Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural economics research

  1. 78 FR 25691 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, and the Under Secretary of Research, Education, and Economics Dr...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA....

  2. Developing Transferable Research Skills in First Year Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppi, Tony; Nolan, Elizabeth; Field, Damien

    2010-01-01

    A problem-based learning approach was adopted for a unit of study in first year agricultural economics at the University of Sydney with the aim of starting development of students' research skills earlier than usual. The novel teaching approach employed a structured and guided problem activity in the first semester and progressed to a more…

  3. 78 FR 52496 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. 77 FR 64794 - Cancellation of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Cancellation of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board scheduled for October 23-25, 2012 has been cancelled....

  5. 77 FR 11064 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20250-0321. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: J. Robert Burk, Executive Director or Shirley Morgan-Jordan, Program Support Coordinator, National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board; telephone: (202) 536-6547; fax: (202) 720-6199; or email:...

  6. 75 FR 12171 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Tuesday, March 30, 2010 a focus session on the topic of Food Security will begin at 8 a.m. and adjourn at... on Food Security and draft preliminary recommendations. An opportunity for public comment will be..., extension, education, and economic programs for the protection of U.S. food, fiber, fuel and...

  7. Fuel ethanol and agriculture: an economic assessment. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, G.; Gavett, E.

    1986-08-01

    Increased fuel ethanol production through 1995 would raise net farm income, benefiting mainly corn and livestock producers. Production of additional byproduct feeds would depress the price of soybeans. Large ethanol subsidies, which are required to sustain the industry, would offset any savings in agricultural commodity programs. Increased ethanol production would also raise consumer expenditures for food. Any benefits of higher income to farmers would be more than offset by increased Government costs and consumer food expenditures. Direct cash payments to farmers would be more economical than attempting to boost farm income through ethanol subsidies.

  8. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  9. Intellectual Investment in Agriculture for Economic and Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In a project of agricultural research, education, and advice for economic growth and development, data was obtained from 14 countries and summarized with implications for action. Chapters in the report discuss: (1) Intellectual Investment and Economic and Social Development, (2) Intellectual Investment in Agriculture, (3) Agronomic Research, (4)…

  10. A Comparative Economic Analysis of North-Central New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 211.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Garrey E.; Eastman, Clyde

    North-Central New Mexico has many of the problems common to other rural areas. Unemployment and underemployment rates tend to be high and per capita income relatively low. This study evaluated regional economic performance over a 19-year period (1949-1968) as compared to other regions and the nation. Shift analysis (a means of examining regional…

  11. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  12. Agricultural Research Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protection Crop Production and Protection Natural Resources and Sustainable Agricultural Systems Nutrition, Food Safety, and Quality Overseas ... LA, MS, NC, PR, SC) Footer Content ARS Home | USDA.gov | Site Map | Statements and Disclaimers | Plain ...

  13. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  14. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  15. Climate change effects on agriculture: economic responses to biophysical shocks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gerald C; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-03-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change. PMID:24344285

  16. Climate change effects on agriculture: economic responses to biophysical shocks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gerald C; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-03-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  17. 7 CFR 2.67 - Administrator, Economic Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with agricultural science, education, and development activities, including library and information... 2.67 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF... Research, Education, and Economics § 2.67 Administrator, Economic Research Service. (a)...

  18. 78 FR 44092 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Solicitation for membership. SUMMARY: The notice announced the USDA's request for membership on the National Agricultural...

  19. Agricultural Modernization and Economic Inequality: The Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Aruna Nayyar

    1978-01-01

    Argues that agriculture production in developing nations should be organized to ensure economic viability. Government policy must emphasize participants' productive capacities and integrate agricultural workers into the new organization of production. (Author/DB)

  20. Quantitative studies in public and agricultural economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Adele Cecile

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation contains three essays. The first is entitled "Property Tax Treatment of Farmland: Does Tax Relief Delay Land Development?" I investigate use-value assessment, a state policy allowing farmland to be assessed at its agriculture-only value, rather than its full market value. Using Census data from 2963 counties over 1959--1987, I test the effect of use-value assessment on the proportion of county land in farming. Estimates indicate that after adoption, use-value assessment produced a gradually increasing proportion of farmland relative to counties who did not have the policy. The effect rose to ten percentage points more land in farming after twenty years. I present a model of the landowner's decision to develop farmland for urban uses and derive the effect of use-value assessment policy on the optimal development timing. The second essay is "State and Local Government Employment: Do Governments Respond Asymmetrically to Changes in Incomes?" I develop models for changes in government employment that allow an asymmetric response to increases and decreases in per capita private income to see whether government employment increases more in years of economic growth than it decreases in years of economic decline. I develop a model that does not require special assumptions to predict a positive relationship between the dependent and independent variables, and estimate it with U.S. Census data from 1970 to 1991 for 48 states. Results demonstrate symmetrical government employment response to incomes and are quite robust, holding consistently for several functional forms and other specifications of asymmetric response. I find that Democratic and Republican governors hire equivalently, but may slow layoffs in election years. The third essay is "Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Soil Management in Crop Production." I develop a theoretical model for optimal factor intensity (input per unit output). Using cross-sectional data from USDA's 1996

  1. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d’Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2. The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change. PMID:24344285

  2. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Gerald; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Mueller, C.; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2013-12-16

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and will thus be directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the IPCC’s Representative Concentration Pathway that result in end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 watts per square meter. The mean biophysical impact on crop yield with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17 percent reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11 percent, increase area of major crops by 12 percent, and reduce consumption by 2 percent. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences includes model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  3. Agricultural Economics Students at Southern Land Grant Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, John L.; And Others

    Data were obtained in 1977 via mail questionnaires sent to students at all 1890 and 1860 Land Grant Universities in the South with programs in agriculture, to examine selected background characteristics and subjective perspectives of agricultural economics majors, compared with majors in production sciences and all agriculture curricula. The…

  4. 7 CFR 2.67 - Administrator, Economic Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and social science research and analyses relating to: (i) Food and agriculture situation and outlook...) Perform economic and other social science research under section 104(b)(1) and (3) of the Agricultural... Administrator, other agencies, or before the courts. (5) Review economic data and analyses used in speeches...

  5. Advances in agricultural research. [Review

    SciTech Connect

    Leepson, M.

    1981-05-22

    Several factors could have disastrous consequences for the world's food supply, namely: shrinking agricultural acreage; increasing population; decreasing productivity gains in most crops; heavy dependence on petroleum-based pesticides and fertilizers; and genetic vulnerability. Many feel that solutions to these potentially grave problems lie in expanding agricultural research, with particular focus on age-old plant-breeding techniques. The newest plant-breeding technology, genetic engineering (also called recombinant DNA technology), could some day allow biologists to design actually new genetic material rather than just manipulate genetic material already present in crops. Most scientists foresee imminent breakthroughs with recombinant DNA technology and plant breeding, but warn the practial applications may be decades away - perhaps 20 to 50 years. Many of the larger chemical companies are working in the following areas of agriculture R and D: nitrogen fixation; plant growth regulants; photosynthesis; recombinant DNA; plant genetics; and soybean hybrids. New progress in hydroponic technology is reported briefly. Germ plasm collection and storage is being pursued in the US, Soviet Union, and Mexico; US activities are summarized. In addition to the chemical-company efforts in R and D, there have been many acquisitions of seed companies by some of the nation's largest corporations in the last decade; a significant difference of opinion exists as to what this growing corporate involvement portends for agriculture. 49 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  6. 7 CFR 63.12 - Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics. 63.12 Section 63.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics of the U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  7. Scientific Research and Agricultural Innovation in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-David, Joseph; Katz, Shaul

    1975-01-01

    Traces the development and interrelationships of agriculture and agricultural research in Israel since 1920, concluding that major contributing factors to successful relationship between research and production in agriculture are a rise in the educational level of the agricultural population and a thorough knowledge of the soil and climate. (JT)

  8. Challenges for global agricultural research.

    PubMed

    Blake, R O

    1992-03-01

    The Green Revolution of the 60s can not be expected to continue to feed the world as its population continues to grow. Innovations in plant varieties, chemical inputs, and irrigation did result in more food; however, the cost of this innovation was loss of soil and fertility, poisoning of ground water, waterlogging, and salination of fields. If the world's food production system is to be sustainable and environmentally safe as well as capable of producing 50% more food in the next 20 years, then a lot of research must still be done. Now, instead of 2 international research centers, there are 17. All these centers are operated under the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Another 12 center are currently being set up or cooperating with CGIAR. The scientists are also being asked to develop cost and labor effective ways to improve the soil and conserve water. This change of priorities has come about partly from external pressure, but mostly from: the realization that agricultural productivity must continue to grow at unprecedented rates for the next 4 decades; chemical inputs are often to expensive, unavailable, or dangerous, there is very little room for expanding irrigation; national /agricultural research and extension centers have become underfunded, overly politicized, and ineffective; developing countries can not rely solely upon their fertile land to feed their people, they must bring marginal land into production. To accomplish all this, the World Bank must take a leadership role. It is the only organization with enough money and political power to effectively bring everyone together.

  9. Challenges for global agricultural research.

    PubMed

    Blake, R O

    1992-03-01

    The Green Revolution of the 60s can not be expected to continue to feed the world as its population continues to grow. Innovations in plant varieties, chemical inputs, and irrigation did result in more food; however, the cost of this innovation was loss of soil and fertility, poisoning of ground water, waterlogging, and salination of fields. If the world's food production system is to be sustainable and environmentally safe as well as capable of producing 50% more food in the next 20 years, then a lot of research must still be done. Now, instead of 2 international research centers, there are 17. All these centers are operated under the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Another 12 center are currently being set up or cooperating with CGIAR. The scientists are also being asked to develop cost and labor effective ways to improve the soil and conserve water. This change of priorities has come about partly from external pressure, but mostly from: the realization that agricultural productivity must continue to grow at unprecedented rates for the next 4 decades; chemical inputs are often to expensive, unavailable, or dangerous, there is very little room for expanding irrigation; national /agricultural research and extension centers have become underfunded, overly politicized, and ineffective; developing countries can not rely solely upon their fertile land to feed their people, they must bring marginal land into production. To accomplish all this, the World Bank must take a leadership role. It is the only organization with enough money and political power to effectively bring everyone together. PMID:12284925

  10. Teaching Agricultural Ethics in the Agricultural Economics Curriculum. Faculty Paper Series 86-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Paul B.

    The undergraduate course in agricultural ethics has been under development at Texas A&M University for four years. The course that has evolved is the result of discussion between the philosophy and agriculture departments. The course attempts to incorporate basic economic principles that affect agriculture as well as to tie these principles to…

  11. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

  12. Economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production within a biomass system

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Flaim, S.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production in the United States is discussed. The beverage fermentation processes are compared and contrasted with the wet milling of corn, and alternative agricultural products for alcohol production are discussed. Alcohol costs for different fermentation methods and for various agricultural crops (corn, sugar cane, sugar beets, etc.) are presented, along with a brief discussion of US government policy implications. (JMT)

  13. Economic and Social Factors in Mate Selection: An Ethnographic Analysis of an Agricultural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Brown, Karen; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the impact of a variety of causal factors--economic, social, familial, and dyadic--on ethnoreligious marriages over 50 years in an Illinois agricultural community. Indicated that economic and social factors were more powerful influences in mate selection than is evident in much of the current research on premarital relationships.…

  14. Agriculture sector resource and environmental policy analysis: an economic and biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    House, R; McDowell, H; Peters, M; Heimlich, R

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural pollution of the environment is jointly determined by economic decisions driving land use, production practices, and stochastic biophysical processes associated with agricultural production, land and climate characteristics. It follows that environmental and economic statistics, traditionally collected independently of each other, offer little insight into non-point pollutant loadings. We argue that effective policy development would be facilitated by integrating environmental and economic data gathering, combined with simulation modelling linking economic and biophysical components. Integrated data collection links economics, land use, production methods and environmental loadings. An integrated economic/biophysical modelling framework facilitates policy analysis because monetary incentives to reduce pollution can be evaluated in the context of market costs and returns that influence land use and production activity. This allows prediction of environmental and economic outcomes from alternative policies to solve environmental problems. We highlight steps taken to merge economic and biophysical modelling for policy analysis within the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. An example analysis of a policy to reduce agricultural nitrogen pollution is presented, with the economic and environmental results illustrating the value of linked economic and biophysical analysis. PMID:10231835

  15. 7 CFR 2.67 - Administrator, Economic Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and social science research and analyses relating to: (i) Food and agriculture situation and outlook... problems; and (v) Rural people and communities, as authorized by title II of the Agricultural Marketing Act...) Perform economic and other social science research under section 104(b)(1) and (3) of the...

  16. 78 FR 23885 - Agricultural Research Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ..., Agricultural Research Service, intends to grant to Headwall Photonics, Inc. of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, an... public interest to so license these inventions as Headwall Photonics, Inc. of Fitchburg,...

  17. Assessment of the economic effects of ozone on US agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.M.; Hamilton, S.A.; McCarl, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Past attempts to measure the economic consequences of ozone on agriculture have been based on limited plant science information. This paper reports on an economic assessment of ozone on US agriculture using recent crop response data from the National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN). The results are derived from a US agricultural sector model that includes major crop and livestock production as well as domestic consumption, livestock feeding and export uses. The economic effects of four hypothetical ambient ozone levels are investigated. The analysis indicates that the benefits to society of moderate (25%) ozone reductions are approximately $1.7 billion. A 25% increase in ozone pollution results in cost (negative benefits) of $2.1 billion. These estimates do not reflect compliance costs of achieving the ozone changes and hence are not net benefits.

  18. Priorities for Research in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Guerrero, Luis; Sutphin, H. Dean

    1990-01-01

    Twenty agricultural education experts identified research topics and categories, which were then rated by 34 research experts (92 percent) and 49 department heads (79 percent). Highest ratings went to biotechnology, high technology, and agribusiness; agricultural education curriculum; and long-term impact and cost effectiveness of agricultural…

  19. An Economic Analysis of USDA Erosion Control Programs: A New Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 560.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Roger, Ed.

    A study analyzed the total (public and private) economic costs and benefits of three U.S. Department of Agriculture erosion control programs. These were the Conservation Technical Assistance Program, Great Plains Conservation Program, and Agricultural Conservation Program. Significant efforts at funding for current programs were directed to…

  20. Land Resources for Crop Production. Agricultural Economic Report Number 572.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexem, Roger; Krupa, Kenneth S.

    About 35 million acres not being cultivated have high potential for crop use and 117 million more have medium potential, according to the 1982 National Resources Inventory (NRI) conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA committees evaluated the economic potential for converting land based on physical characteristics of the soil; size…

  1. Home Economics Education, Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    Annotations on selected home economics research studies published since 1963 are presented. Program development studies summarize data on such topics as teacher and supervisor involvement in curriculum planning, comparison of instructional methods, curriculum evaluation, preparation for gainful employment, family finance, and attitudes toward the…

  2. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  3. New directions at TVA with special reference to agricultural research

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.J.; Rylant, K.E.

    1994-03-01

    Public Support for the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) fertilizer research and development program in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, ended in fiscal year 1993. TVA`s research center at Muscle Shoals, formerly known as the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center, is now the TVA Environmental Research Center. Efforts at the Center have diversified to include research and support areas of Agricultural Research and Practices, Atmospheric Sciences, Biotechnology, Waste Management, and Remediation, Environmental Site Remediation, Support Services, Environmental Management, and Technology Transfer. ``We`re building on the expertise and success of our earlier research and focusing our new projects on emerging problems of the 21st century,`` TVA`s Chairman Craven Crowell said in prepared remarks to Congress on March 2, 1994. Agricultural Research in TVA has been aligned with corporate objectives to develop solutions to environmental problems of regional, national and international significance because the agency`s business incorporates a broad mix of responsibilities, including power generation, navigation, flood control, shoreline management, recreation, environmental research, and economic development. Agricultural strategies for watershed protection lie at the core of TVA`s new agricultural research agenda. The major influences for this agenda are TVA`s direct stewardship responsibilities for the 60,000 miles of streams that feed the 652-mile-long Tennessee River; the 11,000 miles of shoreline; and 470,000 acres of TVA-managed public land.

  4. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  5. Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

  6. Gaps in agricultural climate adaptation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Debra

    2016-05-01

    The value of the social sciences to climate change research is well recognized, but notable gaps remain in the literature on adaptation in agriculture. Contributions focus on farmer behaviour, with important research regarding gender, social networks and institutions remaining under-represented.

  7. A generic bio-economic farm model for environmental and economic assessment of agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Sander; Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K

    2010-12-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  8. A generic bio-economic farm model for environmental and economic assessment of agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Sander; Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K

    2010-12-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models.

  9. A Generic Bio-Economic Farm Model for Environmental and Economic Assessment of Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  10. Discovering Information Use in Agricultural Economics: A Citation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2007-01-01

    This citation study investigated the research needs and activity of U.S. agricultural economists. Journals were the dominant format of cited sources. Books, government publications, and working papers formed the other important types of references, whereas electronic sources were sparsely used. Subject scatter in this interdisciplinary field was…

  11. The Omics Revolution in Agricultural Research.

    PubMed

    Van Emon, Jeanette M

    2016-01-13

    The Agrochemicals Division cosponsored the 13th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held as part of the 248th National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society in San Francisco, CA, USA, August 10-14, 2014. The topic of the Congress was Crop, Environment, and Public Health Protection; Technologies for a Changing World. Over 1000 delegates participated in the Congress with interactive scientific programming in nine major topic areas including the challenges and opportunities of agricultural biotechnology. Plenary speakers addressed global issues related to the Congress theme prior to the daily technical sessions. The plenary lecture addressing the challenges and opportunities that omic technologies provide agricultural research is presented here. The plenary lecture provided the diverse audience with information on a complex subject to stimulate research ideas and provide a glimpse of the impact of omics on agricultural research.

  12. The Omics Revolution in Agricultural Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Agrochemicals Division cosponsored the 13th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held as part of the 248th National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society in San Francisco, CA, USA, August 10–14, 2014. The topic of the Congress was Crop, Environment, and Public Health Protection; Technologies for a Changing World. Over 1000 delegates participated in the Congress with interactive scientific programming in nine major topic areas including the challenges and opportunities of agricultural biotechnology. Plenary speakers addressed global issues related to the Congress theme prior to the daily technical sessions. The plenary lecture addressing the challenges and opportunities that omic technologies provide agricultural research is presented here. The plenary lecture provided the diverse audience with information on a complex subject to stimulate research ideas and provide a glimpse of the impact of omics on agricultural research. PMID:26468989

  13. 7 CFR 2.63 - Deputy Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics. 2.63 Section 2.63 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by...

  14. 7 CFR 2.63 - Deputy Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics. 2.63 Section 2.63 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by...

  15. Focusing Agricultural Education Research: The Challenge of the 1990's and Beyond. Proceedings of the National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (17th, Cincinnati, Ohio, November 30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A., Comp.

    Selected titles among the 51 papers accepted for presentation or publication by the 1990 meeting of a yearly forum for agricultural research presentation include the following: "Effectiveness of Beginning Scholars Program in Attracting High Ability Students to the College of Agriculture and Home Economics" (Lester, Graham); "Analysis of Enrollment…

  16. Research careers for microbiologists in the USDA Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) employees microbiologists in a wide variety of diverse positions. This includes work involving animal health, infectious diseases and food safety. Various agencies within the USDA are responsible for monit...

  17. Reaping the Return on Agricultural Research and Education in Virginia. Information Series 93-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, George W.; Paczkowski, Remi

    This report focuses upon the economic and other contributions that agricultural research and education have made to Virginia over the past 40 years. Agricultural research, extension, and classroom instruction contribute in the following ways to Virginia's citizens: increased supplies and reduced costs, improved competitiveness, multiplier effects…

  18. Economic Analysis of Nitrate Source Reductions in California Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Howitt, R.; Rosenstock, T.; Harter, T.; Pettygrove, S. G.; Dzurella, K.; Lund, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    We present an analytical approach to assess the economic impact of improving nitrogen management practices in California agriculture. We employ positive mathematical programming to calibrate crop production to base input information. The production function representation is a nested constant elasticity of substitution with two nests: one for applied water and one for applied nitrogen. The first nest accounts for the tradeoffs between irrigation efficiency and capital investments in irrigation technology. The second nest represents the tradeoffs between nitrogen application efficiency and the marginal costs of improving nitrogen efficiency. In the production function nest, low elasticities of substitution and water and nitrogen stress constraints keep agricultural crop yields constant despite changes in nitrogen management practices. We use the Tulare Basin, and the Salinas Valley in California's Central Valley and Central Coast respectively as our case studies. Preliminary results show that initial reductions of 25% in nitrogen loads to groundwater may not impose large costs to agricultural crop production as substitution of management inputs results in only small declines in net revenue from farming and total land use. Larger reductions in the nitrogen load to groundwater of 50% imposes larger marginal costs for better nitrogen management inputs and reductions in the area of lower valued crops grown in the study areas. Despite the shortage of data on quantitative effects of improved nitrogen efficiency; our results demonstrate the potential of combining economic and agronomic data into a model that can reflect differences in cost and substitutabilty in nitrogen application methods, that can be used to reduce the quantity of nitrogen leaching into groundwater.

