzed for 29 pesticides, including 19 organochlorines, one organophosphate, and nine pyrethroids. The detection frequencies of organochlorines, chlorpyrifos, and pyrethroids were 95, 65, and 95%, respectively, for urban sites, and 45, 6.1, and 47%, respectively, for agricultural sites. Based on toxic unit analysis, bifenthrin was the main contributor to the detected mortality in urban sediments. The present study provides the first broad assessment of pesticide prevalence in both urban and agriculture areas in Illinois. PMID:20821430

  11. Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

    As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

  12. Acute Pesticide Illnesses Associated with Off-Target Pesticide Drift from Agricultural Applications: 11 States, 1998–2006

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Jeong; Mehler, Louise; Beckman, John; Diebolt-Brown, Brienne; Prado, Joanne; Lackovic, Michelle; Waltz, Justin; Mulay, Prakash; Schwartz, Abby; Mitchell, Yvette; Moraga-McHaley, Stephanie; Gergely, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, and off-target pesticide drift exposes workers and the public to harmful chemicals. Objective: We estimated the incidence of acute illnesses from pesticide drift from outdoor agricultural applications and characterized drift exposure and illnesses. Methods: Data were obtained from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks–Pesticides program and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. Drift included off-target movement of pesticide spray, volatiles, and contaminated dust. Acute illness cases were characterized by demographics, pesticide and application variables, health effects, and contributing factors. Results: From 1998 through 2006, we identified 2,945 cases associated with agricultural pesticide drift from 11 states. Our findings indicate that 47% were exposed at work, 92% experienced low-severity illness, and 14% were children (< 15 years). The annual incidence ranged from 1.39 to 5.32 per million persons over the 9-year period. The overall incidence (in million person-years) was 114.3 for agricultural workers, 0.79 for other workers, 1.56 for nonoccupational cases, and 42.2 for residents in five agriculture-intensive counties in California. Soil applications with fumigants were responsible for the largest percentage (45%) of cases. Aerial applications accounted for 24% of cases. Common factors contributing to drift cases included weather conditions, improper seal of the fumigation site, and applicator carelessness near nontarget areas. Conclusions: Agricultural workers and residents in agricultural regions had the highest rate of pesticide poisoning from drift exposure, and soil fumigations were a major hazard, causing large drift incidents. Our findings highlight areas where interventions to reduce off-target drift could be focused. PMID:21642048

  13. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  14. Agricultural residues and energy crops as potentially economical and novel substrates for microbial production of butanol (a biofuel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review describes production of acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) from a variety of agricultural residues and energy crops employing biochemical or fermentation processes. A number of organisms are available for this bioconversion including Clostridium beijerinckii P260, C. beijerinckii BA101, C. a...

  15. Agricultural Teaching: Papers Presented at the Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Agricultural Teaching. Washington, D. C., November 11, 1913. Bulletin, 1914, No. 27. Whole Number 601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1914

    1914-01-01

    The purpose of the American Association for the Advancement of Agricultural Teaching, as stated in its constitution, is "to promote the teaching of agriculture and to devise ways and means for increasing the efficiency of such instruction in elementary and secondary schools and in colleges and universities." The time is opportune perhaps for…

  16. Accessible intergration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (Open MI): methodology and initial results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated...

  17. Analysis of the formation, expression, and economic impacts of risk perceptions associated with nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, T.; Hunter, S.; Calzonetti, F.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report investigates how communities hosting nuclear facilities form and express perceptions of risk and how these risk perceptions affect local economic development. Information was collected from site visits and interviews with plant personnel, officials of local and state agencies, and community activists in the hosting communities. Six commercial nuclear fuel production facilities and five nuclear facilities operated for the US Department of Energy by private contractors were chosen for analysis. The results presented in the report indicate that the nature of risk perceptions depends on a number of factors. These factors are (1) level of communication by plant officials within the local community, (2) track record of the facility. operator, (3) process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, (4) level of economic links each plant has with the local community, and (15) physical characteristics of the facility itself. This report finds that in the communities studied, adverse ask perceptions have not affected business location decisions, employment levels in the local community, tourism, or agricultural development. On the basis of case-study findings, this report recommends that nuclear facility siting programs take the following observations into account when addressing perceptions of risk. First, the quality of a facility`s participation with community activists, interest groups, and state agencies helps to determine the level of perceived risk within a community. Second, the development of strong economic links between nuclear facilities and their host communities will produce a higher level of acceptance of the nuclear facilities.

  18. Associations between forest characteristics and socio-economic development: a case study from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sónia Carvalho; Lovett, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    The integration of socio-economic and environmental objectives is a major challenge in developing strategies for sustainable landscapes. We investigated associations between socio-economic variables, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition in the context of Portugal. The main goals of the study were to 1) investigate relationships between forest conditions and measures of socio-economic development at national and regional scales, 2) test the hypothesis that a systematic variation in forest landscape metrics occurs according to the stage of socio-economic development and, 3) assess the extent to which landscape metrics can inform strategies to enhance forest sustainability. A ranking approach and statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis were used to achieve these objectives. Relationships between socio-economic characteristics, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition were only significant in the regional analysis of municipalities in Northern Portugal. Landscape metrics for different tree species displayed significant variations across socio-economic groups of municipalities and these differences were consistent with changes in characteristics suggested by the forest transition model. The use of metrics also helped inform place-specific strategies to improve forest management, though it was also apparent that further work was required to better incorporate differences in forest functions into sustainability planning. PMID:18848746

  19. Modelling economic and biophysical drivers of agricultural land-use change. Calibration and evaluation of the Nexus Land-Use model over 1961-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souty, F.; Dorin, B.; Brunelle, T.; Dumas, P.; Ciais, P.

    2013-12-01

    The central role of land-use change in the Earth System and its implications for food security, biodiversity and climate has spurred the development of global models that combine economical and agro-ecological drivers and constraints. With such a development of integrated approaches, evaluating the performance of global models of land-use against observed historical changes recorded by agricultural data becomes increasingly challenging. The Nexus Land-Use model is an example of land-use model integrating both biophysical and economical processes and constraints. This paper is an attempt to evaluate its ability to simulate historical agricultural land-use changes over 12 large but economically coherent regions of the world since 1961. The evaluation focuses on the intensification vs. extensification response of crop and livestock production in response to changes of socio-economic drivers over time, such as fertiliser price, population and diet. We examine how well the Nexus model can reproduce annual observation-based estimates of cropland vs. pasture areas from 1961 to 2006. Food trade, consumption of fertilisers and food price are also evaluated against historical data. Over the 12 regions considered, the total relative error on simulated cropland area is 2% yr-1 over 1980-2006. During the period 1961-2006, the error is larger (4% yr-1) due to an overestimation of the cropland area in China and Former Soviet Union over 1961-1980. Food prices tend to be underestimated while the performances of the trade module vary widely among regions (net imports are underestimated in Western countries at the expense of Brazil and Asia). Finally, a sensitivity analysis over a sample of input datasets provides some insights on the robustness of this evaluation.

  20. Longitudinal Association of County-Level Economic Indicators and Child Maltreatment Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Frioux, Sarah; Wood, Joanne N.; Fakeye, Oludolapo; Luan, Xianqun; Localio, Russell; Rubin, David M.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between economic indicators (unemployment and mortgage foreclosure rates) and volume of investigated and substantiated cases of child maltreatment at the county level from 1990 to 2010 in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. County-level investigated reports of child maltreatment and proportion of investigated cases substantiated by child protective services in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania were compared with county-level unemployment rates from 1990 to 2010, and with county-level mortgage foreclosure rates from 2000 to 2010. We employed fixed-effects Poisson regression modeling to estimate the association between volume of investigated and substantiated cases of maltreatment, and current and prior levels of local economic indicators adjusting for temporal trend. Across Pennsylvania, annual rate of investigated maltreatment reports decreased through the 1990s and rose in the early 2000s before reaching a peak of 9.21 investigated reports per 1,000 children in 2008, during the recent economic recessionary period. The proportion of investigated cases substantiated, however, decreased statewide from 33 % in 1991 to 15 % in 2010. Within counties, current unemployment rate, and current and prior-year foreclosure rates were positively associated with volume of both investigated and substantiated child maltreatment incidents (p < 0.05). Despite recent increases in investigations, the proportion of investigated cases substantiated decreased by more than half from 1990 to 2010 in Pennsylvania. This trend suggests significant changes in substantiation standards and practices during the period of study. Economic indicators demonstrated strong association with investigated and substantiated maltreatment, underscoring the urgent need for directing important prophylactic efforts and resources to communities experiencing economic hardship. PMID:24682605

  1. Irrigation-dependent wetlands versus instream flow enhancement: economics of water transfers from agriculture to wildlife uses.

    PubMed

    Peck, Dannele E; McLeod, Doanald M; Hewlett, John P; Lovvorn, James R

    2004-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture throughout western North America faces increasing pressure to transfer water to nonagricultural uses, including instream flows for fish and wildlife management. In an important case, increased instream flows are needed in Nebraska's Platte River for recovery of threatened and endangered fish and wildlife species. Irrigated agriculture in the Laramie Basin of southeast Wyoming is a potential water source for the effort to enhance instream flow. However, flood irrigation of hayfields in the Laramie Basin has created many wetlands, both ephemeral and permanent, over the last century. Attempting to increase Platte River instream flows by purchasing water rights or improving irrigation efficiency in the Laramie Basin would transform irrigated agriculture, causing a substantial fraction of the Laramie Basin's wetlands to be lost. A creative solution is needed to prevent the sacrifice of one ecosystem on behalf of another. A rotating short-term water-leasing program is proposed. The program allows Laramie Basin producers to contribute to instream flows while continuing to support local wetlands. Permanent wetland desiccation is prevented and regional environmental water needs are met without impairing local ecological resources. Budget analysis is used to provide an initial cost estimate for acquiring water from agriculture through the short-term leasing program. The proposed approach is more expensive than traditional programs but allows contribution to instream flows without major wetland loss. Short-term leasing is a more efficient approach if benefits from wetlands exceed the difference in cost between the short-term lease program and programs that do not conserve wetlands. PMID:15633027

  2. Techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration using agricultural residue--a case study for an Indian district.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2015-04-01

    Presently, most of world electricity and other energy services are catered by fossil fuel resources. This is unsustainable in the long run both with respect to energy security and climate change problems. Fuel switching, specifically using biomass may partially address this problem. Polygeneration is an efficient way of delivering multiple utility outputs with one or more inputs. Decentralized small or large scale polygeneration using alternative fuels may be a future sustainable solution. In this paper, a techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration with four utility outputs and rice straw as input has been reported. Results of the simulation and real-life data as inputs are used for the techno-economic analysis. The analysis is specific for a district in the state of West Bengal of India. Results show that such a plant has strong potential to qualify in techno-economic performance in addition to higher efficiency and lower CO2 emission. PMID:25647027

  3. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    PubMed

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production. PMID:25836353

  4. Losing Chlordimeform Use in Cotton Production. Its Effects on the Economy and Pest Resistance. Agricultural Economic Report Number 587.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteen, Craig; Suguiyama, Luis

    This report examines the economic implications of losing chlordimeform use on cotton and considers chlordimeform's role in managing the resistance of bollworms and tobacco budworms to synthetic pyrethroids. It estimates changes in prices, production, acreage, consumer expenditures, aggregate producer returns, regional crop effects, and returns to…

  5. A Comparative Economic Analysis of North-Central New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 211.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Garrey E.; Eastman, Clyde

    North-Central New Mexico has many of the problems common to other rural areas. Unemployment and underemployment rates tend to be high and per capita income relatively low. This study evaluated regional economic performance over a 19-year period (1949-1968) as compared to other regions and the nation. Shift analysis (a means of examining regional…

  6. Economic and legal analysis of strategies for managing agricultural pollution of ground water. Final report, 1 October 1986-15 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Batie, S.S.; Kramer, R.A.; Cox, W.E.

    1989-10-15

    The overall objectives were to identify constitutional and legal strategies for the management of ground-water quality, to design alternative state and/or federal strategies for the management of environmental risks associated with agricultural pollution of ground water, and to estimate first-round impacts of farm income, land use, government revenues, and ground-water pollution levels resulting from implementation of alternative management strategies in a case-study context.

  7. Factors Associated with Enrollment in Agricultural Science and Membership in the FFA in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Tom; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Of 1,697 Texas secondary agriculture students, 71 percent were white and 77 percent male, although total secondary enrollment is 50 percent male, 50 percent female, and 48 percent minority. Agriscience enrollment was influenced most by class characteristics and identity enhancement. Future Farmers of America also contributed to identity…

  8. Rural Sociology in the South: 1972. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section, Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voland, Maurice E., Ed.

    The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…

  9. 17 CFR 3.13 - Registration of agricultural trade option merchants and their associated persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... business of soliciting, offering or selling the instruments listed in § 32.2 of this chapter to solicit, to... not disqualified from registration for the reasons listed in section 8a (2) and (3) of the Act... the reasons listed in sections 8a(2) and (3) of the Act; and (iii) The agricultural trade...

  10. Estimation of PCB content in agricultural soils associated with long-term fertilization with organic waste.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Rodríguez, Juan M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollution related to the use of organic waste as fertilizers in agricultural soils is a cause of major concern. In the study presented herein, PCB concentration was studied through a field trial conducted in two agricultural soils in the province of Palencia (Spain) over a 4-year period, assessing the impact of irrigation and of different types of organic waste materials. The amounts of organic waste added to the soil were calculated according to the nitrogen needs of the crop, and the concentration of PCBs was determined before and after the application of the organic waste. The resulting persistence of the total PCB content in the agricultural soils, compared with the PCB concentration in the original soils, ranged from 27% to 90%, with the lowest value corresponding to irrigated soils treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and the highest value to non-irrigated soils treated with composted sewage sludge (CSS). An estimate of the PCB content in agricultural soils after the application of organic waste materials until year 2050 was obtained, resulting in a value below 5 ng·g(-1), considered a background value for soils in sites far away from potential pollution sources. PMID:26983809

  11. Impacts of climatic change on water and associated economic activities in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniston, Martin

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe European Alps are one region of the world where climate-driven changes are already perceptible, as exemplified by the general retreat of mountain glaciers over past decades. Temperatures have risen by up to 2 °C since 1900 particularly at high elevations, a rate that is roughly three times the global-average 20th century warming. Regional climate models suggest that by 2100, winters in Switzerland may warm by 3-5 °C and summers by 6-7 °C according to greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios, while precipitation is projected to increase in winter and sharply decrease in summer. The impacts of these levels of climatic change will affect both the natural environment and a number of economic activities. Alpine glaciers may lose between 50% and 90% of their current volume and the average snowline will rise by 150 m for each degree of warming. Hydrological systems will respond in quantity and seasonality to changing precipitation patterns and to the timing of snow-melt in the Alps, with a greater risk of flooding during the spring and droughts in summer and fall. The direct and indirect impacts of a warming climate will affect key economic sectors such as tourism, hydropower, agriculture and the insurance industry that will be confronted to more frequent natural disasters. This paper will thus provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on climatic change and its impacts on the Alpine world.

  12. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  13. Agricultural pesticide emissions associated with common crops in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Benjey, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Annual emissions for the year 1987 from the application of agricultural pesticides have been estimated by crop type by county for the United States using a geographic information system. The emissions estimates are based upon computed volatilization rates accounting for the properties of each pesticide, evaporation rates, mode of application (surface or soil incorporation) and percent of interception by leaves. Key pesticide properties include the Henry's Law constant, half-life in soil and the organic carbon partitioning coefficient. The volatilization rates are multiplied by the amount of pesticide applied by crop acreage in each county as determined from agricultural census and pesticide sales data. The geographic distribution of the dominant emissions, such as atrazine and diazinon, etc. are presented by crop type and state. For a given pesticide, the geographic variability is controlled principally by amount applied and water availability as reflected in evaporation rates.

  14. Economic gains from targeted measures related to non-point pollution in agriculture based on detailed nitrate reduction maps.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Brian H; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2016-06-15

    From 1990 to 2003, Denmark reduced N-leaching from the root zone by 50%. However, more measures are required, and in recent years, the focus has been on how to differentiate measures in order to ensure that they are implemented where the effect on N-loss reductions per ha is the greatest. The purpose of the NiCA project has been to estimate the natural nitrate reduction in the groundwater more precisely than before using a plot size down to 1ha. This article builds on these findings and presents the possible economic gains for the farmer when using this information to reach a given N-loss level. Targeted measures are especially relevant where the subsurface N-reduction varies significantly within the same farm and national analyses have shown that a cost reduction of around 20-25% using targeted measures is likely. The analyses show an increasing potential with increasing variation in N-reduction in the catchment. In this analysis, the knowledge of spatial variation in N-reduction potential is used to place measures like catch crops or set-a-side at locations with the greatest effect on 10 case farms in the Norsminde Catchment, Denmark. The findings suggest that the gains are from 0 to 32€/ha and the average farm would gain approximately 14-21€/ha/year from the targeted measures approach. The analysis indicates that the economic gain is greater than the costs of providing the detailed maps of 5-10€/ha/year. When N-loss reduction requirements are increased, the economic gains are greater. When combined with new measures like mini-wetlands and early sowing the economic advantage is increased further. The paper also shows that not all farms can use the detailed information on N-reduction and there is not a clear link between spatial variation in N-reduction at the farm level and possible economic gains for all these 10 farms. PMID:26974574

  15. Whole-Genome Sequences of Agricultural, Host-Associated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Strains

    PubMed Central

    Altermann, Eric; Olson, Jonathan; Wray, Gregory Allan; Siletzky, Robin M.; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp.: C. coli 11601 and C. jejuni 11601MD, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and C. coli 6067 and C. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. The genomes provide insights on Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations. PMID:27540063

  16. Whole-Genome Sequences of Agricultural, Host-Associated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Strains.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Vikrant; Altermann, Eric; Olson, Jonathan; Wray, Gregory Allan; Siletzky, Robin M; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp.: C. coli 11601 and C. jejuni 11601MD, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and C. coli 6067 and C. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. The genomes provide insights on Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations. PMID:27540063

  17. Is Exposure to Famine in Childhood and Economic Development in Adulthood Associated With Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningjian; Wang, Xiaojin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Zhu, Chunfang; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Cang, Zhen; Zhu, Chaoxia; Lu, Meng; Meng, Ying; Chen, Chi; Lin, Dongping

    2015-01-01

    Context: The Chinese were afflicted by great famine between 1959 and 1962. These people then experienced rapid economic development during which the gross domestic product per capita increased from $28 in 1978 to $6807 in 2013. We hypothesize that these two events are associated with the booming rate of diabetes in China. Objective: We aimed to explore whether exposure to famine in early life and high economic status in adulthood was associated with diabetes in later life. Design and Setting: Our data of 6897 adults were from a cross-sectional Survey on Prevalence in East China for Metabolic Diseases and Risk Factors study in 2014. Among them, 3844 adults experienced famine during different life stages and then lived in areas with different economic statuses in adulthood. Main Outcome Measure: Diabetes was considered as fasting plasma glucose of 7.0mmol/L or greater, hemoglobin A1c of 6.5% or greater, and/or a previous diagnosis by health care professionals. Results: Compared with nonexposed subjects, famine exposure during the fetal period (odds ratio [OR]1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.09–2.14) and childhood (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.21–2.73) was associated with diabetes after adjusting for age and gender. Further adjustments for adiposity, height, the lipid profile, and blood pressure did not significantly attenuate this association. Subjects living in areas with high economic status had a greater diabetes risk in adulthood (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.20–1.78). In gender-specific analyses, fetal-exposed men (OR 1.64, 95% CI, 1.04–2.59) and childhood-exposed women (OR 2.81, 95% CI, 1.59–4.97) had significantly greater risk of diabetes. Conclusions: The rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes in middle-aged and elderly people in China is associated with the combination of exposure to famine during the fetal stage and childhood and high economic status in adulthood. Our findings may partly explain the booming diabetes phenomenon in China. PMID:26509871

  18. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

    PubMed

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems may

  19. Structure, Composition and Metagenomic Profile of Soil Microbiomes Associated to Agricultural Land Use and Tillage Systems in Argentine Pampas

    PubMed Central

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no- tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems

  20. Agriculture's impact on microbial diversity and associated fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Uri Y; Teal, Tracy K; Robertson, G Philip; Schmidt, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture has marked impacts on the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and consumption of methane (CH4) by microbial communities in upland soils—Earth's largest biological sink for atmospheric CH4. To determine whether the diversity of microbes that catalyze the flux of these greenhouse gases is related to the magnitude and stability of these ecosystem-level processes, we conducted molecular surveys of CH4-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) and total bacterial diversity across a range of land uses and measured the in situ flux of CH4 and CO2 at a site in the upper United States Midwest. Conversion of native lands to row-crop agriculture led to a sevenfold reduction in CH4 consumption and a proportionate decrease in methanotroph diversity. Sites with the greatest stability in CH4 consumption harbored the most methanotroph diversity. In fields abandoned from agriculture, the rate of CH4 consumption increased with time along with the diversity of methanotrophs. Conversely, estimates of total bacterial diversity in soil were not related to the rate or stability of CO2 emission. These combined results are consistent with the expectation that microbial diversity is a better predictor of the magnitude and stability of processes catalyzed by organisms with highly specialized metabolisms, like CH4 oxidation, as compared with processes driven by widely distributed metabolic processes, like CO2 production in heterotrophs. The data also suggest that managing lands to conserve or restore methanotroph diversity could mitigate the atmospheric concentrations of this potent greenhouse gas. PMID:21490688

  1. Potential drawbacks associated with agricultural irrigation with treated wastewaters from desalinated water origin and possible remedies.

    PubMed

    Lahav, Ori; Kochva, Malka; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Over 90% of the water supplied in the coastal region in Israel in 2013 (600 Mm(3) y(-1)) will be from desalination plants. The wastewater generated from this water (>400 Mm(3) y(-1)) is planned, after proper treatment, to be reused for agricultural irrigation, making this low-salinity water the main agricultural-sector future water source. In this respect both the Mg(2 + ) concentration and the Sodium Adsorption Ratio value of the water are of concern. We show that the typical Na(+) concentration addition to wastewater (between approximately 100 and approximately 165 mg L(-1)) is much higher than the combined addition of Ca(2 + ) and Mg(2 + ) (between 0 and several mg L(-1)). Since desalinated water is typically supplied with low Ca(2 + ) and Mg(2 + ) concentrations ( approximately 35 and 0 mg L(-1) respectively), the treated wastewater is characterized by very low Mg(2 + ) concentrations, low salinity and very high SAR values, typically >6 and up to 10 (meq L(-1))(0.5). SAR values can be lowered by adding either Ca(2 + ) or Mg(2 + ) to desalinated water. Adding Mg(2 + ) is preferable from both health (minimizing cardiovascular disease hazards) and agriculture (inexpensive Mg fertilization) aspects. The low cost of Mg(2 + ) addition at the post-treatment stage of desalination plants corroborates the request for Mg(2 + ) addition in regions where treated wastewater from desalinated water origin is planned to be reused for irrigation. PMID:20453317

  2. Economic impact of climate

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, A.

    1980-05-01

    This volume summarizes the first two of a series of six workshops to investigate the economic impact of climate. These two workshops dealt mainly with input-output and econometric models. Potential for introducing weather and climate variables was discussed. A listing of topics and authors follows: Economic Models and the Identification of Climatic Effects on Economic Processes, Stan Johnson; Economic Modeling, Jim Morgan; Econometric Modeling: State of the Arts for the US Agricultural Industry, Abner Womack; Regional Input-Output Models: Understanding Their Application, Charles Lamphear; Measuring Regional Economic Impact Associated With Unfavorable Conditions During Crop Production Periods: A concept Paper, Charles Lamphear; Possible Applications of Input-Output Models in Climatic Impact Analysis, William Cooter; and Aspects of Input-Output Analysis Pertinent to Climate-Economic Modeling: Three Short Notes, William Cooter. (PSB)

  3. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  4. Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education 1994 Conference Papers. Annual Conference (10th, Arlington, Virginia, March 24-26, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Roger E., Comp.