  19. Water transfers, agriculture, and groundwater management: a dynamic economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Keith C; Weinberg, Marca; Howitt, Richard; Posnikoff, Judith F

    2003-04-01

    Water transfers from agricultural to urban and environmental uses will likely become increasingly common worldwide. Many agricultural areas rely heavily on underlying groundwater aquifers. Out-of-basin surface water transfers will increase aquifer withdrawals while reducing recharge, thereby altering the evolution of the agricultural production/groundwater aquifer system over time. An empirical analysis is conducted for a representative region in California. Transfers via involuntary surface water cutbacks tilt the extraction schedule and lower water table levels and net benefits over time. The effects are large for the water table but more modest for the other variables. Break-even prices are calculated for voluntary quantity contract transfers at the district level. These prices differ considerably from what might be calculated under a static analysis which ignores water table dynamics. Canal-lining implies that districts may gain in the short-run but lose over time if all the reduction in conveyance losses is transferred outside the district. Water markets imply an evolving quantity of exported flows over time and a reduction in basin net benefits under common property usage. Most aquifers underlying major agricultural regions are currently unregulated. Out-of-basin surface water transfers increase stress on the aquifer and management benefits can increase substantially in percentage terms but overall continue to remain small. Conversely, we find that economically efficient management can mitigate some of the adverse consequences of transfers, but not in many circumstances or by much. Management significantly reduced the water table impacts of cutbacks but not annual net benefit impacts. Neither the break-even prices nor the canal-lining impacts were altered by much. The most significant difference is that regional water users gain from water markets under efficient management.

  20. Comparative Research Productivity Measures for Economic Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettner, David A.; Clark, William

    1997-01-01

    Develops a simple theoretical model to evaluate interdisciplinary differences in research productivity between economics departments and related subjects. Compares the research publishing statistics of economics, finance, psychology, geology, physics, oceanography, chemistry, and geophysics. Considers a number of factors including journal…

  1. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  2. Basic Research: The Key to Economic Competitiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Erich

    Sustained investment in science and engineering research and education in universities in the United States is advocated as a means of progressing economically. Information related to economic advancement is provided through summaries of recent trends in research, education, and economics. Ideas and data are reviewed in reference to: (1) the need…

  3. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  4. [African agriculture faced with global changes: researches and innovations based on ecological sciences].

    PubMed

    Masse, Dominique; Ndour Badiane, Yacine; Hien, Edmond; Akpo, Léonard-Élie; Assigbetsé, Komi; Bilgo, Ablassé; Diédhiou, Ibrahima; Hien, Victor; Lardy, Lydie

    2013-01-01

    In the context of environmental and socio-economic changes, the agriculture of Sub-Saharan African countries will have to ensure food security of the population, while reducing its environmental footprint. The biophysical and social systems of agricultural production are complex. Innovative agricultural practices will be based on an intensification of ecological processes that determine the functioning of the soil-plant system, farmers' fields and agro-ecosystems. This ecological engineering approach is useful to take up the challenge of Sub-Saharan agricultures in the future, as shown in researches conducted by IESOL International Joint Lab "Intensification of agricultural soils in West Africa" (ISRA, UCAD, TU, OU, INERA, IRD).

  5. The economics of soil C sequestration and agricultural emissions abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.; Paustian, K.; Smith, P.; Moran, D.

    2015-04-01

    Carbon is a critical component of soil vitality and is crucial to our ability to produce food. Carbon sequestered in soils also provides a further regulating ecosystem service, valued as the avoided damage from global climate change. We consider the demand and supply attributes that underpin and constrain the emergence of a market value for this vital global ecosystem service: markets being what economists regard as the most efficient institutions for allocating scarce resources to the supply and consumption of valuable goods. This paper considers how a potentially large global supply of soil carbon sequestration is reduced by economic and behavioural constraints that impinge on the emergence of markets, and alternative public policies that can efficiently transact demand for the service from private and public sector agents. In essence, this is a case of significant market failure. In the design of alternative policy options, we consider whether soil carbon mitigation is actually cost-effective relative to other measures in agriculture and elsewhere in the economy, and the nature of behavioural incentives that hinder policy options. We suggest that reducing the cost and uncertainties of mitigation through soil-based measures is crucial for improving uptake. Monitoring and auditing processes will also be required to eventually facilitate wide-scale adoption of these measures.

  6. Understanding Canadian Agriculture. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyns, R. M. A.

    This document for secondary school Canadian students analyzes the role of agriculture in the national economy and in Canadian trade, describes characteristics of Canadian farms, and discusses governmental inlfuences on Canadian agriculture. The document stresses that agriculture is a large source of national wealth; about 30% of Canadian farm…

  7. Arthropod genomics research in the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: Current impacts and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the intramural research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which employs scientists to conduct basic and applied research aimed to develop and transfer solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority and to ensure food...

  8. Economic and Social Conditions Relating to Agriculture and Its Structure to Year 2000. CARD Miscellaneous Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.

    Possible economic and social trends in world agriculture by year 2000 will include increased energy costs; larger, fewer and more specialized farms; decreasing agricultural population; closer ties between farmers and large agribusinesses; more emphasis on consumer and environmental protection; and an increased importance of agriculture in…

  9. Viewing Agricultural Education Research through a Qualitative Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Kim E.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Agricultural Education has primarily published research that uses quantitative research methods. Perhaps this is due partly to the lack of a qualitative research conceptual framework to guide our profession. Most researchers in agricultural education were academically prepared to conduct empirical research. Those who are in the…

  10. Theme: The Role of Research in the Agricultural Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Theme articles discuss the impact of research, accountability, linking programmatic questions to answers developed through research, starting an agriscience research program in high school, a student's perspective in research in agricultural education, student achievement in agricultural education, and user-friendly research. (JOW)

  11. The Economic Impact of University Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fernand; Trudeau, Marc

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a study which used traditional input-output economic models merged with recent understandings of new growth theory to measure and assess both the static and dynamic economic impact of university research, especially in Canada. The study highlights were: (1) university research is a powerful stimulus for…

  12. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  13. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  14. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings.

  15. The Research of Vertical Search Engine for Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Bo; Li, Qiang

    Following rapid expansion of huge Agriculture information body on the Web, the efficient Agriculture information gathering on specified top becomes more and more important in search engine research. Through the statement of the developing trend of search engine and sharing agriculture information resource, this paper discusses the necessity of building search engine for agriculture information. The author clarifies the working principles of professional search engine for agriculture and finally analyses the improvement of searching technique of agriculture and proposes a model for agriculture - focused search.

  16. World Food and Agriculture. Economic Problems and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asefa, Sisay, Ed.

    This book contains a series of essays based on public lectures delivered by six agricultural economists during the 1986-1987 academic year at Western Michigan University. Some of the main issues and problems addressed in the essays are the role of technical change in agricultural development, the value of learning from historical and comparative…

  17. Coupled urbanization and agricultural ecosystem services in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z X; Li, J; Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystems offer material and environmental support for human habitation and development in those areas of the earth where people choose to live. However, urbanization is an inexorable trend of human social development and threatens the health of those ecosystems inhabited by humans. This study calculates the values of NPP (net primary productivity), carbon sequestration, water interception, soil conservation, and agricultural production in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone. At the same time, we combined DMSP/OLS (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line Scanner) night lights remote sensing data and statistical data to analyze the level of urbanization. Quantitative analysis was performed on the interactions between the ecosystem service functions and urbanization based on the calculations of their coupled coordination degrees. The results were the following: (1) The values of NPP, carbon sequestration, and agricultural production showed a trend of increase. However, water interception decreased before increasing, while soil conservation showed the reverse trend; (2) Urbanization levels in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone for the last 10 years have proceeded at a fast pace with comprehensive promotion; and (3) Coupled and coupled coordination degrees between urbanization and ecosystem services show increasing trends. This research can provide a theoretical basis for the region's rapid economic development in the balance. PMID:27117147

  18. Coupled urbanization and agricultural ecosystem services in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z X; Li, J; Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystems offer material and environmental support for human habitation and development in those areas of the earth where people choose to live. However, urbanization is an inexorable trend of human social development and threatens the health of those ecosystems inhabited by humans. This study calculates the values of NPP (net primary productivity), carbon sequestration, water interception, soil conservation, and agricultural production in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone. At the same time, we combined DMSP/OLS (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line Scanner) night lights remote sensing data and statistical data to analyze the level of urbanization. Quantitative analysis was performed on the interactions between the ecosystem service functions and urbanization based on the calculations of their coupled coordination degrees. The results were the following: (1) The values of NPP, carbon sequestration, and agricultural production showed a trend of increase. However, water interception decreased before increasing, while soil conservation showed the reverse trend; (2) Urbanization levels in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone for the last 10 years have proceeded at a fast pace with comprehensive promotion; and (3) Coupled and coupled coordination degrees between urbanization and ecosystem services show increasing trends. This research can provide a theoretical basis for the region's rapid economic development in the balance.

  19. Future directions in air quality research: economic issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard M; Horst, Robert L

    2003-06-01

    Our challenge was to address future directions in air quality research that involve economic issues. The paper outlines the role of economics in the evaluation of air pollution impacts on environmental systems and describes existing research. We identify studies that address economic effects in the agricultural sector, in the commercial forest sector, and in unmanaged natural systems. Effects related to ozone exposure are highlighted. The summary of available research is followed by a discussion of research recommendations. Several short-term recommendations are identified that can augment some of the new research being considered by scientists. A more ambitious, long-term research project is outlined for valuing air pollution impacts in unmanaged natural environments. Specifically, the paper describes possible advantages of an 'integrated assessment' framework that more formally brings together the complex relationships that exist in both ecological and economic systems. A final section contains thoughts on the importance of education (i.e., information transfer) in the research process, especially in relation to policy. It is further noted that education should be inclusive of all members of the research team, throughout all stages of the research process. PMID:12676216

  20. MULTI-DISCIPLINARY TEAMS - A NECESSITY FOR RESEARCH IN PRECISION AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture may offer great promise for the future, but extensive additional research is required if that promise is to be realized. The research will not be easy, for few, if any, individuals have sufficiently broad training in the many disciplines (e.g. economics, engineering, crop and ...

  1. Capstone Senior Research Course in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ishuan; Simonson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the structure and assessment of a capstone course in economics. The outcomes are noteworthy for three reasons. First, among cited evidence to date, this is the only undergraduate economics program from a nonselective public university reporting similar achievements in undergraduate research paper publications.…

  2. Economic analysis of aeronautical research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellman, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The appropriateness of government intervention in the civilian market for aeronautics research and technology (R&T) is examined. The economic rationale for government intervention is examined. The conclusion is that the institutional role played by NASA in civilian aeronautics R&T markets is economically justified.

  3. Who Talks to Whom in Malawi's Agricultural Research Information Network?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapila, Mariam A. T. J.; Yauney, Jason; Thangata, Paul; Droppelmann, Klaus; Mazunda, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The sector-wide approach currently dominates as the strategy for developing the agricultural sector of many African countries. Although recognised that collaborative agricultural research is vital in ensuring success of sector-wide agricultural development strategies; there have been few efforts to understand the dynamics of national…

  4. REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS OF RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PHIPPS, LLOYD J.; WARMBROD, J. ROBERT

    OVER 400 STUDIES WERE CONSIDERED IN PREPARING THIS REPORT ON AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS, TRENDS, METHODOLOGY, AND NEEDS. THOUGH EMERGENCE OF CORRELATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IS EVIDENT, RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION HAS BEEN LARGELY DESCRIPTIVE. WEAKNESSES IN PROBABILITY SAMPLING AND SURVEY TECHNIQUES HAVE BEEN…

  5. Economic Contributions to Institutional Research on Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Economic models of the way in which faculty allocate their time, and the behavior of labor markets, can help inform institutional research on faculty in a variety of ways. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  6. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  7. Government Intervention in Agriculture. Measurement, Evaluation, and Implications for Trade Negotiations. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 229.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report presents an analysis that defines and quantifies the extent of government intervention in the agricultural sectors of the market-oriented countries most active in trade. One aim is to provide usable economic information for the multilateral trade negotiations (MTN), recently launched under the auspices of the General Agreement on…

  8. From plantation agriculture to oil storage: economic development and social transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines two separate concepts of development. At the macrolevel, development is viewed as an advance in the organization of production and the extension of capitalist relations of production. At the community level, it is viewed as a process leading to qualitative change in a people's say of life. Focusing on a rural coastal valley and bay ecosystem in St. Lucia, a Windward Island in the Lesser Antilles, this research distinguished three separate stages in this ecosystem's economic development and examines the consequences of these economic transitions on a single rural village and group of fisherman living within it. The economic stages described begin with the terminal era of sugar cane cultivation, followed by the rationalization of commercial agriculture under translational control and the introduction of bananas, and concludes with the breaking up of the valley plantation and the introduction of a petroleum transshipment terminal. Each of these enterprises defined the valley's resources differently and each had a distinct organization of production. The relationship between hillside households and these enterprises varied accordingly. Households went from being an essential part of the productive process to being marginalized by it. Fishermen also became excluded from this environment. For these rural St. Lucians, large-scale economic development has not lead to qualitative improvement in their lives.

  9. Methodology and Data for a Study of Higher Education in Agriculture and Home Economics in the South: A User's Guide. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frank M.; Parent, Dale

    The User's Guide to the Regional Study of Higher Education in Agriculture and Home Economics in the South explains the purpose and organization of the study, one of three phases of a larger investigation being conducted by collaborating researchers in several Agricultural Experiment Stations. The guide provides a detailed description of the…

  10. Strategies and Economics for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION Agriculture can make significant contributions to climate change mitigation by a) increasing soil organic carbon sinks, b) reducing GHG emissions, and c) off-setting fossil fuel by promoting biofuels. The latter has the potential to counter-balance fossil-fuel emissions to some degree, ...

  11. Research and dissemination needs for ergonomics in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Baron, Sherry; Steege, Andrea L

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health convened a conference of researchers interested in the ergonomics of agricultural workers. Participants included 20 representatives from universities, state governments, private agricultural and insurance companies, migrant worker organizations, agricultural industry organizations, and the Agricultural Extension Service. The attendees divided into three groups and brainstormed about research ideas and dissemination methods related to ergonomics for farm workers. The groups separately reported that interventions, cost-benefit analyses, and cultural belief systems were the main topics that needed to be researched to reduce physical risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. The participants also presented ideas for disseminating information to farm owners and workers. PMID:12500960

  12. Health Economics Research: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, Carole D.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography lists books and journal articles published since 1976 which deal with health economics and which are based on health services research supported by the National Center for Health Services Research (NCHSR). Articles prepared by NCHSR staff are listed as intramural. All other articles cite the NCHSR grant or contract…

  13. Microgravity as a research tool to improve US agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bula, R. J.; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2000-01-01

    Crop production and utilization are undergoing significant modifications and improvements that emanate from adaptation of recently developed plant biotechnologies. Several innovative technologies will impact US agriculture in the next century. One of these is the transfer of desirable genes from organisms to economically important crop species in a way that cannot be accomplished with traditional plant breeding techniques. Such plant genetic engineering offers opportunities to improve crop species for a number of characteristics as well as use as source materials for specific medical and industrial applications. Although plant genetic engineering is having an impact on development of new crop cultivars, several major constraints limit the application of this technology to selected crop species and genotypes. Consequently, gene transfer systems that overcome these constraints would greatly enhance development of new crop materials. If results of a recent gene transfer experiment conducted in microgravity during a Space Shuttle mission are confirmed, and with the availability of the International Space Station as a permanent space facility, commercial plant transformation activity in microgravity could become a new research tool to improve US agriculture. .

  14. Overview of Mosquito Research Programs at the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), a U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service laboratory, was established in World War II to produce products to protect military personnel against insect vector of disease. Currently the mission of CMAVE is ...

  15. Science and Policy Issues: A Report of Citizen Concerns and Recommendations for American Agricultural Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Two areas which will have far reaching consequences for the future of United States agriculture are discussed: (1) biotechnology; and (2) critical economic research in world trade and commodity supply management. Topics in the first area include: controversies related to biotechnology; the relative importance of health, safety, and environmental…

  16. Economic assessment of acid deposition and ozone damage on the San Joaquin Valley agriculture. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howitt, R.

    1993-02-01

    The California Agricultural Resources Model (CARM) was used to estimate the economic impact of acidic deposition and ozone on crops in the San Joaquin Valley. Data on ozone exposure-crop response and agricultural markets are used in the CARM to estimate the potential economic benefits of an improvement in air quality. The study focused on the economic impact of two ozone reduction scenarios in agricultural regions of California. The CARM projected that if growing season concentrations of ozone were reduced to 0.04 ppm, annual benefits to consumers (higher availability and lower prices) and producers (higher production and lower production costs) would be approximately $489 million. In comparison, the benefit projected if statewide levels of ozone were uniformly reduced to 0.025 ppm was approximately $1.5 billion. Although the 0.025 ppm scenario is unlikely, the economic benefits were estimated to be correspondingly large.

  17. Rationale for Research on Including Sustainable Agriculture in the High School Agricultural Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.; Dollisso, Awoke D.

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is a multidisciplinary approach to food and fiber problems. Its inclusion in the secondary curriculum would enrich and align it with social concerns. Research is needed in the scholarship functions of discovery, integrative approaches, and teaching. (SK)

  18. Scenario development as a basis for formulating a research program on future agriculture: a methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Ingrid; Bengtsson, Jan; Hedenus, Fredrik; Rydhmer, Lotta; Stenström, Maria; Vrede, Katarina; Westin, Charles; Magnusson, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    To increase the awareness of society to the challenges of global food security, we developed five contrasting global and European scenarios for 2050 and used these to identify important issues for future agricultural research. Using a scenario development method known as morphological analysis, scenarios were constructed that took economic, political, technical, and environmental factors into account. With the scenarios as a starting point future challenges were discussed and research issues and questions were identified in an interactive process with stakeholders and researchers. Based on the outcome of this process, six socioeconomic and biophysical overarching challenges for future agricultural were formulated and related research issues identified. The outcome was compared with research priorities generated in five other research programs. In comparison, our research questions focus more on societal values and the role of consumers in influencing agricultural production, as well as on policy formulation and resolving conflicting goals, areas that are presently under-represented in agricultural research. The partly new and more interdisciplinary research priorities identified in Future Agriculture compared to other programs analyzed are likely a result of the methodological approach used, combining scenarios and interaction between stakeholders and researchers.

  19. The Role of Agriculture in the Economic Development of West Virginia: An Input-Output Analysis. Miscellaneous Publication No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Gerard E.; And Others

    This study deals with the structural interrelationships among agricultural sub-sectors, and between the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors of the West Virginia economy. The study is intended to offer information on which to base sound economic development decisions. An input-output economic model is used in order to focus on the interaction…

  20. Land degradation and economic conditions of agricultural households in a marginal region of northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorent, Hugues; Evangelou, Christakis; Stellmes, Marion; Hill, Joachim; Papanastasis, Vasilios; Tsiourlis, Georgios; Roeder, Achim; Lambin, Eric F.

    2008-12-01

    Land degradation is caused by and has impacts on both the social and natural components of coupled human-environment systems. However, few studies integrate both aspects simultaneously. The main objective of this study is to test a method to evaluate land degradation based on the integration of aggregate metrics of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation". We applied a framework that integrates the biophysical and socio-economic dimensions of land degradation to test the hypothesis that macro-economic policies, and in particular agricultural subsidies, are an important driving force of land degradation in marginal regions of the Mediterranean Europe. We analysed the influence of subsidies on the profitability of each crop and livestock type found in a sample of farms in a region of northern Greece. Spatial and socio-economic data on agricultural households were collected to link remote sensing data and land degradation maps to socio-economic conditions of these households, as measured by the standard gross margin. The results demonstrate that subsidies provide a crucial socio-economic support to maintain the profitability of agricultural activities but may also promote land-use practices with damaging ecological impacts. Different levels of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation" were associated with different land use practices. The integration of the socio-economic and biophysical dimensions of land degradation reveals associations that would not be detectable if indicators along one dimension alone would be used.

  1. Identification of Emerging Science Competencies in Agriculture. Vocational Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. School of Vocational Education.

    A research project identified new and emerging science concepts that should be taught in high school vocational agriculture. Agricultural scientists on an advisory panel identified the emerging science concepts. The majority were in the areas of plant science and animal science. Animal science was completely reorganized with greater emphasis on…

  2. Benefits of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.; Dyer, James E.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 identified the benefits of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs, including agriculture knowledge and positive work attitudes. Classroom, SAE, and Future Farmers of America complemented each other. The research base is state specific and fragmented and lacks cohesiveness. (SK)

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  4. Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

  5. Support for agriculture during economic transformation: impacts on poverty and undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

    2012-07-31

    This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health risks associated with rising obesity in rural as well as urban areas. Thus, the transition process must be managed better, through targeted support for smallholder agriculture and health interventions, if the negative consequences of obesity and chronic disease are to be mitigated.