    Selected papers are as follows: "Member Perceptions of the Association for International Agricultural & Extension Education" (Eaton et al.); "Historical Review of U.S. Involvement in International Agricultural Education between World War II and Enactment of Title XII" (Thuemmel, Meaders); "Educational Needs of International Graduate Students as…

  5. Temporal association of children's pesticide exposure and agricultural spraying: report of a longitudinal biological monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Koch, Denise; Lu, Chensheng; Fisker-Andersen, Jennifer; Jolley, Lance; Fenske, Richard A

    2002-08-01

    We measured organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposures of young children living in an agricultural community over an entire year and evaluated the impact of agricultural spraying on exposure. We also examined the roles of age, sex, parental occupation, and residential proximity to fields. We recruited 44 children (2-5 years old) through a Women, Infants, and Children clinic. We collected urine samples on a biweekly basis over a 21-month period. Each child provided at least 16 urine samples, and most provided 26. We analyzed samples for the dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites common to the OP pesticides. DAP concentrations were elevated in months when OP pesticides were sprayed in the region's orchards. The geometric means of dimethyl and diethyl DAPs during spray months were higher than those during nonspray months (p = 0.009 for dimethyl; p = 0.018 for diethyl). Dimethyl DAP geometric means were 0.1 and 0.07 micro mol/L for spray months and nonspray months, respectively (57% difference); diethyl DAP geometric means were 0.49 and 0.35, respectively (40% difference). We also observed differences for sex of the child, with male levels higher than female levels (p = 0.005 for dimethyl; p = 0.046 for diethyl). We observed no differences due to age, parental occupation, or residential proximity to fields. This study reports for the first time the temporal pattern of pesticide exposures over the course of a full year and indicates that pesticide spraying in an agricultural region can increase children's exposure in the absence of parental work contact with pesticides or residential proximity to pesticide-treated farmland. PMID:12153767

  6. The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological

  7. Transport of particle-associated elements in two agriculture-dominated boreal river systems.

    PubMed

    Marttila, Hannu; Saarinen, Tuomas; Celebi, Ahmet; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-09-01

    Transport of particulate pollutants in fluvial systems can contribute greatly to total loads. Understanding transport mechanics under different hydrological conditions is key in successful load estimation. This study analysed trace elements and physico-chemical parameters in time-integrated suspended sediment samples, together with dissolved and total concentrations of pollutants, along two agriculture- and peatland-dominated boreal river systems. The samples were taken in a spatially and temporally comprehensive sampling programme during the ice-free seasons of 2010 and 2011. The hydrochemistry and transport of particle-bound elements in the rivers were strongly linked to intense land use and acid sulphate soils in the catchment area, with arable, pasture and peat areas in particular being main diffuse sources. There were significant seasonal and temporal variations in dissolved and particulate fluxes, but spatial variations were small. Continuous measurements of EC, turbidity and discharge proved to be an accurate indicator of dissolved and particulate fluxes. Overall, the results show that transport of particle-bound elements makes a major contribution to total transport fluxes in agriculture-dominated boreal rivers. PMID:23770550

  8. Narrow grass hedges reduce tylosin and associated antimicrobial resistance genes in agricultural runoff.

    PubMed

    Soni, Bhavneet; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Gilley, John E; Woodbury, Bryan L; Marx, David B; Li, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural runoff from areas receiving livestock manure can potentially contaminate surface water with antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of narrow grass hedges (NGHs) on reducing the transport of antimicrobials and ARGs in runoff after land application of swine manure slurry. Plot-scale rainfall simulation tests were conducted on 0.75 m by 4.0 m plots designed to test three treatment factors: manure amendment (control plots receiving no manure vs. amended plots receiving manure based on 3 times N requirement), NGH (plots with a NGH vs. plots without a NGH), and rainfall events (days 1-3). Runoff generated during three 30-min simulated rainfall events was sampled and analyzed for antimicrobials and ARGs. Manure amendment was responsible for the presence of antimicrobial tylosin ( < 0.0001) and tylosin resistance gene (B) ( < 0.0001) in runoff. Narrow grass hedges proved to be effective in reducing tylosin ( < 0.0001) and (B) ( < 0.0347) in runoff. Manure amendment was responsible for the introduction of tylosin ( < 0.0482) and (B) ( = 0.0128) into the soil; however, it had no significant impact on the abundance of the 16S rRNA gene in soil. Results from this study suggest that NGHs could be a best management practice to control the transport of antimicrobials and ARGs in agricultural runoff. PMID:26024269

  9. Polymorphisms in the GHRL gene and their associations with traits of economic interest in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Braz, C U; Camargo, G M F; Cardoso, D F; Gil, F M M; Fonseca, P D S; Cyrillo, J N S G; Mercadante, M E Z; Oliveira, H N; Tonhati, H

    2015-01-01

    The hormone ghrelin is produced in the stomach wall, has an orexigenic function, stimulates growth hormone secretion, and affects the energy balance of the animal. Therefore, the ghrelin gene (GHRL) is considered to be a good candidate marker for the identification of traits of great economic importance in cattle, such as those associated with feed intake, growth, and carcass quality. The use of molecular genetic markers associated with such traits permits the earlier and more accurate identification of superior animals, thus reducing the interval between generations, and increasing the genetic gain. Six SNPs were found in the GHRL gene, located in intron 3, intron 4, and exon 5. The positions of the SNPs on the gene and the substitutions were: g.2184A>G, g.2347T>C, g.4469T>C, g.4548A>G, g.4663T>C, and g.4729T>C (GenBank accession No. JX565585). After analysis of linkage disequilibrium, association tests were performed between four SNPs with the traits year weight for males, yearling weight for females, dry matter intake, loin eye area, and rump fat thickness (P ≤ 0.05). Therefore, GHRL is an important candidate gene that may be used to identify genetic variations that influence traits of economic importance in beef cattle. PMID:26782466

  10. Social and economic factors associated with recent and lifetime incarceration among Puerto Rican drug users.

    PubMed

    de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Lundgren, Lena M; Chassler, Deborah; Horowitz, Amanda C; Adorno, Elpidio; Purington, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 280 Puerto Rican drug users with a history of incarceration residing in Massachusetts, we explore whether a significant association exists between social and economic factors (maintaining social network contacts, receiving public assistance) and lifetime incarceration. Analysis of survey data using regression methods shows that respondents who live in their own home, receive public assistance, and have recent familial contact are significantly less likely to have been incarcerated in the past 6 months. Among study participants, men and those who initiated heroin use at younger ages are more likely to have greater lifetime incarceration totals. Practice implications are discussed. PMID:23768433

  11. Biotechnology and the American agricultural industry. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1991-03-20

    To meet the needs of a rapidly growing population and minimize the toxic influences of traditional farming practices on the environment, the American agricultural industry has applied molecular technology to the development of food crops and livestock. By placing genes specific for highly desirable phenotypes into the DNA of plants, animals, and bacteria, farmers have increased crop and livestock survival, enhanced the nutritional quality of foods, increased industry productivity, and reduced the need for toxic pesticides and herbicides. However, introduction of genetically modified foods into the marketplace has raised a spectrum of public health issues. Physicians, as the most proximal scientific resource for most individuals, are uniquely positioned to address patient concerns regarding the safety of genetically altered foods. This report provides an overview of the inherent risks and benefits of "agrogenetics" and offers a series of recommendations designed to promote the education of the medical community and dispel public misconception regarding genetic manipulation. PMID:1999885

  12. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources: Agriculture. Part 1: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornhauser, A. L.; Wilson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Potential economic benefits obtainable from a state-of-the-art ERS system in the resource area of intensive use of living resources, agriculture, are studied. A spectrum of equal capability (cost saving), increased capability, and new capability benefits are quantified. These benefits are estimated via ECON developed models of the agricultural marketplace and include benefits of improved production and distribution of agricultural crops. It is shown that increased capability benefits and new capability benefits result from a reduction of losses due to disease and insect infestation given ERS's capability to distinguish crop vigor and from the improvement in world trade negotiations given ERS's worldwide surveying capability.

  13. Factors associated with succession of abandoned agricultural lands along the Lower Missouri River, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J.J.; Knutson, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 flood of the Missouri River led to the abandonment of agriculture on considerable land in the floodplain. This abandonment led to a restoration opportunity for the U.S. Federal Government, purchasing those lands being sold by farmers. Restoration of this floodplain is complicated, however, by an imperfect understanding of its past environmental and vegetative conditions. We examined environmental conditions associated with the current placement of young forests and wet prairies as a guide to the potential successional trajectory for abandoned agricultural land subject to flooding. We used Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression to examine the effects of flood frequency, soil drainage, distance from the main channel, and elevation on whether a site was in wet prairie or in forest. Study site was included as a random effect, controlling for site-specific differences not measured in our study. We found, after controlling for the effect of site, that early-successional forest sites were closer to the river and at a lower elevation but occurred on drier soils than wet prairie. In a regulated river such as the lower Missouri River, wet prairie sites are relatively isolated from the main channel compared to early-successional forest, despite occurring on relatively moister soils. The modeled results from this study may be used to predict the potential successional fate of the acquired agricultural lands, and along with information on wildlife assemblages associated with wet prairie and forest can be used to predict potential benefit of these acquisitions to wildlife conservation. ?? 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  14. Economic impacts of reduced milk production associated with papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cows in the USA.

    PubMed

    Losinger, Willard C

    2006-05-01

    The goal of this study was to measure the economic impacts of reduced milk production associated with papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) in dairy cows in the USA, and of specific risk factors for PDD, in 1996. The method applied was an economic-welfare analysis of producer and consumer surplus, with the GUM Workbench used to analyse uncertainties in the measurements. Reduced milk production associated with PDD was found to reduce consumer surplus by Dollars 750 million +/- Dollars 580 million, and to increase the economic surplus of producers by Dollars 560 million +/- Dollars 470 million, with a net economic loss of Dollars 190 million +/- Dollars 130 million. An examination of the economic effects of specific epidemiologic risk factors for PDD showed that having dairy cows that were not born on the operation had important economic consequences associated with the disease, as did the type of land to which dairy cows had access during the winter months and the type of flooring on which cows walked. Washing hoof-trimming equipment between cows was an important biosecurity measure that was associated with reduced PDD. The epidemiologic model used also implicated hoof trimmers who trimmed cattle hooves on other operations as having an important economic impact associated with this disease, although this finding may have been erroneous. PMID:16569275

  15. Geologic and hydrologic controls on the economic potential of hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal plutons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Scott, Samuel; Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    Heat and mass transport in hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal magmatic intrusions can result in resources with large economic potential (Kesler, 1994). Active hydrothermal systems can form high-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs with the possibility for renewable energy production. Fossil continental or submarine hydrothermal systems may have formed ore deposits at variable crustal depths, which can be mined near today's surface with an economic profit. In both cases, only the right combination of first-order geologic and hydrologic controls may lead to the formation of a significant resource. To foster exploration for these hydrothermal georesources, we need to improve our understanding of subsurface fluxes of mass and energy by combining numerical process modelling, observations at both active and fossil systems, as well as knowledge of fluid and rock properties and their interactions in natural systems. The presentation will highlight the role of non-linear fluid properties, phase separation, salt precipitation, fluid mixing, permeability structure, hydraulic fracturing and the transition from brittle to ductile rock behavior as major geologic and hydrologic controls on the formation of high-enthalpy and supercritical geothermal resources (Scott et al., 2015), and magmatic-hydrothermal mineral resources, such as porphyry copper, massive sulfide and epithermal gold deposits (Lecumberri-Sanchez et al., 2015; Weis, 2015). References: Kesler, S. E., 1994: Mineral Resources, economics and the environment, New York, McMillan, 391. Lecumberri-Sanchez, P., Steele-MacInnis, M., Weis, P., Driesner, T., Bodnar, R.J. (2015): Salt precipitation in magmatic-hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal plutons. Geology, v. 43, p. 1063-1066, doi:10.1130/G37163.1 Scott, S., Driesner, T., Weis, P. (2015): Geologic controls on supercritical geothermal resources above magmatic intrusions. Nature Communications, 6:7837 doi: 10.1038/ncomms8837 Weis, P. (2015): The

  16. Economic and Health Impacts Associated with a Salmonella Typhimurium Drinking Water Outbreak−Alamosa, CO, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Ailes, Elizabeth; Budge, Philip; Shankar, Manjunath; Collier, Sarah; Brinton, William; Cronquist, Alicia; Chen, Melissa; Thornton, Andrew; Beach, Michael J.; Brunkard, Joan M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, a large Salmonella outbreak caused by contamination of the municipal drinking water supply occurred in Alamosa, Colorado. The objectives of this assessment were to determine the full economic costs associated with the outbreak and the long-term health impacts on the community of Alamosa. We conducted a postal survey of City of Alamosa (2008 population: 8,746) households and businesses, and conducted in-depth interviews with local, state, and nongovernmental agencies, and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools to assess the economic and long-term health impacts of the outbreak. Twenty-one percent of household survey respondents (n = 369/1,732) reported diarrheal illness during the outbreak. Of those, 29% (n = 108) reported experiencing potential long-term health consequences. Most households (n = 699/771, 91%) reported municipal water as their main drinking water source at home before the outbreak; afterwards, only 30% (n = 233) drank unfiltered municipal tap water. The outbreak’s estimated total cost to residents and businesses of Alamosa using a Monte Carlo simulation model (10,000 iterations) was approximately $1.5 million dollars (range: $196,677–$6,002,879), and rose to $2.6 million dollars (range: $1,123,471–$7,792,973) with the inclusion of outbreak response costs to local, state and nongovernmental agencies and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools. This investigation documents the significant economic and health impacts associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and highlights the potential for loss of trust in public water systems following such outbreaks. PMID:23526942

  17. Are Economic Development and Education Improvement Associated with Participation in Transnational Terrorism?

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, L; Jin, Y H

    2015-08-01

    Using transnational terrorism data from 1980 to 2000, this study empirically examines the relationships between frequency of participation in transnational terrorism acts and economic development and education improvement. We find an inverse U-shaped association between the frequency of various nationals acting as perpetrators in transnational terrorism acts and per capita income in their respective home countries. As per capita incomes increase from relatively low levels, frequencies of participation in transnational terrorism increase. However, at sufficiently higher levels of per capita income, further increase in per capita income is negatively associated with the rate of participation in transnational terrorism. Education improvement from elementary to secondary is positively correlated with frequency of participation in transnational terrorism events, whereas further improvement from secondary to tertiary level is negatively correlated with participation in transnational terrorism. We also find that citizens of countries with greater openness to international trade, lower degree of income inequality, greater economic freedom, larger proportion of population with tertiary education, and less religious prevalence participate in transnational terrorism events less frequently. PMID:25868529

  18. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  19. National Economic Development Status May Affect the Association between Central Adiposity and Cognition in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Maharani, Asri; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is becoming a global problem, rather than one found only in developed countries. Although recent studies have suggested a detrimental effect of obesity on cognition, studies of the relationship between obesity and cognition among older adults have been limited to developed countries. We aimed to examine the associations between central obesity, as measured by waist circumference, and cognition level in adults aged 50 years and older in England and Indonesia. Methods We used linear regression models to analyse these associations and multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2006 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 3 is the source of data from England, while data from Indonesia is sourced from the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 4. Findings Centrally obese respondents had lower cognition levels than non-centrally obese respondents in England. In contrast, central adiposity had a statistically significant positive association with cognition in Indonesia. Higher levels of education and higher economic status were associated with higher cognitive ability, while age was associated with lower cognition in both countries. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and smoking behaviour, both linked to higher risk of obesity, were negatively associated with cognitive ability among older adults in England, but they had no statistically significant association with cognition among Indonesians. Interpretation The contradictory findings on obesity and cognition in England and Indonesia not only create a puzzle, but they may also have different policy implications in these countries. Reducing the prevalence of obesity may be the main focus in England and other developed countries to maintain older adults’ cognition. However, Indonesia and other developing countries should place more emphasis on education, in addition to continued efforts to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, in order to prevent cognitive impairment among

  20. Environmental inequity in England: small area associations between socio-economic status and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David; Abellan, Juan J; Fecht, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that more deprived people tend to live in areas characterised by higher levels of environmental pollution. If generally true, these environmental inequities may combine to cause adverse effects on health and also exacerbate problems of confounding in epidemiological studies. Previous studies of environmental inequity have nevertheless indicated considerable complexity in the associations involved, which merit further investigation using more detailed data and more advanced analytical methods. This study investigates the ways in which environmental inequity in England varies in relation to: (a) different environmental pollutants (measured in different ways); (b) different aspects of socio-economic status; and (c) different geographical scales and contexts (urban vs. rural). Associations were analysed between the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2004) and its domains and five sets of environmental pollutants (relating to road traffic, industry, electro-magnetic frequency radiation, disinfection by-products in drinking water and radon), measured in terms of proximity, emission intensity and environmental concentration. Associations were assessed using bivariate and multivariate correlation, and by comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of deprivation using Student's t-test and Hotelling's T2. Associations are generally weak (R(2) < 0.10), and vary depending on the specific measures used. Strongest associations occur with what can be regarded as contingent components of deprivation (e.g. crime, living environment, health) rather than causative factors such as income, employment or education. Associations also become stronger with increasing level of spatial aggregation. Overall, the results suggest that any triple jeopardy for health, and problems of confounding, associated with environmental inequities are likely to be limited. PMID:18786752

  1. Meteorological and associated data collected over agricultural fields in Pinal County, Arizona, 1989 and 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Brown, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Data were collected at temporary meteorological stations installed in agricultural fields in Pinal County, Arizona, to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of point data and to examine how station location affects ground-based meteorological data and the resulting values of evapotranspiration calculated using remotely sensed multispectral data from satellites. Time-specific data were collected to correspond with satellite overpasses from April to October 1989, and June 27-28, 1990. Meteorological data consisting of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and net radiation were collected at each station during all periods of the project. Supplementary measurements of soil temperature, soil heat flux density, and surface or canopy temperature were obtained at some locations during certain periods of the project. Additional data include information on data-collection periods, station positions, instrumentation, sensor heights, and field dimensions. Other data, which correspond to the extensive field measurements made in con- junction with satellite overpasses in 1989 and 1990, include crop type, canopy cover, canopy height, irrigation, cultivation, and orientation of rows. Field boundaries and crop types were mapped in a 2- to 3-square-kilometer area surrounding each meteorological station. Field data are presented in tabular and graphic form. Meteorological and supplementary data are available, upon request, in digital form.

  2. Airborne molds and mycotoxins associated with handling of corn silage and oilseed cakes in agricultural environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanier, Caroline; Richard, Estelle; Heutte, Natacha; Picquet, Rachel; Bouchart, Valérie; Garon, David

    2010-05-01

    In agricultural areas, the contamination of feedstuffs with molds and mycotoxins presents major environmental and health concerns. During cattle feeding, fungi and mycotoxins were monitored in corn silage, oilseed cakes and bioaerosols collected in Normandy. Most of the corn silages were found to be contaminated by deoxynivalenol (mean concentration: 1883 μg kg -1) while a few of oilseed cakes were contaminated by alternariol, fumonisin B 1 or gliotoxin. In ambient bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 4.3 × 10 2 to 6.2 × 10 5 cfu m -3. Seasonal variations were observed with some species like Aspergillus fumigatus which significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0186) while the Penicillium roqueforti group significantly increased during the second season ( P = 0.0156). In the personal bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 3.3 10 3 to 1.7 10 6 cfu m -3 and the number of A. fumigatus spores significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0488). Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in 3 personal filters at 3.73 μg m -3, 1.09 μg m -3 and 2.97 μg m -3.

  3. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  4. Is general practitioner decision making associated with patient socio-economic status?

    PubMed

    Scott, A; Shiell, A; King, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary exploration into the relationship between decisions made by general practitioners (GPs) and the socio-economic status (SES) of patients. There is a large literature on the association between SES, health state and the use of health services, but relatively little has been published on the association between SES and decisions by clinicians once a patient is in the health system. The associations between GP decision making and the patient's SES, health status, gender and insurance status are examined using logit analysis. Three sets of binary choices are analysed: the decision to follow up; to prescribe; and to perform or to order a diagnostic test. Secondary data on consultations for a check up/examination were used to explore these relationships. The results suggest that SES is associated independently with the decision to test and the decision to prescribe but not with the decision to follow up. Patients of high SES are, ceteris paribus, more likely to be tested and less likely to receive a prescription compared with patients of low SES. Women are more likely to be tested and to receive a prescription than men. These findings have implications for the pursuit of equity as a goal of health services policy. PMID:8745106

  5. Metals in agricultural produce associated with acid-mine drainage in Mount Morgan (Queensland, Australia).

    PubMed

    Vicente-Beckett, Victoria A; McCauley, Gaylene J Taylor; Duivenvoorden, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) into the Dee River from the historic gold and copper mine in Mount Morgan, Queensland (Australia) has been of concern to farmers in the area since 1925. This study sought to determine the levels of AMD-related metals and sulfur in agricultural produce grown near the mine-impacted Dee River, compare these with similar produce grown in reference fields (which had no known AMD influence), and assess any potential health risk using relevant Australian or US guidelines. Analyses of lucerne (Medicago sativa; also known as alfalfa) from five Dee fields showed the following average concentrations (mg/kg dry basis): Cd < 1, Cu 11, Fe 106, Mn 52, Pb < 5, Zn 25 and S 3934; similar levels were found in lucerne hay (used as cattle feed) from two Dee fields. All lucerne and lucerne hay data were generally comparable with levels found in the lucerne reference fields, suggesting no AMD influence; the levels were within the US National Research Council (US NRC) guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake. Pasture grass (also cattle feed) from two fields in the Dee River floodplains gave mean concentrations (mg/kg dry) of Cd 0.14, Cu 12, Fe 313, Mn 111, Pb 1.4, Zn 86 and S 2450. All metal levels from the Dee and from reference sites were below the US NRC guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake; however, the average Cd, Cu and Fe levels in Dee samples were significantly greater than the corresponding levels in the pasture grass reference sites, suggesting AMD influence in the Dee samples. The average levels in the edible portions of mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata) from Dee sites (mg/kg wet weight) were Cd 0.011, Cu 0.59, Fe 2.2, Mn 0.56, Pb 0.18, S 91 and Zn 0.96. Cd and Zn were less than or close to, average Fe and Mn levels were at most twice, Cd 1.8 or 6.5 times, and Pb 8.5 or 72 times the maximum levels in raw oranges reported in the US total diet study (TDS) or the Australian TDS, respectively. Average Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and

  6. Ecological risks associated with the application of sewage sludge to non-agricultural ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.; Sample, B.E.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Tharp, M.L.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Daniel, F.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Clean Water Act of 1977 directed EPA to establish standards for use and disposal of sewage sludge (biosolids). The application of biosolids to non-agricultural lands is becoming increasingly important as a method of waste disposal. Ecological endpoints at the population, community, and/or ecosystem level have not previously been emphasized in the development of regulatory standards for municipal sewage sludge. This risk assessment focuses on terrestrial endpoints in four ecosystem types to which substantial quantities of sludge have been applied or are expected to be applied in the future: northwest Douglas-fir forest, southeastern loblolly pine plantation, eastern deciduous forest, and semi-arid rangeland. Conceptual models suitable for all ecosystems were developed that depict the links among assessment endpoints. Estimates of risks to wildlife from contaminants and simulations of impacts of nitrogen in sewage sludge on the structure and function of forest communities are presented in detail elsewhere at this conference. This project overview integrates these two assessment components and adds contaminant risks to plants, soil invertebrates, and microbial processes and risk of leaching and erosion altered by biosolids application. Management practices and empirical measures of bioavailability are considered for each ecosystem. Concentrations of constitutents of sewage sludge used for the analyses have been obtained from the 1988 USEPA National Sewage Sludge Survey. Existing regulatory standards that are primarily human health-based are also evaluated for the adequacy of protection of ecological systems and populations. Predicted impacts of sewage sludge applications are presented, even if they may be regarded as benefits rather than risks.

  7. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect

    Govasmark, Espen; Staeb, Jessica; Holen, Borge; Hoornstra, Douwe; Nesbakk, Tommy; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-12-15

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  8. PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER UTILIZATION IN AGRICULTURE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prospective epidemiological morbidity and serology study was carried out in Israel in 1980/82 on the association between enteric disease incidence and wastewater utilization in 29 kibbutzim. Analysis of morbidity data indicate that no significant excess of enteric disease episo...

  9. Uncertainties in the current knowledge of some atmospheric trace gases associated with US agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 80 different crop species are grown in the US in widely differing geographic areas, climatic and edaphic conditions and management practices. Although the majority of cultivated acreage in the US is planted with only about ten primary crops, uncertainties associated with trace gas emi...

  10. AGRICULTURAL AMMONIA EMISSIONS AND AMMONIUM CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH AEROSOLS AND PRECIPITATION IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal and spatial variations in ammonia (NH3) emissions and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations associated with aerosols and volume-weighted NH4+ concentration in precipitation are investigated over the period 1990-1998 in the southeast United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Ken...

  11. Genetic diversity and distribution of rhizobia associated with the medicinal legumes Astragalus spp. and Hedysarum polybotrys in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Ji, Zhao Jun; Jiao, Yin Shan; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng; Guo, Bao Lin; Chen, Wen Xin

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing cultivation of medicinal legumes in agricultural fields, the rhizobia associated with these plants are facing new stresses, mainly from fertilization and irrigation. In this study, investigations on the nodulation of three cultivated medicinal legumes, Astragalus mongholicus, Astragalus membranaceus and Hedysarum polybotrys were performed. Bacterial isolates from root nodules of these legumes were subjected to genetic diversity and multilocus sequence analyses. In addition, the distribution of nodule bacteria related to soil factors and host plants was studied. A total 367 bacterial isolates were obtained and 13 genospecies were identified. The predominant microsymbionts were identified as Mesorhizobium septentrionale, Mesorhizobium temperatum, Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium ciceri and Mesorhizobium muleiense. M. septentrionale was found in most root nodules especially from legumes grown in the barren soils (with low available nitrogen and low organic carbon contents), while M. temperatum was predominant in nodules where the plants were grown in the nitrogen-rich fields. A. mongholicus tended to be associated with M. septentrionale, M. temperatum and M. ciceri in different soils, while A. membranaceus and H. polybotrys tended to be associated with M. tianshanense and M. septentrionale, respectively. This study showed that soil fertility may be the main determinant for the distribution of rhizobia associated with these cultured legume plants. PMID:26915496

  12. Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Association with Nonaccidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Paul J.; Burnett, Richard T.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Jones, Rena R.; DellaValle, Curt T.; Sandler, Dale P.; Ward, Mary H.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nonaccidental mortality in rural populations. Objective: We examined the relationship between PM2.5 and nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in the U.S. Agricultural Health Study cohort. Methods: The cohort (n = 83,378) included farmers, their spouses, and commercial pesticide applicators residing primarily in Iowa and North Carolina. Deaths occurring between enrollment (1993–1997) and 30 December 2009 were identified by record linkage. Six-year average (2001–2006) remote-sensing derived estimates of PM2.5 were assigned to participants’ residences at enrollment, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) in relation to a 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 adjusted for individual-level covariates. Results: In total, 5,931 nonaccidental and 1,967 cardiovascular deaths occurred over a median follow-up time of 13.9 years. PM2.5 was not associated with nonaccidental mortality in the cohort as a whole (HR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.20), but consistent inverse relationships were observed among women. Positive associations were observed between ambient PM2.5 and cardiovascular mortality among men, and these associations were strongest among men who did not move from their enrollment address (HR = 1.63; 95% 0.94, 2.84). In particular, cardiovascular mortality risk in men was significantly increased when analyses were limited to nonmoving participants with the most precise exposure geocoding (HR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.36). Conclusions: Rural PM2.5 may be associated with cardiovascular mortality in men; however, similar associations were not observed among women. Further evaluation is required to explore these sex differences. Citation: Weichenthal S, Villeneuve PJ, Burnett RT, van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Jones RR, DellaValle CT, Sandler DP, Ward MH, Hoppin JA. 2014. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter

  13. Modelling adaptation to climate change of Ecuadorian agriculture and associated water resources: uncertainties in coastal and highland cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Bastidas, Wellington; Cóndor, Amparo; Villacís, Marcos; Calderón, Marco; Herrera, Mario; Zambrano, José Luis; Lizaso, Jon; Hernández, Carlos; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Capa-Morocho, Mirian

    2016-04-01

    Climate change threatens sustainability of farms and associated water resources in Ecuador. Although the last IPCC report (AR5) provides a general framework for adaptation, , impact assessment and especially adaptation analysis should be site-specific, taking into account both biophysical and social aspects. The objective of this study is to analyse the climate change impacts and to sustainable adaptations to optimize the crop yield. Furthermore is also aimed to weave agronomical and hydrometeorological aspects, to improve the modelling of the coastal ("costa") and highland ("sierra") cropping systems in Ecuador, from the agricultural production and water resources points of view. The final aim is to support decision makers, at national and local institutions, for technological implementation of structural adaptation strategies, and to support farmers for their autonomous adaptation actions to cope with the climate change impacts and that allow equal access to resources and appropriate technologies. . A diagnosis of the current situation in terms of data availability and reliability was previously done, and the main sources of uncertainty for agricultural projections have been identified: weather data, especially precipitation projections, soil data below the upper 30 cm, and equivalent experimental protocol for ecophysiological crop field measurements. For reducing these uncertainties, several methodologies are being discussed. This study was funded by PROMETEO program from Ecuador through SENESCYT (M. Ruiz-Ramos contract), and by the project COOP-XV-25 funded by Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

  14. Testing the spatial distribution of economic activity in Jiangsu province by means of spatial association methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ying; Wang, Weina; Zhang, Shuhui; Yan, Weibiao

    2007-06-01

    The new economic geography theory suggests that regional development is strongly dependent on market access. Due to a snowball effect, spatial clusters of employment and firms might induce regional income increases. In order to identify explicit patterns of regional development, this study makes the empirical attempts by applying spatial association methods for estimating and distinguishing various spatial patterns of economic activities for three county-level factors, namely income, employment and firms of Jiangsu in 2004. The conclusions in this study reveal that on the whole, there is significant, positive correlation of income, employment and firms between regions over the whole space in that year. Moreover, regional income can be to a large extent explained by the market potentials of its neighbors. Apart from market access, regional incomes might be affected by other factors such as local amenities or technology spillover. Also, highly agglomerated clusters of employment and firms give rise to high regional incomes. Strong spatial heterogeneity of employment and firms indicates that firms locate first, anticipating the subsequent consumers' locations and demand functions. Thus, the mobility of firms and employment can induce the highly agglomeration of income.

  15. Associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in US black and white adults

    PubMed Central

    Kell, K. P.; Judd, S. E.; Pearson, K. E.; Shikany, J. M.; Fernández, J.R

    2015-01-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with measures of diet quality; however, such measures have not directly captured overall eating practices in individuals. Based on the factor analysis of fifty-six food groups from FFQ, associations between patterns of food consumption and SES were examined in a nationwide sample of 17 062 black (34·6 %) and white participants (age >45 years) from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, racial group and geographic region were used to examine adherence to five emergent dietary patterns (convenience, plant-based, sweets/fats, southern and alcohol/salads) according to four levels each of individual education, household income and community-level SES. Further models assessed adherence to these dietary patterns by racial group, and an overall model including both racial groups examined whether the relationships between SES and adherence to these dietary patterns differed among black and white participants. For all the three measures of SES, higher SES had been associated with greater adherence to plant-based and alcohol/salads patterns, but lower adherence to sweets/fats and southern patterns. Statistically significant differences between black and white participants were observed in the associations between household income and adherence to alcohol/salads, individual education and adherence to plant-based and sweets/fats, and community SES and adherence to convenience patterns. As adherence to dietary patterns has been shown to be associated with health outcomes in this population (e.g. stroke), the present study offers valuable insight into behavioural and environmental factors that may contribute to health disparities in the diverse US population. PMID:25869232

  16. Socio-economic factors associated with intestinal parasites among children living in Gombak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, B; Sinniah, B; Hussein, H

    1994-01-01

    Fecal specimens collected from 456 school children in Gombak, Malaysia, revealed an overall prevalence rate of 62.9%. The most common parasite found was Trichuris trichiura (47.1%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (14.7%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (9.9%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.9%). Infection rates were high among the Indonesian immigrant workers' children (90%) followed by the Orang Asli (79.5%), Malay (59.4%) and Indians (36.4%). Females (66.3%) had a higher prevalence rate than the males (58.5%). The prevalence of infection was found to be associated with the socio-economic status, water supply, sanitary disposal of feces and family size. Albendazole administered as a single dose (400 mg) was found to be effective against Ascaris (100%) and hookworm (92.3%) but was not effective against Trichuris (39.2%). PMID:8074940

  17. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. PMID:26494417

  18. The role of microalgae as biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting: Economics, agro-energy competitiveness, and potential impacts on regional agricultural feedstock production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boll, Matias G.

    The objective of this study is to obtain a realistic evaluation of the potential role of microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting. First, microalgae economics are estimated, including the detailed design of a 400 ha microalgae open pond production farm together with the microalgae biomass and crude oil production costs calculations. Sensitivity analysis and a stochastic evaluation of the microalgae venture chances for profit are also included. Next, microalgae potential for biodiesel production is compared to traditional oil crops such as soybeans and African palm. This comparison is performed using the Northeast Region (NER) of Brazil as background. Six potential biodiesel feedstock sources produced in the NER and microalgae are compared considering selected environmental, economic and social sustainability indicators. Finally, in the third chapter, the study proposes a cropland allocation model for the NER. The model aims to offer insights to the decision maker concerning biofuel development strategies and their impact on regional agricultural feedstock production. In the model, cropland allocation among three agriculture feedstock sectors, namely staple food, commodity export and biofuel is optimized through the use of the multiple objective technique referred to as compromise programming (CP). Our results indicate a projected microalgae total production cost of R 78,359 ha-1 (US43,533), which has a breakdown as follows: R 34,133 ha-1 (US18,963) for operating costs and R 44,226 ha-1 (US24,570) for overhead (ownership) costs. Our stochastic analysis indicates that microalgae production under the conditions assumed in the baseline scenario of this study has a 0% chance to present a positive NPV for a microalgae crude oil price of R 1.86. This price corresponds to an international oil price around US 77 bbl-1. To obtain a reasonable investment return (IRR = 12%) from the microalgae farm, an international oil price as high as US 461 bbl-1 is

  19. Associated effects of copy number variants on economically important traits in Spanish Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ben Sassi, Neila; González-Recio, Óscar; de Paz-Del Río, Raquel; Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia T; Fernández, Ana I

    2016-08-01

    Copy number variants (CNV) are structural variants consisting of duplications or deletions of genomic fragments longer than 1 kb that present variability in the population and are heritable. The objective of this study was to identify CNV regions (CNVR) associated with 7 economically important traits (production, functional, and type traits) in Holstein cattle: fat yield, protein yield, somatic cell count, days open, stature, foot angle, and udder depth. Copy number variants were detected by using deep-sequencing data from 10 sequenced bulls and the Bovine SNP chip array hybridization signals. To reduce the number of false-positive calls, only CNV identified by both sequencing and Bovine SNP chip assays were kept in the final data set. This resulted in 823 CNVR. After filtering by minor allele frequency >0.01, a total of 90 CNVR appeared segregating in the bulls that had phenotypic data. Linear and quadratic CNVR effects were estimated using Bayesian approaches. A total of 15 CNVR were associated with the traits included in the analysis. One CNVR was associated with fat and protein yield, another 1 with fat yield, 3 with stature, 1 with foot angle, 7 with udder depth, and only 1 with days open. Among the genes located within these regions, highlighted were the MTHFSD gene that belongs to the folate metabolism genes, which play critical roles in regulating milk protein synthesis; the SNRPE gene that is related to several morphological pathologies; and the NF1 gene, which is associated with potential effects on fertility traits. The results obtained in the current study revealed that these CNVR segregate in the Holstein population, and therefore some potential exists to increase the frequencies of the favorable alleles in the population after independent validation of results in this study. However, genetic variance explained by the variants reported in this study was small. PMID:27209136

  20. Association of N2-fixing cyanobacteria and plants: towards novel symbioses of agricultural importance

    SciTech Connect

    Elhai, Jeff

    2001-06-25

    Some nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are able to form symbioses with a wide variety of plants. Nostoc 2S9B is unusual in its ability to infect the roots of wheat, raising the prospect of a productive association with an important crop plant. The goal of the project was to lay the groundwork for the use of novel associations between Nostoc and crops of agronomic importance, thereby reducing our reliance on nitrogenous fertilizer. Nostoc 2S9B was found to enter roots through mechanical damage of roots and reside primarily in intercellular spaces. The strain could also be incorporated into wheat calli grown in tissue culture. In both cases, the rate of nitrogen fixation by the cyanobacterium was higher than that of the same strain grown with no plant present. Artificial nodules induced by the action of hormone 2,4D were readily infected by Nostoc 2S9B, and the cyanobacteria within such nodules fixed nitrogen under fully aerobic conditions. The nitrogen fixed was shown to be incorporated into the growing wheat seedlings. Nostoc thus differs from other bacteria in its ability to fix nitrogen in para-nodules without need for artificially microaerobic conditions. It would be useful to introduce foreign DNA into Nostoc 2S9B in order to make defined mutations to understand the genetic basis of its ability to infect wheat and to create strains that might facilitate the study of the infection process. Transfer of DNA into the cyanobacterium appears to be limited by the presence of four restriction enzymes, with recognition sequences the same as BamHI, BglI, BsaHI, and Tth111I. Genes encoding methyltransferases that protect DNA against these four enzymes have been cloned into helper plasmids to allow transfer of DNA from E. coli to Nostoc 2S9B.

  1. Occurrence of Genes Associated with Enterotoxigenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Agricultural Waste Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Chern, Eunice C.; Tsai, Yu-Li; Olson, Betty H.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence among all Escherichia coli bacteria of the LTIIa toxin gene and STII toxin gene, both associated with enterotoxigenic E. coli, and of three genes (stxI, stxII, and eaeA) associated with enterohemorrhagic E. coli was determined in farm waste disposal systems seasonally for 1 year. Single- and nested-PCR results for the number of E. coli isolates carrying each toxin gene trait were compared with a five-replicate most-probable-number (MPN) method. The STII and LTIIa toxin genes were present continuously at all farms and downstream waters that were tested. Nested-MPN-PCR manifested sensitivity increased over that of single-MPN-PCR by a factor of 32 for LTIIa, 10 for STII, and 2 for the stxI, stxII, and eaeA genes. The geometric mean prevalence of each toxin gene within the E. coli community in waste disposal site waters after nested MPN-PCR was 1:8.5 E. coli isolates (1:8.5 E. coli) for the LTIIa toxin gene and 1:4 E. coli for the STII toxin gene. The geometric mean prevalence for the simultaneous occurrence of toxin genes stxI, stxII, and eaeA, was 1:182 E. coli. These findings based on total population analysis suggest that prevalence rates for these genes are higher than previously reported in studies based on surveys of single isolates. With a population-based approach, the frequency of each toxin gene at the corresponding disposal sites and the endemic nature of diseases on farms can be easily assessed, allowing farmers and public health officials to evaluate the risk of infection to animals or humans. PMID:14711663

  2. Carbon pool and biomass dynamics associated with deforestation, land use, and agricultural abandonment in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, J Boone; Hughes, R Flint; Heider, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Current rates of deforestation and the resulting C emissions in the tropics exceed those of secondary forest regrowth and C sequestration. Changing land-use strategies that would maintain standing forests may be among the least expensive of climate change mitigation options. Further, secondary tropical forests have been suggested to have great value for their potential to sequester atmospheric C. These options require an understanding of and capability to quantify C dynamics at landscape scales. Because of the diversity of physical and biotic features of tropical forests as well as approaches and intensities of land uses within the neotropics, there are tremendous differences in the capacity of different landscapes to store and sequester C. Major gaps in our current knowledge include quantification of C pools, rates and patterns of biomass loss following land-cover change, and quantification of the C storage potential of secondary forests following abandonment. In this paper we present a synthesis and further analyses from recent studies that describe C pools, patterns of C decline associated with land use, and rates of C accumulation following secondary-forest establishment--all information necessary for climate-change mitigation options. Ecosystem C pools of Neotropical primary forests minimally range from approximately 141 to 571 Mg/ha, demonstrating tremendous differences in the capacity of different forests to store C. Most of the losses in C and nutrient pools associated with conversion occur when fires are set to remove the slashed forest to prepare sites for crop or pasture establishment. Fires burning slashed primary forests have been found to result in C losses of 62-80% of prefire aboveground pools in dry (deciduous) forest landscapes and 29-57% in wet (evergreen) forest landscapes. Carbon emissions equivalent to the aboveground primary-forest pool arise from repeated fires occurring in the first 4 to 10 years following conversion. Feedbacks of climate

  3. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) than the European (20–30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10–20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity–SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

  4. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2012-06-01

    Abstract This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30-40%) than the European (20-30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10-20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity-SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

  5. Economic burden associated with extrapyramidal symptoms in a medicaid population with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Abouzaid, Safiya; Tian, Haijun; Zhou, Huanxue; Kahler, Kristijan H; Harris, Michelle; Kim, Edward

    2014-01-01

    No studies have assessed the economic impact of extrapyramidal symptoms due to atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia. To assess healthcare resource use and medical costs associated with extrapyramidal symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A retrospective analysis of Marketscan(®) Medicaid Multi-State Database (2004-2009) was conducted. Patients with schizophrenia and newly initiated on an AAP were included. Patients with and without extrapyramidal symptoms were matched using propensity-score matching. Healthcare utilization and costs were assessed in the 12-month follow-up period using logistic and two-part (gamma) regression models. Of 4,621 patients, 583 (12.6 %) had extrapyramidal symptoms. Patients with extrapyramidal symptoms had significantly more schizophrenia-related and all-cause hospitalizations and schizophrenia-related emergency room visits, as well as significantly higher schizophrenia-specific and all-cause total healthcare, inpatient, and prescription drug costs compared to patients without extrapyramidal symptoms. Extrapyramidal symptoms in patients with schizophrenia is associated with increased healthcare resource utilization and higher medical costs. PMID:23229052

  6. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  7. The economic value of remote sensing information: a case study of agricultural production and groundwater vulnerability using applied environmental science and hydrogeospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, wforney@usgs.gov, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities

  8. Association of in Utero Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Fetal Growth and Length of Gestation in an Agricultural Population

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Harley, Kim; Bradman, Asa; Weltzien, Erin; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Barr, Dana B.; Furlong, Clement E.; Holland, Nina T.

    2004-01-01

    Although pesticide use is widespread, little is known about potential adverse health effects of in utero exposure. We investigated the effects of organophosphate pesticide exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth and gestational duration in a cohort of low-income, Latina women living in an agricultural community in the Salinas Valley, California. We measured nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates) and metabolites specific to malathion (malathion dicarboxylic acid), chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphoro-thioate], and parathion (4-nitrophenol) in maternal urine collected twice during pregnancy. We also measured levels of cholinesterase in whole blood and butyryl cholinesterase in plasma in maternal and umbilical cord blood. We failed to demonstrate an adverse relationship between fetal growth and any measure of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure. In fact, we found increases in body length and head circumference associated with some exposure measures. However, we did find decreases in gestational duration associated with two measures of in utero pesticide exposure: urinary dimethyl phosphate metabolites [βadjusted = −0.41 weeks per log10 unit increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), −0.75–−0.02; p = 0.02], which reflect exposure to dimethyl organophosphate compounds such as malathion, and umbilical cord cholinesterase (βadjusted = 0.34 weeks per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.13–0.55; p = 0.001). Shortened gestational duration was most clearly related to increasing exposure levels in the latter part of pregnancy. These associations with gestational age may be biologically plausible given that organophosphate pesticides depress cholinesterase and acetylcholine stimulates contraction of the uterus. However, despite these observed associations, the rate of preterm delivery in this population (6.4%) was lower than in a U.S. reference population. PMID:15238287

  9. A Longitudinal Assessment of Associations between Adolescent Environment, Adversity Perception, and Economic Status on Fertility and Age of Menarche

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Dorsa; Jordan, Matthew R.; Bribiescas, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Perceptions of environmental adversity and access to economic resources in adolescence can theoretically affect the timing of life history transitions and investment in reproductive effort. Here we present evidence of correlations between variables associated with subjective extrinsic mortality, economic status, and reproductive effort in a nationally representative American population of young adults. Methods We used a longitudinal database that sampled American participants (N ≥ 1,579) at four points during early adolescence and early adulthood to test whether perceptions of environmental adversity and early economic status were associated with reproductive effort. Results We found that subjectively high ratings of environmental danger and low access to economic resources in adolescence were significantly associated with an earlier age of menarche in girls and earlier, more robust fertility in young adulthood. Conclusion While energetics and somatic condition remain as possible sources of variation, the results of this study support the hypothesis that perceptions of adversity early in life and limited access to economic resources are associated with differences in reproductive effort and scheduling. How these factors may covary with energetics and somatic condition merits further investigation. PMID:27249338

  10. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  11. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies support the long articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields greatly exceed rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. Whereas data compiled from around the world show that soil erosion under conventional agriculture exceeds both rates of soil production and geological erosion rates by up to several orders of magnitude, similar global distributions of soil production and geological erosion rates suggest an approximate balance. Net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields on the order of 1 mm/yr can erode typical hillslope soil profiles over centuries to millennia, time-scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations. Well-documented episodes of soil loss associated with agricultural activities date back to the introduction of erosive agricultural methods in regions around the world, and stratigraphic records of accelerated anthropogenic soil erosion have been recovered from lake, fluvial, and colluvial stratigraphy, as well as truncation of soil stratigraphy (such as truncated A horizons). A broad convergence in the results from studies based on various approaches employed to study ancient soil loss and rates of downstream sedimentation implies that widespread soil loss has accompanied human agricultural intensification in examples drawn from around the world. While a broad range of factors, including climate variability and society-specific social and economic contexts — such as wars or colonial relationships — all naturally influence the longevity of human societies, the ongoing loss of topsoil inferred from studies of soil erosion rates in conventional agricultural systems has obvious long-term implications for agricultural sustainability. Consequently, modern agriculture — and therefore global society — faces a fundamental question over the upcoming centuries. Can an agricultural system

  12. Effects of Land Use, Topography and Socio-Economic Factors on River Water Quality in a Mountainous Watershed with Intensive Agricultural Production in East China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

  13. Association between polymorphisms of the CRH and POMC genes with economic traits in Korean cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Seong, J; Kong, H S

    2015-01-01

    The corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and proo-piomelanocortin (POMC) genes are considered to play an important role in the growth and development of mammals. In this study, the bovine CRH and POMC genes were characterized to detect genetic variation at these loci in relation to economic traits in Korean cattle (Hanwoo). Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; C148T, A186G, A234C, G269A, G1030A, G1084A, A1136C, G1179C, and A1439G) were detected in the CRH gene, and six SNPs (C7017T, A7027T, C7050T, G7063T, C7160T, and C7221T) were detected in the POMC gene. Three SNPs in the CRH gene (G1030A, G1084A, and G1179C) were missense mutations, and three SNPs in the POMC gene (C7017T, A7027T, and C7160T) were missense mutations. Statistical analysis indicated that one CRH polymorphism (G1084A) was signifi-cantly (P = 0.05) associated with the longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA), and a POMC polymorphism (C7221T) significantly influenced LMA and marbling scores. A significant interaction was detected be-tween CRH and POMC in relation to carcass weight and LMA. These results indicate that CRH and POMC may be candidate genes for car-cass traits, and suggest that the interaction between CRH and POMC strongly affects carcass traits in cattle. PMID:26400272

  14. Economic Analysis of a Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention Initiative in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Edward I.; López, Sergio R.; Aguilar, María Nela; Somarriba, María Mercedes; Pérez, Magaly; Sánchez, Nieves

    2012-01-01

    We performed an economic analysis of an intervention to decrease ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) prevalence in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) at two Nicaraguan hospitals to determine the cost of the intervention and how effective it needs to be in order to be cost-neutral. A matched cohort study determined differences in costs and outcomes among ventilated patients. VAP cases were matched by sex and age for children older than 28 days and by weight for infants under 28 days old to controls without VAP. Intervention costs were determined from accounting and PICU staff records. The intervention cost was approximately $7,000 for one year. If VAP prevalence decreased by 0.5%, hospitals would save $7,000 and the strategy would be cost-neutral. The finding that the intervention required only modest effectiveness to be cost-neutral and has potential to generate substantial cost savings argues for implementation of VAP prevention strategies in low-income countries like Nicaragua on a broader scale. PMID:22518174

  15. Economic burden of physical inactivity: healthcare costs associated with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Oldridge, Neil B

    2008-04-01

    Increasingly important objectives for developed and especially for developing countries include increasing the numbers of individuals who do not smoke, who eat healthy diets and who are physically active at levels that are health enhancing. In developing countries, deaths from chronic disease are projected to increase from 56% of all deaths in 2005 to 65% by 2030 (driven largely driven by deaths due to cardiovascular and coronary heart disease); in developed countries, however, the increase is only from 87.5 to 88.5%. The data on physical inactivity presented in this review were derived primarily from World Health Organization (WHO) publications and data warehouses. The prevalence of physical inactivity at less than the levels recommended for enhancing health is high; from 17 to 91% in developing countries and from 4 to 84% in developed countries. In developed countries, physical inactivity is associated with considerable economic burden, with 1.5-3.0% of total direct healthcare costs being accounted for by physical inactivity. Other than on some exciting work in Brazil, there is little information on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical activity-enhancement strategies in developing countries. The WHO has signaled a shift from the treatment of illness to promotion of health, with an emphasis on changing modifiable health-risk factors, including smoking, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity: the real question, especially for developing countries, is 'what is the future healthcare cost of not encouraging healthier lifestyles today?' PMID:18391637

  16. Data and the associated R code used to estimate health and economic burden of neurocysticercosis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, B.B.; Khatkar, M.S.; Gill, J.P.S.; Dhand, N.K.

    2016-01-01

    This article contains epidemiological, demographic and other data used for estimating health and economic burden of neurocysticercosis (NCC)-associated active epilepsy in India [1]. Most of the data are embedded in the R-code used for analyses so that the reader is able to replicate the results or adapt the code to their own data. However, data used to conduct sensitivity analyses to evaluate the effect of changing important input values such as prevalence and per capita income on health and economic impact of NCC in India are included in tables. Results from sensitivity analyses are also presented in tables and figures. The paper also includes three scenarios with different age weighting (k) and time discounting (r) values used to estimate health and economic burden of NCC in India. The data for the scenario without any age weighting and time discounting are presented in “Estimation of the health and economic burden of neurocysticercosis in India” [1]. PMID:27054160

  17. Data and the associated R code used to estimate health and economic burden of neurocysticercosis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Khatkar, M S; Gill, J P S; Dhand, N K

    2016-06-01

    This article contains epidemiological, demographic and other data used for estimating health and economic burden of neurocysticercosis (NCC)-associated active epilepsy in India [1]. Most of the data are embedded in the R-code used for analyses so that the reader is able to replicate the results or adapt the code to their own data. However, data used to conduct sensitivity analyses to evaluate the effect of changing important input values such as prevalence and per capita income on health and economic impact of NCC in India are included in tables. Results from sensitivity analyses are also presented in tables and figures. The paper also includes three scenarios with different age weighting (k) and time discounting (r) values used to estimate health and economic burden of NCC in India. The data for the scenario without any age weighting and time discounting are presented in "Estimation of the health and economic burden of neurocysticercosis in India" [1]. PMID:27054160

  18. [Health risks and economic costs associated with obesity requiring a comprehensive weight reduction program].