  6. The economic potential of carbon sequestration in Californian agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catala-Luque, Rosa

    This dissertation studies the potential success of a carbon sequestration policy based on payments to farmers for adoption of alternative, less intensive, management practices in California. Since this is a first approach from a Californian perspective, we focus on Yolo County, an important agricultural county of the State. We focus on the six more important crops of the region: wheat, tomato, corn, rice, safflower, and sunflower. In Chapter 1, we characterize the role of carbon sequestration in Climate Change policy. We also give evidence on which alternative management practices have greenhouse gas mitigation potential (reduced tillage, cover-cropping, and organic systems) based on a study of experimental sites. Chapter 2 advances recognizing the need for information at the field level, and describes the survey designed used to obtain data at the field level, something required to perform a complete integrated assessment of the issue. The survey design is complex in the sense that we use auxiliary information to obtain a control (subpopulation of conventional farmers)-case (subpopulation of innovative farmers) design with stratification for land use. We present estimates for population quantities of interest such as total variable costs, profits, managerial experience in different alternatives, etc. This information efficiently gives field level information for innovative farmers, a missing piece of information so far, since our sampling strategy required the inclusion with probability one of farmers identified as innovative. Using an agronomic process model (DayCent) for the sample and population units, we construct carbon mitigation cost curves for each crop and management observed. Chapter 3 builds different econometric models for cross-sectional data taking into account the survey design, and expanding the sample size constructing productivity potential under each alternative. Based on the yield productivity potential modeled for each unit, we conclude that a

  7. Considerations for conducting research in agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Anthony M

    2003-06-01

    Science has shown its increased vulnerability because of two recent high-profile articles published in major journals on corn produced through biotechnology: a laboratory report suggesting profound consequences to monarch butterfly populations due to Bt corn pollen and a report suggesting transgenic introgression into Mexican maize. While both studies have been widely regarded as having flawed methodology, publishing these studies has created great consternation in the scientific community, regulatory agencies and the general public. There are roles and responsibilities of scientists, scientific journals, the public media, public agencies, and those who oppose or advocate a specific technology, and serious consequences when those roles and responsibilities go awry. Modern communication may exacerbate the flow of misinformation and easily lead to a decline in public confidence about biotechnology and science. However, common sense tells us that scientific inquiry and the publication and reporting of results should be performed with high standards of ethical behavior, regardless of one's personal perspective on agricultural biotechnology.

  8. Reporting and Interpreting Effect Size in Quantitative Agricultural Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotrlik, Joe W.; Williams, Heather A.; Jabor, M. Khata

    2011-01-01

    The Journal of Agricultural Education (JAE) requires authors to follow the guidelines stated in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association [APA] (2009) in preparing research manuscripts, and to utilize accepted research and statistical methods in conducting quantitative research studies. The APA recommends the reporting of…

  9. Factors Associated with Research Productivity of Agricultural Education Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotrlik, Joe W.; Bartlett, James E., II; Higgins, Chadwick C.; Williams, Heather A.

    2002-01-01

    Factors influencing the research productivity of full-time agriculture professors (n=114) included the following: number of doctoral students advised to completion, self-perceptions of research confidence, and number of graduate assistant hours allocated. Not influential were percent of time on research, salary, age, gender, rank, or years in…

  10. Review Article: Economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture - review and analysis of existing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, P.; Grelot, F.; Agenais, A.-L.

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, economic evaluation of flood management projects is increasingly used to help decision making. At the same time, the management of flood risk is shifting towards new concepts such as giving more room to water by restoring floodplains. Agricultural areas are particularly targeted by projects following those concepts since they are frequently located in floodplain areas and since the potential damage to such areas is expected to be lower than to cities or industries for example. Additional or avoided damage to agriculture may have a major influence on decisions concerning these projects and the economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture is thus an issue that needs to be tackled. The question of flood damage to agriculture can be addressed in different ways. This paper reviews and analyzes existing studies which have developed or used damage functions for agriculture in the framework of an economic appraisal of flood management projects. A conceptual framework of damage categories is proposed for the agricultural sector. The damage categories were used to structure the review. Then, a total of 42 studies are described, with a detailed review of 26 of them, based on the following criteria: types of damage considered, the influential flood parameters chosen, and monetized damage indicators used. The main recommendations resulting from this review are that even if existing methods have already focused on damage to crops, still some improvement is needed for crop damage functions. There is also a need to develop damage functions for other agricultural damage categories, including farm buildings and their contents. Finally, to cover all possible agricultural damage, and in particular loss of activity, a farm scale approach needs to be used.

  11. The Behavioral Economics of Education: New Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Huriya

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several decades, researchers have used economics to understand a number of issues in education policy. This article argues that some education researchers have defined economics too narrowly, neglecting several areas of economics research that cut across disciplinary boundaries. One subdiscipline of economics that might be of use in…

  12. Hydro-economic analysis of groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture in California's Central Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellín-Azuara, Josué; MacEwan, Duncan; Howitt, Richard E.; Koruakos, George; Dogrul, Emin C.; Brush, Charles F.; Kadir, Tariq N.; Harter, Thomas; Melton, Forrest; Lund, Jay R.

    2015-09-01

    As in many places, groundwater in California (USA) is the major alternative water source for agriculture during drought, so groundwater's availability will drive some inevitable changes in the state's water management. Currently, agricultural, environmental, and urban uses compete for groundwater, resulting in substantial overdraft in dry years with lowering of water tables, which in turn increases pumping costs and reduces groundwater pumping capacity. In this study, SWAP (an economic model of agricultural production and water use in California) and C2VISim (the California Department of Water Resources groundwater model for California's Central Valley) are connected. This paper examines the economic costs of pumping replacement groundwater during drought and the potential loss of pumping capacity as groundwater levels drop. A scenario of three additional drought years continuing from 2014 show lower water tables in California's Central Valley and loss of pumping capacity. Places without access to groundwater and with uncertain surface-water deliveries during drought are the most economically vulnerable in terms of crop revenues, employment and household income. This is particularly true for Tulare Lake Basin, which relies heavily on water imported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Remote-sensing estimates of idle agricultural land between 2012 and 2014 confirm this finding. Results also point to the potential of a portfolio approach for agriculture, in which crop mixing and conservation practices have substantial roles.

  13. Spatial Modeling of Indian Agriculture, Economic Activity and Population under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, G. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present a spatial model of economic activity and human population built on physical geography that takes particular account of its effects through agricultural productivity and transport costs for trade. A major component of this work is an agricultural model, driven in part by high-resolution climate data and model output. We put forward India as the initial region for this modeling work; India is a relatively data-rich country, it exhibits significant within-country spatial and temporal variation in agricultural productivity, urbanization rates, and population growth rates, and the climate dynamics of the monsoon are well-studied and expected to change on decadal time scales. Agricultural productivity is modeled as a function of soil, climate, and technology variables. Farmers locate optimally given varying geography and transport costs; in turn, food availability defines urbanization rates and economic activity in non-agricultural sectors. This “social system” integrated assessment model is a step towards a valuable policy tool, but requires a significant mobilization of data and a grid-cell-level system of equations to describe the underlying dynamics of the model. We test against past trends of social-natural system progression in demography, human location, income, food production, etc., and argue that the model could be used to assess future trends under varying climate change scenarios, and eventually serve to model feedbacks through effects on migration, population growth rates, or economic activity.

  14. A Case Study of Rural Industrialization in Jamestown, North Dakota. Agricultural Economics Report No. 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Delmer L.; Zink, Maurice J.

    The study's objectives were to: (1) determine the criteria used by industry in the selection of an area as a plant site; (2) measure the interdependence and economic impact that a manufacturing sector has on an agriculturally dominated rural area; and (3) evaluate employees' attitudes toward their new jobs in manufacturing. Jamestown, North Dakota…

  15. Socio-Economic Background and Access to Internet as Correlates of Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegoke, Sunday Paul; Osokoya, Modupe M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated access to internet and socio-economic background as correlates of students' achievement in Agricultural Science among selected Senior Secondary Schools Two Students in Ogbomoso South and North Local Government Areas. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique. Simple random sampling was used to select 30 students from…

  16. Grade Performance of Face-to-Face versus Online Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina A.; Makus, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Online course offerings have been growing at a rapid pace in post-secondary education. An ordered probit model is estimated to analyze the effects of online vs. face-to-face course format in achieving specific letter grades. An upper-division agricultural economics course taught over 9 years using both formats is used for the analysis. For a…

  17. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  18. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

  19. Teaching Basic Production Economic Principles to Secondary School Students of Vocational Agriculture: An Evaluative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, James E.

    Four modules of instruction on basic production economic principles were developed, tried in high school classes of students preparing for on- and off-farm agricultural occupations, and evaluated for content and teaching. Basic principles studied were supply and demand, value theory, variable proportions, and marginal analysis. Total and part…

  20. Analysis of economic impacts of climate change on agricultural water management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote, Luis; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    on changes in management practices due to adaptation or land use changes. These have been estimated through a socio-economic model that accounts for the evolution of population, GDP, agricultural land use and other relevant socio-economic variables linked to climate change adaptation. The combination of the results of the SARA model, the WAAPA model and the socioeconomic model allow the estimation of total economic value of agricultural production in terms of fraction of GDP.

  1. Rhetorical Structure of Research Articles in Agricultural Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Huimin; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Although the rhetorical structure of research articles (RA) has been extensively examined from individual sections to complete IMRD sections regarding different disciplines, no research has been addressed to the overall rhetorical structure of RAs as a whole entity in the field of agricultural science. In this study, we analyzed 45 agricultural…

  2. Sustaining the Earth's watersheds, agricultural research data system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS water resources program has developed a web-based data system, STEWARDS: Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data System to support research that encompasses a broad range of topics such as water quality, hydrology, conservation, land use, and soils. The data syst...

  3. Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leslie

    Plant scientists and science policymakers from government, private companies, and universities met at a convocation on the genetic engineering of plants. During the convocation, researchers described some of the ways genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems. Policymakers delineated and debated changes in research funding…

  4. Agricultural weed research: a critique and two proposals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two broad aims drive weed science research: improved management and improved understanding of weed biology and ecology. In recent years, agricultural weed research addressing these two aims has effectively split into separate sub-disciplines despite repeated calls for greater integration. While some...

  5. Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, S; Merrill, S

    2011-08-31

    Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research evaluates approaches to measuring the returns on federal research investments. This report identifies new methodologies and metrics that can be developed and used for assessing returns on research across a wide range of fields (biomedical, information technology, energy, agriculture, environment, and other biological and physical sciences, etc.), while using one or more background papers that review current methodologies as a starting point for the discussion. It focuses on tools that are able to exploit available data in the relatively near term rather than on methodologies that may require substantial new data collection. Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in policy circles in identifying the payoffs from federal agency research investments, especially in terms of economic growth, competitiveness, and jobs. The extraordinary increase in research expenditures under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and the President's commitment to science and technology (S&T) funding increases going forward have heightened the need for measuring the impacts of research investments. Without a credible analysis of their outcomes, the recent and proposed increases in S&T funding may not be sustained, especially given competing claims for federal funding and pressures to reduce projected federal budget deficits. Motivated by these needs and requirements, Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research reviews and discusses the use of quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the returns on federal research and development (R&D) investments. Despite the job-focused mandate of the current ARRA reporting requirements, the impact of S&T funding extend well beyond employment. For instance, federal funding in energy research may lead to innovations that would reduce energy costs at the household level, energy imports at the national level, and

  6. Economic, Social and Political Issues of Intergovernmental Contracting. Agricultural Economics Staff Paper 89-37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Lynn R.

    This paper focuses on the economic, social, and political considerations of contracting. The increasing tendency of government to contract services is attributed to higher financial stress facing local governments, a growing political belief that the extent of government should be reduced, and the perception that the private sector is a more…

  7. Index to Research in Home Economics: 1972-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterman, Nelma I.; Lefebvre, Verna M.

    This index lists 945 research articles from 4 English-language journals in the field of home economics: the "Canadian Home Economics Journal," volumes 23-30; the "Home Economics Research Journal" (United States), volumes 1-14; the "Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics" (United Kingdom), volumes 1-10; and the "Journal of Vocational Home…

  8. Potential ecological and economic consequences of climate-driven agricultural and silvicultural transformations in central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, Nadezhda M.; Zander, Evgeniya V.; Pyzhev, Anton I.; Parfenova, Elena I.; Soja, Amber J.

    2014-05-01

    Increased warming predicted from general circulation models (GCMs) by the end of the century is expected to dramatically impact Siberian forests. Both natural climate-change-caused disturbance (weather, wildfire, infestation) and anthropogenic disturbance (legal/illegal logging) has increased, and their impact on Siberian boreal forest has been mounting over the last three decades. The Siberian BioClimatic Model (SiBCliM) was used to simulate Siberian forests, and the resultant maps show a severely decreased forest that has shifted northwards and a changed composition. Predicted dryer climates would enhance the risks of high fire danger and thawing permafrost, both of which challenge contemporary ecosystems. Our current goal is to evaluate the ecological and economic consequences of climate warming, to optimise economic loss/gain effects in forestry versus agriculture, to question the relative economic value of supporting forestry, agriculture or a mixed agro-forestry at the southern forest border in central Siberia predicted to undergo the most noticeable landcover and landuse changes. We developed and used forest and agricultural bioclimatic models to predict forest shifts; novel tree species and their climatypes are introduced in a warmer climate and/or potential novel agriculture are introduced with a potential variety of crops by the end of the century. We applied two strategies to estimate climate change effects, motivated by forest disturbance. One is a genetic means of assisting trees and forests to be harmonized with a changing climate by developing management strategies for seed transfer to locations that are best ecologically suited to the genotypes in future climates. The second strategy is the establishment of agricultural lands in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats, because the forests would retreat northwards. Currently, food, forage, and biofuel crops primarily reside in the steppe and forest-steppe zones which are known to have favorable

  9. The economic value of breast-feeding. Food and Agriculture Organization of the the United Nations.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    A request from the Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 1973 led to a research project funded by the Government of Norway to examine the declining use of mother's milk in developing countries. Two consultants were appointed to compile information on the subject, to develop a theoretical model to illustrate the economic value of breastfeeding, and to study the situation in two developing countries, Ghana and the Ivory Coast. Lack of data was a problem in both countries, but estimates could be made, and some of the conclusions reached are the following. Breastfeeding is still the norm in both countries, yet if it were to increase in the Ivory Coast so that every infant were breastfed for two years the savings in national goods cost could amount to US$ 16 to 28 million annually. If it declined to the level of Paris in 1955 (chosen for comparison) the annual national cost would be between US$ 33 and 55 million. At the individual level, by breastfeeding rather than artificially feeding an infant for two years the average family in either country would save between US$ 600 and 730 in the cost of goods and time, plus any savings that might result from the avoidance of disease or malnutrition caused by artificial feeding. In Ghana, changes in the infant-feeding pattern due to rural-to-urban migration would cause only a 20-percent increase in formula imports, while import increases would be more than five times as great as this if the present severe restrictions were relaxed so that formula replaced only one percent of the potential national breast-milk production. A change to artificial feeding could possibly result in considerable population growth because of loss of the contraceptive effect (through lactation amenorrhoea) of breastfeeding. In-depth studies of the economics of breastfeeding present great difficulties and would probably not justify their high cost. The report suggests that studies be

  10. Economic Analysis of Energy Crop Production in the U.S. - Location, Quantities, Price, and Impacts on Traditional Agricultural Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.E.; De La Torre Ugarte, D.; Slinsky, S.; Graham, R.L.; Shapouri, H.; Ray, D.

    1998-10-04

    POLYSYS is used to estimate US locations where, for any given energy crop price, energy crop production can be economically competitive with conventional crops. POLYSYS is a multi-crop, multi-sector agricultural model developed and maintained by the University of Tennessee and used by the USDA-Economic Research Service. It includes 305 agricultural statistical districts (ASD) which can be aggregated to provide state, regional, and national information. POLYSYS is being modified to include switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow on all land suitable for their production. This paper summarizes the preliminary national level results of the POLYSYS analysis for selected energy crop prices for the year 2007 and presents the corresponding maps (for the same prices) of energy crop production locations by ASD. Summarized results include: (1) estimates of energy crop hectares (acres) and quantities (dry Mg, dry tons), (2) identification of traditional crops allocated to energy crop production and calculation of changes in their prices and hectares (acres) of production, and (3) changes in total net farm returns for traditional agricultural crops. The information is useful for identifying areas of the US where large quantities of lowest cost energy crops can most likely be produced.

  11. CGE Simulation Analysis on the Labor Transfer, Agricultural Technical Progress, and Economic Development in Chongqing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Ran, Maosheng

    2014-01-01

    The basic structure of a CGE model dividing Mainland China into two parts, including Chongqing and rest regions, is described. Based on this CGE model, both the unilateral impact and collaborative impact of two policies, agricultural technical progress and supporting policies for improving rural labor transfer on the economic development in Chongqing, are simulated and analyzed. The results demonstrate that compared with the sum of each unilateral policy effect, the collaboration of two policies has more effective impact on facilitating the labor transfer, promoting regional economic growth, and improving income and welfare of urban and rural residents. PMID:24892037

  12. Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Walsh, M.; McLaughlin, S.

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  13. Health, agricultural, and economic effects of adoption of healthy diet recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lock, Karen; Smith, Richard D; Dangour, Alan D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus; Pigatto, Gessuir; Hawkes, Corinna; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Chalabi, Zaid

    2010-11-13

    Transition to diets that are high in saturated fat and sugar has caused a global public health concern, as the pattern of food consumption is a major modifiable risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. Although agri-food systems are intimately associated with this transition, agriculture and health sectors are largely disconnected in their priorities, policy, and analysis, with neither side considering the complex inter-relation between agri-trade, patterns of food consumption, health, and development. We show the importance of connection of these perspectives through estimation of the eff ect of adopting a healthy diet on population health, agricultural production, trade, the economy, and livelihoods,with a computable general equilibrium approach. On the basis of case-studies from the UK and Brazil, we suggest that benefits of a healthy diet policy will vary substantially between different populations, not only because of population dietary intake but also because of agricultural production, trade, and other economic factors.

  14. The Global Research Alliance on agricultural greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases was proposed by New Zealand at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP) in Copenhagen in 2009 and developed in partnership with the United States. This alliance now includes 32 member count...

  15. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter... authority, exercise the functions delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... of biotechnology (7 U.S.C. 5921). (39) Conduct a research initiative known as the Agricultural...

  16. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter... authority, exercise the functions delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... of biotechnology (7 U.S.C. 5921). (39) Conduct a research initiative known as the Agricultural...

  17. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter... CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193, under the following provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response... of biotechnology (7 U.S.C. 5921). (39) Conduct a research initiative known as the Agricultural...

  18. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter... authority, exercise the functions delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... of biotechnology (7 U.S.C. 5921). (39) Conduct a research initiative known as the Agricultural...

  19. Undergraduate Research in Agriculture: Constructivism and the Scholarship of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splan, Rebecca K.; Porr, C. A. Shea; Broyles, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Experiential learning is a hallmark of undergraduate education programs in the agricultural sciences, and is aligned with constructivist learning theory. This interpretivist qualitative study used historical research methodology to analyze the epistemological underpinnings of constructivism and explore the construct's relationship to undergraduate…

  20. USU research helps agriculture enter the space age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.

    1987-01-01

    Research at the Utah State University College of Agriculture that is relevant to the space life sciences is reviewed. Specific programs detailed are gravitropism of dicot stems, maximization of wheat yields for use in space exploration, and plant development processes in wheat in microgravity.

  1. Research of spatio-temporal analysis of agricultural pest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changwei; Li, Deren; Hu, Yueming; Wu, Xiaofang; Qi, Yu

    2009-10-01

    The increase of agricultural pest disasters in recent years has become one of major problems in agriculture harvest; how to predict and control the disasters of agricultural pest has thus attracted great research interest. Although a series of works have been done and some achievements have been attained, the knowledge in this area remains limited. The migration of agricultural pest is not only related to the time variation, but also the space; consequently, the population of agricultural pest has complex spatio-temporal characteristics. The space factor and the temporal factor must be considered at the same time in the research of dynamics changes of the pest population. Using plant hoppers as an object of study, this study employed the biological analogy deviation model to study the distribution of pest population in different periods of time in Guangdong Province. It is demonstrated that the population distribution of plant hoppers is not only related to the space location, but also has a certain direction. The result reported here offers help to the monitor, prevention and control of plant hoppers in Guangdong Provinces.