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stunkard, A

    1997-06-12

    An increasing prevalence of obesity all over the world reflects a lack of effective measures in both prevention and treatment of obesity. Obesity as a disease has been underestimated by the lay-public as well as health care providers. However, obesity represents a substantial health problem associated with a decreased quality of life. Obesity is linked to numerous chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gout, osteoarthritis, gall-stones, and bowel, breast and genitourinary cancers) that lead to premature disability and mortality. Health risks increase with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 in individuals 19-35 years of age and with a BMI over 27 in those 35 years of age and older. Health risks also increase with an excess accumulation of visceral fat manifested as an increase in waist circumference (> 100 cm) or in waist to hip ratio (> 0.85 for females and > 1.00 for males). According to studies carried out in different countries current economic costs of obesity represent 5-8% of all direct health costs. In contrast, effective treatment of obesity results in a substantial decrease in expenditures associated with pharmacotherapy of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and osteoarthritis. Both scientists and clinicians involved in obesity research and treatment recommend to introduce the long-term weight management programs focussing more on the overall health of the participants than the weight loss per se. Therefore, it will be necessary to establish new realistic goals in the obesity management that reflect reasonable weights and recently experienced beneficial health effects of modest (5-10%) weight loss. Comprehensive obesity treatment consisting of low fat diet, exercise, behavioral modification, drug therapy and surgical procedures requires differentiated weight management programs modified according to the degree and type of obesity as well as to current health complications present. The Czech Society for the Study of Obesity

  19. Aplastic anemia in rural Thailand: its association with grain farming and agricultural pesticide exposure. Aplastic Anemia Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Issaragrisil, S; Chansung, K; Kaufman, D W; Sirijirachai, J; Thamprasit, T; Young, N S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A population-based case-control study was conducted to elucidate the incidence and etiology of aplastic anemia in Thailand. METHODS: Case patients and hospital control patients were enrolled in three regions from 1989 to 1994; data were collected by interview. RESULTS: Forty-six percent of 81 case patients and 19% of 295 control patients from Khonkaen were grain farmers (estimated relative risk [RR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 5.2). Sixteen percent of case patients and 6% of control patients used agricultural pesticides (estimated RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1, 6.6). The association with grain farming remained among those not exposed to pesticides. In Songkla, 16% of 43 case patients and 2% of 181 control patients were grain farmers (crude RR estimate = 11, 95% CI = 3.4, 35). CONCLUSIONS: The relation of aplastic anemia to grain farming may partly explain the high incidence of aplastic anemia in Thailand. PMID:9314815

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A STOCHASTIC SIMULATION MODEL TO ASSESS THE POTENTIAL ECONOMIC BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH INVESTMENTS IN PRECISION DAIRY FARMING TECHNOLOGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a modern dairy enterprise was developed to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with investments in Precision Dairy Farming (PDF) technologies. The model was designed to represent the biological and economic complexities of a dairy system ...

  1. A Study Investigating How Concepts Associated with Eating Disorders Are Addressed in a Preventative Context in the Home Economics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karen H.; Nagel, K. L.

    A study was designed to determine the following: (1) if concepts associated with eating disorders are being addressed in home economics courses; (2) through what context the concepts are presented; and (3) if the following variables affect whether, with which emphasis, and in what context the teacher presents concepts--having previous personal…

  2. [The demographic situation in the Russian Federation during the structural transition associated with perestroika and the subsequent economic stabilization].

    PubMed

    Antonova, O; Brui, B; Gorbunova, T; Nikitina, S

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the demographic situation in the Russian Federation in the period of perestroika and in the subsequent period of economic and social turmoil associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Topics covered include changes in population growth and decline, life expectancy, morbidity, health status, the health system, and age distribution. PMID:12348413

  3. Does Socio-Economic Status Moderate the Associations between Psychosocial Predictors and Fruit Intake in Schoolchildren? The Pro Children Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandvik, C.; Gjestad, R.; Samdal, O.; Brug, J.; Klepp, K. -I.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether socio-economic status (SES) moderated the association between the psychosocial constructs included in the attitude-social influence-self-efficacy (ASE) model and fruit intake in Norwegian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 962 Norwegian sixth graders, mean age 11.3 years. They were split into three SES groups, and…

  4. A Project to Develop an Associate of Science Degree Curriculum in Renewable Energy Resources and Applications in Agriculture. Final Report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keith; Fielding, Marvin R.

    A project was conducted at State Fair Community College (SFCC) in Sedalia, Missouri, to develop an associate of science degree curriculum in renewable energy resources and their application in agriculture. A pilot study, designed to verify and rate the importance of 138 competencies in fuel alcohol production and to ascertain employment…

  5. ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT - SUPPLEMENT 2: PROCEDURES USED IN SETTING UP THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The procedures used in setting up the agricultural production model used in a study of alternatives for reducing insecticides on cotton and corn are described. The major analytical tool used is a spatial equilibrium model of U.S. agriculture. This is a linear programming model th...

  6. 7 CFR 2.68 - Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.68 Administrator, National Agricultural..., Education, and Economics to the Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service: (1) Prepare crop... Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics; (iv) Stationing representatives at such institutions...

  7. 7 CFR 2.68 - Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.68 Administrator, National Agricultural..., Education, and Economics to the Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service: (1) Prepare crop... Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics; (iv) Stationing representatives at such institutions...

  8. Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan: Disease Emergence, Clinical Signs, Complications and Preliminary-associated Economic Losses.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Ababneh, M M; Al Zoubi, I G; Al Sheyab, O M; Al Zoubi, M G; Alekish, M O; Al Gharabat, R J

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to report the emergence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Jordan and associated clinical signs, complications and preliminary economic losses. In mid-April, 2013, two adult dairy cattle developed clinical signs suggestive of LSD and were confirmed as positive by PCR. The two cases were in Bani Kenanah district, Irbid governorate, on the Jordanian border of Israel and Syria. The disease spread rapidly to all the districts of Irbid governorate. During the month following the emergence of the disease, data were collected related to the epidemiology of the disease and the numbers of affected cattle on the premises. Forty-one dairy cattle holdings were surveyed. The morbidity rate ranged from 3% to 100%, (Mean = 35.1%, SD ±28.5%). The mortality rate ranged from 0% to 20%, (Mean = 1.3%, SD ±4.4%). The case fatality rate ranged from 0% to 100%, (Mean = 6.2%, SD ±22%). The overall morbidity rate was 26%, mortality rate 1.9% and case fatality rate 7.5%. Skin nodules, anorexia, decreased milk production and decreased body weight were common clinical signs, while mastitis and myiasis were seen as complications in a few affected animals. Decreased body weight ranged from 0% to 80%, (Mean = 23.1%, SD ±15.7%). Decreased milk production ranged from 0% to 100%, (Mean = 51.5%, SD ±22.2%). Affected cattle were treated mainly with broad-spectrum antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. The cost of treatment ranged from 0 to 84.3 British Pound/animal, (Mean = 27.9 GBP, SD ±22.5 GBP). LSD continues to spread through the Middle East region and poses a serious threat to the rest of Asia and Europe. International collaboration and communication is warranted to prevent the further spread of the disease to the rest of Asia and Europe. PMID:24148185

  9. Can foraging behavior of Criollo cattle help increase agricultural production and reduce environmental impacts in the arid Southwest?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Longterm Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR) was formed to help the nation’s agricultural systems simultaneously increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Eighteen networked sites are conducting a Common Experiment to understand the environmental and economic problems associated wi...

  10. Perceived economic situation, but not education level, is associated with disability prevalence in the Spanish elderly: observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to ascertain if the subjective perception of the economic situation of a household is associated with the prevalence of disability in old age, net of education level. Subjective economic perception is less non-response biased. Knowing if the self-perceived economic situation is related to disability over and above education level has important implications both for understanding the mechanisms that lead to disability and for selecting policies to reduce it. Methods This is a transversal study based on the pilot of the ELES survey, which is a representative survey of non-institutionalised Spaniards aged 50 and over. Only individuals whose job income levels were fixed before becoming disabled were selected to avoid the main source of reverse causality. Disability was defined as having difficulty in carrying out any of 12 activities of daily living. Education level, difficulty in making ends meet, self-perceived relative economic position of the household, age, gender, psychological disposition, and alcohol and tobacco consumption were introduced as independent variables in binary logistic models. Results The working sample is made up of 704 individuals of aged 60 and over. The subjective household economic situation, measured in two different ways, is strongly and consistently related with the prevalence of disability net of age, gender, education level and psychological disposition. After adjusting for age and gender, education level is no longer associated with disability. However, having economic difficulties has the same effect on disability prevalence as being 10 years older, or being a woman instead of a man. Conclusions As the economic situation of the elderly is much easier to improve than their formal education, our findings support feasible interventions which could lead to a reduction in the prevalence of disability. PMID:24886113

  11. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  12. Agricultural links to nonagricultural growth: urbanization, employment, poverty.

    PubMed

    Mellor, J W

    1991-01-01

    Economic development in Pakistan has occurred due to a successful agricultural sector. It stimulated the nonagricultural sector, especially the small and medium scale nonagricultural sectors. In fact, its multiplier effects on other sectors are slight if agricultural incomes tend to amass in large scale farms. It is indeed the expenditure patterns of small-medium farmers that stimulate local, labor intensive goods and services. Further agricultural development has resulted in a dispersion of urbanization and growth in employment. The successes in Pakistan should soon reduce the incidence of rural poverty as happened in Brazil, Thailand, Indonesia, and India. Considerable declines in poverty due to agricultural growth in these countries occurred because employment in nonagricultural activities was associated with the pace of agricultural growth. Further the poverty level was linked with per capita changes in agricultural production. This optimal development strategy for low income countries with a large agricultural sector is heavily based on factor productivity which increases technological change which then fuels income and economic growth. Another component is the expenditure of income which spurs growth in the high income elastic components of agriculture (e.g., livestock). The last component is that feedback to agriculture from efforts stimulated by agricultural growth increases the demand the thus maintains prices of those agricultural goods undergoing quick technological change. This phenomenon of growth in the agricultural sector stimulating growth in the nonagricultural sector has not occurred in Africa, however, because economic growth since the early 1970s has been due to urban oriented foreign aid. At early stages of development, the public sector must support activities, but eventually the private sector handles them. Planning for this strategy requires a broad statement and sectoral strategies developed by highly trained sectoral economists for the

  13. The Historiography of American Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, R. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Provides secondary school U.S. history teachers with a beginning bibliography for incorporating agricultural history into their classes. Annotates books covering the social, economic, and political aspects of agricultural history. Identifies works dealing with topical matters such as land settlement, slavery, agricultural policy, and the Dust…

  14. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  15. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  16. Dicer-like 3 produces transposable element-associated 24-nt siRNAs that control agricultural traits in rice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liya; Gu, Lianfeng; Song, Xianwei; Cui, Xiekui; Lu, Zhike; Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lulu; Hu, Fengyi; Zhai, Jixian; Meyers, Blake C; Cao, Xiaofeng

    2014-03-11

    Transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive sequences make up over 35% of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. The host regulates the activity of different TEs by different epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone H3K9 methylation, and histone H3K4 demethylation. TEs can also affect the expression of host genes. For example, miniature inverted repeat TEs (MITEs), dispersed high copy-number DNA TEs, can influence the expression of nearby genes. In plants, 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are mainly derived from repeats and TEs. However, the extent to which TEs, particularly MITEs associated with 24-nt siRNAs, affect gene expression remains elusive. Here, we show that the rice Dicer-like 3 homolog OsDCL3a is primarily responsible for 24-nt siRNA processing. Impairing OsDCL3a expression by RNA interference caused phenotypes affecting important agricultural traits; these phenotypes include dwarfism, larger flag leaf angle, and fewer secondary branches. We used small RNA deep sequencing to identify 535,054 24-nt siRNA clusters. Of these clusters, ∼82% were OsDCL3a-dependent and showed significant enrichment of MITEs. Reduction of OsDCL3a function reduced the 24-nt siRNAs predominantly from MITEs and elevated expression of nearby genes. OsDCL3a directly targets genes involved in gibberellin and brassinosteroid homeostasis; OsDCL3a deficiency may affect these genes, thus causing the phenotypes of dwarfism and enlarged flag leaf angle. Our work identifies OsDCL3a-dependent 24-nt siRNAs derived from MITEs as broadly functioning regulators for fine-tuning gene expression, which may reflect a conserved epigenetic mechanism in higher plants with genomes rich in dispersed repeats or TEs. PMID:24554078

  17. Evaluation of potential human health effects associated with the agricultural uses of 1,3-D: Spatial and temporal stochastic risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Driver, Jeffrey H; Price, Paul S; Van Wesenbeeck, Ian; Ross, John H; Gehen, Sean; Holden, Larry R; Landenberger, Bryce; Hastings, Kerry; Yan, Zhongyu June; Rasoulpour, Reza

    2016-11-15

    Dow AgroSciences (DAS) markets and sells 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D), the active ingredient in Telone®, which is used as a pre-plant soil fumigant nematicide in economically important crops in California. 1,3-D has been regulated as a "probable human carcinogen" and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation limits use of 1,3-D based on human health risk assessments for bystanders. This paper presents a risk characterization for bystanders based on advances in the assessment of both exposure and hazard. The revised bystander risk assessment incorporates significant advances: 1) new data on residency duration and mobility in communities where 1,3-D is in high demand; 2) new information on spatial and temporal concentrations of 1,3-D in air based on multi-year modeling using a validated model; and 3) a new stochastic spatial and temporal model of long-term exposures. Predicted distributions of long-term, chronic exposures indicate that current, and anticipated uses of 1,3-D would result in lifetime average daily doses lower than 0.002mg/kg/d, a dose associated with theoretical lifetime excess cancer risk of <10(-5) to >95% of the local population based on a non-threshold risk assessment approach. Additionally, examination of 1,3-D toxicity studies including new chronic toxicity data and mechanism of action supports the use of a non-linear, threshold based risk assessment approach. The estimated maximum annual average daily dose of <0.0016mg/kg/d derived from the updated exposure assessment was then compared with a threshold point of departure. The calculated margin of exposure is >1000-fold, a clear indication of acceptable risk for human health. In summary, the best available science supports 1,3-D's threshold nature of hazard and the revised exposure assessment supports that current agricultural uses of 1,3-D are associated with reasonable certainty of no harm, i.e., estimated long-term exposures pose insignificant health risks to bystanders even when the

  18. Problems of Manpower in Agriculture. OECD Documentation in Food and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Problems related to rapid reduction of the agricultural labor force were examined in the 21 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The size and changes of the agricultural labor force, economic forces tending towards change, technical requirements for labor in agriculture, and obstacles hindering economic adjustment of…

  19. Socio-economic status and lifestyle factors are associated with achalasia risk: A population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Helen G; Gray, Ronan T; Lau, Kar W; McCaughey, Conall; Coyle, Peter V; Murray, Liam J; Johnston, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between various lifestyle factors and achalasia risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Northern Ireland, including n = 151 achalasia cases and n = 117 age- and sex-matched controls. Lifestyle factors were assessed via a face-to-face structured interview. The association between achalasia and lifestyle factors was assessed by unconditional logistic regression, to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Individuals who had low-class occupations were at the highest risk of achalasia (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.02-3.45), inferring that high-class occupation holders have a reduced risk of achalasia. A history of foreign travel, a lifestyle factor linked to upper socio-economic class, was also associated with a reduced risk of achalasia (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.35-0.99). Smoking and alcohol consumption carried significantly reduced risks of achalasia, even after adjustment for socio-economic status. The presence of pets in the house was associated with a two-fold increased risk of achalasia (OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.17-3.42). No childhood household factors were associated with achalasia risk. CONCLUSION: Achalasia is a disease of inequality, and individuals from low socio-economic backgrounds are at highest risk. This does not appear to be due to corresponding alcohol and smoking behaviours. An observed positive association between pet ownership and achalasia risk suggests an interaction between endotoxin and viral infection exposure in achalasia aetiology. PMID:27099443

  20. Phenomenological Characteristics, Social Problems, and the Economic Impact Associated with Chronic Skin Picking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors collected data on the demographic characteristics, phenomenology, and social and economic impact of skin picking. A total of 92 participants completed an anonymous, Internet-based survey through a link to the Trichotillomania Learning Center's home page. Results indicated that skin pickers experienced social,…

  1. Social, economic and political factors associated with earth resources observation and information analyses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of some of the interest conflicts between ecology and economics that arise, particularly in riparian environments, when a population-increase entailed growth in public service requirements is met by indiscriminate technology applications. Reviewed instances of such conflicts include the aborted cross-Florida barge canal project and the Florida Power and Light Company facility at Turkey point.

  2. Contamination in Ontario farmstead domestic wells and its association with agriculture:. 2. Results from multilevel monitoring well installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, D. L.; Barry, D. A. J.; Goss, M. J.

    1998-08-01

    Multilevel monitoring wells (MLWs) were installed at 144 farms which were part of a province-wide survey of farm drinking water wells conducted in 1991-1992 in Ontario, Canada. The multilevel sites were selected in areas characterized by coarse-textured soils, on farms typifying local agricultural enterprises. The MLWs were installed in cultivated fields adjacent to the location of the drinking water wells on each farm (within 200 m). On 16 of these farms, MLWs were also installed in a woodlot adjacent to the field site. Water samples were collected on two occasions (winter and summer) and analyses were conducted for nitrate (NO 3-), typical bacteria and a selected suite of common pesticides. At 23% of the sites, concentrations in 50% or more of the monitored intervals exceeded the provincial drinking water standard (MAC) for NO 3--N during both sampling periods. Significantly higher frequencies of total coliform contamination were encountered in the winter (66%) than in the summer (36%). Very few pesticide detections were recorded. The average concentration of NO 3- with depth in multilevel wells decreased from approximately 10 mg N l -1 near the water table to 3 mg N l -1 at a depth of about 6.5 m. Bacteria concentrations remained more uniform with depth but decreased significantly in the summer. For most analytes, contaminant frequency was similar for both the drinking water wells and multilevel wells. The occurrence of elevated levels of contamination in the water wells appeared to be associated more with activities on the cultivated fields than with on-farm point sources of contamination. Groundwater quality determined using drinking water wells was consistent with conclusions drawn from multilevel monitoring wells, indicating the utility of water well survey data for assessing groundwater quality within the rural environment. No correlations were observed between the type of cropping practice and the frequency of groundwater contamination. Farms where manure

  3. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  4. Competition among agricultural pest insects and its role in pest outbreaks associated with trasgenic Bt-cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Empirical studies on the ecological causes of agricultural pest outbreaks have focused primarily on two biotic factors—release from natural enemies and changes in host plant quality. Release from competition, on the other hand, has been theorized as a potential cause but never tested. With the exp...

  5. The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and the associated potential ecological risks in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiansheng; Song, Jing; Li, Weifeng; Zheng, Maokun

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and their ecological risks are key issues in soil security studies. This study investigated the concentrations of six heavy metals--copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) in Shenzhen's agricultural lands and examined the potential hazards and possible sources of these metals. Eighty-two samples from agricultural topsoil were collected. Potential ecological risk index was used to calculate the potential risk of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore pollution sources of the metals. Finally, Kriging was used to predict the spatial distribution of the metals' potential ecological risks. The concentrations of the heavy metals were higher than their background values. Most of them presented little potential ecological risk, except for the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Four districts (Longgang, Longhua, Pingshan, and Dapeng) exhibited some degree of potential risk, which tended to have more industries and road networks. Three major sources of heavy metals included geochemical processes, industrial pollutants, and traffic pollution. The heavy metal Cd was the main contributor to the pollution in agricultural land during the study period. It also poses the potential hazard for the future. High potential risk is closely related to industrial pollution and transportation. Since the 1980s, the sources of heavy metals have evolved from parent rock weathering, erosion, degradation of organics, and mineralization to human disturbances resulting in chemical changes in the soil. PMID:26370814

  6. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Association Meeting (11th, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 30, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Arlington, VA. Agricultural Education Div.

    This document contains the texts of 27 presentations given at the National Agricultural Education Research Meeting. The papers in the proceedings are grouped under 10 themes with a critique for each group. The themes (with speakers' names in parentheses) are as follows: supervised occupational experiences (Gregory W. Fletcher, David L. Williams,…

  7. 78 FR 14071 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION... to fill 10 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics... October 1, 2012. ADDRESSES: National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

  8. 78 FR 25691 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION... the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: All... Agriculture, National Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, 1400...

  9. The Aftermath of the Bracero: A Study of the Economic Impact on the Agricultural Hired Labor Market of Michigan from the Termination of Public Law 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John Dancer

    To test the "stoop labor" hypotheses that the supply response of domestic migrants to increased wages would be inelastic, this study examined wage adjustment in Michigan agriculture after 1964, supply response to wage changes in the pickle industry, and acreage decline and capital substitution following the termination of the bracero program.…

  10. A Descriptive and Economic Analysis of Agricultural Teacher Education Programs in Land-Grant Universities of the North-Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Larry D.; Crawford, Harold R.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a study which assessed the inputs and outputs of the agricultural programs of land-grant universities in the North-Central region. It was found that programs in this region are fairly homogeneous, particularly at the undergraduate level. (CT)

  11. The effects of control measures on the economic burden associated with epidemics of avian influenza in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sartore, S; Bonfanti, L; Lorenzetto, M; Cecchinato, M; Marangon, S

    2010-06-01

    In 1999, Italy experienced a devastating epidemic of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) caused by an H7N1 virus subtype. After this epidemic, a ministerial decree was passed to implement control measures for low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) due to H5 and H7 subtypes. We investigated whether these control measures have decreased the public expenditure associated with epidemics of LPAI and HPAI by comparing the direct and consequential losses of the 1999 epidemic to the losses associated with successive epidemics. The estimated total economic burden of the epidemics was about euro650 million (euro217 million in direct losses and euro433 million in consequential losses). The 1999 epidemic accounted for most of these losses (euro507 million: euro112 million in direct losses and euro395 million in consequential losses), whereas the total economic burden for the 5 successive LPAI was euro143 million (euro105 million in direct losses and euro38 million in consequential losses). These results demonstrate that the implementation of a coordinated set of disease-control measures, which included both emergency and prophylactic vaccination, was able to reduce the overall costs associated with avian influenza epidemics. The results also show that the application of adequate LPAI control measures may limit the risk of emergence of an HPAI virus in an area with a high poultry density, allowing the complete disruption of the poultry market and its huge associated costs to be avoided. PMID:20460656

  12. Agriculture Cluster Brief. Vocational Education in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Gordon

    This guide sets forth minimum approval criteria for vocational agriculture cluster programs in Oregon. The agriculture cluster program includes instruction in six areas: animal science, soil science, plant science, agricultural economics, agriculture mechanics, and leadership development. The information in the guide is intended for use by…

  13. The evaluation of research papers in the XXI century. The Open Peer Discussion system of the World Economics Association

    PubMed Central

    Ietto-Gillies, Grazia

    2012-01-01

    The paper starts with a brief discussion of the traditional peer review (TPR) system of research evaluation, its role, and the criticisms levelled at it. An analysis of specific problems in economics leads to a full discussion of the Open Peer Review (OPR) system developed by the World Economics Association (WEA) and the principles behind it. The system is open in the following two respects: (a) disclosure of names of authors and reviewers; and (b) inclusivity of potential reviewers in terms of paradigmatic approaches, country, and community. The paper then discusses the applicability of the same system to other disciplines. In doing so, it stressed the aims of various evaluation systems and the possible pitfalls of rating systems. It also speculates on the future of journal publication. PMID:22891057

  14. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Isasi, Carmen R.; Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kim, Ryung; Crespo, Noe C.; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Penedo, Frank J.; Perreira, Krista M.; Perrino, Tatiana; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084), a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one’s family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing), and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0–12, 13–18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (%BF). Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background). Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF). These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics. PMID:26919283

  15. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Isasi, Carmen R; Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M; Kaplan, Robert C; Kim, Ryung; Crespo, Noe C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia A; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista M; Perrino, Tatiana; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084), a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one's family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing), and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0-12, 13-18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (%BF). Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background). Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF). These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics. PMID:26919283

  16. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Louise H.; Nicolaou, Mary; van Dam, Rob M.; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; de Boer, Evelien J.; Brants, Henny A. M.; Beukers, Marja H.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254), South Asian Surinamese (n=425), and African Surinamese (n=784) participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin participants, presumably a move

  17. Bradford's Law and the Literature of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawani, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of separate data on the literature of tropical and subtropical agriculture, and the world literature of agricultural economics and rural socilogy, in relation to Bradford's law. (8 references) (Author/SJ)

  18. Perceptions of Scholars in the Field of Economics on Co-Authorship Associations: Evidence from an International Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ratnavelu, Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Scholars (n = 580) from 69 countries who had contributed articles in the field of Economics during the year 2015 participated in a survey that gauged their perceptions of various aspects of co-authorship, including its benefits, motivations, working relationships, order of authorship and association preferences. Among the main findings, significant differences emerged in the proportion of co-authored papers based on age, gender and number of years the researchers had spent in their present institution. Female scholars had a greater proportion of co-authored papers than male scholars. Respondents considered improved quality of paper, contribution of mutual expertise, and division of labor as the biggest benefits of and motivation for co-authorship. Contrary to common perceptions that Economics researchers used a predominantly alphabetical order of authorship, our study found that a considerable percentage of respondents (34.5%) had practiced an order of authorship based on the significance of the authors’ contribution to the work. The relative importance of tasks differed significantly according to whether researchers co-authored as mentors or co-authored as colleagues. Lastly, researchers were found to associate, to varying degrees, with other researchers based on socio-academic parameters, such as nationality, ethnicity, gender, professional position and friendship. The study indicates that Economics authors perceive co-authorship as a rewarding endeavor. Nonetheless, the level of contribution and even the choice of association itself as a co-author depends to a great extent on the type of working relationship and socio-academic factors. PMID:27322645

  19. Perceptions of Scholars in the Field of Economics on Co-Authorship Associations: Evidence from an International Survey.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sameer; Ratnavelu, Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Scholars (n = 580) from 69 countries who had contributed articles in the field of Economics during the year 2015 participated in a survey that gauged their perceptions of various aspects of co-authorship, including its benefits, motivations, working relationships, order of authorship and association preferences. Among the main findings, significant differences emerged in the proportion of co-authored papers based on age, gender and number of years the researchers had spent in their present institution. Female scholars had a greater proportion of co-authored papers than male scholars. Respondents considered improved quality of paper, contribution of mutual expertise, and division of labor as the biggest benefits of and motivation for co-authorship. Contrary to common perceptions that Economics researchers used a predominantly alphabetical order of authorship, our study found that a considerable percentage of respondents (34.5%) had practiced an order of authorship based on the significance of the authors' contribution to the work. The relative importance of tasks differed significantly according to whether researchers co-authored as mentors or co-authored as colleagues. Lastly, researchers were found to associate, to varying degrees, with other researchers based on socio-academic parameters, such as nationality, ethnicity, gender, professional position and friendship. The study indicates that Economics authors perceive co-authorship as a rewarding endeavor. Nonetheless, the level of contribution and even the choice of association itself as a co-author depends to a great extent on the type of working relationship and socio-academic factors. PMID:27322645

  20. AGRICULTURAL SIMULATION MODEL (AGSIM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AGSIM is a large-scale econometric simulation model of regional crop and national livestock production in the United States. The model was initially developed to analyze the aggregate economic impacts of a wide variety issues facing agriculture, such as technological change, pest...

  1. Stronger management needed to protect agricultural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Shikui

    1983-01-01

    This article examines environmental issues and management in developed agricultural areas of China. Agricultural environmental management is defined as the adoption of countermeasures by applying the theories and methods of environmental science and management science and abiding by economic laws and ecological laws to prevent pollution of the agricultural environment and destruction of the agro-ecology by man; to coordinate the relationship between the development of agricultural production and the protection of the agricultural environment and to satisfy increasing demands for agricultural by-products. Topics considered include the basis for developing agricultural environmental management, the present condition of the agricultural environment in China, and several management proposals.

  2. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  3. Cycling for transport and recreation: Associations with the socio-economic, natural and built environment.

    PubMed

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Giles-Corti, Billie; Turrell, Gavin

    2015-11-01

    This study examined associations between objective environmental attributes and, separately, transport (TC) and recreational cycling (RC). Environmental attributes were more strongly associated with TC than RC. Distances to areas with the best bicycle infrastructure and urban amenities may be key environmental attributes influencing TC but not RC. Government investments in bicycle infrastructure within inner Brisbane appear to have resulted in more TC than in outer areas and to appeal to residents of both the most and least disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Extending this infrastructure to residents living in disadvantaged and advantaged neighbourhoods outside the CBD could expand TC participation. PMID:26598959

  4. Economic realities associated with diabetes care: opportunities to expand delivery of physical therapist services to a vulnerable population.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Rhea

    2008-11-01

    Each year, more Americans are newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The costs for managing this disease are high, and the cascade of problems associated with poorly controlled diabetes is significant. At the same time, the number of uninsured or underinsured Americans is growing. This article describes current trends in health insurance availability and coverage for the growing number of people with diabetes and addresses the direct costs associated with treating this disease. The economic burden of health care for people with diabetes continues to escalate. Payers and employers are interested in decreasing their direct and indirect costs, improving profit margins, decreasing employee absenteeism, and increasing employee productivity. For physical therapists to recognize existing or new opportunities to participate in the management of this costly disease, it is critical that they understand how employees, payers, and employers are responding to the changing market forces affecting health insurance. PMID:18801864

  5. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00), and blindness (logMAR≥1.00). Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI), created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this

  6. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  7. Dietary sources of fiber intake and its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents' employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  8. Discovery of novel genetic networks associated with 19 economically important traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhihua; Michal, Jennifer J; Chen, Jie; Daniels, Tyler F; Kunej, Tanja; Garcia, Matthew D; Gaskins, Charles T; Busboom, Jan R; Alexander, Leeson J; Wright, Raymond W; Macneil, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative or complex traits are determined by the combined effects of many loci, and are affected by genetic networks or molecular pathways. In the present study, we genotyped a total of 138 mutations, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from 71 functional genes on a Wagyu x Limousin reference population. Two hundred forty six F(2) animals were measured for 5 carcass, 6 eating quality and 8 fatty acid composition traits. A total of 2,280 single marker-trait association runs with 120 tagged mutations selected based on the HAPLOVIEW analysis revealed 144 significant associations (P < 0.05), but 50 of them were removed from the analysis due to the small number of animals (< or = 9) in one genotype group or absence of one genotype among three genotypes. The remaining 94 single-trait associations were then placed into three groups of quantitative trait modes (QTMs) with additive, dominant and overdominant effects. All significant markers and their QTMs associated with each of these 19 traits were involved in a linear regression model analysis, which confirmed single-gene associations for 4 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 8 traits and three-gene networks for 5 traits. Such genetic networks involving both genotypes and QTMs resulted in high correlations between predicted and actual values of performance, thus providing evidence that the classical Mendelian principles of inheritance can be applied in understanding genetic complexity of complex phenotypes. Our present study also indicated that carcass, eating quality and fatty acid composition traits rarely share genetic networks. Therefore, marker-assisted selection for improvement of one category of these traits would not interfere with improvement of another. PMID:19727437

  9. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  10. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  11. Association of Parkinson’s Disease and Its Subtypes with Agricultural Pesticide Exposures in Men: A Case–Control Study in France

    PubMed Central

    Spinosi, Johan; Delabre, Laurène; Gourlet, Véronique; Mazurie, Jean-Louis; Bénatru, Isabelle; Goldberg, Marcel; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Imbernon, Ellen; Tzourio, Christophe; Elbaz, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Background Pesticides have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD), but there are few data on important exposure characteristics such as dose–effect relations. It is unknown whether associations depend on clinical PD subtypes. Objectives We examined quantitative aspects of occupational pesticide exposure associated with PD and investigated whether associations were similar across PD subtypes. Methods As part of a French population-based case–control study including men enrolled in the health insurance plan for farmers and agricultural workers, cases with clinically confirmed PD were identified through antiparkinsonian drug claims. Two controls were matched to each case. Using a comprehensive occupational questionnaire, we computed indicators for different dimensions of exposure (duration, cumulative exposure, intensity). We used conditional logistic regression to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among exposed male farmers (133 cases, 298 controls). We examined the relation between pesticides and PD subtypes (tremor dominant/non-tremor dominant) using polytomous logistic regression. Results There appeared to be a stronger association with intensity than duration of pesticide exposure based on separate models, as well as a synergistic interaction between duration and intensity (p-interaction = 0.04). High-intensity exposure to insecticides was positively associated with PD among those with low-intensity exposure to fungicides and vice versa, suggesting independent effects. Pesticide exposure in farms that specialized in vineyards was associated with PD (OR = 2.56; 95% CI: 1.31, 4.98). The association with intensity of pesticide use was stronger, although not significantly (p-heterogeneity = 0.60), for tremor-dominant (p-trend < 0.01) than for non-tremor–dominant PD (p-trend = 0.24). Conclusions This study helps to better characterize different aspects of pesticide exposure associated with PD, and shows a significant

  12. Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eddie; And Others

    To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural…

  13. The need for an iterative process for assessing economic outcomes associated with SSRIs.

    PubMed

    Skaer, T L; Sclar, D A; Robison, L M; Galin, R S

    2000-09-01

    Pharmacotherapeutic advances in the treatment of depression have included the development of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), thereby providing alternatives to tricyclic antidepressants. Concurrent with these events have been significant structural (e.g. pharmaceutical formularies) and regulatory (e.g. required pharmacoeconomic evaluations) changes in the delivery, financing, and oversight of healthcare programmes throughout the world. International cost-containment initiatives are increasingly mandating a demonstration of value for money, defined in terms of a measurable health and/or financial outcome, and, in the case of medicines, attributable to a given expenditure, for a given pharmacotherapeutic option. We examine the inherent strengths and weaknesses of 5 study designs used to discern and contrast financial outcomes stemming from the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy for the treatment of depressive illness [randomised controlled trials (RCTs); meta-analyses; decision-analytical models (DAMs); retrospective database investigations; randomised naturalistic inquiry]. We argue that the economic appraisal of pharmacotherapy requires an iterative process extending from the developmental (RCTs; meta-analyses; DAMs) through to the postmarketing phase (database reviews; naturalistic inquiry), thereby resulting in a portfolio of evidence as to the safety, efficacy and effectiveness of a given pharmacotherapeutic category (e.g. SSRIs) and/or a specific medication. Database reviews, while nonrandomised, and prospective naturalistic inquiry afford greater insight into the patterns of use and financial merits of prescribing specific pharmacotherapeutic options for the treatment of depression within the context of clinical practice as compared with RCTs, meta-analyses and DAMs. The portfolio of evidence to date indicates that the first-line use of SSRIs in the treatment of depression is clinically warranted, and represents value for money. PMID

  14. Teachers' Use of Agricultural Laboratories in Secondary Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    Trends in the agriculture industry require students to have the ability to solve problems associated with scientific content. Agricultural laboratories are considered a main component of secondary agricultural education, and are well suited to provide students with opportunities to develop problem-solving skills through experiential learning. This…

  15. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the akirin 2 gene with economically important traits in Korean native cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Lee, S K; Hong, M W; Park, S R; Lee, Y S; Kim, J W; Lee, H K; Jeong, D K; Song, Y H; Lee, S J

    2013-12-01

    The akirin 2 gene, located on chromosome 9 in cattle, was previously reported to be associated with nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), involved in immune reactions and marbling of meat. To determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in akirin 2 is associated with economically important traits of Korean native cattle, the c.*188G>A SNP DNA marker in the 3'-UTR region of akirin 2 was analyzed for its association with carcass weight, longissimus muscle area and marbling. The c.*188G>A SNP was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism, and the frequency of the AA, AG, and GG genotypes were 6.82%, 71.29% and 21.88% respectively. This SNP was significantly associated with longissimus muscle area (Bonferroni corrected P < 0.05), and marbling score (Bonferroni corrected P < 0.01). These results suggest that the c.*188G>A SNP of akirin 2 might be useful as a DNA marker for longissimus muscle area and marbling scores in Korean native cattle. PMID:23718263

  16. Education is associated with lower levels of abdominal obesity in women with a non-agricultural occupation: an interaction study using China’s four provinces survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as their populations become exposed to obesogenic environments. The transition from an agrarian to an industrial and service-based economy results in important lifestyle changes. Yet different socioeconomic groups may experience and respond to these changes differently. Investigating the socioeconomic distribution of obesity in LMICs is key to understanding the causes of obesity but the field is limited by the scarcity of data and a uni-dimensional approach to socioeconomic status (SES). This study splits socioeconomic status into two dimensions to investigate how educated women may have lower levels of obesity in a context where labour market opportunities have shifted away from agriculture to other forms of employment. Methods The Four Provinces Study in China 2008/09 is a household-based community survey of 4,314 people aged ≥60  years (2,465 women). It was used to investigate an interaction between education (none/any) and occupation (agricultural/non-agricultural) on high-risk central obesity defined as a waist circumference ≥80 cm. An interaction term between education and occupation was incorporated in a multivariate logistic regression model, and the estimates adjusted for age, parity, urban/rural residence and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol, meat and fruit & vegetable consumption). Complete case analyses were undertaken and results confirmed using multiple imputation to impute missing data. Results An interaction between occupation and education was present (P = 0.02). In the group with no education, the odds of central obesity in the sedentary occupation group were more than double those of the agricultural occupation group even after taking age group and parity into account (OR; 95%CI: 2.21; 1.52, 3.21), while in the group with any education there was no evidence of such a relationship (OR; 95%CI: 1.25; 0.92, 1.70). Health behaviours

  17. Differential economic stability and psychosocial stress at work: associations with psychosomatic complaints and absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Godin, Isabelle; Kittel, France

    2004-04-01

    Stressful working conditions are well known to have a negative impact on the worker's health. We investigated this association in a Belgian study with a psychosocial health perspective, including individual work characteristics as well as firms' features. These data come from the first measure of the Somstress study. This is a 4 year project, initiated in 1999 and conducted in four different firms. The objective of this article is to investigate the relationships between stress, working conditions and absenteeism, self-reported health and psychosomatic complaints. Firms were selected according to their degree of structural environment and job stability. Among the four work sites, one can be considered as stable, one unstable and the remaining ones in an in-between situation. Stress is generally measured according to one of the following models: the job demands control model (Karasek) and the effort-reward imbalance model (Siegrist). We used here both models, along with the social support at work (Karasek) and overcommitment (Siegrist). Sex, age and education are important health determinants. After adjustment for those three variables and additionally for the work instability, it appeared that poor health outcomes (measured by the self-rated health, depression (SCL-90), anxiety (SCL-90), somatisation (SCL-90), chronic fatigue (Vercoulen) and reported absenteeism) are mainly associated with a low control, low social support at work, high overcommitment and high level of imbalance. Inversely, job demands do not make any significant contribution in the logistic regression models for the above-mentioned health outcomes. PMID:14759697

  18. Economics and a novel voltage conversion technique associated with exporting Wyoming's energy by HVDC transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kaili

    Wyoming is by far the largest coal producing state in the US, but local utilization is extremely low. As much as 92% of Wyoming's coal is shipped to the other states and is mainly consumed by their electricity producers. Coal accounts for more than 50% of the US electricity generation and is one of the least expensive energy sources. Wyoming could utilize its coal better by exporting electricity instead of exporting the coal only in its raw form. Natural gas is another important energy resource in Wyoming but local utilization is even lower. As a result of the development in coalbed methane fields, natural gas production in Wyoming is almost in pace with its coal production. In addition to constructing more new pipelines, new transmission lines should be considered as an alternative way of exporting this energy. Because of their enormous electricity market sizes and high electricity prices, California, Texas and Illinois are chosen to be the target markets for Wyoming's electricity. The proposed transmission schemes use High Voltage DC (HVDC) lines, which are suitable for long distance and cross-system power transmission. Technical and economic feasibilities are studied in details. The Wyoming-California scheme has a better return of investment than both the Wyoming-Texas and the Wyoming-Illinois schemes. A major drawback of HVDC transmission is the high level of harmonics generated by the converters. Elaborate filtering is required at both the AC and the DC sides. A novel pulse-multiplication method is proposed in the thesis to reduce the harmonics from the converter source. By introducing an averaging inductor, the proposed method uses less thyristors to achieve the same high-pulse operation as the existing series scheme. The reduction of thyristors makes the switching circuit more reliable and easier to control and maintain. Harmonic analysis shows that the harmonic level can be reduced to about one third of the original system. The proposed method is also

  19. The economic burden of lung cancer and the associated costs of treatment failure in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kutikova, Lucie; Bowman, Lee; Chang, Stella; Long, Stacey R; Obasaju, Coleman; Crown, William H

    2005-11-01

    The economic burden of lung cancer was examined with a retrospective case-control cohort study on a database containing inpatient, outpatient and drug claims for employees, dependents and retirees of multiple large US employers with wide geographic distribution. Patients were followed for maximum of 2 years from first cancer diagnosis until death, health benefits dis-enrollment or study end (31 December 2000). Compared with controls (subjects without any cancer), patients with lung cancer (n = 2040) had greater health care service utilization and costs for hospitalization, emergency room visits, outpatient office visits, radiology procedures, laboratory procedures and pharmacy-dispensed drugs (all P < 0.05). Regression-adjusted mean monthly total costs were US dollar 6520 for patients versus US dollar 339 for controls (P < 0.0001), and overall costs across the study period (from diagnosis to death or maximum of 2 years) were US dollar 45,897 for patients and US dollar 2907 for controls (P < 0.0001). The main cost drivers were hospitalization (49.0% of costs) and outpatient office visits (35.2% of costs). Monthly initial treatment phase costs (US dollar 11,496 per patient) were higher than costs during the secondary treatment phase (US dollar 3733) or terminal care phase (US dollar 9399). Failure of initial treatment was associated with markedly increased costs. Compared with patients requiring only initial treatment, patients experiencing treatment failure accrued an additional US dollar 10,370 per month in initial treatment phase costs and US dollar 8779 more per month after starting the secondary and/or terminal care phase. Over the course of the study period, these patients had total costs of US dollar 120,650, compared with US dollar 45,953 for those receiving initial treatment only. Thus, the incremental costs associated with treatment failure were US dollar 19,149 per month and US dollar 74,697 across the study period. Other types of clinical and

  20. Using lumped modelling for providing simple metrics and associated uncertainties of catchment response to agricultural-derived nitrates pollutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RUIZ, L.; Fovet, O.; Faucheux, M.; Molenat, J.; Sekhar, M.; Aquilina, L.; Gascuel-odoux, C.

    2013-12-01

    The development of simple and easily accessible metrics is required for characterizing and comparing catchment response to external forcings (climate or anthropogenic) and for managing water resources. The hydrological and geochemical signatures in the stream represent the integration of the various processes controlling this response. The complexity of these signatures over several time scales from sub-daily to several decades [Kirchner et al., 2001] makes their deconvolution very difficult. A large range of modeling approaches intent to represent this complexity by accounting for the spatial and/or temporal variability of the processes involved. However, simple metrics are not easily retrieved from these approaches, mostly because of over-parametrization issues. We hypothesize that to obtain relevant metrics, we need to use models that are able to simulate the observed variability of river signatures at different time scales, while being as parsimonious as possible. The lumped model ETNA (modified from[Ruiz et al., 2002]) is able to simulate adequately the seasonal and inter-annual patterns of stream NO3 concentration. Shallow groundwater is represented by two linear stores with double porosity and riparian processes are represented by a constant nitrogen removal function. Our objective was to identify simple metrics of catchment response by calibrating this lumped model on two paired agricultural catchments where both N inputs and outputs were monitored for a period of 20 years. These catchments, belonging to ORE AgrHys, although underlain by the same granitic bedrock are displaying contrasted chemical signatures. The model was able to simulate the two contrasted observed patterns in stream and groundwater, both on hydrology and chemistry, and at the seasonal and pluri-annual scales. It was also compatible with the expected trends of nitrate concentration since 1960. The output variables of the model were used to compute the nitrate residence time in both the

  1. Contamination in Ontario farmstead domestic wells and its association with agriculture:. 1. Results from drinking water wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, M. J.; Barry, D. A. J.; Rudolph, D. L.

    1998-08-01

    Groundwater provides about 30% of water requirements in Ontario, but farm families depend almost entirely on private wells. Major potential contaminants on farms are nitrate (NO 3-), pathogenic microorganisms, pesticides and petroleum derivatives. A survey of farm drinking-water wells was conducted throughout the Province of Ontario, Canada, in 1991 and 1992 and tested for these contaminants. The main objectives of the survey were to determine the quality and safety of drinking water for farm families, and determine the effect of agricultural management on groundwater quality at a provincial scale. Four farm wells were chosen in each township where >50% of the land area was used for agricultural production. Elsewhere one well per township was usually sampled. Within each township the types of farming activity and dominant soils were additional criteria for selection. The network comprised 1292 of the estimated 500,000 water-wells in Ontario, and the study conformed to a stratified random survey. A subset of 160 wells, chosen by farm type, soil, and the presence or absence of a fuel storage tank, was investigated for the presence of petroleum derivatives: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene. About 40% of farm wells tested contained one or more of the target contaminants above the maximum acceptable concentration; 34% of wells had more than the maximum acceptable number of coliform bacteria, 14% contained NO 3--N concentrations above 10 mg l -1 limit and about 7% were contaminated with both bacteria and NO 3-. Only six wells contained pesticide residues above the interim maximum acceptable concentration (IMAC), but pesticides were detected in 7% of wells in winter and in 11% in summer. No wells contained detectable petroleum derivatives. These results for NO 3- contamination were not significantly different from those reported for a survey of Ontario wells for the period 1950-1954, but the frequency of contamination by Escherichia coli was greater in the

  2. Cognitive Dysfunction is Associated with Poor Socio-Economic Status in Patients with Cirrhosis: an International Multi-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Riggio, Oliviero; Allampati, Sanath; Prakash, Ravi; Gioia, Stefania; Onori, Eugenia; Piazza, Nicole; Noble, Nicole A; White, Melanie B; Mullen, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims In patients with cirrhosis, cognitive dysfunction most often results from covert hepatic encephalopathy (HE). These patients are not routinely tested for cognitive dysfunction, despite single-center evidence that it could be associated with poor socio-economic status (SES). We investigated the association between SES and cognition in a multi-center study of cirrhosis. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 236 cirrhotic patients from 3 centers (84 subjects from Virginia, 102 from Ohio, and 50 from Rome, Italy; age 57.7±8.6 y; 14% with prior overt HE) were given recommended cognitive tests and a validated SES questionnaire, which included questions about employment, personal and family income, and overall financial security. Comparisons were made among centers and between subjects who were employed or not. Regression analysis was performed using employment and personal income as outcomes. Results Only 37% of subjects had been employed in the last year. Subjects had substantial financial insecurity—their yearly personal income ranged from $16,000 to $24,999 and their family income ranged from $25,000 to $49,999. They were only able to maintain a residence for 3–6 months if their income stopped, and their current liquid assets were $500–$4999 (<$500 if debt was subtracted). Cognition and SES were worst in Ohio and best in Virginia. Cognition correlated with personal and family income, within and between centers. On regression analysis, cognitive performance (digit symbol, lures, and line tracing) was associated with personal yearly income, after controlling for demographics, country, employment, and overt HE. Unemployed subjects had a higher rate of overt HE, worse cognition, and lower personal income than employed subjects. On regression analysis, performance on digit symbol, line tracing, inhibitory control test lures, and serial dotting tests remained associated with income, similar to employment. Conclusions In an international, multi

  3. Association of Allergic Rhinitis in Female University Students with Socio-economic Factors and Markers of Estrogens Levels.

    PubMed

    Wronka, I; Kliś, K; Jarzebak, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of allergic rhinitis in female university students with socio-economic factors and sex-hormone markers, including age at menarche, menstrual disorders, and selected anthropometrics indexes. The research was conducted among 640 female university students, aged 19-25 years. The measurements of body height, body mass, waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and its allergens were defined on the basis of medical workup. We found that a significantly larger number of cases of allergic rhinitis were recorded in the university students coming from families of high socio-economic level than those from lower level. Allergic rhinitis also was more frequent in the students who spent their childhood in cities than in those who lived in the countryside. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was inversely correlated to the number of siblings. There were no differences in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in relation to the birth order. The estrogen level seemed unassociated with rhinitis. However, there were slightly more allergic among females with an earlier age of menarche. PMID:26453067

  4. Agriculture, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remotely sensed data in agriculture are enumerated. These include: predictions of forage for range animal consumption, forest management, soil mapping, and crop inventory and management.