  2. Bio-physical vs. Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on World Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that agricultural production could be greatly affected by climate change, but there remains little quantitative understanding of how these agricultural impacts would affect economic livelihoods in poor countries. The recent paper by Hertel, Burke and Lobell (GEC, 2010) considers three scenarios of agricultural impacts of climate change, corresponding to the fifth, fiftieth, and ninety fifth percentiles of projected yield distributions for the world’s crops in 2030. They evaluate the resulting changes in global commodity prices, national economic welfare, and the incidence of poverty in a set of 15 developing countries. Although the small price changes under the medium scenario are consistent with previous findings, their low productivity scenario reveals the potential for much larger food price changes than reported in recent studies which have hitherto focused on the most likely outcomes. The poverty impacts of price changes under the extremely adverse scenario are quite heterogeneous and very significant in some population strata. They conclude that it is critical to look beyond central case climate shocks and beyond a simple focus on yields and highly aggregated poverty impacts. In this paper, we conduct a more formal, systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) with respect to uncertainty in the biophysical impacts of climate change on agriculture, by explicitly specifying joint distributions for global yield changes - this time focusing on 2050. This permits us to place confidence intervals on the resulting price impacts and poverty results which reflect the uncertainty inherited from the biophysical side of the analysis. We contrast this with the economic uncertainty inherited from the global general equilibrium model (GTAP), by undertaking SSA with respect to the behavioral parameters in that model. This permits us to assess which type of uncertainty is more important for regional price and poverty outcomes. Finally, we undertake a

  3. Policy toward individual economic holdings and private enterprises in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, November 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    On 29 November 1988, Viet Nam adopted a policy allowing individual economic holdings and private enterprises in the areas of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. The policy recognizes the positive effect of such holdings and charges the state with creating favorable conditions for them. Ownership and inheritance rights are recognized, and all citizens are entitled to apply for permission to use certain land for business purposes. The production of exports is encouraged, and such enterprises may engage in financial transactions, including borrowing money.

  4. Economic impacts of climate change on agriculture: the AgMIP approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincé, Jacques; Ciaian, Pavel; Witzke, Heinz-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The current paper investigates the long-term global impacts on crop productivity under different climate scenarios using the AgMIP approach (Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project). The paper provides horizontal model intercomparison from 11 economic models as well as a more detailed analysis of the simulated effects from the Common Agricultural Policy Regionalized Impact (CAPRI) model to systematically compare its performance with other AgMIP models and specifically for the Chinese agriculture. CAPRI is a comparative static partial equilibrium model extensively used for medium and long-term economic and environmental policy impact applications. The results indicate that, at the global level, the climate change will cause an agricultural productivity decrease (between -2% and -15% by 2050), a food price increase (between 1.3% and 56%) and an expansion of cultivated area (between 1% and 4%) by 2050. The results for China indicate that the climate change effects tend to be smaller than the global impacts. The CAPRI-simulated effects are, in general, close to the median across all AgMIP models. Model intercomparison analyses reveal consistency in terms of direction of change to climate change but relatively strong heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effects between models.

  5. A Comprehensive National Plan for New Initiatives in Home Economics Research, Extension, and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Education Administration (USDA), Hyattsville, MD.

    New initiatives in home economics research, extension, and higher education are proposed in order to influence national goals for family well-being measurably within five to ten years. The proposals are for work to be conducted cooperatively by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the land-grant colleges and universities, cooperative extension…

  6. Outdoor Recreation. Publications and Articles by the Economic Research Service, 1962-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hugh A., Comp.

    The report is a compilation of 101 articles, reports, and speeches on outdoor recreation in the United States. Materials covered are written by personnel of the Economic Research Service (United States Department of Agriculture) and were published separately or in proceedings, journals, congressional documents, and other usually retrievable forms…

  7. 75 FR 32736 - Notice of Solicitation for Members of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 321-A... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Notice of Solicitation for Members of the National Agricultural...

  8. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act.

  9. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25854958

  10. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  11. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in

  12. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  13. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change.

  14. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; N. Tubiello, Francesco; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5′×5′ latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  15. An Analysis of Contributions and Contributors in Economic Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, James W., Jr.; Durden, Garey C.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 25 years of the content and contributors in economic education research. Finds that economic education has become a legitimate subfield within economics and has grown from mostly descriptive research to sophisticated mathematical and econometric models. (CFR)

  16. [Coupling situation of agriculture-ecology-economic system in Zhifanggou watershed of Loess hilly and gully region].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Ji-Jun

    2010-06-01

    Based on the investigations in the Zhifanggou Watershed of Loess hilly and gully region from 1938 to 2007, and the establishment of eco-environmental and socio-economic comprehensive evaluation indices and coupling model, this paper analyzed the coupling situation of the agriculture-ecology-economic system in the watershed. During the study period, the agriculture-ecology-economic system in the watershed had gone through the coupling processes of economic system vs. ecosystem initial regenesis-consumption-promotion-coordination, and of ecosystem vs. economic system primary response-lag behind-recovery-coordination. According to the coupling degree fitting curves and the coupling type classification, the current agriculture-ecology-economic system in the watershed was still in the situation of coupling, and would be well coordinated.

  17. 78 FR 47271 - Draft Environmental Assessment for the Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Research Center Land Transfer AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of the Draft Environmental Assessment for the Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center Land Transfer... Research Center (KSARC) from the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in Weslaco, Texas, to The Texas...

  18. Career opportunities for college graduates with the Agricultural Research Service Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service is the principal scientific research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. This agency employs more than 7,600 people working at various locations in the United States and U.S. territories. Careers for new scientists span a variety of disciplines such as c...

  19. Agricultural Research Service research highlights in remote sensing for calendar year 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The AR research mission in remote sensing is to develop the basic understanding of the soil plant animal atmosphere continuum in agricultural ecosystems and to determine when remotely sensed data can be used to provide information about these agricultural ecosystems. A brief statement of the significant results of each project is given. A list of 1980 publication and location contacts is also given.

  20. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  1. Organic Research Activities of the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic research is a vital and ongoing part of the overall ARS research portfolio and occurs at approximately 20 % of ARS research locations across the United States. The vision for ARS organic agriculture research is to help the organic industry overcome the challenges it faces related to producti...

  2. Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

    As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

  3. Increasing Feedstock Production for Biofuels: Economic Drivers, Environmental Implications, and the Role of Research

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Research and Development Board (Board) commissioned an economic analysis of feedstocks to produce biofuels. The Board seeks to inform investments in research and development needed to expand biofuel production. This analysis focuses on feedstocks; other interagency teams have projects underway for other parts of the biofuel sector (e.g., logistics). The analysis encompasses feedstocks for both conventional and advanced biofuels from agriculture and forestry sources.

  4. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation. [economic impact and aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The economic benefits attributable to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation are discussed. Topics covered include: the ag-air industry, the data base used to estimate the potential benefits and a summary of the potential benefits from technological improvements; ag-air activities in the United States; foreign ag-air activities; major ag-air aircraft is use and manufacturers' sales and distribution networks; and estimates of the benefits to the United States of proposed technological improvements to the aircraft and dispersal equipment. A bibliography of references is appended.

  5. 75 FR 25199 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI). The AFRI process has been iterative. Pursuant to... Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA... National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), formerly known as the Cooperative State...

  6. Agriculture and the Property Tax: A Forward Look Based on a Historical Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 392.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stam, Jerome M.; Sibold, Ann G.

    Assessing the property tax in terms of agriculture, this report analyzes the following in an historical sense in order to draw implications for the future: (1) the importance of the property tax to the agricultural sector; (2) the horizontal equity of the property tax for the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in terms of income and wealth;…

  7. Social Sleepwalkers. Scientific and Technological Research in California Agriculture. Research Monograph No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    Making a case for initiation of a systematic methodology that would predict and evaluate the potential social ramifications of scientific research, this monograph presents: (1) a review of the general lack of social concern among scientific researchers and rationale for utilization of scientific agricultural research as initiator of social…

  8. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI): methodology and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatewicz, T.; Yang, X.; Peterson, J. M.; Staggenborg, S.; Welch, S. M.; Steward, D. R.

    2010-03-01

    Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI). This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  9. Focusing Research in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Annual Central Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education (47th, St. Louis, Missouri, March 6, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J., Comp.; Schumacher, Leon G., Comp.

    A conference proceedings on agricultural education research included: "Focusing for Excellence" (Jordan); "Factors Related to the Integration of International Agricultural Concepts into the Secondary Agricultural Education (AE) Curriculum" (Ibezim, McCracken); "Perceptions of State Vocational Education (VE) Administrators Relevant to AE in the…

  10. [Research progress on water footprint in agricultural products].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Liu, Xiu-wei; Zhang, Xi-ying

    2015-10-01

    Water is one of the important resources in human activities. Scientifically and rationally evaluating the effects of human activities on water resources is important for sustainable water resource management. The innovative concepts of water footprint (WF) distinguished the human water consumption into green water, blue water and grey water which extended the evaluation methods in sustainable utilization of water resources. Concepts of WF based on virtual water (VW) and based on life cycle assessment (LCA) both combined water quality and water quantity are now the focuses in agricultural water management researches. Theory of WF based on VW includes the calculation of green, blue and grey WF as well as the evaluation of the sustainability of water environment. Theory of WF based on LCA reflects the overall impact of consumptive and degradative water use on the environment. The purpose of this article was to elaborate the research progresses in theoretical calculation methods and environmental sustainability assessment of the two water footprint theories and then to analyze the differentiation of these two methodologies in describing the consumptive water use in agriculture and its effects on environment. Finally, some future research aspects on water footprint were provided.

  11. The economic impact of more sustainable water use in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryAgriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. Based on the global general equilibrium model GTAP-W, we offer a method for investigating the role of green (rain) and blue (irrigation) water resources in agriculture and within the context of international trade. We use future projections of allowable water withdrawals for surface water and groundwater to define two alternative water management scenarios. The first scenario explores a deterioration of current trends and policies in the water sector (water crisis scenario). The second scenario assumes an improvement in policies and trends in the water sector and eliminates groundwater overdraft world-wide, increasing water allocation for the environment (sustainable water use scenario). In both scenarios, welfare gains or losses are not only associated with changes in agricultural water consumption. Under the water crisis scenario, welfare not only rises for regions where water consumption increases (China, South East Asia and the USA). Welfare gains are considerable for Japan and South Korea, Southeast Asia and Western Europe as well. These regions benefit from higher levels of irrigated production and lower food prices. Alternatively, under the sustainable water use scenario, welfare losses not only affect regions where overdrafting is occurring. Welfare decreases in other regions as well. These results indicate that, for water use, there is a clear trade-off between economic welfare and environmental sustainability.

  12. The economic and environmental consequences of implementing nitrogen-efficient technologies and management practices in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L; Davidson, Eric A; Kanter, David R; Cai, Ruohong

    2015-03-01

    Technologies and management practices (TMPs) that reduce the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer while maintaining crop yields can improve N use efficiency (NUE) and are important tools for meeting the dual challenges of increasing food production and reducing N pollution. However, because farmers operate to maximize their profits, incentives to implement TMPs are limited, and TMP implementation will not always reduce N pollution. Therefore, we have developed the NUE Economic and Environmental impact analytical framework (NUE) to examine the economic and environmental consequences of implementing TMPs in agriculture, with a specific focus on farmer profits, N fertilizer consumption, N losses, and cropland demand. Our analytical analyses show that impact of TMPs on farmers' economic decision-making and the environment is affected by how TMPs change the yield ceiling and the N fertilization rate at the ceiling and by how the prices of TMPs, fertilizer, and crops vary. Technologies and management practices that increase the yield ceiling appear to create a greater economic incentive for farmers than TMPs that do not but may result in higher N application rates and excess N losses. Nevertheless, the negative environmental impacts of certain TMPs could be avoided if their price stays within a range determined by TMP yield response, fertilizer price, and crop price. We use a case study on corn production in the midwestern United States to demonstrate how NUE can be applied to farmers' economic decision-making and policy analysis. Our NUE framework provides an important tool for policymakers to understand how combinations of fertilizer, crop, and TMP prices affect the possibility of achieving win-win outcomes for farmers and the environment. PMID:26023951

  13. A Model of Agricultural and Food Research Excellence-USDA/ARS/WRRC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service is the principal in-house research arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), responsible for solving agricultural problems of national importance. Included among ARS's 100 locations in the U.S. are regional centers such as the Western Regional Research Cent...

  14. Economic analysis of small-scale agricultural digesters in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic digestion is a manure treatment option that is gaining popularity throughout the world due to its multiple environmental and economic benefits. However, further research is needed for anaerobic technology to become more readily available, cost effective and manageable for small-scale to m...

  15. Assessing health in agriculture--towards a common research framework for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vieweger, Anja; Döring, Thomas F

    2015-02-01

    In agriculture and food systems, health-related research includes a vast diversity of topics. Nutritional, toxicological, pharmacological, epidemiological, behavioural, sociological, economic and political methods are used to study health in the five domains of soils, plants, livestock, humans and ecosystems. An idea developed in the early founding days of organic agriculture stated that the health of all domains is one and indivisible. Here we show that recent research reveals the existence and complex nature of such health links among domains. However, studies of health aspects in agriculture are often separated by disciplinary boundaries. This restrains the understanding of health in agricultural systems. Therefore we explore the opportunities and limitations of bringing perspectives together from the different domains. We review current approaches to define and assess health in agricultural contexts, comparing the state of the art of commonly used approaches and bringing together the presently disconnected debates in soil science, plant science, veterinary science and human medicine. Based on a qualitative literature analysis, we suggest that many health criteria fall into two paradigms: (1) the Growth Paradigm, where terms are primarily oriented towards continued growth; (2) the Boundary Paradigm, where terms focus on maintaining or coming back to a status quo, recognising system boundaries. Scientific health assessments in agricultural and food systems need to be explicit in terms of their position on the continuum between Growth Paradigm and Boundary Paradigm. Finally, we identify areas and concepts for a future direction of health assessment and research in agricultural and food systems.

  16. Eco-efficiency analysis of an agricultural research complex.

    PubMed

    Reith, Charles C; Guidry, Michael J

    2003-07-01

    The Model Sustainable Agricultural Complex (MSAC) is a 600-acre experimental farm in south-central Louisiana, in the very southern reaches of the United States, approximately 40 km north of the Gulf of Mexico. The MSAC consists of many land uses and facilities, including a dairy, crawfish center, beef herd, sugarcane crop, and equestrian center, as well as numerous features and programs for research, education, and residence. The mission of the MSAC, which is operated by the Department of Renewable Resources at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, has been to accommodate research and education in production agriculture, while generating revenues through the delivery of food products into the local economy. In recent years, environmental conservation has been increasingly important at the MSAC. Best management practices (BMPs) were implemented to reduce soil loss and mitigate nonpoint source pollution. Research was initiated to quantify the effectiveness of these BMPs, and workshops were conducted to explain preliminary results to local farmers. However, environmental improvements at the MSAC had until 2000 been piecemeal, which may be said as well for agriculture overall. What is needed is a comprehensive integrated approach to analyzing and improving environmental performance, as is possible when implementing an environmental management system (EMS). This manuscript describes our efforts to integrate piecemeal environmental improvements into a farm-wide program of systematic improvement. This process began with a qualitative ranking of the MSAC's inputs and outputs, followed by a quantification of certain key parameters related to the consumption of resources and provision of services at the Complex. Certain measures related to the Complex's eco-efficiency were combined into a ratio that provides a useful target for management and continuous improvement. Eco-efficiency, which is defined as 'the efficiency with which receivables are converted into deliverables

  17. Eco-efficiency analysis of an agricultural research complex.

    PubMed

    Reith, Charles C; Guidry, Michael J

    2003-07-01

    The Model Sustainable Agricultural Complex (MSAC) is a 600-acre experimental farm in south-central Louisiana, in the very southern reaches of the United States, approximately 40 km north of the Gulf of Mexico. The MSAC consists of many land uses and facilities, including a dairy, crawfish center, beef herd, sugarcane crop, and equestrian center, as well as numerous features and programs for research, education, and residence. The mission of the MSAC, which is operated by the Department of Renewable Resources at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, has been to accommodate research and education in production agriculture, while generating revenues through the delivery of food products into the local economy. In recent years, environmental conservation has been increasingly important at the MSAC. Best management practices (BMPs) were implemented to reduce soil loss and mitigate nonpoint source pollution. Research was initiated to quantify the effectiveness of these BMPs, and workshops were conducted to explain preliminary results to local farmers. However, environmental improvements at the MSAC had until 2000 been piecemeal, which may be said as well for agriculture overall. What is needed is a comprehensive integrated approach to analyzing and improving environmental performance, as is possible when implementing an environmental management system (EMS). This manuscript describes our efforts to integrate piecemeal environmental improvements into a farm-wide program of systematic improvement. This process began with a qualitative ranking of the MSAC's inputs and outputs, followed by a quantification of certain key parameters related to the consumption of resources and provision of services at the Complex. Certain measures related to the Complex's eco-efficiency were combined into a ratio that provides a useful target for management and continuous improvement. Eco-efficiency, which is defined as 'the efficiency with which receivables are converted into deliverables

  18. Agricultural research and development in Eastern European countries: Challenges and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Maticic, B. )

    1993-01-01

    All the countries in Eastern Europe are in a state of transition towards a market-oriented economy. Although these countries differ in many respects, they have in common some four decades of central and administrative planning. The transformation of these countries has to take place. The course of future agricultural development will depend on the policies regarding ownership of land and of other basic resources (livestock, management and organization of feed, breeding, health of animals, marketing, agroprocessing services), prices, and incentives. Maintaining good environmental quality will have to play an important role in agricultural development, taking into consideration health and welfare of humans, plants, and animals for a sustainable social and economic development. Agricultural research, development, and extension are the cornerstones on which market-oriented agricultural systems in Eastern European countries are to be rebuilt in order to meet domestic demand and increase export opportunities. The greatest emphasis should be on appropriate applied programs adopted to the new orientation and structure. 6 refs., 7 tabs.

  19. A brief background on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed 1857

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed research is critical for quantifying the unique characteristics of hydrologic processes worldwide and especially in semiarid regions. In 1953, the United States Department of Agriculture established the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) near Tombstone, Arizona, to conduct hydrolog...

  20. Applications of UAV imagery for agricultural and environmental research at the USDA Southeast Watershed Research Lab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ARS is the USDA's in-house scientific research agency, whose mission is to conduct research to "develop and transfer solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority..." This includes enhancing the natural resource base and the environment, a dimension of particular relevance to the ...

  1. Biobased products research at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research by our group at the NCAUR has concerned the research and development of biobased products, most of which are derived from the residues produced during agricultural processing. These include: novel sophorolipids from yeast as natural emulsifiers and surfactants for certified organic...

  2. The potential for carbon sequestration in Australian agricultural soils is technically and economically limited

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Shu Kee; Chen, Deli; Mosier, Arvin R.; Roush, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), have raised worldwide interest in the potential of agricultural soils to be carbon (C) sinks. In Australia, studies that have quantified the effects of improved management practices in croplands on soil C have generally been inconclusive and contradictory for different soil depths and durations of the management changes. We therefore quantitatively synthesised the results of Australian studies using meta-analytic techniques to assess the technical and economic feasibility of increasing the soil C stock by improved management practices. Our results indicate that the potential of these improved practices to store C is limited to the surface 0–10 cm of soil and diminishes with time. None of these widely adopted practices is currently financially attractive under Australia's new legislation known as the Carbon Farming Initiative. PMID:23846398

  3. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  4. Peak Performance...Reaching for Excellence in Agricultural Education Research. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (22nd, Denver, Colorado, December 1, 1995). Volume XXII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J., Ed.; Schumacher, Leon G., Ed.