  5. Reduced milk production in udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and associated economic losses in crossbred dairy cows in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mungube, E O; Tenhagen, B A; Regassa, F; Kyule, M N; Shiferaw, Y; Kassa, T; Baumann, M P O

    2005-08-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the losses associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM) in crossbred dairy cows in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. A split udder investigation was performed with 30 cows to determine production losses associated with SCM. Each quarter of the study cows was examined using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and quarter milk production was measured over a period of 8 days. Production losses were determined for different CMT scores by comparing production of quarters with CMT score 0 to quarters with CMT scores trace, 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using data from a recently published study, economic losses were determined for different farm sizes and production subsystems by multiplying the prevalence of the respective CMT scores with the production losses associated with these CMT scores. Mean quarter milk production was 0.82 +/- 0.40 kg per milking in the split udder trial. Milk production was reduced by 1.2%, 6.3%, and 33% in quarters with CMT scores 1+, 2+, and 3+, respectively. Using data from the published study, a quarter with SCM lost an average of 17.2% of its milk production. Production losses associated with SCM were estimated at 5.6% for the Addis Ababa Milk Shed. Stratified losses were highest (9.3%) in urban dairy farms (UDF) and small-scale farms (6.3%). The estimates of the financial losses ranged from US dollars 29.1 in dairy herds in secondary towns (DHIST) to US dollars 66.6 in UDF. A total loss of US dollars 38 was estimated for each cow per lactation. Reducing mastitis in UDF (highest prevalence) to the level of DHIST (lowest prevalence) could reduce the loss by US dollars 35. As this does not include costs associated with treatment or culling of diseased cows, this figure probably underestimates the possible benefits of control measures. PMID:16248222

  6. Combined effects of nitrogen fertilization and biochar on the net global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity and net ecosystem economic budget in intensive vegetable agriculture in southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Fan, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Chen, Z. Z.; Sun, L. Y.; Xiong, Z. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization and biochar addition on the net global warming potential (net GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) and net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB). These experiments were conducted in an intensive vegetable field with 4 consecutive vegetable crops in 2012 and 2013 in southeastern China. The experiment was conducted with a 32 factorial design in triplicate at N fertilizer rates of 0, 1475, 1967 kg N ha-1 and biochar rates of 0, 20, and 40 t ha-1. Although CH4 emissions were not obviously affected by N fertilization, N2O emissions increased by 27.2-116.2% and the net GWP increased by 30.6-307.2%. Consequently, the GHGI increased significantly, but vegetable yield and the NEEB did not improve. Furthermore, biochar amendments did not significantly influence CH4 emissions, but significantly decreased the N2O emissions by 1.7-25.4%, the net GWP by 89.6-700.5%, and the GHGI by 89.5-644.8%. In addition, vegetable yields significantly increased by 2.1-74.1%, which improved the NEEB. Thus, N fertilization did not increase vegetable yields or the NEEB. However, N fertilization did increase the net GWP and GHGI. In contrast, biochar additions resulted in lower N2O emissions and net GWP and GHGI, but increased vegetable yield and the NEEB in the intensive vegetable production system. Therefore, appropriate biochar amendment should be studied to combat changing climate and to improve the economic profits of vegetable production.

  7. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, Agricultural Research Service. 2.65 Section 2.65 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics §...

  8. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, Agricultural Research Service. 2.65 Section 2.65 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics §...

  9. Evaluation of buffer zone effectiveness in mitigating the risks associated with agricultural runoff in Prince Edward Island.

    PubMed

    Dunn, A M; Julien, G; Ernst, W R; Cook, A; Doe, K G; Jackman, P M

    2011-02-01

    To minimize the risk posed by runoff from row crops, Prince Edward Island introduced buffer legislation in 2000. The legislation mandates 10-m and 20-m buffers, respectively, for moderate sloped (i.e. <5%) and steep sloped (i.e. >5%) agricultural fields that border streams. Since 2001, Environment Canada has been evaluating the effectiveness of various buffer widths on operational farms in reducing toxicity and contaminant concentrations in runoff. Sample collectors, placed in 44 fields at the field edge (0m), 10m and at distances out to 30m, collected overland flow following rainfall-induced runoff events. Samples were collected within 24 hours of an event and analysed for seven pesticides (endosulfan, chlorothalonil, carbofuran, linuron, metribuzin, metalaxyl, mancozeb), water quality parameters and Daphnia magna toxicity. The 10-m buffer required for moderate sloped fields was effective at reducing contaminant concentrations but not always to less than lethal concentrations to Daphnia magna. Limited data beyond 10m for fields of both slope types precluded making recommendations on a suitable buffer width for shallow sloped fields and evaluating the effectiveness of 20-m buffers for steep sloped fields. When paired data were combined and statistically tested for all fields, the studied pesticides underwent a 52-98% and 68-100% reduction in aqueous and particulate concentrations within 10m and 30m, respectively. In addition, by 10m, soluble phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen and total suspended solids were reduced by 34%, 38% and 64%, respectively. Results suggest buffer zones on operational farms are capable of achieving contaminant reductions comparable to those reported for controlled experiments. Inconsistent siting of sample collectors beyond 10m limited the evaluation of the effects of field slope and buffer width on buffer effectiveness on working farms. Future studies on buffer efficiency on operational farms should focus on building the data set beyond 10m and

  10. 75 FR 68598 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION... to 9 member positions of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board; Research Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

  11. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  13. Research: Providing Answers for the New Millennium. Presented Papers and Paper Critiques [from the] AAAE (American Association of Agricultural Education) Central Region Agricultural Education Research Conference (55th, St. Louis, MO, February 23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliem, Joe A., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers: "Cognitive Abilities of Oak Harbor High School Agricultural Education Students" (Mark F. Starkey, Jamie Cano); "Development and Evaluation of Hands-on Learning Activities in Indiana High School Animal Science Classes" (Kendra Koster, Mark A. Balschweid); "Teaching Biology Using Agriculture as the…

  14. Agricultural lung disease.

    PubMed

    Spurzem, John R; Romberger, Debra J; Von Essen, Susanna G

    2002-12-01

    Agricultural work is associated with high rates of injury, disability, and illness. Agricultural workers are at increased risk for a variety of illnesses including respiratory disorders, dermatologic conditions, and cancer. The recognition of ODTS led to increased understanding of acute illness in farmers and grain workers. Previously, many cases of acute illness were probably erroneously called farmer's lung. The same agents that are responsible for ODTS are responsible for the high prevalence of bronchitis in certain agricultural workers. The recent description of the innate immune system is very exciting because it will lead to increased understanding of the pathogenesis of organic dust induced disorders. PMID:12512166

  15. Agriculture drought risk assessment of the irrigated agriculture zone in North Henan Plain using HJ-1 and MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Haixia; Huang, He; Wang, Ping; Sun, Yinxiang

    2011-12-01

    This paper analyzed the evolution of drought and the spectral response of the crop at different growing seasons focuses on the irrigated agricultural areas of northen Henan using the HJ-1 data and MODIS data,associated with relevant meteologic data, regional geographical data and the social economic data.The Spatial and temporal distribution of the risk of disaster-causing factors and the fragility of the disaster-affected body was conducted and the comprehensive index of agricultral drought risk was built up.Then, trend of the agricultural drought was analyzed and the irrigated agricultural drought risk class was performed and the possible hazard and influence of agricultural drought and the performance of appropriate strategy to reduce agricultral drought have been estimated.At last,verification of the results and improvement of the model have been carried out supported by the historic cases, expert system and the on-site investigation data.

  16. Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts within the Western Governors' Association States; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2007-06-01

    This paper uses NREL's newest Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI II) model to assess economic impacts from alternative power technologies, with a focus on wind energy, for a variety of states.

  17. The association between campylobacteriosis, agriculture and drinking water: a case-case study in a region of British Columbia, Canada, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Galanis, E; Mak, S; Otterstatter, M; Taylor, M; Zubel, M; Takaro, T K; Kuo, M; Michel, P

    2014-10-01

    We studied the association between drinking water, agriculture and sporadic human campylobacteriosis in one region of British Columbia (BC), Canada. We compared 2992 cases of campylobacteriosis to 4816 cases of other reportable enteric diseases in 2005-2009 using multivariate regression. Cases were geocoded and assigned drinking water source, rural/urban environment and socioeconomic status (SES) according to the location of their residence using geographical information systems analysis methods. The odds of campylobacteriosis compared to enteric disease controls were higher for individuals serviced by private wells than municipal surface water systems (odds ratio 1·4, 95% confidence interval 1·1-1·8). In rural settings, the odds of campylobacteriosis were higher in November (P = 0·014). The odds of campylobacteriosis were higher in individuals aged ⩾15 years, especially in those with higher SES. In this region of BC, campylobacteriosis risk, compared to other enteric diseases, seems to be mediated by vulnerable drinking water sources and rural factors. Consideration should be given to further support well-water users and to further study the microbiological impact of agriculture on water. PMID:24892423

  18. Prospective multicenter surveillance identifies Staphylococcus aureus infections caused by livestock-associated strains in an agricultural state.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rajeshwari; Wu, James; Carrel, Margaret; O'Brien, Ashley; Quick, Megan; Farina, Sarah; Wardyn, Shylo; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Grenier, Dylan; Smith, Tara C

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a surveillance study to investigate the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in Iowa, using a convenience sample. Diagnostic laboratories submitted 20 S. aureus isolates per month for a 20-month period between 2011 and 2013. Of the 2226 isolates analyzed, 73.6% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 26.4% were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). S. aureus infections in 25 patients (1%) were caused by ST398- and ST9-associated strain types, and appeared to be a common occurrence in areas of the state with the highest numbers of hogs and hog farms. Twenty nine (5.1%) of MSSA isolates and 10 (40.0%) livestock-associated strains were multi-drug resistant. PMID:27198741

  19. Socio-economic and Climate Factors Associated with Dengue Fever Spatial Heterogeneity: A Worked Example in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Teurlai, Magali; Menkès, Christophe Eugène; Cavarero, Virgil; Degallier, Nicolas; Descloux, Elodie; Grangeon, Jean-Paul; Guillaumot, Laurent; Libourel, Thérèse; Lucio, Paulo Sergio; Mathieu-Daudé, Françoise; Mangeas, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Understanding the factors underlying the spatio-temporal distribution of infectious diseases provides useful information regarding their prevention and control. Dengue fever spatio-temporal patterns result from complex interactions between the virus, the host, and the vector. These interactions can be influenced by environmental conditions. Our objectives were to analyse dengue fever spatial distribution over New Caledonia during epidemic years, to identify some of the main underlying factors, and to predict the spatial evolution of dengue fever under changing climatic conditions, at the 2100 horizon. Methods We used principal component analysis and support vector machines to analyse and model the influence of climate and socio-economic variables on the mean spatial distribution of 24,272 dengue cases reported from 1995 to 2012 in thirty-three communes of New Caledonia. We then modelled and estimated the future evolution of dengue incidence rates using a regional downscaling of future climate projections. Results The spatial distribution of dengue fever cases is highly heterogeneous. The variables most associated with this observed heterogeneity are the mean temperature, the mean number of people per premise, and the mean percentage of unemployed people, a variable highly correlated with people's way of life. Rainfall does not seem to play an important role in the spatial distribution of dengue cases during epidemics. By the end of the 21st century, if temperature increases by approximately 3°C, mean incidence rates during epidemics could double. Conclusion In New Caledonia, a subtropical insular environment, both temperature and socio-economic conditions are influencing the spatial spread of dengue fever. Extension of this study to other countries worldwide should improve the knowledge about climate influence on dengue burden and about the complex interplay between different factors. This study presents a methodology that can be used as a

  20. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  1. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  2. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste. PMID:26420088

  3. Associations Between Macrolevel Economic Factors and Weight Distributions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Multilevel Analysis of 200 000 Adults in 40 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Elizabeth; Kawachi, Ichiro; Heymann, Jody; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between macrolevel economic factors hypothesized to drive changes in distributions of weight and body mass index (BMI) in a representative sample of 200 796 men and women from 40 low- and middle-income countries. Methods. We used meta-regressions to describe ecological associations between macrolevel factors and mean BMIs across countries. Multilevel regression was used to assess the relation between macrolevel economic characteristics and individual odds of underweight and overweight relative to normal weight. Results. In multilevel analyses adjusting for individual-level characteristics, a 1–standard-deviation increase in trade liberalization was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.76, 0.99), 17% (95% CI = 0.71, 0.96), 13% (95% CI = 0.76, 1.00), and 14% (95% CI = 0.75, 0.99) lower odds of underweight relative to normal weight among rural men, rural women, urban men, and urban women, respectively. Economic development was consistently associated with higher odds of overweight relative to normal weight. Among rural men, a 1–standard-deviation increase in foreign direct investment was associated with 17% (95% CI = 1.02, 1.35) higher odds of overweight relative to normal weight. Conclusions. Macrolevel economic factors may be implicated in global shifts in epidemiological patterns of weight. PMID:24228649

  4. Are associations between socio-economic characteristics and exposure to air pollution a question of study area size? An example from Scania, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Stroh, Emilie; Oudin, Anna; Gustafsson, Susanna; Pilesjö, Petter; Harrie, Lars; Strömberg, Ulf; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that exposure to air pollutants in the area of residence and the socio-economic status of an individual may be related. Therefore, when conducting an epidemiological study on the health effect of air pollution, socio-economy may act as a confounding factor. In this paper we examine to what extent socio-economic status and concentrations of NO2 in the county/region of Scania, southern Sweden, are associated and if such associations between these factors differ when studying them at county or city level. To perform this study we used high-resolution census data and modelled the annual exposure to NO2 using an emission database, a dispersion modelling program and a geographical information system (GIS). Results The results from this study confirm that socio-economic status and the levels of NO2 in the area of residence are associated in some cities. The associations vary considerably between cities within the same county (Scania). Even for cities of similar sizes and population bases the associations observed are different. Studying the cities together or separately yields contradictory results, especially when education is used as a socio-economic indicator. Conclusion Four conclusions have been drawn from the results of this study. 1) Adjusting for socio-economy is important when investigating the health effects of air pollution. 2) The county of Scania seems to be heterogeneous regarding the association between air pollution and socio-economy. 3) The relationship between air pollution and socio-economy differs in the five cities included in our study, depending on whether they are analysed separately or together. It is therefore inadvisable to determine and analyse associations between socio-economy and exposure to air pollutants on county level. This study indicates that the size and choice of study area is of great importance. 4) The selection of socio-economic indices (in this study: country of birth and education level) is

  5. Environment and chemicals in agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Winteringham, F.W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities and the Irish Government jointly organized a symposium in Dublin in October 1984, from which the papers in this book are presented. Environmental concerns related to intensive agriculture provided the impetus for the symposium. More than half of the papers deal with economic or extension aspects of environmental protection. It is stressed that uniform standards and regulations are not reasonable, since soils, climate, and farming systems vary. With respect to pesticide use, emphasis is placed on integrated pest management through improved pest forecasting, more specific targeting of pesticide applications, and farmer education. The development of pesticide resistance is a serious concern that will require research into new techniques for pest control. The primary environmental problem with fertilizers is the leaching of NO/sub 3/ into ground water, with many ears exceeding the acceptable level of 50 mg/L. The Netherlands, in particular, has the highest average rate of N fertilizer use in the world, 240 kg/ha, with about 400 kg/ha of N applied in areas with intensive dairy (Bos sp.) farming. Nevertheless, areas in the Netherlands where the NO/sub 3/ concentration in ground water exceeds 50 mg/L are associated with large amounts of manure produced in intensive pig and poultry farming, rather than with fertilizer applications. There is a need to balance nutrients added with those removed in intensive agricultural systems.

  6. Health and economic outcomes associated with uncontrolled surgical bleeding: a retrospective analysis of the Premier Perspectives Database

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Mitra; Ferko, Nicole; Hollmann, Sarah; Broder, Michael S; Chang, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    Background Bleeding remains a common occurrence in surgery. Data describing the burden of difficult-to-control bleeding and topical absorbable hemostat use are sparse. This study was conducted to estimate the clinical and economic impact that remains associated with uncontrolled surgical bleeding, even when hemostats are used during surgery. Methods This US retrospective analysis used the Premier Perspectives Database. Hospital discharges from 2012 were used to identify patients treated with hemostats during eight surgery types. Patients were included if they were ≥18 years, had an inpatient hospitalization with one of the eight surgeries, and received a hemostat on the day of surgery. Patients were stratified by procedure and presence or absence of major bleeding (uncontrolled) despite hemostat use. Outcomes were all-cause hospitalization costs, hemostat costs, length of stay, reoperation, and surgery-related complications (eg, mortality). Statistical significance was tested through chi-square or t-tests. Multivariate analyses were conducted for all-cause costs and length of stay using analysis of covariance. Results Among 25,048 procedures, major bleeding events occurred in 14,251 cases. Despite treatment with hemostats, major bleeding occurred in 32%–68% of cases. All-cause costs were significantly higher in patients with uncontrolled bleeding despite hemostat use versus controlled bleeding (US$24,203–$61,323 [uncontrolled], US$14,420–$45,593 [controlled]; P<0.001). Hemostat costs were significantly greater in the uncontrolled bleeding cohort for all surgery types except cystectomy and pancreatic surgery. Reoperation and mortality rates were significantly higher in the uncontrolled bleeding cohort in all surgical procedures except cystectomy and radical hysterectomy. Conclusion Uncontrolled intraoperative bleeding despite hemostat use is prevalent and associated with significantly higher hospital costs and worse clinical outcomes across several surgical

  7. Milk yield and associated economic losses in quarters with subclinical mastitis due to Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopian crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Gebreyohannes Y; Regassa, Fekadu Gudeta; Kelay, B

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence and losses associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM) caused by Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopian crossbred dairy cows. A split-udder trial was carried out to determine milk yield losses in udder quarter with S. aureus-caused SCM. Each quarter of the study cows was examined using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and quarter milk production was measured over a period of 8 days. Milk yield losses for CMT positive quarters were estimated by comparing production of quarters with CMT score 0. Mean milk yield for uninfected healthy quarters was 1.66 kg per milking (95% CI, 1.66-1.55 kg per milking), and the rate of milk reduction for quarters with CMT scores of 1+, 2+, and 3+ was 25%, 33%, and 48%, respectively. Economic losses at different farm-size levels were calculated by multiplying the prevalence of CMT scores with milk yield losses associated with respective CMT scores. In Debre Ziet dairy herds, a quarter with SCM due to S. aureus lost an average of 34.5% of its potential milk production while the total milk yield loss per cow was estimated at 6.8%. Losses were highest in large-scale (13%) farms and lowest (3.7%) in small-scale. Based on the prevalence, the overall financial loss for each cow per lactation was 984.64 Eth Birr (US$78.65) and losses in large farms (1,882.40 Eth Birr or US$150.35) were over 3.5 times the loss in small-size farms. These figures possibly underestimate the potential benefits of mastitis control program as they do not include other direct and indirect costs. PMID:20012690

  8. Practices associated with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza spread in traditional poultry marketing chains: Social and economic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mathilde; Baritaux, Virginie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François; Bonnet, Pascal; Ducrot, Christian

    2013-04-01

    In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus. The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities. PMID:23337390

  9. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks.

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Fobil, Julius N; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-08-01

    This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava) and Musa paradisiaca (plantain)) around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children) were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption. PMID:26225988

  10. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Fobil, Julius N.; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava) and Musa paradisiaca (plantain)) around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children) were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption. PMID:26225988

  11. A Comparison of Agriculture in the United States and the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Mark; And Others

    It is difficult to compare the United States and European Community (EC) agricultural sectors for several reasons. For one thing, the European community is an economic association of 12 independent nations, each of which has its own national methods of data collection and statistical presentation. The problem of comparing the two sectors is…

  12. Increased area of a highly suitable host crop increases herbivore pressure in intensified agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    tLandscape simplification associated with agricultural intensification has important effects on economi-cally important arthropods. The declining cover of natural and semi-natural habitats, in particular, hasbeen shown to reduce natural-enemy attack of crop pests, but also in some cases reduced crop...

  13. Economic impacts of reduced pork production associated with the diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on grower/finisher swine operations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Losinger, Willard C

    2005-05-10

    An examination of the economic impacts of the diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on grower/finisher swine operations indicated that reduced pork production, associated with the diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae on the operation, diminished consumer surplus by $53+/-52 million, and resulted in a total loss of $32+/-30 million to the US economy in 1995. Most of the economic surplus lost by consumers was transferred to producers, whose economic surplus increased by $21+/-25 million (which was not significantly different from zero). Uncertainty analysis showed that an estimate of the decline in production associated with the diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae accounted for most of the uncertainty of the change in consumer surplus and of the total loss to the economy. The estimate of the price elasticity of demand for pork also contributed towards a lot of the uncertainty in the estimated change in producer surplus. PMID:15820115

  14. Economic Survivorship Stress is Associated with Poor Health-Related Quality of Life among Distressed Survivors of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Wu, Lisa M.; Austin, Jane E.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Basmajian, Katie; Vu, AnnaMarie; Rowley, Scott D.; Isola, Luis; Redd, William H.; Rini, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Objective Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a demanding cancer treatment associated with enduring physical and psychological complications. Survivors' well-being may be further compromised by exposure to chronic stressors common to this population, including difficulties arising from costly medical care, changes in employment status, and health insurance coverage. Thus, we hypothesized that financial, employment, and insurance stressors (collectively referred to as economic survivorship stressors) would be associated with poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among HSCT survivors. Methods Survivors (n=181; M=640 days post-transplant) completed measures of study variables through mailed questionnaires and telephone interviews. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesized associations between economic survivorship stressors and HRQOL, and to examine whether social and situational factors interact with survivors' stress perceptions to predict HRQOL. Results Greater financial and employment stress were associated with poorer functioning across multiple HRQOL domains, even after controlling for the effects of possible confounding sociodemographic and medical variables. Insurance stress was not associated with HRQOL. Some associations were moderated by situational factors including timing of the current financial crisis and portion of the transplant paid for by health insurance. Conclusions HSCT survivors can face serious economic challenges during recovery. Results suggest the value of viewing these challenges as chronic stressors capable of reducing survivors' mental and physical well-being. Identifying resources and skills that help survivors cope with these demands is an important goal for clinicians and researchers. PMID:22605430

  15. Carbon farming economics: What have we learned?

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai; Kragt, Marit E; Hailu, Atakelty; Ma, Chunbo

    2016-05-01

    This study reviewed 62 economic analyses published between 1995 and 2014 on the economic impacts of policies that incentivise agricultural greenhouse (GHG) mitigation. Typically, biophysical models are used to evaluate the changes in GHG mitigation that result from landholders changing their farm and land management practices. The estimated results of biophysical models are then integrated with economic models to simulate the costs of different policy scenarios to production systems. The cost estimates vary between $3 and $130/t CO2 equivalent in 2012 US dollars, depending on the mitigation strategies, spatial locations, and policy scenarios considered. Most studies assessed the consequences of a single, rather than multiple, mitigation strategies, and few considered the co-benefits of carbon farming. These omissions could challenge the reality and robustness of the studies' results. One of the biggest challenges facing agricultural economists is to assess the full extent of the trade-offs involved in carbon farming. We need to improve our biophysical knowledge about carbon farming co-benefits, predict the economic impacts of employing multiple strategies and policy incentives, and develop the associated integrated models, to estimate the full costs and benefits of agricultural GHG mitigation to farmers and the rest of society. PMID:26921565

  16. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  17. Emergency Department Non-Urgent Visits and Hospital Readmissions Are Associated with Different Socio-Economic Variables in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Di Tondo, Elena; Menditto, Vincenzo Giannicola; Pennacchietti, Lucia; Regnicoli, Februa; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D’Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper was to evaluate socio-economic factors associated to poor primary care utilization by studying two specific subjects: the hospital readmission rate, and the use of the Emergency Department (ED) for non-urgent visits. Methods The study was carried out by the analysis of administrative database for hospital readmission and with a specific survey for non-urgent ED use. Results Among the 416,698 sampled admissions, 6.39% (95% CI, 6.32–6.47) of re-admissions have been registered; the distribution shows a high frequency of events in the age 65–84 years group, and in the intermediate care hospitals (51.97%; 95%CI 51.37–52.57). The regression model has shown the significant role played by age, type of structure (geriatric acute care), and deprivation index of the area of residence on the readmission, however, after adjusting for the intensity of primary care, the role of deprivation was no more significant. Non-urgent ED visits accounted for the 12.10%, (95%CI 9.38–15.27) of the total number of respondents to the questionnaire (N = 504). The likelihood of performing a non-urgent ED visit was higher among patients aged <65 years (OR 3.2, 95%CI 1.3–7.8 p = 0.008), while it was lower among those perceiving as urgent their health problem (OR 0.50, 95%CI 0.30–0.90). Conclusions In the Italian context repeated readmissions and ED utilization are linked to different trajectories, besides the increasing age and comorbidity of patients are the factors that are related to repeated admissions, the self-perceived trust in diagnostic technologies is an important risk factor in determining ED visits. Better use of public national health care service is mandatory, since its correct utilization is associated to increasing equity and better health care utilization. PMID:26076346

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. PMID:17827109

  19. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  20. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  1. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEALTON, ERNEST L.

    TODAY'S SUCCESSFUL FARMER MUST POSSESS THE SKILLS OF A BUSINESSMAN, SCIENTIST, AND MECHANIC TO SURVIVE COMPETITION IN AGRICULTURE, THE LARGEST INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS COMPETITION HAS CAUSED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF FARMS AND RANCHES IN AN ATTEMPT TO CURTAIL OPERATIONAL EXPENSES AND TO INCREASE PRODUCTION. WITH THE SCIENTIFIC…

  2. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics. PMID:23280539

  3. Representative Agricultural Pathways and Climate Impact Assessment for Pacific Northwest Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MU, J.; Antle, J. M.; Zhang, H.; Capalbo, S. M.; Eigenbrode, S.; Kruger, C.; Stockle, C.; Wolfhorst, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs) are projections of plausible future biophysical and socio-economic conditions used to carry out climate impact assessments for agriculture. The development of RAPs iss motivated by the fact that the various global and regional models used for agricultural climate change impact assessment have been implemented with individualized scenarios using various data and model structures, often without transparent documentation or public availability. These practices have hampered attempts at model inter-comparison, improvement, and synthesis of model results across studies. This paper aims to (1) present RAPs developed for the principal wheat-producing region of the Pacific Northwest, and to (2) combine these RAPs with downscaled climate data, crop model simulations and economic model simulations to assess climate change impacts on winter wheat production and farm income. This research was carried out as part of a project funded by the USDA known as the Regional Approaches to Climate Change in the Pacific Northwest (REACCH). The REACCH study region encompasses the major winter wheat production area in Pacific Northwest and preliminary research shows that farmers producing winter wheat could benefit from future climate change. However, the future world is uncertain in many dimensions, including commodity and input prices, production technology, and policies, as well as increased probability of disturbances (pests and diseases) associated with a changing climate. Many of these factors cannot be modeled, so they are represented in the regional RAPS. The regional RAPS are linked to global agricultural and shared social-economic pathways, and used along with climate change projections to simulate future outcomes for the wheat-based farms in the REACCH region.

  4. 75 FR 32736 - Notice of Solicitation for Members of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., Extension, Education and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education and Economics, USDA. ACTION... National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: Deadline for..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Room...

  5. 76 FR 22667 - Solicitation of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics... to fill 8 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics..., National Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, 1400 Independence Avenue,...

  6. Building on Our Rich Heritage in Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougan, James E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the past and future of vocational agriculture education in the United States. Discusses aspects of the program relating to social and economic change, community-based programs, teacher education, supervision, core curriculum approach, and vocational agriculture teachers. (LRA)

  7. Farming with Grass: Achieving Sustainable Mixed Agricultural Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Grassla...

  8. How "Rural" Is Agricultural Pluriactivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Jose; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Questions adequacy of agricultural pluriactivity studies, which often are only descriptive in nature. Argues explanatory approaches to pluriactivity must be informed by capitalist restructuring and social change. Analyzes changing modes of economic relations, examining labor force production and social practices. Concludes pluriactivity…

  9. 77 FR 27013 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Solicitation for membership. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory... nominations to fill 9 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

  10. The impact of high-end climate change on agricultural welfare.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Miodrag; Popp, Alexander; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Müller, Christoph; Bonsch, Markus; Schmitz, Christoph; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Humpenöder, Florian; Weindl, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Climate change threatens agricultural productivity worldwide, resulting in higher food prices. Associated economic gains and losses differ not only by region but also between producers and consumers and are affected by market dynamics. On the basis of an impact modeling chain, starting with 19 different climate projections that drive plant biophysical process simulations and ending with agro-economic decisions, this analysis focuses on distributional effects of high-end climate change impacts across geographic regions and across economic agents. By estimating the changes in surpluses of consumers and producers, we find that climate change can have detrimental impacts on global agricultural welfare, especially after 2050, because losses in consumer surplus generally outweigh gains in producer surplus. Damage in agriculture may reach the annual loss of 0.3% of future total gross domestic product at the end of the century globally, assuming further opening of trade in agricultural products, which typically leads to interregional production shifts to higher latitudes. Those estimated global losses could increase substantially if international trade is more restricted. If beneficial effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide fertilization can be realized in agricultural production, much of the damage could be avoided. Although trade policy reforms toward further liberalization help alleviate climate change impacts, additional compensation mechanisms for associated environmental and development concerns have to be considered. PMID:27574700

  11. The impact of high-end climate change on agricultural welfare

    PubMed Central

    Stevanović, Miodrag; Popp, Alexander; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Müller, Christoph; Bonsch, Markus; Schmitz, Christoph; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Humpenöder, Florian; Weindl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Climate change threatens agricultural productivity worldwide, resulting in higher food prices. Associated economic gains and losses differ not only by region but also between producers and consumers and are affected by market dynamics. On the basis of an impact modeling chain, starting with 19 different climate projections that drive plant biophysical process simulations and ending with agro-economic decisions, this analysis focuses on distributional effects of high-end climate change impacts across geographic regions and across economic agents. By estimating the changes in surpluses of consumers and producers, we find that climate change can have detrimental impacts on global agricultural welfare, especially after 2050, because losses in consumer surplus generally outweigh gains in producer surplus. Damage in agriculture may reach the annual loss of 0.3% of future total gross domestic product at the end of the century globally, assuming further opening of trade in agricultural products, which typically leads to interregional production shifts to higher latitudes. Those estimated global losses could increase substantially if international trade is more restricted. If beneficial effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide fertilization can be realized in agricultural production, much of the damage could be avoided. Although trade policy reforms toward further liberalization help alleviate climate change impacts, additional compensation mechanisms for associated environmental and development concerns have to be considered. PMID:27574700

  12. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics, Agricultural Research..., the seed industry, food manufacturers, state government, consumer and community development groups,...

  13. De Novo Assembly and Annotation of the Transcriptome of the Agricultural Weed Ipomoea purpurea Uncovers Gene Expression Changes Associated with Herbicide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Trent; Baucom, Regina S.

    2014-01-01

    Human-mediated selection can lead to rapid evolution in very short time scales, and the evolution of herbicide resistance in agricultural weeds is an excellent example of this phenomenon. The common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea, is resistant to the herbicide glyphosate, but genetic investigations of this trait have been hampered by the lack of genomic resources for this species. Here, we present the annotated transcriptome of the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea, along with an examination of whole genome expression profiling to assess potential gene expression differences between three artificially selected herbicide resistant lines and three susceptible lines. The assembled Ipomoea transcriptome reported in this work contains 65,459 assembled transcripts, ~28,000 of which were functionally annotated by assignment to Gene Ontology categories. Our RNA-seq survey using this reference transcriptome identified 19 differentially expressed genes associated with resistance—one of which, a cytochrome P450, belongs to a large plant family of genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification. The differentially expressed genes also broadly implicated receptor-like kinases, which were down-regulated in the resistant lines, and other growth and defense genes, which were up-regulated in resistant lines. Interestingly, the target of glyphosate—EPSP synthase—was not overexpressed in the resistant Ipomoea lines as in other glyphosate resistant weeds. Overall, this work identifies potential candidate resistance loci for future investigations and dramatically increases genomic resources for this species. The assembled transcriptome presented herein will also provide a valuable resource to the Ipomoea community, as well as to those interested in utilizing the close relationship between the Convolvulaceae and the Solanaceae for phylogenetic and comparative genomics examinations. PMID:25155274

  14. Nutrient Attenuation Under Natural Conditions in Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches are common practice in agricultural landscapes with poorly drained soils. Even though high concentrations of nutrients and other agricultural chemicals have been reportedly associated with agricultural drainage ditches, processes affecting nutrient transport in these ditches are not...

  15. Factors Associated with Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders: A Cohort Study of 7.112 Patients during the Spanish Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Real, Eva; Jover, Lluís; Verdaguer, Ricard; Griera, Antoni; Segalàs, Cinto; Alonso, Pino; Contreras, Fernando; Arteman, Antoni; Menchón, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems are very common and often lead to prolonged sickness absence, having serious economic repercussions for most European countries. Periods of economic crisis are important social phenomena that are assumed to increase sickness absence due to mental disorders, although research on this topic remains scarce. The aim of this study was to gather data on long-term sickness absence (and relapse) due to mental disorders in Spain during a period of considerable socio-economic crisis. Methods Relationships were analyzed (using chi-squared tests and multivariate modelling via binary logistic regression) between clinical, social/employment-related and demographic factors associated and long-term sickness absence (>60 consecutive days) due to mental disorders in a cohort of 7112 Spanish patients during the period 2008–2012. Results Older age, severe mental disorders, being self-employed, having a non-permanent contract, and working in the real estate and construction sector were associated with an increased probability of long-term sickness absence (gender had a mediating role with respect to some of these variables). Relapses were associated with short-term sick leave (return to work due to ‘improvement’) and with working in the transport sector and public administration. Conclusions Aside from medical factors, other social/employment-related and demographic factors have a significant influence on the duration of sickness absence due to mental disorders. PMID:26730603

  16. A Profile of Oregon Counties: Human Resources, Educational, and Economic Indicators Associated with Young Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Student Services Section.

    This profile of counties in Oregon covers factors that may predispose youth to grow up at risk of dropping out of high school or not acquiring the skills needed for adult life. The profile presents data on human resources and educational and economic indicators that were collected from state agencies and organizations. For the state as a whole,…

  17. Institutional Motivation and Policy Change Associated with Land Grant Institutions' Involvement in Economic Development. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Lawrence S.; And Others

    A study investigated: (1) the degree of land grant institution involvement in economic development activity, defined in terms of 17 selected cooperative research and technology exchange activities; (2) changes in selected academic policies (patents, consulting, conflict of interest, conflict of commitment, and extra compensation); and (3) the…

  18. Using Ocean Color Satellite Data to Estimate Economics Benefits Associated with Monitoring and Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes preliminary work that is underway that will illustrate the use of ocean land colour instrument data (Sentinel-3 & Landsat) to detect and monitor harmful algal blooms (HABS) in freshwater lakes for two types of economic analyses. This project is a j...

  19. Cost estimate and economic issues associated with the MOX option (prior to DOE`s record of decision)

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Miller, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    Before the January 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) evaluated three technologies for the disposition of {approximately}50 MT of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs-reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting the ROD, and comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule was conducted by DOE-MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This report discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results for the reactor options considered prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the report is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of the reactor option and other technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This report includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs for all nine reactor scenarios.

  20. Changing ventilation rates in U.S. offices: Implications for health, work performance, energy, and associated economics

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Black, Douglas; Brunner, Gregory

    2011-07-01

    This paper provides quantitative estimates of benefits and costs of providing different amounts of outdoor air ventilation in U.S. offices. For four scenarios that modify ventilation rates, we estimated changes in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, work performance, short-term absence, and building energy consumption. The estimated annual economic benefits were $13 billion from increasing minimum ventilation rates (VRs) from 8 to 10 L/s per person, $38 billion from increasing minimum VRs from 8 to 15 L/s per person, and $33 billion from increasing VRs by adding outdoor air economizers for the 50% of the office floor area that currently lacks economizers. The estimated $0.04 billion in annual energy-related benefits of decreasing minimum VRs from 8 to 6.5 L/s per person are very small compared to the projected annual costs of $12 billion. Benefits of increasing minimum VRs far exceeded energy costs while adding economizers yielded health, performance, and absence benefits with energy savings.

  1. [Nelson Rockefeller and the activities of the American International Association for Economic and Social Development: the debate concerning mission and imperialism in Brazil, 1946-1961].

    PubMed

    Silva, Claiton Marcio da

    2013-10-01

    The article analyzes the bibliography on Nelson Rockefeller and the activities of the American International Association for Economic and Social Development in Brazil. It describes optimistic interpretations of Rockefeller's and the association's work, as well as the nationalist stream of thought, which characterized him as one of the chief representatives of U.S. imperialism, both as a political representative in the 1960s and as the mind behind endeavors of interest to the private sector. It is shown that at the individual and agency levels alike, these initiatives involved direct ties to the local elites, who influenced the reshaping and operationalization of technical cooperation projects. PMID:24473658

  2. Global climate change and US agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Peart, Robert M.; Ritchie, Joe T.; Mccarl, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Agricultural productivity is expected to be sensitive to global climate change. Models from atmospheric science, plant science, and agricultural economics are linked to explore this sensitivity. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the compensating effects of carbon dioxide on crop yields, the simulation suggests that irrigated acreage will expand and regional patterns of U.S. agriculture will shift. The impact of the U.S. economy strongly depends on which climate model is used.

  3. Income Tax Reform and Agriculture: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Five papers are provided from a symposium organized to present several economic studies relating to income tax structure and reform in agriculture. "Toward an Optimal Income Tax Policy for Southern and U.S. Agriculture" (Harold F. Breimyer) is a structured argument for comprehensive tax reform that increases the equity of the income tax system…

  4. A process-based agricultural model for the irrigated agriculture sector in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, M. E.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Connections between land and water, irrigation, agricultural productivity and profitability, policy alternatives, and climate change and variability are complex, poorly understood, and unpredictable. Policy assessment for agriculture presents a large potential for development of broad-based simulation models that can aid assessment and quantification of policy alternatives over longer temporal scales. The Canadian irrigated agriculture sector is concentrated in Alberta, where it represents two thirds of the irrigated land-base in Canada and is the largest consumer of surface water. Despite interest in irrigation expansion, its potential in Alberta is uncertain given a constrained water supply, significant social and economic development and increasing demands for both land and water, and climate change. This paper therefore introduces a system dynamics model as a decision support tool to provide insights into irrigation expansion in Alberta, and into trade-offs and risks associated with that expansion. It is intended to be used by a wide variety of users including researchers, policy analysts and planners, and irrigation managers. A process-based cropping system approach is at the core of the model and uses a water-driven crop growth mechanism described by AquaCrop. The tool goes beyond a representation of crop phenology and cropping systems by permitting assessment and quantification of the broader, long-term consequences of agricultural policies for Alberta's irrigation sector. It also encourages collaboration and provides a degree of transparency that gives confidence in simulation results. The paper focuses on the agricultural component of the systems model, describing the process involved; soil water and nutrients balance, crop growth, and water, temperature, salinity, and nutrients stresses, and how other disciplines can be integrated to account for the effects of interactions and feedbacks in the whole system. In later stages, other components such as

  5. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.66 Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture... agencies reporting to the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics in the administration of... to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to agriculture, home economics, and rural energy...

  6. Globalization, Foreign Investment Dependence and Agriculture Production: Pesticide and Fertilizer Use in Less-Developed Countries, 1990-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Kuykendall, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Bridging the areas of political-economic sociology, the sociology of agriculture and environmental sociology, this study tests two hypotheses derived from a refined theory of foreign investment dependence. The hypotheses state that pesticide and fertilizer use intensity in less-developed countries are both positively associated with foreign…

  7. The Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Alavanja, M C; Sandler, D P; McMaster, S B; Zahm, S H; McDonnell, C J; Lynch, C F; Pennybacker, M; Rothman, N; Dosemeci, M; Bond, A E; Blair, A

    1996-01-01

    The Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort study has been initiated in North Carolina and Iowa. The objectives of this study are to: 1) identify and quantify cancer risks among men, women, whites, and minorities associated with direct exposure to pesticides and other agricultural agents; 2) evaluate noncancer health risks including neurotoxicity reproductive effects, immunologic effects, nonmalignant respiratory disease, kidney disease, and growth and development among children; 3) evaluate disease risks among spouses and children of farmers that may arise from direct contact with pesticides and agricultural chemicals used in the home lawns and gardens, and from indirect contact, such as spray drift, laundering work clothes, or contaminated food or water; 4) assess current and past occupational and nonoccupational agricultural exposures using periodic interviews and environmental and biologic monitoring; 5) study the relationship between agricultural exposures, biomarkers of exposure, biologic effect, and genetic susceptibility factors relevant to carcinogenesis; and 6) identify and quantify cancer and other disease risks associated with lifestyle factors such as diet, cooking practices, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and hair dye use. In the first year of a 3-year enrollment period, 26,235 people have been enrolled in the study, including 19,776 registered pesticide applicators and 6,459 spouses of registered farmer applicators. It is estimated that when the total cohort is assembled in 1997 it will include approximately 75,000 adult study subjects. Farmers, the largest group of registered pesticide applicators comprise 77% of the target population enrolled in the study. This experience compares favorably with enrollment rates of previous prospective studies. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8732939

  8. The associations of BMI trajectory and excessive weight gain with demographic and socio-economic factors: the Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Naiara Ferraz; Sichieri, Rosely; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Oliveira, Alessandra Silva Dias de; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da

    2015-12-28

    Assessing changes in adolescents' BMI over brief periods could contribute to detection of acute changes in weight status and prevention of overweight. The objective of this study was to analyse the BMI trajectory and the excessive weight gain of Brazilian adolescents over 3 years and the association with demographic and socio-economic factors. Data regarding the BMI of 1026 students aged between 13 and 19 years were analysed over 3 consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012) from the Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess the BMI trajectory according to the type of school attended (public or private), skin colour, socio-economic status and level of maternal schooling by sex. Associations between excessive weight gain and socio-economic variables were identified by calculation of OR. Boys attending private schools (β coefficient: 0·008; P=0·01), those with white skin (β coefficient: 0·007; P=0·04) and those whose mothers had >8 years of schooling (β coefficient: 0·009; P=0·02) experienced greater BMI increase than boys and girls in other groups. Boys in private schools also presented higher excessive weight gain compared with boys attending public schools (P=0·03). Boys attending private schools experienced greater BMI increase and excessive weight gain, indicating the need to develop specific policies for the prevention and reduction of overweight in this population. PMID:26423557

  9. Agriculture and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-07-03

    How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

  10. Is rangeland agriculture sustainable?

    PubMed

    Heitschmidt, R K; Vermeire, L T; Grings, E E

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the sustainability of rangeland agriculture (i.e., managed grazing) on a world-wide basis, with a focus on North America. Sustainability is addressed on three fronts: 1) ecological, 2) economic, and 3) social acceptance. Based on previous and on-going research, we suggest that employment of science-based rangeland grazing management strategies and tactics can ensure ecological sustainability. The formidable challenge in employing such technology centers around the need to balance efficiency of solar energy capture and subsequent harvest efficiencies across an array of highly spatially and temporally variable vegetation growing conditions using animals that graze selectively. Failure to meet this fundamental challenge often accelerates rangeland desertification processes, and in some instances, enhances rate and extent of the invasion of noxious weeds. We also suggest that the fundamental reason that ecologically sound grazing management technologies are often not employed in the management of grazed ecological systems is because social values drive management decisions more so than ecological science issues. This is true in both well-developed societies with substantial economic resources and in less-developed societies with few economic resources. However, the social issues driving management are often entirely different, ranging from multiple-use issues in developed countries to human day-to-day survival issues in poorly developed countries. We conclude that the long-term sustainability of rangeland agriculture in 1) developed societies depends on the ability of rangeland agriculturalists to continually respond in a dynamic, positive, proactive manner to ever-changing social values and 2) less-developed societies on their ability to address the ecological and social consequences arising from unsustainable human populations before the adoption of science-based sustainable rangeland management technologies. PMID:15471792

  11. Economic Components of Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corden, Anne; Hirst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the nature, context, and impact of economic stressors associated with loss, drawing on a mixed-methods study of changes in financial circumstances and economic roles following death of a life partner. Findings show how economic changes, and the practicalities of dealing with such transitions, shaped individual responses…

  12. ECONOMICS OF BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the session was to describe procedures used in the estimation of economic cost of air pollution to agriculture in the U.S. and to present some examples of those estimates. In recent years, there has been great interest in the development of monetary estimates of ...

  13. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status

    PubMed Central

    Dixson, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual’s attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as ‘social context’. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women’s economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  14. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    PubMed

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  15. Are age-related trends in suicide rates associated with life expectancy and socio-economic factors?

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2009-01-01

    Background. A recent cross-national study reported that suicide rates increased, decreased or remained unchanged with increasing age in individual countries. The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and child mortality rates, life expectancy and socio-economic factors was examined. Methods. Countries with an increase, decrease and no change in suicide rates with increasing age were ascertained from an earlier study (Shah, 2007a, International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 1141), which analysed data from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and (i) child mortality rates, (ii) life expectancy and (iii) markers of socio-economic status (per capita gross national domestic product (GDP) and the Gini coeffcient) was examined using data from the WHO and the United Nations. Results. The main findings were: (i) child mortality rates were significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; (ii) life expectancy was significantly higher in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; and (iii) the Gini coefficient was significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change or a decline in suicide rates with increasing age in females. Conclusions. Potential explanations for these findings and the interaction of life expectancy and socio-economic factors with other factors that differentially influence suicide rates in different age and sex groups requires further examination. PMID:24946117

  16. Interactive GIS Atlas of Economic Plants and Pests of Russia and Neighboring Countries.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important component in promoting national food security is readily accessed information on the distribution of economic plants and their associated pests; along with the distribution of climate factors important to agriculture. In 2003, a joint project between the USDA, ARS and three Russian in...

  17. Association between vehicular emissions and cardiorespiratory disease risk in Brazil and its variation by spatial clustering of socio-economic factors.

    PubMed

    Requia, Weeberb J; Koutrakis, Petros; Roig, Henrique L; Adams, Matthew D; Santos, Cleide M

    2016-10-01

    Many studies have suggested that socio-economic factors are strong modifiers of human vulnerability to air pollution effects. Most of these studies were performed in developed countries, specifically in the US and Europe. Only a few studies have been performed in developing countries, and analyzed small regions (city level) with no spatial disaggregation. The aim of this study was to assess the association between vehicle emissions and cardiorespiratory disease risk in Brazil and its modification by spatial clustering of socio-economic conditions. We used a quantile regression model to estimate the risk and a geostatistical approach (K means) to execute spatial cluster analysis. We performed the risk analysis in three stages. First, we analyzed the entire study area (primary analysis), and then we conducted a spatial cluster analysis based on various municipal-level socio-economic factors, followed by a sensitivity analysis. We studied 5444 municipalities in Brazil between 2008 and 2012. Our findings showed a significant association between cardiorespiratory disease risk and vehicular emissions. We found that a 15% increase in air pollution is associated with a 6% increase in hospital admissions rates. The results from the spatial cluster analysis revealed two groups of municipalities with distinct sets of socio-economic factors and risk levels of cardiorespiratory disease related to exposure to vehicular emissions. For example, for vehicle emissions of PM in 2008, we found a relative risk of 4.18 (95% CI: 3.66, 4.93) in the primary analysis; in Group 1, the risk was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.10, 2.05) while in Group 2, the risk was 5.56 (95% CI: 4.46, 6.25). The risk in Group 2 was 480% higher than the risk in Group 1, and 35% higher than the risk in the primary analysis. Group 1 had higher values (3rd quartile) for urbanization rate, highway density, and GDP; very high values (≥3rd quartile) for population density; median values for distance from the capital; and lower

  18. Storm flow dynamics and loads of fecal bacteria associated with ponds in southern piedmont and coastal plain watersheds with animal agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storm events that increase hydrologic flow rates can disturb sediments and produce overland runoff in watersheds with animal agriculture, and, thus, can increase surface water concentrations of fecal bacteria and risk to public health. We tested the hypothesis that strategically placed ponds in wate...

  19. (226) RA AND (228) RA ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE PONDS AND WETLAND PONDS IN THE KANKAKEE WATERSHED, IL-IN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background radioactivity is elevated in many agricultural drainage ponds and also constructed wetland ponds in the Kankakee watershed. During 1995-1999, gross-a and -B activities were measured up to 455 and 1650 mBq L-1, respectively. 226Ra and 228Ra averaged 139 and 192 mBq L-01...

  20. The economics of food production.

    PubMed

    Upton, M

    1993-01-01

    Although world average food production per person is increasing there are many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where production has fallen in recent decades. The economic analysis of the world food problem concerns the dynamics of production, income, growth, demand and trade. The 'law of diminishing returns' suggests that labour incomes fall as population density increases. Capital investment and technological change, particularly with a land-saving bias, can overcome this effect. Such land-saving innovations are less appropriate where population densities are lower, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Innovations which reduce risk, such as stress- and disease-resistant crop varieties, may be more attractive to farmers. Communal or government action is required to ensure sustainability of food production; to reduce risk, through price stabilization, possibly crop insurance and contingency plans for famine relief; to promote equity and to ensure competitive market conditions. Public funding of agricultural research is necessary to promote growth in food supplies. If increases in supply do not keep pace with growth in demand, food prices rise, attracting resources into food production. If supply grows faster, food prices and farm incomes fall, driving resources out of agriculture. Resources may not move fast enough to correct imbalances. Primary producers are likely to face deteriorating terms of trade. Linkages between food production and other sectors are weak, so primary exports are not a good basis for economic development. Import substitution strategies may damage agriculture. Structural adjustment regimes have been adopted in some countries to correct imbalances and provide an incentive for farmers to increase production. Associated reductions in public expenditure may have a contrary impact. PMID:8149829

  1. Association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders in women: a population-based study of 5703 married rural women in India

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul; Patel, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few population-based studies from low- and middle-income countries that have described the association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders (CMDs) in rural women. Methods Population-based study of currently married rural women in the age group of 15–39 years. The baseline data are from the National Family Health Survey-II conducted in 1998. A follow-up study was conducted 4 years later in 2002–03. The outcome of CMD was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Due to the hierarchical nature and complex survey design, data were analysed using mixed-effect logistic regression with random intercept model. Results A total of 5703 women (representing 83.5% of eligible women) completed follow-up. The outcome of CMD was observed in 609 women (10.7%, 95% confidence interval 9.8–11.6). The following factors were independently associated with the outcome of CMD in the final multivariable model: higher age, low education, low standard of living, recent intimate partner violence (IPV), husband’s unsatisfactory reaction to dowry, husband’s alcohol use and women’s own tobacco use. Conclusions Socio-economic and gender disadvantage factors are independently associated with CMDs in this population of women. Strategies that address structural determinants, for example to promote women’s education and reduce their exposure to IPV, may reduce the burden of CMDs in women. PMID:21037247

  2. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative...

  3. Agricultural aviation user requirement priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, R. L.; Meeland, T.; Peterson, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are given of a research project pertaining to the development of agricultural aviation user requirement priorities. The raw data utilized in the project was obtained from the National Agricultural Aviation Association. A specially configured poll, developed by the Actuarial Research Corporation was used to solicit responses from NAAA members and others. The primary product of the poll is the specification of seriousness as determined by the respondents for some selected agricultural aviation problem areas identified and defined during the course of an intensive analysis by the Actuarial Research Corporation.