    The theme of this conference reflects the continuing need to conduct and report research that addresses significant problems and issues in Agricultural Education. Selected research papers are as follows: "Opportunities and Obstacles for Distance Education in Agricultural Education (AE)" (Murphy, Terry); "Faculty Needs Associated with Agricultural…

  5. The Economics of School Choice. A National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoxby, Caroline M., Ed.

    This collection of essays grew out of a series of conferences held by the National Bureau of Economic Research on school finance, public economics, and school choice. After an introduction by Carolyn M. Hoxby, the papers are: (1) "Does Public School Competition Affect Teacher Quality?" (Eric A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin); (2) "Can School…

  6. Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Central Region Annual Research Conference (44th, Chicago, Illinois, February 24-25, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The following papers are included: "Focusing Agricultural Education Research" (Williams); "A Time Series Analysis of Agricultural Education Student Teachers' Perceptions of Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Competencies" (Schumacher, Johnson); "Determination of the Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Inservice Needs of Missouri…

  7. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  8. Explaining Strengthening Mechanisms, Institutional Orientations and Problematic Challenges of University Agricultural Research in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifzadeh, Aboulghasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

    2009-01-01

    According to empirical evidence and noted implications of sustainable agricultural development as a systemic and multi-actor process, integration of the research function of higher agricultural education in Iranian agricultural research systems seems to be an ongoing and considerable necessity. With the aim of identification and analysis of…

  9. Millennium III Challenges: A Major Role for Agricultural Research/Extension/Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) ad hoc Committee on Federal Support for Agricultural Research, Extension and Education suggests solutions to major challenges in agricultural research. Three new realities provide a powerful rationale for major new investment in agriculture: dramatic…

  10. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  11. Economic and energetic evaluation of alcohol fuel production from agriculture: Yolo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Meo, M.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation reviews the technical aspects of alcohol fuel production and consumption, examines the set of policy-related issues that affect both the private and the public sectors, and investigates the economic and energetic feasibility of small-scale on-farm production on a representative Sacramento Valley field and vegetable crop farm. Candidate feedstocks, including both starch and sugar-rich crops, are: barley, corn, fodder beet, grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, tomatoes, and wheat. The leading fuel crops were found to be sweet sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, corn, fodder beet, and grain sorghum in order of declining preference. With better than average crop yields and the current mix of financial incentives, the breakeven cost of alcohol fuel is $1.03 per gallon when diesel fuel and gasoline prices are $1.30 and $1.46, respectively. Without subsidy, the breakeven cost is $1.62 per gallon. An energy analysis was calculated for each of the feedstocks under consideration. With the exception of sweet sorghum, wheat, and barley, all feedstocks showed a negative net energy balance. The use of agricultural residues as a boiler fuel, however, made a significant difference in the overall energy balance. The role of government in energy policy is reviewed and typical policy instruments are discussed. Although on-farm alcohol fuel production is not currently economically competitive with gasoline and diesel fuel, technological innovation and the return of increasing petroleum prices could alter the situation.

  12. A Research-Based Development Economics Course for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Prakarsh; Guo, Hongye; Morales, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The authors present details of a research-based course in development economics taught at a private liberal arts college. There were three key elements in this class: teaching of applied econometrics, group presentations reviewing published and working papers in development economics, and using concepts taught in class to write an original…

  13. Progress and needs in agricultural research, development, and applications programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Myers, V. I.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic nature of agriculture requires repetitive resource assessments such as those from remote sensing. Until recently, the use of remote sensing in agriculture has been limited primarily to site specific investigations without large-scale evaluations. Examples of successful applications at various user levels are provided. The stage of development for applying remote sensing to many agricultural problems is assessed, and goals for planning future data characteristics for increased use in agriculture are suggested.

  14. The Economics of Reproducibility in Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Leonard P.; Cockburn, Iain M.; Simcoe, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Low reproducibility rates within life science research undermine cumulative knowledge production and contribute to both delays and costs of therapeutic drug development. An analysis of past studies indicates that the cumulative (total) prevalence of irreproducible preclinical research exceeds 50%, resulting in approximately US$28,000,000,000 (US$28B)/year spent on preclinical research that is not reproducible—in the United States alone. We outline a framework for solutions and a plan for long-term improvements in reproducibility rates that will help to accelerate the discovery of life-saving therapies and cures. PMID:26057340

  15. Research of Development of Agricultural Knowledge Service in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Tan, Cuiping; Zheng, Huaiguo; Sun, Sufen; Yu, Feng

    With the global development of knowledge economy, the knowledge requirement of farmers is more personalized and solution-oriented, so there is pressing needs to develop agricultural knowledge service. The paper analyzes characteristics of agricultural knowledge service, and summarizes typical cases of agricultural knowledge service development in China.

  16. Innovations in information management to enhance agriculture: A research perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information management should be the cornerstone for innovative agricultural systems; however, the challenge remains on how to utilize all of the components to enhance agriculture. The enhancement of agriculture is often considered from only a yield perspective. This is an important factor and effo...

  17. Sociological Research and Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Gale

    1996-01-01

    Examines four orientations of sociological research: functional analysis, systems theory, symbolic interaction, and critical theory/conflict analysis. Recommends avoiding adherence to one single orientation and suggests constant reevaluation of the frame of reference. (SK)

  18. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  19. Future Projections for Southern High Plains Agriculture Using Coupled Economic and Hydrologic Models and Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainwater, K.; Tewari, R.; Willis, D.; Stovall, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Hernandez, A.; Mauget, S. A.; Leiker, G.; Johnson, J.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the hypothesis that predicted climate change will affect the useful life of the Ogallala aquifer in the Southern High Plains (SHP) through its impact on the amount of irrigation withdrawals, and thus affect the yields and economic costs and net income. A ninety-year time frame has been considered, although the research team recognizes that long-term predictions of crop prices and selections are perhaps even more uncertain than long-term weather projections. Previous work by the research team recently demonstrated the development of regionally downscaled climate projections for the SHP. Quantitative projections of precipitation, potential evaporation, and temperature trends for the 90-yr duration were selected from a downscaled set of high-resolution (one-eighth degree) daily climate and hydrological simulations covering the entire Great Plains region, driven by the latest IPCC AR4 climate model outputs. These projections were used as input to the Ogallala Ag Tool software developed by the USDA-ARS to predict daily and seasonal values of those variables, which directly affect irrigation, at different locations in the study area. Results from the Ogallala Ag Tool were then used to drive future projected crop production functions for cotton, corn, wheat, and sorghum using the DSSAT crop model. These production functions were then included in an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling approach that coupled an economic optimization model with a groundwater hydrological model. The groundwater model was based on the Texas Water Development Board's Southern Ogallala Groundwater Availability Model, which has been recalibrated by the research team for previous applications. The coupling of the two models allowed better recognition of spatial heterogeneity across the SHP, such that irrigation water availability was better represented through the spatial variations in pumping demands and saturated thickness. With this hydrologic

  20. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

    2003-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated

  1. Reorienting Agricultural Education towards a Free Market Model Emphasizing Economic Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberson, Max L.

    Agricultural education has grown and flourished in the past because it took students with farm backgrounds and helped them become better managers and producers, thus improving agriculture in general. Now that fewer students are coming from farms into agricultural education, agricultural education has lost its protected status and become just…

  2. Structural Changes in Illinois Agriculture and Industry: Impact on Illinois School Finance. Series E. Agricultural Economics. No. 85-E-335.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicoine, David L.; Langston, Suzanne W.

    Simulation of changes through 1988-89 in the distribution of general school aid (GSA) in Illinois demonstrated implications of a dual state economy for educational finance. Agricultural and heavy manufacturing areas were found to have suffered loss of tax revenue while service and light industry areas experienced increased revenue. Downstate…

  3. Pennsylvania's 1982 Abstracts of Research in Agricultural Education. Teacher Education Research Series, Volume 24, Number l.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Edgar Paul, Comp.

    This document consists of abstracts of research and development activities of 29 studies completed in Pennsylvania during the period from January 1 to December 31, 1982. Included in the collection are abstracts of 21 masters theses and eight doctoral theses. Various topics pertaining to agricultural education are covered, including the…

  4. Increasing organic carbon stocks in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Eriksson, Jan O.; Lundblad, Mattias; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Management changes can induce significant alterations of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Including trends in SOC within a certain land-use category can thus strongly influence the annual national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. In 2013, the European Union has therefore decided that all member states shall report the evolvement of SOC within agricultural soils to increase the incentives to mitigate climate change by improving the management of those soils. Here, we present the country and county-wise SOC trends in Swedish agricultural mineral soils on the basis of three soil inventories conducted between 1988 and 2013. In the past two decades, the average topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC content of the whole country increased from 2.48% to 2.67% representing a relative change of 7.7% or 0.38% yr-1. This is in contrast to trends observed in neighboring countries such as Norway and Finland. We attributed this positive SOC trend to the increasing cultivation of leys throughout the country. Indeed, the below-ground carbon input of perennial grasses is up to fourfold as compared to cereals, which leads to a significant soil carbon sequestration potential under cropping systems with ley. The increase in ley proportion was significantly correlated to the increase in horse population in each county (R2=0.71), which has more than doubled in the past three decades. Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area as long-term set-aside land (mostly old leys) also contributed to an increase in leys. This discloses the strong impact of rather local socio-economic trends on soil carbon storage, which also need to be considered in larger-scale model applications. This database is used in the continuous validation process of the Swedish national system for reporting changes in SOC stocks.

  5. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  6. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture, C.E.E.M.A., version 1.0, report 1: Model description

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, S.N.

    1999-09-01

    This is one of three technical reports which document an integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to simultaneously assess the economic and the greenhouse gas emission impacts of agricultural policies at the regional and national levels. After an introduction on the background to the model and on the importance of agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases, chapter 2 outlines a conceptual basis for developing a sub-model for emission of greenhouse gases. It includes the conceptual linkages between agricultural production activities and the nature of greenhouse gas emissions. An overview of the sub-model and considerations involved in its development are provided in chapter 3. Chapter 4 follows with a description of the methodology adopted in the estimation of various emission coefficients for crop and livestock production activities. Results of a baseline scenario, agricultural production in 1994 as estimated in the CRAM model, are shown in chapter 5, and results of two alternative scenarios are presented in chapter 6. The final chapter summarizes the report and discusses areas of further research.

  7. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries:Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AgroAtlas is a comprehensive on-line bilingual reference on the geographic distribution of economic plants, their diseases, pests and weeds, and environmental factors that influence agricultural production through out the Former Soviet Union. Online users can read about and examine maps and ima...

  8. Status of Teaching Pre-Vocational Subjects in the Junior Secondary School Level (Agricultural Science and Home Economics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndem, J. U.; Akubue, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the status of teaching pre-vocational subjects in junior secondary school level. The study adopted descriptive survey method. The population of the study was 2,916, while the sample for the study was 215 pre-vocational teachers and agricultural science and home economics students. The study was carried out in Afikpo Education…

  9. Attaining Excellence in the 80's. Research in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (14th, Las Vegas, Nevada, December 4, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannebach, Alfred J., Comp.

    Among the 36 research papers and critiques are "A Comparison of 1972 and 1980 Secondary Agricultural Education Students" (Navaratnam, Oliver); "A Day Late and a Dollar Short" (Moore); "Assessment of Preservice Preparation by Recent Graduates of Agricultural Education Programs" (Yahya, Burnett); "Characteristics and Activities of Vocational…

  10. 76 FR 71933 - Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics; Notice of the Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... United States Department of Agriculture announces a meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology... representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed...

  11. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  12. 75 FR 68598 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... with a historic commitment to research in the food and agricultural sciences, food retailing and.... ``National Food Animal Science Society,'' Nancy M. Cox, Director, Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station... Agriculture to a specific category on the Board, including farming or ranching, food production and...

  13. A Review of Subject Matter Topics Researched in Agricultural and Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Xu, Wenwei

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of 402 articles in the Journal of Agricultural Education and 451 National Agricultural Education Research Meeting papers (1986-1996) yielded 30 categories of topics. The top five were secondary agriculture programs, learning styles, extension education, professionalism, and ag mechanics/engineering. Emerging topics included distance…

  14. Agricultural Research and Extension in Latin America: The Agenda for the Nineties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaimowitz, David

    1993-01-01

    Agricultural research and extension institutions in Latin America increased agricultural productivity during 1950-75 but deteriorated during the mid-1970s because they were unable to adapt to a heterogeneous agricultural sector and the changing demands of society. External pressure may be necessary to force these institutions to serve the needs of…

  15. 77 FR 7565 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... to read: Food Safety; Food Security; (8) In the Federal Register of February 1, 2012 in FR Doc. 2012...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative AGENCY: National Institute of Food and...

  16. 77 FR 4984 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... products; (B) Animal health and production and animal products; (C) Food safety, nutrition, and health; (D... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA....

  17. The Impacts and Economic Costs of Climate Change in Agriculture and the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, A.; Quiroga, S.; Garrote, L.; Cunningham, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides monetary estimates of the effects of agricultural adaptation to climate change in Europe. The model computes spatial crop productivity changes as a response to climate change linking biophysical and socioeconomic components. It combines available data sets of crop productivity changes under climate change (Iglesias et al 2011, Ciscar et al 2011), statistical functions of productivity response to water and nitrogen inputs, catchment level water availability, and environmental policy scenarios. Future global change scenarios are derived from several socio-economic futures of representative concentration pathways and regional climate models. The economic valuation is conducted by using GTAP general equilibrium model. The marginal productivity changes has been used as an input for the economic general equilibrium model in order to analyse the economic impact of the agricultural changes induced by climate change in the world. The study also includes the analysis of an adaptive capacity index computed by using the socio-economic results of GTAP. The results are combined to prioritize agricultural adaptation policy needs in Europe.

  18. New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture. High-Reward Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Agriculture.

    To aid in the effort to define comprehensive long-range planning goals in bioregulation, the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) asked the Board of Agriculture of the National Research Council to undertake a study of the ARS research programs concerned with bioregulation. (For the purposes of this study bioregulation was interpreted broadly to be…

  19. Agricultural Education: Review and Synthesis of the Research, Fourth Edition. Information Series No. 298.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.

    This fourth edition of a review and synthesis of agricultural education research concentrates on the period from 1978 to 1984. The review covers research published in papers and bulletins, compilations of abstracts, proceedings of regional and national agricultural education research meetings, material in the ERIC database, masters' theses, and…

  20. The Quest for "Economic Relevance" by US Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L.

    2006-01-01

    Universities in the United States for at least the last century have made positive contributions to the economic weal, whether through their intrinsic mission of teaching and research or through special arrangements for service activities. In recent years there has been heightened awareness of the special role of academic research among…

  1. Special Section: A Debate on Research Techniques in Economic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, George G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Dawson introduces three articles which debate merits of research techniques in undergraduate economic education. William E. Becker criticizes John C. Soper's models, multicollinearity argument, and student incentives in a research project; Soper replies; Robert Highsmith critically analyzes strengths and weaknesses of each argument. (AV)

  2. The Economic Behavior of Academic Research Libraries: Toward a Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the economic behavior of academic research libraries, arguing that academic research libraries seek to maximize universities' utility by expanding library collections. Findings are consistent with those from a previous study using a different ranking system and sample data and reconfirm that library collections contribute significantly to…

  3. Reorienting Agricultural Education towards a Free Market Model Emphasizing Economic Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberson, Max L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the National Council for Vocational and Technology Education in Agriculture designed to foster creative and innovative leadership for the improvement and further development of the field. Stresses the importance of working with private sector agricultural producers and agribusinesses. (JOW)

  4. Integrating and Institutionalizing Lessons Learned: Reorganizing Agricultural Research and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…

  5. A RESEARCH STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RODRIGUES, DONALD F.

    QUESTIONNAIRE RETURNS FROM 103 EMPLOYERS IN AGRICULTURE AND RELATED INDUSTRIES WERE COMBINED WITH 50 INTERVIEWS WITHIN THE SAME GROUP TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY. MOST FIRMS EMPLOYED FEWER THAN 15 WORKERS ON A PERMANENT BASIS, SUPPLEMENTED BY LARGE MEMBERS OF SEASONAL WORKERS, ESPECIALLY IN THE…

  6. [Research of spectrum characteristics for light conversion agricultural films].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-pei; Li, Jian-yu; Chen, Juan; Xiao, Yang; Sun, Yu-e

    2004-10-01

    The solar spectrum and the function spectrum in chrysanthemum and tomato were determined in this paper. The research for a relation plant growth to solar spectrum showed that the efficiency of plant making use of ultraviolet light of 280-380 nm and yellow-green light of 500-600 nm and near IR spectra over 720 nm are lower, that the blue-purple light of 430-480 nm and red light of 630-690 nm are beneficial to enhancing photosynthesis and promoting plant growth. According to plant photosynthesis and solar spectrum characteristic, the author developed CaS:Cu+, Cl- blue light film, and red light film added with CaS:Eu2+, Mn2+, Cl- to convert green light into red light, and discussed the spectrum characteristic of red-blue double peak in agricultural film and rare earth organic complex which could convert ultraviolet light into red light. Just now, the study on light conversion regents in farm films is going to face new breakthrough and the technology of anti-stocks displacement to study red film which can convert near infrared light are worth to attention.

  7. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    SciTech Connect

    Mccarl, Bruce A.; Schneider, Uwe; Murray, Brian; Williams, Jimmy; Sands, Ronald D.

    2001-05-14

    This paper examines the relative contribution of agricultural and forestry activities in an emission reduction program, focusing in part on the relative desirability of sequestration in forests and agricultural soils. The analysis considers the effects of competition for land and other resources between agricultural activities, forestry activities and traditional production. In addition, the paper examines the influence of saturation and volatility.

  8. Evaluating the relative impact of climate and economic changes on forest and agricultural ecosystem services in mountain regions.

    PubMed

    Briner, Simon; Elkin, Ché; Huber, Robert

    2013-11-15

    Provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) in mountainous regions is predicted to be influenced by i) the direct biophysical impacts of climate change, ii) climate mediated land use change, and iii) socioeconomic driven changes in land use. The relative importance and the spatial distribution of these factors on forest and agricultural derived ES, however, is unclear, making the implementation of ES management schemes difficult. Using an integrated economic-ecological modeling framework, we evaluated the impact of these driving forces on the provision of forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region of southern Switzerland. Results imply that forest ES will be strongly influenced by the direct impact of climate change, but that changes in land use will have a comparatively small impact. The simulation of direct impacts of climate change affects forest ES at all elevations, while land use changes can only be found at high elevations. In contrast, changes to agricultural ES were found to be primarily due to shifts in economic conditions that alter land use and land management. The direct influence of climate change on agriculture is only predicted to be substantial at high elevations, while socioeconomic driven shifts in land use are projected to affect agricultural ES at all elevations. Our simulation results suggest that policy schemes designed to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on forests should focus on suitable adaptive management plans, accelerating adaptation processes for currently forested areas. To maintain provision of agricultural ES policy needs to focus on economic conditions rather than on supporting adaptation to new climate. PMID:23995509

  9. Evaluating the relative impact of climate and economic changes on forest and agricultural ecosystem services in mountain regions.

    PubMed

    Briner, Simon; Elkin, Ché; Huber, Robert

    2013-11-15

    Provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) in mountainous regions is predicted to be influenced by i) the direct biophysical impacts of climate change, ii) climate mediated land use change, and iii) socioeconomic driven changes in land use. The relative importance and the spatial distribution of these factors on forest and agricultural derived ES, however, is unclear, making the implementation of ES management schemes difficult. Using an integrated economic-ecological modeling framework, we evaluated the impact of these driving forces on the provision of forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region of southern Switzerland. Results imply that forest ES will be strongly influenced by the direct impact of climate change, but that changes in land use will have a comparatively small impact. The simulation of direct impacts of climate change affects forest ES at all elevations, while land use changes can only be found at high elevations. In contrast, changes to agricultural ES were found to be primarily due to shifts in economic conditions that alter land use and land management. The direct influence of climate change on agriculture is only predicted to be substantial at high elevations, while socioeconomic driven shifts in land use are projected to affect agricultural ES at all elevations. Our simulation results suggest that policy schemes designed to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on forests should focus on suitable adaptive management plans, accelerating adaptation processes for currently forested areas. To maintain provision of agricultural ES policy needs to focus on economic conditions rather than on supporting adaptation to new climate.

  10. Building bridges between health economics research and public policy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Debrand, Thierry; Dourgnon, Paul

    2010-12-01

    The Institut de Recherche et Documentation en Economie de la Santé (IRDES) Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation aims at disseminating health economic research's newest findings and enhancing the community's capacity to address issues that are relevant to public policy. The 2010 program consisted of 16 articles covering a vast range of topics, such as health insurance, social health inequalities and health services research. While most of the articles embedded theoretical material, all had to include empirical material in order to favor more applied and practical discussions and results. The 2010 workshop is to be the first of a series of annual workshops in Paris gathering together researchers on health economics and policy evaluation. The next workshop is to be held at IRDES in June 2011.

  11. U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Mahantango Creek Watershed, Pennsylvania, United States: physiography and history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 420 km**2 Mahantango Creek Watershed, located within the Northern Appalachian Ridges and Valleys, is a subwatershed of the Susquehanna River Basin, which flows to Chesapeake Bay. Research on agricultural management and hydrologic processes that control nutrient loss from nonpoint sources is cond...

  12. GUIDELINES FOR STATE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS SERVICES, A RESEARCH REPORT OF A GRADUATE STUDY. RESEARCH SERIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RIDENOUR, HARLAN E.; WOODIN, RALPH J.

    PROBLEMS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN KEEPING ABREAST OF TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AND OBTAINING OR PREPARING MATERIALS STRUCTURED IN LOGICAL SEQUENCE FOR TEACHING PROMPTED A STUDY TO DEVELOP GUIDELINES FOR ORGANIZING AND OPERATING A STATEWIDE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS SERVICE. A SURVEY OF 48 STATE DIRECTORS AND 48 STATE…

  13. INTEGRATING BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES WITH INSTRUCTION IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE, A RESEARCH REPORT OF A GRADUATE STUDY. RESEARCH SERIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BENDER, RALPH E.; STARLING, JOHN T.

    TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF INTEGRATING BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES WITH INSTRUCTION IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IN OHIO HIGH SCHOOLS, 15 PILOT SCHOOLS AND 8 CONTROL SCHOOLS WERE STUDIED. PRETESTS ADMINISTERED TO STUDENTS IN OCTOBER 1963 WERE AN AGRICULTURAL ACHIEVEMENT TEST, A BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES TEST, THE CALIFORNIA SHORT-FORM TEST OF MENTAL…

  14. Using Coupled Hydrologic and Agro-economic Models to Evaluate the Impact of Agricultural Activity on Streamflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugger, D. R.; Maneta, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation substantially alters the timing and magnitude of surface water flows, and continued agricultural intensification to keep up with demand means perpetual stress on surface water resources. A critical challenge is to manage irrigation in a way that balances ecosystem health with sustaining agricultural economies. Coupled hydrologic-agroeconomic models are promising tools for meeting this challenge: the models can quantify 1) how water withdrawal for irrigation impacts streamflows, 2) how these impacts propagate through a surface water system, 3) how the amount of water available for irrigation changes the allocation of resources (e.g. land, water) to available crops, and 4) the impact of water availability on agricultural economies. However, these models can be very data intensive, which limits their applicability. We present a parsimonious coupled hydrologic-agroeconomic model that uses the Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) method, extensively used in agricultural resource economics, and calibrates to data on allotment of agricultural inputs, available from sources such as the USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service. PMP assumes that farmers allocate resources to maximize net revenues, justifying the use of optimality conditions to constrain the parameters of the agroeconomic model. We improve the standard PMP model by 1) having the calibrated model reproduce not only the observed input allotment but also the observed yield, and 2) using the ensemble Kalman filter equations to solve the mathematical programming problem recursively, which permits refinement of the model calibration as new observations become available. We demonstrate the proposed agroeconomic model by coupling it to HEC-HMS, a hydrologic model capable of simulating regional natural and man-made water distribution networks, to investigate the sensitivity of streamflows to the allocation of agricultural inputs (land and water) in response to changes in climatic and economic

  15. HEALTH AND EXPOSURE RESEARCH FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY: THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The AHS is the...

  16. ADAPTING THE FFA TO A CHANGING PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE. RESEARCH SERIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KANTER, EARL F.; BENDER, RALPH E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS NATIONAL STUDY WAS TO SUGGEST WAYS OF ADAPTING THE FUTURE FARMERS OF AMERICA (FFA) TO A CHANGING PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE THROUGH IDENTIFYING NEW PURPOSES OF THE FFA AND EVALUATING SELECTED OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES AND NATIONAL AND STATE FFA ACTIVITIES. MEMBERS OF THE UNITED STATES OFFICE OF EDUCATION, HEAD STATE…

  17. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  18. Assessment of China's economic loss resulting from the degradation of agricultural land in the end of 20th century.

    PubMed

    Hao, Fang-hua; Chang, Ying; Ning, Da-tong

    2004-01-01

    Land degradation is a consequence stemming from both natural processes and social economic activities. On the bases of analyzing general situation of agricultural land degradation in China, the monetary estimating methods such as market value method and shadow engineering method were used to quantitatively assess the economic loss resulting from land deterioration. Results showed that the economic loss in 1999 was 326.81 billion RMB Yuan, which accounted for 4.1% of GDP in the same year of China. If taking five items namely farmland conversion, soil erosion, salinization, decline in reservoir functions, and siltation in waterways and, comparing with that in 1992, the percentage of economic loss to GDP has increased by 1.5 in the only 7 years.

  19. The NASA Lewis Research Center: An Economic Impact Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austrian, Ziona

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), established in 1941, is one of ten NASA research centers in the country. It is situated on 350 acres of land in Cuyahoga County and occupies more than 140 buildings and over 500 specialized research and test facilities. Most of LeRC's facilities are located in the City of Cleveland; some are located within the boundaries of the cities of Fairview Park and Brookpark. LeRC is a lead center for NASA's research, technology, and development in the areas of aeropropulsion and selected space applications. It is a center of excellence for turbomachinery, microgravity fluid and combustion research, and commercial communication. The base research and technology disciplines which serve both aeronautics and space areas include materials and structures, instrumentation and controls, fluid physics, electronics, and computational fluid dynamics. This study investigates LeRC's economic impact on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures LeRC's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they 'ripple' throughout the economy. To fully explain LeRC's overall impact on the region, its contributions in the areas of technology transfer and education are also examined. The study uses a highly credible and widely accepted research methodology. First, regional economic multipliers based on input-output models were used to estimate the effect of LERC spending on the Northeast Ohio economy. Second, the economic models were complemented by interviews with industrial, civic, and university leaders to qualitatively assess LeRC's impact in the areas of technology transfer and education.

  20. Southern Research Conference in Agricultural Education Proceedings. (34th, Mobile, Alabama, March 23-25, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Willie J.; And Others

    These proceedings include presentations that reflect the conference's focus on reporting current research in agricultural education. Twenty-one papers are presented in six general sessions: "Future Research Needs for Improving Vocational Agriculture Teacher Education Programs" (David L. Williams); "Assessment of Competencies Possessed by Students…

  1. Sustaining the Earth's Watersheds-Agricultural Research Data System: Data development, user interaction, and operations management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To support the Agricultural Research Service’s Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in assessing USDA conservation programs and practices on soil and water quality, a publicly available web-based watershed data system, called Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data Sy...

  2. Managing Our Environment, A Report on Ways Agricultural Research Fights Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A report on the ways agricultural research attempts to fight pollution is presented in this series of articles covering some of the major challenges facing scientists and regulatory officials working in agricultural research. Improved resource management is stressed with the use of advanced technologies as the avenue to solving environmental…

  3. Competence Challenges of Demand-Led Agricultural Research and Extension in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibwika, P.; Wals, A. E. J.; Nassuna-Musoke, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Governments and development agencies in Sub-Saharan Africa are experimenting alternative approaches within the innovation systems paradigm to enhance relevance of agricultural research and extension to the poverty eradication agenda. Uganda, for example, has recently shifted from the supply driven to demand-led agricultural research and extension.…

  4. Integrated Modeling to Assess the Impacts of Changes in Climate and Socio Economics on Agriculture in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Malek, K.; Nelson, R.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the impacts of climate change and socio economics on agriculture in the Columbia River basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. and a portion of Southwestern Canada. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of CRB water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area. Agriculture is an important component of the region's economy, with an annual value over 5 billion in Washington State alone. Therefore, the region is relevant for applying a modeling framework that can aid agriculture decision making in the context of a changing climate. To do this, we created an integrated biophysical and socio-economic regional modeling framework that includes human and natural systems. The modeling framework captures the interactions between climate, hydrology, crop growth dynamics, water management and socio economics. The biophysical framework includes a coupled macro-scale physically-based hydrology model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC model), and crop growth model (CropSyst), as well as a reservoir operations simulation model. Water rights data and instream flow target requirements are also incorporated in the model to simulate the process of curtailment during water shortage. The economics model informs the biophysical model of the short term agricultural producer response to water shortage as well as the long term agricultural producer response to domestic growth and international trade in terms of an altered cropping pattern. The modeling framework was applied over the CRB for the historical period 1976-2006 and compared to a future 30-year period centered on the 2030s. Impacts of climate change on irrigation water availability, crop irrigation demand, frequency of curtailment, and crop yields are quantified and presented. Sensitivity associated with estimates of water availability, irrigation demand, crop

  5. 76 FR 78225 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, Room 3901, South Building, U.S..., and Economics Advisory Board, Research, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, Room 3901... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Notices #0;...

  6. [Economic criminality. Problems of definition and lines of research].

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, G; Vetere, E

    1977-01-01

    After reviewing the many proposed definitions of economic criminality, which are now very numerous in specialized literature, and after considering the various critical attitudes assumed on this point by the most qualified experts on the subject, the Authors state that it is absolutely indispensable to establish an appropriate definition on which an aggreement can be reached. In fact, without such a definition it is impossible to deal with the object of interest and therefore to make any progress with the research, the legislation and the measures necessary for the prevention and repression of economic criminality. If this problem of economic criminality is discussed at the various national and international levels without the aforementioned definition, this is an indication that a popular intuition has been formed which is able to distinguish the object of interest. The most suitable lines of research are indicated in order to establish and clarify the elements of such an intuition which the Authors consider in a hypothetical light.

  7. Optimizing Economic Indicators in the Case of Using Two Types of State-Subsidized Chemical Fertilizers for Agricultural Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldea, M.; Sala, F.

    2010-09-01

    We admit that the mathematical relation between agricultural production f(x, y) and the two types of fertilizers x and y is given by function (1). The coefficients that appear are determined by using the least squares method by comparison with the experimental data. We took into consideration the following economic indicators: absolute benefit, relative benefit, profitableness and cost price. These are maximized or minimized, thus obtaining the optimal solutions by annulling the partial derivatives.

  8. Commercialization of University Research for Technology-Based Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, W. Ker

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the hypothesized relationship between US federally funded university research and development (R&D) and its resulting economic impact, as measured by the level of licensing revenue generated by US universities. The author also examines the key operating statistics of the top-ten licensing income-producing…

  9. Economic Psychology: Its Connections with Research-Oriented Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam; Benigno, Joann

    2003-01-01

    To enhance student interest in research methods, tests and measurement, and statistics classes, we describe how teachers may use resources from economic psychology to illustrate key concepts in these courses. Because of their applied nature and relevance to student experiences, topics covered by these resources may capture student attention and…

  10. Teaching Economics: Research Findings from a Microcomputer/Videodisc Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Allen D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes field test findings of a project funded by the Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium and the Rockefeller Family Fund to demonstrate that microcomputers and home videodisc players can deliver instruction to students. Basic research questions and field testing procedures for a high school economics course are provided. (MBR)

  11. Does Economic Research in Education Work? For Which Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makel, Matthew C.; Wai, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In their National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) working paper, "Does Gifted Education Work? For Which Students?" Card and Giuliano (C & G) made an enormous splash in not just gifted education but also the world (e.g., "The Washington Post," "The Atlantic," Five Thirty Eight). In this commentary, we highlight…

  12. Emerging National Research Needs for Agricultural Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneja, Viney P.; Schlesinger, William H.; Niyogi, Dev; Jennings, Greg; Gilliam, Wendell; Knighton, Raymond E.; Duke, Clifford S.; Blunden, Jessica; Krishnan, Srinath

    2006-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, the Earth's human population is predicted to increase from the current 6.1 billion to more than 9 billion, creating a parallel increase in demand for agricultural commodities. Satisfying the demand for food is already driving changes in crop and livestock production methods that may have profound environmental effects. Increased consumption of animal protein in developed and developing countries, for example, has resulted in concentrated production of poultry and livestock, which has led to concentrated emissions of pollutants from these production facilities and has created regulatory concerns for agriculture. Development of land for nonagricultural uses has placed more pressure on marginal agricultural lands and has caused environmental degradation including the emission of trace gases (e.g., carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen species) into the atmosphere.

  13. Paradigms and research programmes: is it time to move from health care economics to health economics?

    PubMed

    Edwards, R T

    2001-10-01

    As an applied subdiscipline of economics, health economics has flourished, defining itself as the study of how scarce health care resources may be used to meet our needs. This evolutionary pathway has led to health economists adopting a very 'medical' model of health, in which the predominant production function for health is health care. This paper sets out policy challenges to health economics which have arisen in light of growing recognition by governments of the socioeconomic determinants of health and their stated commitment to tackle inequalities in health. It reviews Thomas Kuhn's theory of paradigm shift and Imre Lakatos' theory of scientific research programmes in the natural sciences, favouring the latter as an explanation of the evolution of the subdiscipline of health economics. The paper brings together four recently published visions of the future of health economics-visions that are almost exclusively focused on the production, organization and distribution of health care. In contrast to these visions, in Lakatosian terms, this paper challenges the subdiscipline's core 'positive heuristic', i.e. the set of imperatives which determines how the research programme should unfold, how it may be defended, its scope and boundaries. This paper argues that health economics will need to evolve to embrace a more socioeconomic model of health and, to this end, offers for debate an expansion of Williams' diagrammatic representation of the subdiscipline. It concludes by asking whether the magnitude and the magnetism of health care policy issues will continue to prove too strong to allow health economists, should they wish, to steer their research and educational programmes more directly towards 'health' rather than 'health care' as the relevant social want.

  14. Agro-ecology, household economics and malaria in Uganda: empirical correlations between agricultural and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper establishes empirical evidence relating the agriculture and health sectors in Uganda. The analysis explores linkages between agricultural management, malaria and implications for improving community health outcomes in rural Uganda. The goal of this exploratory work is to expand the evidence-base for collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors in Uganda. Methods The paper presents an analysis of data from the 2006 Uganda National Household Survey using a parametric multivariate Two-Limit Tobit model to identify correlations between agro-ecological variables including geographically joined daily seasonal precipitation records and household level malaria risk. The analysis of agricultural and environmental factors as they affect household malaria rates, disaggregated by age-group, is inspired by a complimentary review of existing agricultural malaria literature indicating a gap in evidence with respect to agricultural management as a form of malaria vector management. Crop choices and agricultural management practices may contribute to vector control through the simultaneous effects of reducing malaria transmission, improving housing and nutrition through income gains, and reducing insecticide resistance in both malaria vectors and agricultural pests. Results The econometric results show the existence of statistically significant correlations between crops, such as sweet potatoes/yams, beans, millet and sorghum, with household malaria risk. Local environmental factors are also influential- daily maximum temperature is negatively correlated with malaria, while daily minimum temperature is positively correlated with malaria, confirming trends in the broader literature are applicable to the Ugandan context. Conclusions Although not necessarily causative, the findings provide sufficient evidence to warrant purposefully designed work to test for agriculture health causation in vector management. A key constraint to modeling the

  15. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Pederson, Gregory; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Prato, Tony; Qui, Zeyuan; Williams, Jimmie R.

    2010-01-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960–2005) and future climate period (2006–2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting

  16. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change.

    PubMed

    Prato, Tony; Zeyuan, Qiu; Pederson, Gregory; Fagre, Dan; Bengtson, Lindsey E; Williams, Jimmy R

    2010-03-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960-2005) and future climate period (2006-2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO(2) emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting APSs

  17. A.C. Hildreth: Initiating USDA agricultural research in Cheyenne

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight months after the October, 1929 Stock Market crash, 36-year-old Aubrey Claire Hildreth resigned his position at the University of Maine Agricultural Station and left the blueberries and cranberries of Orono, Maine, to travel with his family to Cheyenne to assume the duties of Station Superinten...

  18. Production or Perish: Changing the Inequities of Agricultural Research Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.; Kappel, Tim

    Because of the decline of farm population and family farms, the increase in energy-intensivity, and concentration process in agriculture, a rising tide of criticism has focused on the land grant system and its role in encouraging scientific applications supporting these trends. A study was conducted to develop a strategy that would change…

  19. Emergence of the global research alliance on agricultural greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing human population pressure on the Earth is of great concern and a key reason why agricultural and natural resource sciences must be fully engaged to develop solutions for a sustainable future. Increasing population puts pressure on the demand for food, clean water, healthy soil, and a sta...

  20. Climate-smart agriculture global research agenda: science for action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) addresses the challenge of meeting the growing demand for food, fiber, or fuel, caused by population growth, changes in diet related to increases in per capita income, and the need for alternative energy sources, despite the changing climate and fewer opportunities fo...

  1. Supervision of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, James E.; Williams, David L.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 found that supervised agricultural experience (SAE) teachers, students, parents, and employers value the teachers' supervisory role. Implementation practices vary widely and there are no cumulative data to guide policies and standards for SAE supervision. (SK)

  2. Mycelium reinforced agricultural fiber bio-composites: Summary of research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industry and the public sector have a growing interest in utilizing natural fibers, such as agricultural substrates, in the manufacture of components and products currently manufactured from fossil fuels. A patented process, developed by Ecovative Design, LLC (Ecovative), for growing fungal species ...

  3. 76 FR 68126 - Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics; Notice of the Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Research... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are November 14... biotechnology in agriculture. Background information regarding the work and membership of the AC21 is...

  4. Groundwater economics: An object-oriented foundation for integrated studies of irrigated agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater we...

  5. Building Interdisciplinary Research and Communication Skills in the Agricultural and Climate Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Maynard, J.; Borrelli, K.; Wolf, K.; Bernacchi, L.; Eigenbrode, S.; Daley Laursen, D.

    2015-12-01

    Preparing scientists and educators to create and promote practical science-based agricultural approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation is a main focus of the Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) project. Social, political and environmental complexities and interactions require that future scientists work across disciplines rather than having isolated knowledge of one specific subject area. Additionally, it is important for graduate students earning M.S. or Ph.D. degrees in agriculture and climate sciences to be able to communicate scientific findings effectively to non-scientific audiences. Unfortunately, university graduate curricula rarely adequately prepare students with these important skills. REACCH recognizes the need for graduate students to have thorough exposure to other disciplines and to be able to communicate information for outreach and education purposes. These priorities have been incorporated into graduate training within the REACCH project. The interdisciplinary nature of the project and its sophisticated digital infrastructure provide graduate students multiple opportunities to gain these experiences. The project includes over 30 graduate students from 20 different disciplines and research foci including agronomy, biogeochemistry, soil quality, conservation tillage, hydrology, pest and beneficial organisms, economics, modeling, remote sensing, science education and climate science. Professional develop workshops were developed and held during annual project meetings to enhance student training. The "Toolbox" survey (http://www.cals.uidaho.edu/toolbox/) was used to achieve effective interdisciplinary communication. Interdisciplinary extension and education projects were required to allow students to gain experience with collaboration and working with stakeholder groups. Results of student surveys and rubrics developed to gauge success in interdisciplinary research and communication may provide a helpful starting point for

  6. Twenty-third Annual Southern Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S., Ed.

    The report of the conference proceedings of the Southern Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education has summarized the presentations of 17 speakers. Some topics covered were: private foundation grantsmanship; problems of agricultural teacher reciprocity, certification, and recruiting; pre-teacher attitudes; follow-up studies of…

  7. CATIE: Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center. http://www.catie.ac.cr

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article features CATIE (Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza), a tropical agricultural research and higher education center. CATIE's mission is to be instrumental in poverty reduction and rural development in the American tropics, by promoting diversified and competitive agriculture and sustainable management of natural…

  8. Identification of Researchable Topics on International Agricultural Education. A Delphi Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.; Madou-Bangurah, Kabba

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify topics in international agricultural education considered by eight experts on agricultural education to be areas needing research. All eight (100%) of the experts completed the first-round mail questionnaire, and seven (87.5%) completed the second and third rounds. Survey category areas were as…

  9. Returns to Human and Research Capital, United States Agriculture, 1949-1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishelson, Gideon

    This study estimated rates of return to public investments in human and research capital (formal schooling and extension and vocational agricultural education) in the United States agricultural industry. (Southern states were excluded because of demographic and educational factors that would have biased the variables.) Output per farm was defined…

  10. Education and Research Related to Organic Waste Management at Agricultural Engineering Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliva, Montserrat; Bernat, Carles; Gil, Emilio; Martinez, Xavier; Pujol, Miquel; Sabate, Josep; Valero, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of the Agriculture Engineering School of Barcelona (ESAB), where undergraduate students were involved in field research experiments on organic waste use in agricultural systems. Design/methodology/approach: The paper outlines how the formation of professionals oriented to work for…

  11. Sustainable agriculture for a dynamic world: Forage-Crop-Livestock systems research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Grazinglands Research Laboratory is focused on development and delivery of improved technologies, strategies, and planning tools for integrated crop-forage-livestock systems under variable climate, energy, and market conditions. The GRL research p...