  4. The Association Between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents’ Economic Well-Being*

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2011-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here empirically models long-term rural residents’ economic well-being, making use of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. In general, the results suggest that long-term rural families residing in high-growth amenity and recreation areas tend to have higher annual incomes than do their counterparts in non-growth amenity/recreation areas, regardless of the sex, race, or age of the family head. However, higher costs-of-living in these areas supplant any relative gains in income. As such, these analyses provide empirical evidence of patterns inferred by earlier anecdotal evidence and case studies. PMID:21874070

  5. Relevance of Health Economics in the Medical Treatment of Breast Cancer: The View of the Professional Association of Practicing Gynecologic Oncologists e.V. (BNGO)

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Georg; Hans-Joachim, Hindenburg; Schilling, Jörg; Klare, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Summary In this article, the position of the Professional Association of Practicing Gynecologic Oncologists e.V. (BNGO) on the health economics of medical breast cancer therapy is presented. The BNGO unites professionals and employees whose principal activity lies in highly specialized gynecologic oncology. In Germany, 139 specialists are united in 128 professional practices. According to § 12 of the Social Code, the oncological services provided by members must be ‘sufficient, effective and economical; they must not exceed what is necessary’. People who are covered by statutory health insurance in Germany are entitled to sufficient benefits. Sufficient measures are measures that benefit the patient with breast cancer and have a positive effect on the course of the disease. In § 35b of the Social Code, the benefit of the patient is defined as ‘improvement in health, shortening of the duration of illness, lengthening of lifespan, reduction of side effects and an improvement in the quality of life’. In the adjuvant situation, the ideal goal is healing; in the palliative situation, the most basic marker is overall survival, while surrogate markers are the progression-free interval, improved quality of life, or diminished symptoms. At the same time, the law on economic assessment stipulates ‘appropriateness and reasonableness of reimbursement by the insured community’. PMID:24715840

  6. Epidemiological approach to the association between economic efficiency and productivity on swine farms in Prince Edward Island.

    PubMed Central

    Van Til, L D; O'Rourke, R L; Dohoo, I R

    1991-01-01

    Regression analysis was used to determine the ability of a number of biological parameters to predict economic efficiency. Detailed feed, financial, and production records were maintained by a random sample of eighteen Prince Edward Island (PEI) swine producers (each producing over 1000 market hogs per year). Relative economic efficiency of the operations was measured using return to management and labor (RML). Of the routinely monitored biological parameters, RML on PEI farrow-finish operations was best predicted (R2 = 64.8%) by: marketed per square meter per year (p = 0.008) and marketed per sow per year (p = 0.096). Regression of fixed costs revealed that biological parameters had limited ability to predict fixed costs per hog on farrow-finish operations (R2 = 30.7%). The only parameter contributing to the prediction of the fixed cost component of RML was feeder hog density (p = 0.077). The variable cost component of RML on farrow-finish operations was predicted (R2 = 94.3%) by feed cost per kg gain (p = 0.000), and marketed per sow per year (p = 0.044). The routinely recorded biological parameters on feeder farms had only limited ability to predict RML in this study (R2 = 43.7%). The only parameter of any importance was marketed per square meter per year (p = 0.106). Prediction of the fixed cost component of RML on feeder farms (R2 = 67.4%) was best realized by measuring feeder hog density (p = 0.045). The variable cost component of RML on feeder farms was reasonably well predicted (R2 = 74.7%) by feed cost per kg gain (p = 0.012). Although this parameter is difficult to monitor from records currently maintained on most farms, it points out the need to monitor feed consumption on swine farms. PMID:1889038

  7. Risk management in HIV/AIDS: ethical and economic issues associated with restricting HAART access only to adherent patients.

    PubMed

    Chawana, Richard; van Bogaert, Donna Knapp

    2011-01-01

    Like many other developing nations, South Africa faces the challenge of mobilising resources in response to the HIV pandemic. There is a large budget gap between the ideal and the actual amount of funding needed to achieve universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In addition to financial demands, new burdens are being placed on HAART programmes with the emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). Thus, a major threat to successful HAART rollout is HIVDR due to non-adherence to HAART. The use of HAART as a primary and secondary HIV-prevention strategy could be ineffective in situations characterised by high rates of non-adherence. In this context, the research looked at issues related to adherence and non-adherence to HAART from the perspective of the provider. Using the software TreeAge Pro 2009, we developed a Markov model to project economic outcomes for a hypothetical cohort of HIV/AIDS patients on HAART. The model compared two scenarios: adherence and non-adherence to HAART. Input data for the model was obtained from existing literature on HAART uptake in South Africa. Moral arguments were analysed and managed through moral reasoning and critical thinking. Discounted lifetime costs for adherent and non-adherent HAART patients in South Africa were estimated at US$9 771 and US$14 762, respectively. The model showed the loss of 4.55 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for non-adherent patients, which could be otherwise gained through improved adherence. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) indicated that restricting HAART access only to adherent patients was the dominant strategy. We suggest that, although not a panacea, the withholding or withdrawal of treatment from non-adherent individuals as a precautionary intervention has economic and moral merit. PMID:25865513

  8. Viewpoint. Community-Supported Agriculture: Opportunities for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Timothy P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Community Farm of Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the context of critical social, economic, and environmental issues related to agriculture and the rural environment and the emerging movement for community-supported agriculture (CSA) in the United States. Discusses how CSA works, biodynamic agriculture, and opportunities for environmental…

  9. Agricultural Education and Training; Annual Review of Selected Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    This annual review of selected developments in agricultural education and training of the United Nations family presents economic and social progress reports of countries dependent upon agriculture. Topics covered are education and training in Africa, deep sea fishing training in Korea, correspondence courses in agriculture, national marketing…

  10. A preliminary study of the statistical analyses and sampling strategies associated with the integration of remote sensing capabilities into the current agricultural crop forecasting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sand, F.; Christie, R.

    1975-01-01

    Extending the crop survey application of remote sensing from small experimental regions to state and national levels requires that a sample of agricultural fields be chosen for remote sensing of crop acreage, and that a statistical estimate be formulated with measurable characteristics. The critical requirements for the success of the application are reviewed in this report. The problem of sampling in the presence of cloud cover is discussed. Integration of remotely sensed information about crops into current agricultural crop forecasting systems is treated on the basis of the USDA multiple frame survey concepts, with an assumed addition of a new frame derived from remote sensing. Evolution of a crop forecasting system which utilizes LANDSAT and future remote sensing systems is projected for the 1975-1990 time frame.

  11. Association of Low-Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother’s Education, Socio-Economic Status, and Birth Interval Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Shafiqur; Howlader, Tamanna; Masud, Mohammad Shahed; Rahman, Mohammad Lutfor

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children under five years remains a significant problem in Bangladesh, despite substantial socio-economic progress and a decade of interventions aimed at improving it. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the important risk factors of malnutrition, none of them assess the role of low birth weight (LBW) despite its high prevalence (36%). This study examines the association between LBW and malnutrition using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 and provides practical guidelines for improving nutritional status of children. Methods Malnutrition in children is measured in terms of their height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age. Children whose Z-scores for either of these indices are below two standard deviations (–2SD) from median of WHO’s reference population are considered as stunted, wasted or underweight, respectively. The association between malnutrition and LBW was investigated by calculating adjusted risk-ratio (RR), which controls for potential confounders such as child’s age and sex, mother’s education and height, length of preceding-birth-interval, access to food, area of residence, household socio-economic status. Adjusted RR was calculated using both Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel approach and multivariable logistic regression models controlling for confounder. Results The prevalence of malnutrition was markedly higher in children with LBW than those with normal birth-weights (stunting: 51% vs 39%; wasting: 25% vs 14% and underweight: 52% vs 33%). While controlling for the known risk factors, children with LBW had significantly increased risk of becoming malnourished compared to their counter part with RR 1.23 (95% CI:1.16–1.30), 1.71 (95% CI:1.53–1.92) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.38–1.56) for stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The observed associations were not modified by factors known to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition, such as higher education of

  12. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  13. NASA's Agricultural Program: A USDA/Grower Partnership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKellip, Rodney; Thomas, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Ag20/20 is a partnership between USDA, NASA, and four national commodity associations. It is driven by the information needs of U.S. farmers. Ag20/20 is focused on utilization of earth science and remote sensing for decision-making and oriented toward economically viable operational solutions. Its purpose is to accelerate the use of remote sensing and other geospatial technologies on the farm to: 1) Increase the production efficiency of the American farmer; 2) Reduce crop production risks; 3) Improve environmental stewardship tools for agricultural production.

  14. Evaluating the ecological association of casino industry economic development on community health status: a natural experiment in the Mississippi delta region.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Simoes, Eduardo J; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Wang, Xueyuan; Brown, Lovetta

    2007-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to examine for associations of casino industry economic development on improving community health status and funding for public health services in two counties in the Mississippi Delta Region of the United States. An ecological approach was used to evaluate whether two counties with casino gaming had improved health status and public health funding in comparison with two noncasino counties in the same region with similar social, racial, and ethic backgrounds. Variables readily available from state health department records were used to develop a logic model for guiding analytical work. A linear regression model was built using a stepwise approach and hierarchical regression principles with many dependent variables and a set of fixed and nonfixed independent variables. County-level data for 23 variables over an 11-year period were used. Overall, this study found a lack of association between the presence of a casino and desirable health outcomes or funding for public health services. Changes in the environment were made to promote health by utilizing gaming revenues to build state-of-the-art community health and wellness centers and sports facilities. However, significant increases in funding for local public health services were not found in either of the counties with casinos. These findings are relevant for policy makers when debating economic development strategies. Analysis similar to this should be combined with other routine public health assessments after implementation of development strategies to increase knowledge of health outcome trends and shifts in socioeconomic position that may be expected to accrue from economic development projects. PMID:17299329

  15. Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J; Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-28

    Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007-8 (T1) and 2010-11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5-12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0.035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups. PMID:24775601

  16. Investigating the association between weather conditions, calendar events and socio-economic patterns with trends in fire incidence: an Australian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Jonathan; Higgs, Gary; Rohde, David; Chhetri, Prem

    2011-06-01

    Fires in urban areas can cause significant economic, physical and psychological damage. Despite this, there has been a comparative lack of research into the spatial and temporal analysis of fire incidence in urban contexts. In this paper, we redress this gap through an exploration of the association of fire incidence to weather, calendar events and socio-economic characteristics in South-East Queensland, Australia using innovative technique termed the quad plot. Analysing trends in five fire incident types, including malicious false alarms (hoax calls), residential buildings, secondary (outdoor), vehicle and suspicious fires, results suggest that risk associated with all is greatly increased during school holidays and during long weekends. For all fire types the lowest risk of incidence was found to occur between one and six a.m. It was also found that there was a higher fire incidence in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods and there was some evidence to suggest that there may be a compounding impact of high temperatures in such areas. We suggest that these findings may be used to guide the operations of fire services through spatial and temporal targeting to better utilise finite resources, help mitigate risk and reduce casualties.

  17. 7 CFR 1942.116 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Economic feasibility requirements. 1942.116 Section 1942.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Facilities Projects § 1942.116 Economic feasibility requirements. All projects financed under this...

  18. 7 CFR 1942.116 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Economic feasibility requirements. 1942.116 Section 1942.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Facilities Projects § 1942.116 Economic feasibility requirements. All projects financed under this...

  19. 7 CFR 1942.116 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Economic feasibility requirements. 1942.116 Section 1942.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Facilities Projects § 1942.116 Economic feasibility requirements. All projects financed under this...

  20. 7 CFR 1942.116 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Economic feasibility requirements. 1942.116 Section 1942.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Facilities Projects § 1942.116 Economic feasibility requirements. All projects financed under this...

  1. 7 CFR 1942.116 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic feasibility requirements. 1942.116 Section 1942.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Facilities Projects § 1942.116 Economic feasibility requirements. All projects financed under this...

  2. Representative Agricultural Pathways: A Trans-Disciplinary Approach to Agricultural Model Inter-comparison, Improvement, Climate Impact Assessment and Stakeholder Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antle, J. M.; Valdivia, R. O.; Claessens, L.; Nelson, G. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, A. C.; Vervoort, J.

    2013-12-01

    The global change research community has recognized that new pathway and scenario concepts are needed to implement impact and vulnerability assessment that is logically consistent across local, regional and global scales. For impact and vulnerability assessment, new socio-economic pathway and scenario concepts are being developed. Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs) are designed to extend global pathways to provide the detail needed for global and regional assessment of agricultural systems. In addition, research by the Agricultural Model Inter-comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) shows that RAPs provide a powerful way to engage stakeholders in climate-related research throughout the research process and in communication of research results. RAPs are based on the integrated assessment framework developed by AgMIP. This framework shows that both bio-physical and socio-economic drivers are essential components of agricultural pathways and logically precede the definition of adaptation and mitigation scenarios that embody associated capabilities and challenges. This approach is based on a trans-disciplinary process for designing pathways and then translating them into parameter sets for bio-physical and economic models that are components of agricultural integrated assessments of climate impact, adaptation and mitigation. RAPs must be designed to be part of a logically consistent set of drivers and outcomes from global to regional and local. Global RAPs are designed to be consistent with higher-level global socio-economic pathways, but add key agricultural drivers such as agricultural growth trends that are not specified in more general pathways, as illustrated in a recent inter-comparison of global agricultural models. To create pathways at regional or local scales, further detail is needed. At this level, teams of scientists and other experts with knowledge of the agricultural systems and regions work together through a step-wise process. Experiences

  3. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bryony A.; Grace, Delia; Kock, Richard; Alonso, Silvia; Rushton, Jonathan; Said, Mohammed Y.; McKeever, Declan; Mutua, Florence; Young, Jarrah; McDermott, John; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agriculture–environment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence. PMID:23671097

  4. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  5. Development paths of China's agricultural Pharmaceutical industry under Eco-agriculture background.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinkai; Gong, Liutang; Ji, Xi; Zhang, Jin; Miao, Pei

    2014-07-01

    Using pesticides has double effects. On one hand, it contributes to pests control and regulates the growth of crops; On the other hand, it does harm to the environment. To develop ecological agriculture should not only emphasize the output level of agriculture to pursuit of economic efficiency, but also need to keep the ecological environment protected and focus on the social benefits during the development of the industry. As a large agricultural country in the world, China is vigorously promoting the development of ecological agriculture, which is bound to put forward to developing the pesticide industry and green ecological development requirements to promote the transformation and upgrading of agricultural pharmaceutical industry. This paper discusses the mechanism of pesticide pollution on the ecological environment and analyzes China's agricultural problems in the pharmaceutical industry. Then study on the development of Chinese green pesticides and try to find the proper paths of agricultural pharmaceutical to achieve industrial upgrading. PMID:25016265

  6. Recreational music-making: an integrative group intervention for reducing burnout and improving mood states in first year associate degree nursing students: insights and economic impact.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Barry B; Snyder, Cherie; Bruhn, Karl T; Liebfreid, Fran; Stevens, Christine K; Westengard, James; Umbach, Paul O

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of providing exemplary undergraduate nursing education cannot be underestimated in an era when burnout and negative mood states predictably lead to alarming rates of academic as well as career attrition. While the multi-dimensional nature of this complex issue has been extensively elucidated, few rational strategies exist to reverse a disheartening trend recognizable early in the educational process that subsequently threatens to undermine the future viability of quality healthcare. This controlled prospective crossover study examined the impact of a 6-session Recreational Music-making (RMM) protocol on burnout and mood dimensions as well as Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in first year associate level nursing students. A total of 75 first year associate degree nursing students from Allegany College of Maryland (ACM) participated in a 6-session RMM protocol focusing on group support and stress reduction utilizing a specific group drumming protocol. Burnout and mood dimensions were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Profile of Mood States respectively. Statistically significant reductions of multiple burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD scores were noted. Potential annual cost savings for the typical associate degree nursing program (16,800 dollars) and acute care hospital (322,000 dollars) were projected by an independent economic analysis firm. A cost-effective 6-session RMM protocol reduces burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD in associate degree nursing students. PMID:16646877

  7. Binge drinking among Brazilian students: a gradient of association with socioeconomic status in five geo-economics regions

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Zila M; Locatelli, Danilo P; Noto, Ana R; Martins, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Aims 1) To describe the characteristics of binge drinking (BD) among high school students in Brazil and 2) the association of BD with students' socioeconomic status (SES) in the five different Brazilian macroregions. Design A national multistage probabilistic sample of high school students. Setting Students were drawn from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals. Participants 17,297 high school students, aged 14 to 18 years. Measurement Self-report data about BD practices and SES were analyzed via weighted logistic regressions and a funnel plot. Findings Almost 32% of the students engaged in BD in the past-year. Being in the highest SES stratum doubled the risk of BD among students in all five Brazilian macroregions. There was a gradient in the association between past-year BD and socioeconomic status: as SES increased; the chance of having recently engaged in BD also increased. In the Brazilian capitals as a whole, boys versus girls (aOR = 1.40 [95% CI 1.26 to 1.58]), being older (aOR = 1.47 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.55] per each additional year of age) and those attending private schools versus public schools (aOR = 1.39 [95% CI 1.18 to 1.62]), were at greater risk for BD. Conclusions Contrary to what is observed in developed countries, students living in Brazilian capitals may be at an increased risk of BD when they belong to the highest socioeconomic status. Adolescents growing up in other emerging economies might have the same association between high SES and BD. PMID:22771006

  8. Association of teriparatide adherence and persistence with clinical and economic outcomes in Medicare Part D recipients: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Improper medication adherence is associated with increased morbidity, healthcare costs, and fracture risk among patients with osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the healthcare utilization patterns of Medicare Part D beneficiaries newly initiating teriparatide, and to assess the association of medication adherence and persistence with bone fracture. Methods This retrospective cohort study assessed medical and pharmacy claims of 761 Medicare members initiating teriparatide in 2008 and 2009. Baseline characteristics, healthcare use, and healthcare costs 12 and 24 months after teriparatide initiation, were summarized. Adherence, measured by Proportion of Days Covered (PDC), was categorized as high (PDC ≥ 80%), moderate (50% ≥ PDC < 80%), and low (PDC < 50%). Non-persistence was measured as refill gaps in subsequent claims longer than 60 days plus the days of supply from the previous claim. Multivariate logistic regression evaluated the association of adherence and persistence with fracture rates at 12 months. Results Within 12 months of teriparatide initiation, 21% of the cohort was highly-adherent. Low-adherent or non-persistent patients visited the ER more frequently than did their highly-adherent or persistent counterparts (χ2 = 5.01, p < 0.05 and χ2 = 5.84, p < 0.05), and had significantly lower mean pharmacy costs ($4,361 versus $13,472 and $4,757 versus $13,187, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, non-persistent patients had significantly lower total healthcare costs. The healthcare costs of highly-adherent patients were largely pharmacy-related. Similar patterns were observed in the 222 patients who had fractures at 12 months, among whom 89% of fracture-related costs were pharmacy-related. The regression models demonstrated no significant association of adherence or persistence with 12-month fractures. Six months before initiating teriparatide, 50.7% of the cohort had experienced at least 1

  9. Seasonal Climate Forecasts and Adoption by Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Jurgen; Meinke, Holger; Sivakumar, Mannava V. K.; Motha, Raymond P.; Salinger, Michael J.

    2005-06-01

    Recent advances in atmospheric and ocean sciences and a better understanding of the global climate have led to skillful climate forecasts at seasonal to interannual timescales, even in midlatitudes. These scientific advances and forecasting capabilities have opened the door to practical applications that benefit society. The benefits include the reduction of weather/climate related risks and vulnerability, increased economic opportunities, enhanced food security, mitigation of adverse climate impacts, protection of environmental quality, and so forth. Agriculture in particular can benefit substantially from accurate long-lead seasonal climate forecasts. Indeed, agricultural production very much depends on weather, climate, and water availability, and unexpected departures from anticipated climate conditions can thwart the best laid management plans. Timely climate forecasts offer means to reduce losses in drought years, increase profitability in good years, deal more effectively with climate variability, and choose from targeted risk-management strategies. In addition to benefiting farmers, forecasts can also help marketing systems and downstream users prepare for anticipated production outcomes and associated consequences.

  10. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  11. The Role of Agriculture in the Social and Economic Development of the Lower Mississippi River Delta Region. Proceedings of a Regional Conference (Memphis, Tennessee, February 26-28, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Ames, IA.

    The lower Mississippi River delta region comprises 214 counties in Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Illinois. The region is heavily dependent on agriculture and contains unusually high proportions of small farms, poor farmers, and black farmers. A conference planned by the region's 13 land-grant institutions and…

  12. Genomic Sequencing Procedure Microcosting Analysis and Health Economic Cost-Impact Analysis: A Report of the Association for Molecular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Linda M; Mathews, Charles; Ptak, Devon; Doshi, Shivang; Tynan, Katherine; Hegde, Madhuri R; Burke, Tara L; Bossler, Aaron D

    2016-05-01

    The increasing use of advanced nucleic acid sequencing technologies for clinical diagnostics and therapeutics has made vital understanding the costs of performing these procedures and their value to patients, providers, and payers. The Association for Molecular Pathology invested in a cost and value analysis of specific genomic sequencing procedures (GSPs) newly coded by the American Medical Association Current Procedural Terminology Editorial Panel. Cost data and work effort, including the development and use of data analysis pipelines, were gathered from representative laboratories currently performing these GSPs. Results were aggregated to generate representative cost ranges given the complexity and variability of performing the tests. Cost-impact models for three clinical scenarios were generated with assistance from key opinion leaders: impact of using a targeted gene panel in optimizing care for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, use of a targeted gene panel in the diagnosis and management of patients with sensorineural hearing loss, and exome sequencing in the diagnosis and management of children with neurodevelopmental disorders of unknown genetic etiology. Each model demonstrated value by either reducing health care costs or identifying appropriate care pathways. The templates generated will aid laboratories in assessing their individual costs, considering the value structure in their own patient populations, and contributing their data to the ongoing dialogue regarding the impact of GSPs on improving patient care. PMID:27080370

  13. 78 FR 70281 - United States-Mexico High Level Economic Dialogue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Relationship; Customs; and Border Master Plans. II. Fostering Economic Growth, Productivity, Entrepreneurship...) Economic Empowerment of Women;(8) Entrepreneurship; (9) Food and Agricultural Trade; (10)...

  14. The association of socio-economic factors with physical fitness and activity behaviours, spinal posture and retinal vessel parameters in first graders in urban Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Katharina; Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars; Bean-Eisenhut, Salome; Hanssen, Henner; Zahner, Lukas

    2016-07-01

    Socio-economic status during childhood has been shown to be a strong predictor of adult health outcome. Therefore, we examined associations of parental educational level, household income and migrant background with physical fitness, spinal flexibility, spinal posture as well as retinal vessel diameters in children of an urban Swiss region. A total of 358 first graders of the Swiss canton Basel-Stadt (age: 7.3, SD: 0.4) were examined. Physical fitness (20 m shuttle run test, 20 m sprint, jumping sidewards and balancing backwards), spinal flexibility and spinal posture (MediMouse(®), Idiag, Fehraltdorf, Switzerland) and retinal microcirculation (Static Retinal Vessel Analyzer, Imedos Systems UG, Jena, Germany) were assessed. Parental education, household income, migrant background and activity behaviour were evaluated with a questionnaire. Parental education was associated with child aerobic fitness (P = 0.03) and screen time (P < 0.001). Household income was associated with jumping sidewards (P = 0.009), balancing backwards (P = 0.03) and sports club participation (P = 0.02). Migrant background was associated with BMI (P = 0.001), body fat (P = 0.03), aerobic fitness (P = 0.007), time spent playing outdoors (P < 0.001) and screen time (P < 0.001). For spinal flexibility and retinal vessel diameter, no associations were found (0.06 < P < 0.8). Low parental education, low household income and a migrant background are associated with poor physical fitness, higher BMI and body fat percentage and low-activity behaviour. PMID:26548899

  15. Economic Literacy among Corporate Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, William C.; Doyle, Joanne M.

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of a telephone survey of employees (n=1001) of large corporations (n=7) conducted for the Business Roundtable. Embeds 20 questions keyed to the Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics to measure economic literacy. Finds that economic literacy was associated with education level, courses in economics, high income, and…

  16. 7 CFR 1779.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic feasibility requirements. 1779.47 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.47 Economic... the credit quality and economic feasibility of the proposed loan and must address all elements of...

  17. 7 CFR 3575.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic feasibility requirements. 3575.47 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.47 Economic feasibility... the credit quality and economic feasibility of the proposed loan and must address all elements of...

  18. 7 CFR 1779.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic feasibility requirements. 1779.47 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.47 Economic... the credit quality and economic feasibility of the proposed loan and must address all elements of...

  19. 7 CFR 1779.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Economic feasibility requirements. 1779.47 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.47 Economic... the credit quality and economic feasibility of the proposed loan and must address all elements of...

  20. 7 CFR 1779.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Economic feasibility requirements. 1779.47 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.47 Economic... the credit quality and economic feasibility of the proposed loan and must address all elements of...