  12. RESEARCH CONFERENCE IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION (20TH, UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA, AUGUST 2-4, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAHLER, ALAN; AND OTHERS

    FIFTY-FOUR PARTICIPANTS FROM NINE STATES ATTENDED THE CONFERENCE TO DISCUSS REGIONAL RESEARCH, METHODOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS, AND NEW AREAS OF RESEARCH. TEXTS OF MAJOR SPEECHES GIVEN AT THE CONFERENCE ARE INCLUDED--"RESEARCH IN EDUCATION" BY W. K. BEGGS, "THE CHALLENGE TO SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE," BY HOWARD W. OTTOSON, "RESEARCH…

  13. Operationalizing Demand-Driven Agricultural Research: Institutional Influences in a Public and Private System of Research Planning in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees

    2009-01-01

    The trend towards demand-driven agricultural research has focused attention on the inclusion of farmers in research planning. Theoretically, this should enhance ownership and increase the applicability of research. However, in practice, several tensions emerge with regard to the operationalization of such "user-driven research planning systems",…

  14. Recent progress in agricultural biotechnology and opportunities for contract research and development.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, P P; Fedec, P

    1999-01-01

    The global market for agriculture products and agriculture-based value-added products is undergoing change as the top players in agriculture and agricultural biotechnology face increased consolidation and ultimately form alliances in development, production and marketing. Transgenic plants for human consumption and industrial applications are entering the marketplace. Novel, genetically engineered, plant-based organisms (GMO) designed for resistance to herbicides, pesticides and environmental stress or for the production of valuable chemicals, pharmaceuticals and vaccines are available. A growing demand for bioprocessing, test production, scale-up or providing data for registration has created new opportunities for contract research and development (CR&D) firms. PMID:10335382

  15. Recent progress in agricultural biotechnology and opportunities for contract research and development.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, P P; Fedec, P

    1999-01-01

    The global market for agriculture products and agriculture-based value-added products is undergoing change as the top players in agriculture and agricultural biotechnology face increased consolidation and ultimately form alliances in development, production and marketing. Transgenic plants for human consumption and industrial applications are entering the marketplace. Novel, genetically engineered, plant-based organisms (GMO) designed for resistance to herbicides, pesticides and environmental stress or for the production of valuable chemicals, pharmaceuticals and vaccines are available. A growing demand for bioprocessing, test production, scale-up or providing data for registration has created new opportunities for contract research and development (CR&D) firms.

  16. [Economic perspectives of the research on advanced therapies].

    PubMed

    Pamo Larrauri, Jose María

    2014-11-03

    Since a new advanced therapy medicinal product is discovered until finally allowed its sale in the domestic market, it has to overcome a series of stages. Biomedical research is the first phase, currently its situation is encouraging to the increase in the number of clinical trials in Spain and in the rest of the world, despite the economic situation and the various difficulties that have faced the pharmaceutical laboratories. The next phase consists in obtaining the authorization of marketing of the European Medicines Agency. After authorization, will attempt to set a fair and moderate price for inclusion in the list of health provision of Social Security. A price for a drug that provides added value to health and society, a price that is generated profits for the pharmaceutical companies that hope to make up for the years of work and investment. Commitment to advanced therapy must be clear and forceful, to fund ongoing research projects and encouraging their creation with economic aid.

  17. Future options for (economically) sustainable research in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Romay, Eduardo; Ferrer, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    The relentless increase in healthcare costs and the global economic crisis require us to rethink the way research is done. The heterogeneity of patients is a major challenge in designing and coordinating high-quality studies about sepsis. Studies on new treatments and devices, such as polymyxin B hemoperfusion, must be optimized not only for potential benefits for a specific population (i.e. efficacy), but also for their eventual implementation in real-world situations (i.e. effectiveness) and for economic costs (i.e. efficiency). In this regard, theragnosis and newer statistical tools could help us obtain useful information from real-life observational data. In this review, we discuss the basic components required for sustainable research in polymyxin B hemoperfusion. PMID:24457491

  18. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  19. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  20. On the usage of agricultural raw materials--energy or food? An assessment from an economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Fabian; Bröring, Stefanie; Herzog, Philipp; Leker, Jens

    2007-12-01

    Bioenergies are promoted across the globe as the answer for global warming and the chance to reduce dependency from fossil energy sources. Despite the fact that renewable energy sources offer the opportunity to reduce CO2 emission and present a chance to increase agricultural incomes, they also come along with some drawbacks that have been mostly neglected in the current discussion. This paper seeks to build a basis for discussing the impacts of the growing subsidization of bioenergy and the resulting usage competition of agricultural raw materials between foods and energy. To assess the usage competition and the subsidization of bioenergy, this article employs a welfare economics perspective associated with an emphasize on the construct of externalities. This will help to foster the discussion on the further subsidization of bioenergy, where funding for R&D on new ways of using non-food raw materials ought to play a significant role.

  1. Moving GIS research indoors: spatiotemporal analysis of agricultural animals.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Courtney L; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare. PMID:25098421

  2. Antimony bioavailability: knowledge and research perspectives for sustainable agricultures.

    PubMed

    Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2015-05-30

    The increasing interest in urban agriculture highlights the crucial question of crop quality. The main objectives for environmental sustainability are a decrease in chemical inputs, a reduction in the level of pollutants, and an improvement in the soil's biological activity. Among inorganic pollutants emitted by vehicle traffic and some industrial processes in urban areas, antimony (Sb) is observed on a global scale. While this metalloid is known to be potentially toxic, it can transfer from the soil or the atmosphere to plants, and accumulate in their edible parts. Urban agriculture is developing worldwide, and could therefore increasingly expose populations to Sb. The objective of this review was in consequences to gather and interpret actual knowledge of Sb uptake and bioaccumulation by crops, to reveal investigative fields on which to focus. While there is still no legal maximal value for Sb in plants and soils, light has to be shed on its accumulation and the factors affecting it. A relative absence of data exists about the role of soil flora and fauna in the transfer, speciation and compartmentation of Sb in vegetables. Moreover, little information exists on Sb ecotoxicity for terrestrial ecosystems. A human risk assessment has finally been reviewed, with particular focus on Sb bioaccessibility.

  3. Moving GIS Research Indoors: Spatiotemporal Analysis of Agricultural Animals

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Courtney L.; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A.; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare. PMID:25098421

  4. Moving GIS research indoors: spatiotemporal analysis of agricultural animals.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Courtney L; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare.

  5. Policy Implications of Current Research in Agricultural Education. Central Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of Annual Meeting (29th, Columbia, Missouri, July 29-31, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia.

    Research on the following topics is presented in this publication: "Analysis of Factors Related to the Educational Plans of Iowa Vocational Agriculture Students,""Development of a Statewide System for Follow-up of Vocational Graduates that Has Implementation for Usage by Local Educational Agencies,""Factors Influencing Ninth and Tenth Grade…

  6. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  7. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Agricultural Economics. Planning for Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Michael; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on farm management for energy savings was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their…

  8. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  9. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…

  10. Agricultural Employment and Economic Growth in the Lower Rio Grande Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Conrad F.

    Using the basic input-output model developed by the Texas Input-Output Project for a 19 county South Texas Region, income transfer effects from the extension of unemployment insurance to the agricultural sector were derived. Total income transferred would have ranged from $1.5 million to $2.3 million depending upon coverage provisions. About…

  11. [Economic criminality. Problems of definition and lines of research].

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, G; Vetere, E

    1977-01-01

    After reviewing the many proposed definitions of economic criminality, which are now very numerous in specialized literature, and after considering the various critical attitudes assumed on this point by the most qualified experts on the subject, the Authors state that it is absolutely indispensable to establish an appropriate definition on which an aggreement can be reached. In fact, without such a definition it is impossible to deal with the object of interest and therefore to make any progress with the research, the legislation and the measures necessary for the prevention and repression of economic criminality. If this problem of economic criminality is discussed at the various national and international levels without the aforementioned definition, this is an indication that a popular intuition has been formed which is able to distinguish the object of interest. The most suitable lines of research are indicated in order to establish and clarify the elements of such an intuition which the Authors consider in a hypothetical light. PMID:351692

  12. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    Research on domestic animals (cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry, horses, and aquatic species) at land grant institutions is integral to improving the global competitiveness of US animal agriculture and to resolving complex animal and human diseases. However, dwindling federal and state budgets, years of stagnant funding from USDA for the Competitive State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative (CSREES-NRI) Competitive Grants Program, significant reductions in farm animal species and in numbers at land grant institutions, and declining enrollment for graduate studies in animal science are diminishing the resources necessary to conduct research on domestic species. Consequently, recruitment of scientists who use such models to conduct research relevant to animal agriculture and biomedicine at land grant institutions is in jeopardy. Concerned stakeholders have addressed this critical problem by conducting workshops, holding a series of meetings with USDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) officials, and developing a white paper to propose solutions to obstacles impeding the use of domestic species as dual-purpose animal models for high-priority problems common to agriculture and biomedicine. In addition to shortfalls in research support and human resources, overwhelming use of mouse models in biomedicine, lack of advocacy from university administrators, long-standing cultural barriers between agriculture and human medicine, inadequate grantsmanship by animal scientists, and a scarcity of key reagents and resources are major roadblocks to progress. Solutions will require a large financial enhancement of USDA's Competitive Grants Program, educational programs geared toward explaining how research using agricultural animals benefits both animal agriculture and human health, and the development of a new mind-set in land grant institutions that fosters greater cooperation among basic and applied researchers. Recruitment of

  13. Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

  14. Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Jessica R.

    2001-01-01

    Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural…

  15. The personnel economics approach to public workforce research.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Michael

    2009-11-01

    This article argues that the relatively new field of personnel economics (PE) holds strong potential as a tool for studying public sector workforces. This subfield of labor economics is based on a strong foundation of microeconomics, which provides a robust theoretical foundation for studying workforce and organizational design issues. PE has evolved on this foundation to a strong practical emphasis, with theoretical insights designed for practical use and with strong focus on empirical research. The field is also characterized by creative data entrepreneurship. The types of datasets that personnel economists use are described. If similar datasets can be obtained for public sector workforces, PE should be a very useful approach for studying them. PMID:19829236

  16. A brief background on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, K. G.; Nichols, M. H.; Woolhiser, D. A.; Osborn, H. B.

    2008-05-01

    Watershed research is critical for quantifying the unique characteristics of hydrologic processes worldwide and especially in semiarid regions. In 1953, the United States Department of Agriculture established the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) near Tombstone, Arizona, to conduct hydrologic and erosion research. This manuscript (1) provides a historical context summarizing the evolution of the Southwest Watershed Research Center research program, (2) describes significant contributions to instrumentation development and contributions to science, and (3) describes the current WGEW data collection program in the context of contemporary research questions. The development of specialized flumes for streamflow measurement and the establishment of the core monitoring networks are described. WGEW data have been used to quantify semiarid rainfall, runoff, infiltration, and transmission losses; to develop and validate simulation models; and to support broader, regional, basin-scale research. Currently, rainfall, runoff, sediment, meteorology, and flux data collection continue at the WGEW, but the monitoring network has been expanded, and data use has evolved to support several multiple government agencies, universities, and international research programs.

  17. Satellite-guided hydro-economic analysis for integrated management and prediction of the impact of droughts on agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta, M. P.; Howitt, R.; Kimball, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural activity can exacerbate or buffer the impact of climate variability, especially droughts, on the hydrologic and socioeconomic conditions of rural areas. Potential negative regional impacts of droughts include impoverishment of agricultural regions, deterioration or overuse of water resources, risk of monoculture, and regional dependence on external food markets. Policies that encourage adequate management practices in the face of adverse climatic events are critical to preserve rural livelihoods and to ensure a sustainable future for agriculture. Diagnosing and managing drought effects on agricultural production, on the social and natural environment, and on limited water resources, is highly complex and interdisciplinary. The challenges that decision-makers face to mitigate the impact of water shortage are social, agronomic, economic and environmental in nature and therefore must be approached from an integrated multidisciplinary point of view. Existing observation technologies, in conjunction with models and assimilation methods open the opportunity for novel interdisciplinary analysis tools to support policy and decision making. We present an integrated modeling and observation framework driven by satellite remote sensing and other ancillary information from regional monitoring networks to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of drought impacts on agricultural production, water resources, management decisions and socioeconomic policy. The core of this framework is a hydroeconomic model of agricultural production that assimilates remote sensing inputs to quantify the amount of land, water, fertilizer and labor farmers allocate for each crop they choose to grow on a seasonal basis in response to changing climatic conditions, including drought. A regional hydroclimatologic model provides biophysical constraints to an economic model of agricultural production based on a class of models referred to as positive mathematical programming (PMP

  18. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, Benjamin; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295–728 million annually. PMID:27441108

  19. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Waterhouse, Benjamin; Boyer, Stephane; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295-728 million annually.

  20. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Waterhouse, Benjamin; Boyer, Stephane; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295-728 million annually. PMID:27441108

  1. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Lignite-derived products (LDPs), including humic acids and organo-mineral soil conditioners, are being marketed in many parts of the world. They are promoted as plant growth stimulants, additives that improve plant nutrient uptake as well as providing humic materials to improve soil structure and combat soil degradation. There are mixed views regarding the efficacy of these products and there is a lack of scientific studies that verify the efficacy of these products in the field. Anecdotally, agricultural producers become repeat users of the products when they see economic benefits, such as increases in crop yields, while others abandon repeat use when no benefits were seen. In this paper, we present results from a literature meta-analysis1 and a number of field studies that examine the potential for LDPs to improve soil fertility and plant growth. Our findings suggest that complex interactions between LDPs, soil types, environmental conditions and plant species mean that a 'one-size fits all' product or solution is unlikely; and that changes to soil characteristics brought about by LDPs are more apparent over longer time periods than a single cropping season. Most of these studies have not been undertaken in full field trial conditions, where the crop has been grown to harvest. Limited studies in small plots or glass-house conditions often report early benefits. It is not known if these benefits persist. Moreover, the actual composition of these additives may vary significantly and is rarely specified in full. In a study of our own, a small plot experiment evaluated the effect of a single application of a commercial potassium humate product from Victorian lignite on ryegrass and lucerne grown in a sandy, nutrient deficient, low organic matter soil. Treatment resulted in increased shoot growth (up to 33%) of ryegrass during the pasture establishment phase. Root growth was also improved with a 47% increase at 0-10 cm depth and 122% increase at 10-30 cm depth

  2. Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

  3. Economic Benefits of Predictive Models for Pest Control in Agricultural Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various forms of crop models or decision making tools for managing crops have existed for many years. The potential advantage of all of these decision making tools is that more informed and economically improved crop management or decision making is accomplished. However, examination of some of thes...

  4. The U.S. Oats Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 573.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Linwood A.; Livezey, Janet

    This report describes the United States oats industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on oats. Background information on oats is provided first. The report then examines the basic factors of supply, demand, and price to determine what caused the decline in the importance of oats and…

  5. An Economic Study of the Investment Effects of Education in Agriculture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Edgar A.; And Others

    To determine the absolute economic return to adult farm business management education, the diminishing marginal return effect from added increments of education, and benefit-cost ratio of the educational program for participants and the sponsoring community, data were collected from 3,578 farm business records representing farmers enrolled in farm…

  6. Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

  7. The U.S. Soybean Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 588.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, James; And Others

    This report describes the U.S. soybean industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on soybeans. Highlights are as follows: U.S. soybean production has increased sevenfold since 1950, making soybeans the second highest valued crop after corn. Soybean production has risen in response to…

  8. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  9. Equipment Request for the Belleville Agricultural Research and Education Center

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Bryan; Nehring, Jarrett; Graham, Susan; Klubek, Brian

    2013-01-13

    The funding provided by the DOE for this project was used exclusively to purchase research equipment involved with the field development and evaluation of crop production technologies and practices for energy crop production. The new equipment has been placed into service on the SIU farms and has significantly enhanced our research capacity and scope for agronomy and precision ag research to support novel seed traits or crop management strategies for improving the efficiency and productivity of corn and soybeans. More specifically, the precision ag capability of the equipment that was purchased has heightened interest by faculty and associated industry partners to develop collaborative projects. In addition, this equipment has provided SIU with a foundation to be more successful at securing competitive grants in energy crop production and precision ag data management. Furthermore, the enhanced capacity for agronomy research in the southern Illinois region has been realized and will benefit crop producers in this region by learning to improve their operations from our research outcomes.

  10. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

  11. Research on agricultural ecology and environment analysis and modeling based on RS and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Chen, Hongfu; Wang, Mingsheng

    2009-07-01

    Analysis of agricultural ecology and environment is based on the data of agricultural resources, which are obtained by RS monitoring. The over-exploitation of farmlands will cause structural changes of the soil composition, and damage the planting environment and the agro-ecosystem. Through the research on the dynamic monitoring methods of multitemporal RS images and GIS technology, the crop growth status, crop acreage and other relevant information in agricultural production are extracted based on the monitor and analysis of the conditions of the fields and crop growth. The agro-ecological GIS platform is developed with the establishment of the agricultural resources management database, which manages spatial data, RS data and attribute data of agricultural resources. Using the RS, GIS analysis results, the reasons of agro-ecological destruction are analyzed and the evaluation methods are established. This paper puts forward the concept of utilization capacity of farmland, which describes farmland space for development and utilization that is influenced by the conditions of the land, water resources, climate, pesticides and chemical fertilizers and many other agricultural production factors. Assessment model of agricultural land use capacity is constructed with the help of Fuzzy. Assessing the utilization capacity of farmland can be helpful to agricultural production and ecological protection of farmland. This paper describes the application of the capacity evaluation model with simulated data in two aspects, namely, in evaluating the status of farmland development and utilization and in optimal planting.

  12. Central Regional Annual Research Conference in Agricultural Education Proceedings (41st, Chicago, Illinois, February 22-23, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Dept. of Agricultural and Extension Education.

    This proceedings contains 18 papers on agricultural research issues selected by panel review plus the keynote address, a conference summary, and the conference agenda. The following papers are included: "Research in Agricultural Education: Requisites for Further Progress" (Warmbrod--keynote address); "Marketing Agricultural Education" (Casey,…

  13. Focusing Agricultural Education Research: An Agenda for the Graduate Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Eight ways are suggested to prepare for graduate research: (1) assess professional experience; (2) understand the discipline; (3) review trends and priorities; (4) study requirements of positions; (5) identify mentors; (6) build a theoretical base; (7) practice good science; and (8) become a scholar. (SK)

  14. Ag Data Commons: Adding Value to Open Agricultural Research Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public access to results of federally-funded research is a new mandate for large departments of the United States government. Public access to scholarly literature from U.S. investments is straightforward, with policies and systems like PubMed Central and PubAg (http://pubag.nal.usda.gov) already im...

  15. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Eriksson, J.; Lundblad, M.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past 2 decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988-1997 (Inventory I), 2001-2007 (Inventory II) and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III), and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr-1) over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72). Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys) also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  16. Tutorial on health economics and outcomes research in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Tomas; Linthicum, Mark T; Snider, Julia Thornton

    2014-11-01

    As healthcare costs climb around the world, public and private payers alike are demanding evidence of a treatment's value to support approval and reimbursement decisions. Health economics and outcomes research, or HEOR, offers tools to answer questions about a treatment's value, as well as its real-world effects and cost-effectiveness. Given that nutrition interventions have to compete for space in budgets along with biopharmaceutical products and devices, nutrition is now increasingly coming to be evaluated through HEOR. This tutorial introduces the discipline of HEOR and motivates its relevance for nutrition. We first define HEOR and explain its role and relevance in relation to randomized controlled trials. Common HEOR study types--including burden of illness, effectiveness studies, cost-effectiveness analysis, and valuation studies--are presented, with applications to nutrition. Tips for critically reading HEOR studies are provided, along with suggestions on how to use HEOR to improve patient care. Directions for future research are discussed.

  17. [Economic perspectives of the research on advanced therapies].

    PubMed

    Pamo Larrauri, Jose María

    2014-01-01

    Since a new advanced therapy medicinal product is discovered until finally allowed its sale in the domestic market, it has to overcome a series of stages. Biomedical research is the first phase, currently its situation is encouraging to the increase in the number of clinical trials in Spain and in the rest of the world, despite the economic situation and the various difficulties that have faced the pharmaceutical laboratories. The next phase consists in obtaining the authorization of marketing of the European Medicines Agency. After authorization, will attempt to set a fair and moderate price for inclusion in the list of health provision of Social Security. A price for a drug that provides added value to health and society, a price that is generated profits for the pharmaceutical companies that hope to make up for the years of work and investment. Commitment to advanced therapy must be clear and forceful, to fund ongoing research projects and encouraging their creation with economic aid. PMID:25542659

  18. Health economics and outcomes research fellowship practices reviewed.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kangho; Gabriel, Susan; Adams, Michelle A; Arcona, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The guidelines for health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) fellowship training programs devised by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) and the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) suggest that continuous improvements are made to ensure that postgraduate training through didactic and professional experiences prepare fellows for HEOR research careers. The HEOR Fellowship Program at Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation was standardized to enhance the fellows' HEOR research understanding and align professional skill sets with the ACCP-ISPOR Fellowship Program Guidelines. Based on feedback from an internal task force comprised of HEOR employees and current and former fellows, the HEOR Fellowship Program was normatively and qualitatively assessed to evaluate the current curricular program. Fellowship program activities were instituted to ensure that the suggested minimum level requirements established by the guidelines were being met. Research opportunities enabling fellows to work hand-in-hand with other fellows and HEOR professionals were emphasized. Curricular enhancements in research methodology and professional training and development, and materials for a structured journal club focusing on specific methodological and HEOR research topics were developed. A seminar series (e.g., creating SMART Goals, StrengthsFinder 2.0) and professional courses (e.g., ISPOR short courses, statistics.com) were included to enhance the fellows' short- and long-term professional experience. Additional program attributes include an online reference library developed to enrich the current research facilities and a Statistical Analysis Software training program. Continuously assessing and updating HEOR fellowship programs keeps programs up-to-date in the latest HEOR concepts and approaches used to evaluate health care, both professionally and educationally.

  19. Assessment of Professional Training Programmes in International Agricultural Research Institutions: The Case of ICRAF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanjiku, Julliet; Mairura, Franklin; Place, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The following survey was undertaken in 2005 to assess the effectiveness of professional training activities in international agricultural research organizations that were undertaken between 1999 and 2002 at ICRAF (International Centre for Research in Agroforestry), now World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi. Trainees were randomly selected from…

  20. The Transformation of Agricultural Research in France: The Introduction of the American System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castonguay, Stephane

    2005-01-01

    In 1916, French entomologist Paul Marchal published a seminal report on the contemporary state of agricultural research in the United States of America. His recommendations underlined the need for a close relationship between research and education, a factor vital to national survival in the aftermath of the Great War. This essay discusses the…

  1. Sustaining the earth's watersheds-agricultural research data system: Overview of development and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive, long-term data for watershed systems across diverse locations are essential for interdisciplinary hydrologic and ecosystem analysis and model development, calibration and validation. The USDA and Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have supported watershed research since the 1930’s w...

  2. Commentary on domestic animals in agricultural and biomedical research: An endangered enterprise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the long and successful history of research on agriculturally relevant domestic animals, basic and translational research using domestic species is becoming increasingly threatened due to budgetary erosion. This funding decline is well documented in a recent article by Ireland et al., publis...

  3. Influence of soil and climate heterogeneity on the performance of economic instruments for reducing nitrate leaching from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; García-Prats, Alberto; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2014-11-15

    Economic instruments can be used to control groundwater nitrate pollution due to the intensive use of fertilizers in agriculture. In order to test their efficiency on the reduction of nitrate leaching, we propose an approach based on the combined use of production and pollution functions to derive the impacts on the expected farmer response of these instruments. Some of the most important factors influencing nitrate leaching and crop yield are the type of soil and the climatic conditions. Crop yield and nitrate leaching responses to different soil and climatic conditions were classified by means of a cluster analysis, and crops located in different areas but with similar response were grouped for the analysis. We use a spatial economic optimization model to evaluate the potential of taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water prices, and taxes on nitrate emissions to reduce nitrate pollution, as well as their economic impact in terms of social welfare and farmers' net benefits. The method was applied to the Mancha Oriental System (MOS) in Spain, a large area with different soil types and climatic conditions. We divided the study area into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Results show spatially different responses of crop growth and nitrate leaching, proving how the cost-effectiveness of pollution control instruments is contingent upon the spatial heterogeneities of the problem.

  4. Linking international agricultural research knowledge with action for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Kristjanson, Patti; Reid, Robin S; Dickson, Nancy; Clark, William C; Romney, Dannie; Puskur, Ranjitha; Macmillan, Susan; Grace, Delia

    2009-03-31

    We applied an innovation framework to sustainable livestock development research projects in Africa and Asia. The focus of these projects ranged from pastoral systems to poverty and ecosystems services mapping to market access by the poor to fodder and natural resource management to livestock parasite drug resistance. We found that these projects closed gaps between knowledge and action by combining different kinds of knowledge, learning, and boundary spanning approaches; by providing all partners with the same opportunities; and by building the capacity of all partners to innovate and communicate.

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Central Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education (30th, Columbus, Ohio, August 3-5, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpelding, Lawrence H., Comp.

    Thirteen papers constitute the major portion of the proceedings of a conference designed to review and analyze current research, to identify research priorities, and to provide a challenge for the continuing improvement of the planning, conduct, and implementation of research in agricultural education: (1) Research in Agricultural Education from a…

  6. Health Economics Studies Information Exchange; Reports of Current Research in Health Economics, and Medical Care Administration. Publication No. 1719.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Arlington, VA. Home Economics Branch.

    The first volume of a continuing series reporting research in progress in health economics and medical care organization and administration was compiled by contacting (1) graduate schools offering degrees in the health professions, sociology, economics, public administration, and public health, (2) charitable foundations indicating an interest in…

  7. Economic Impact of Water Allocation on Agriculture in the Lower Chattahoochee River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Paudel, Krishna P.; Musleh, Fuad; Cruise, James F.; Hatch, L. Upton

    2004-01-01

    The relative value of irrigation water was assessed for three important crops (corn, cotton, and peanuts) grown in the southeastern United States. A decision tool was developed with the objective of allocating limited available water among competing crops in a manner that would maximize the economic returns to the producers. The methodology was developed and tested for a hypothetical farm located in Henry County, Alabama in the Chattahoochee river basin. Crop yield - soil moisture response functions were developed using Monte Carlo simulated data for cotton, corn, and peanuts. A hydrologic model was employed to simulate runoff over the period of observed rainfall the county to provide inflows to storage facilities that could be used as constraints for the optimal allocation of the available water in the face of the uncertainty of future rainfall and runoff. Irrigation decisions were made on a weekly basis during the critical water deficit period in the region. An economic optimization model was employed with the crop responses, and soil moisture functions to determine the optimum amount of water place on each crop subject to the amount of irrigation water availability and climatic uncertainty. The results indicated even small amounts of irrigation could significantly benefit farmers in the region if applied judiciously. A weekly irrigation sequence was developed that maintained the available water on the crops that exhibited the most significant combination of water sensitivity and cash value.

  8. Developing Livestock Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C; Robertson, A; Hullinger, P

    2006-10-24

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of livestock diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each livestock facility within the US. At the present time, the only national database of livestock facilities that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data.' The NASS data provides facility data at the county level for various livestock types (i.e., beef cows, milk cows, cattle on feed, other cattle, total hogs and pigs, sheep and lambs, milk goats, and angora goats). However, the number and sizes of facilities for the various livestock types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of livestock, and some livestock are of more than one type (e.g., 'other cattle' that are being fed for slaughter are also 'cattle on feed'). In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of animals or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D.'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or animals. At the same time, it must account for all the animals, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual livestock operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national livestock facility database with twenty-eight facility types. The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed within the NASS database. The second step converts the NASS livestock types into the operational facility

  9. Economic evaluation and conceptual design of optimal agricultural systems for production of food and energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    The major technical and economic considerations which determined the scope of the study and the structure of the linear programming (LP) models are discussed. Four models, each representing a typical crop, beef, dairy, or swine farm in conjunction with ethanol facilities are characterized by the same general behavioral and mathematical model structure. Specific activities, constraints, and data for each of the four models are presented. An overview of the model structure is provided in the context of the general scope and background assumptions, and of its LP implementation. Simulated initial conditions and outcomes are reported for typical Illinois farms. Policy implications are discussed as related to agriculture, energy, and inter-industry coordination. (MHR)

  10. Identification of high payoff research for more efficient applicator helicopters in agriculture and forestry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, K. T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a study of the uses of helicopters in agriculture and forestry in the United States are discussed. Comparisons with agricultural airplanes are made in terms of costs of aerial application to the growers. An analysis of cost drivers and potential improvements to helicopters that will lower costs is presented. Future trends are discussed, and recommendations for research are outlined. Operational safety hazards and accident records are examined, and problem areas are identified. Areas where research and development are needed to provide opportunities for lowering costs while increasing productivity are analyzed.

  11. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  12. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  13. International Agricultural Trade and Policy: Issues and Implications for U.S. Agriculture. Texas Agricultural Market Research Center Special Series Report No. SS-2-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gary W.

    Historical events have set the stage for the current U.S. agricultural export performance. Agricultural exports in the early 1990s were as large or larger relative to the size of the agricultural sector than at any time since. A dramatic decrease in net farm income was caused by the Great Depression (1929-1932). Following passage of the…

  14. Economics of fuel ethanol production in US agriculture: a national linear programming model with projections to the year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A food versus fuel policy dilemma exists concerning the extent of structural changes in US agriculture that would occur in response to fuel ethanol production from crops in the future. Limitations of previous analyses necessitates further study of this resource allocation issue. The purpose was to determine whether ethanol production from US agricultural resources will be an economically attractive technology in the future. Criteria include energy balance impacts, food, feed and fiber price and consumption impacts, balance of payments impacts, and income changes. Results for the base scenario (ranges in parentheses) relative to the case without ethanol technology available are as follows. Annual ethanol output is 38 (4-86) billion gallons, or 20 (2-54)% of liquid fuel demand. Net energy production is 4.9 (.5-11.2) quads for liquid energy. The domestic retail food price index increases by 4 (1-14)%. Net exports increase 45.7 (5.4-141.6) billion dollars. Crop land rent increases 12.6 (3.1-60.7) billion dollars and sector value-added increases 36.7 (3.8-85.9) billion dollars. Most ethanol is produced from corn, the rest by sugar beets and other grains. Much corn processing to ethanol jointly produces vegetable oil. Corn acreage increases substantially at the expense largely of soybeans and sorghum. Livestock rations incorporate 24 (3-49)% ethanol coproduct feeds.

  15. Energy potential from livestock and poultry wastes in the South. Agricultural Economic Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H.B.; Ogden, E.A.

    1984-11-01

    Livestock and poultry wastes could produce significant amounts of biomass energy if conventional energy prices continue to rise. This study estimates the economically recoverable energy available through anaerobic digestion or direct burning of animal wastes in the South for the base year 1980 with projections for 1985 and 1990. Potential thermal energy from livestock and poultry wastes in 1990 could total more than 79.5 trillion Btu, or about 30 percent of the energy from such sources nationwide. The total potential farm value of biomass energy from livestock and poultry enterprises in the South could range from $344 million to $1.08 billion in 1990 depending upon the types of conventional energy displaced. Energy products from these wastes attained their highest value when substituted for LP gas.

  16. Climate, Health, Agricultural and Economic Impacts of Tighter Vehicle-Emission Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; VanDingen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-01-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  17. Climate, health, agricultural and economic impacts of tighter vehicle-emission standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; van Dingenen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-04-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition-climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) °C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  18. Beyond knowledge transfer: The social construction of autonomous academic science in university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscotti, Dina Louise

    Autonomy is a social product. Although some might view autonomy as the absence of social interference in individual action, it is in fact produced through social institutions. It enables social actors to act; it is the justification for the allocation of enormous public resources into institutions classified as "public" or "nonprofit;" it can lead to innovation; and, significantly, it is key to the public acceptance of new technologies. In this dissertation, I analyze the social construction of autonomy for academic science in U.S. university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations. University-industry relationships (UIRs) are a site of concern about the influence of commercial interests on academic science. Agricultural biotechnology is a contentious technology that has prompted questions about the ecological and public health implications of genetically-modified plants and animals. It has also spurred awareness of the industrialization of agriculture and accelerating corporate control of the global food system. Through analysis of in-depth interviews with over 200 scientists and administrators from nine U.S. research universities and thirty agricultural biotechnology companies, I find that both the academy and industry have a vested interest in the social construction of the academy as an autonomous space from which claims to objective, disinterested scientific knowledge can be made. These claims influence government regulation, as well as grower and public acceptance of agricultural biotechnology products. I argue that the social production of autonomy for academic science can be observed in narratives and practices related to: (1) the framing of when, how and why academic scientists collaborate with industry, (2) the meanings ascribed to and the uses deemed appropriate for industry monies in academic research, and (3) the dissemination of research results into the public domain through publications and patents. These narratives and practices

  19. agINFRA: a research data hub for agriculture, food and the environment.

    PubMed

    Drakos, Andreas; Protonotarios, Vassilis; Manouselis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    The agINFRA project (www.aginfra.eu) was a European Commission funded project under the 7th Framework Programme that aimed to introduce agricultural scientific communities to the vision of open and participatory data-intensive science. agINFRA has now evolved into the European hub for data-powered research on agriculture, food and the environment, serving the research community through multiple roles. Working on enhancing the interoperability between heterogeneous data sources, the agINFRA project has left a set of grid- and cloud- based services that can be reused by future initiatives and adopted by existing ones, in order to facilitate the dissemination of agricultural research, educational and other types of data. On top of that, agINFRA provided a set of domain-specific recommendations for the publication of agri-food research outcomes. This paper discusses the concept of the agINFRA project and presents its major outcomes, as adopted by existing initiatives activated in the context of agricultural research and education.

  20. Designing a Model for Integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the Iranian Agricultural Research System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifzadeh, Aboulqasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholam Hossein; Sharifi, Mahnoosh

    2009-01-01

    Capacity Development is needed in the Iranian Agricultural System. Integrating Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the agricultural research system is an appropriate capacity development mechanism. The appropriate application of ICTs and information such as a National Agricultural Information System requires a systemically…

  1. The economic impact of climate change on Kenyan crop agriculture: A Ricardian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Karanja, Fredrick K.

    2007-06-01

    This paper measures the economic impact of climate on crops in Kenya. We use cross-sectional data on climate, hydrological, soil and household level data for a sample of 816 households. We estimate a seasonal Ricardian model to assess the impact of climate on net crop revenue per acre. The results show that climate affects crop productivity. There is a non-linear relationship between temperature and revenue on one hand and between precipitation and revenue on the other. Estimated marginal impacts suggest that global warming is harmful for crop productivity. Predictions from global circulation models confirm that global warming will have a substantial impact on net crop revenue in Kenya. The results also show that the temperature component of global warming is much more important than precipitation. Findings call for monitoring of climate change and dissemination of information to farmers to encourage adaptations to climate change. Improved management and conservation of available water resources, water harvesting and recycling of wastewater could generate water for irrigation purposes especially in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  2. Developing Poultry Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C

    2007-12-05

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of poultry diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each poultry type operation within the US. At the present time, the only national database of poultry operations that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data'. The NASS data provides census data at the county level on poultry operations for various operation types (i.e., layers, broilers, turkeys, ducks, geese). However, the number of farms and sizes of farms for the various types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of operation. Furthermore, some data on the number of birds represents the number sold, which does not represent the number of birds present at any given time. In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of birds or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or birds. At the same time, it must account for all the birds, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual poultry operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national poultry facility database with twenty-six facility types (7 egg-laying, 6 broiler, 1 backyard, 3 turkey, and 9 others, representing ducks, geese, ostriches, emus, pigeons, pheasants, quail, game fowl breeders and 'other'). The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed

  3. An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38

  4. Why Do Global Long-term Scenarios for Agriculture Differ? An overview of the AgMIP Global Economic Model Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    von Lampe, Martin; Willenbockel, Dirk; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Cai, Yongxia; Calvin, Katherine V.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Nelson, Gerald; Sands, Ronald; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; van Meijl, Hans

    2013-12-02

    Recent studies assessing plausible futures for agricultural markets and global food security have had contradictory outcomes. Ten global economic models that produce long-term scenarios were asked to compare a reference scenario with alternate socio-economic, climate change and bioenergy scenarios using a common set of key drivers. Results suggest that, once general assumptions are harmonized, the variability in general trends across models declines, and that several common conclusions are possible. Nonetheless, differences in basic model parameters, sometimes hidden in the way market behavior is modeled, result in significant differences in the details. This holds for both the common reference scenario and for the various shocks applied. We conclude that agro-economic modelers aiming to inform the agricultural and development policy debate require better data and analysis on both economic behavior and biophysical drivers. More interdisciplinary modeling efforts are required to cross-fertilize analyses at different scales.

  5. FATE & EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES WITHIN WEEKS BAY WATERSHED, A NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lytle, J.S., T.F. Lytle and M.A. Lewis. In press. Fate and Effects of Agricultural Pesticides Within Weeks Bay Watershed, a National Estuarine Research Preserve. To be presented at the 24th Annual Meeting in North America of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: ...

  6. Compilation of Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Questions for Discussion. 104th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This volume compiles and reprints the responses of 37 organizations to a series of questions issued by the House Committee on Agriculture in anticipation of debates concerning the Research Title of the 1995 Farm Bill due for updating and revision. The questions address some of the following topics: the role of the federal government in…

  7. Counter-Geographies: The Campaign against Rationalisation of Agricultural Research Stations in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris; Dufty, Rae; Phillips, Samantha; Smith, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses an example of community action mounted in a rural region of New South Wales, Australia, in response to proposals by the State Government to rationalise agricultural research stations operated by the Department of Primary Industries. Informed by a Foucaultian understanding of power and the concept of governmentality,…

  8. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96€ before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO3-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N2O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. PMID:27471980

  9. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96€ before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO3-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N2O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system.

  10. Research Participation as Work: Comparing the Perspectives of Researchers and Economically Marginalized Populations

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    We examined the historical and regulatory framework of research with human participants in the United States, and described some possible unintended consequences of this framework in the context of paying young injection drug users for their time participating in behavioral and medical research. We drew upon our own experiences while conducting a long-running epidemiological study of hepatitis C virus infection. We found that existing ethical and regulatory framings of research participation may lead to injustices from the perspectives of research participants. We propose considering research participation as a specialized form of work and the use of community advisory boards to facilitate discussion about appropriate compensation for research participation among economically marginalized populations. PMID:22594754

  11. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  12. Research priorities for the environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews the connections between environmental change, modern agricultural practices and the occurrence of infectious diseases - especially those of poverty; proposes a multi-criteria decision analysis approach to determining the key research priorities; and explores the benefits and limitations of a more systems-based approach to conceptualizing and investigating the problem. The report is the output of the Thematic Reference Group on Environment, Agriculture and Infectious Diseases of Poverty (TRG 4), part of an independent think tank of international experts, established and funded by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholder consultations. The report concludes that mitigating the outcomes on human health will require far-reaching strategies - spanning the environment, climate, agriculture, social-ecological, microbial and public-health sectors; as well as inter-disciplinary research and intersectoral action. People will also need to modify their way of thinking and engage beyond their own specialities, since the challenges are systemic and are amplified by the increasing inter-connectedness of human populations. This is one of a series of disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at www.who.int/tdr/capacity/global_report. PMID:23687800

  13. Research priorities for the environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews the connections between environmental change, modern agricultural practices and the occurrence of infectious diseases - especially those of poverty; proposes a multi-criteria decision analysis approach to determining the key research priorities; and explores the benefits and limitations of a more systems-based approach to conceptualizing and investigating the problem. The report is the output of the Thematic Reference Group on Environment, Agriculture and Infectious Diseases of Poverty (TRG 4), part of an independent think tank of international experts, established and funded by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholder consultations. The report concludes that mitigating the outcomes on human health will require far-reaching strategies - spanning the environment, climate, agriculture, social-ecological, microbial and public-health sectors; as well as inter-disciplinary research and intersectoral action. People will also need to modify their way of thinking and engage beyond their own specialities, since the challenges are systemic and are amplified by the increasing inter-connectedness of human populations. This is one of a series of disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at www.who.int/tdr/capacity/global_report.

  14. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions.

  15. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions. PMID:24952967

  16. Wisconsin Radio and Television Agricultural Market News Programming. Wisconsin Agricultural Extension Service Research Report No. R2615, April 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroupa, Eugene A.; Walker, Douglas K.

    The study determined what Wisconsin's 102 AM, 107 FM, and 21 television stations were providing as agricultural market information programming and documented the amount, timing, frequency, and completeness of broadcast agricultural market news reports. Data were collected on the sources of market price information, types of commodity and price…

  17. Future agriculture with minimized phosphorus losses to waters: Research needs and direction.

    PubMed

    Sharpley, Andrew N; Bergström, Lars; Aronsson, Helena; Bechmann, Marianne; Bolster, Carl H; Börling, Katarina; Djodjic, Faruk; Jarvie, Helen P; Schoumans, Oscar F; Stamm, Christian; Tonderski, Karin S; Ulén, Barbro; Uusitalo, Risto; Withers, Paul J A

    2015-03-01

    The series of papers in this issue of AMBIO represent technical presentations made at the 7th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW7), held in September, 2013 in Uppsala, Sweden. At that meeting, the 150 delegates were involved in round table discussions on major, predetermined themes facing the management of agricultural phosphorus (P) for optimum production goals with minimal water quality impairment. The six themes were (1) P management in a changing world; (2) transport pathways of P from soil to water; (3) monitoring, modeling, and communication; (4) importance of manure and agricultural production systems for P management; (5) identification of appropriate mitigation measures for reduction of P loss; and (6) implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce P loss. This paper details the major challenges and research needs that were identified for each theme and identifies a future roadmap for catchment management that cost-effectively minimizes P loss from agricultural activities.

  18. Is international agricultural research a global public good? The case of rice biofortification.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The status of international agricultural research as a global public good (GPG) has been widely accepted since the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. While the term was not used at the time of its creation, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) system that evolved at that time has been described as a 'prime example of the promise, performance and perils of an international approach to providing GPGs'. Contemporary literature on international agricultural research as a GPG tends to support this view and focuses on how to operationalize the concept. This paper adopts a different starting point and questions this conceptualization of the CGIAR and its outputs. It questions the appropriateness of such a 'neutral' concept to a system born of the imperatives of Cold War geopolitics, and shaped by a history of attempts to secure its relevance in a changing world. This paper draws on a multi-sited, ethnographic study of a research effort highlighted by the CGIAR as an exemplar of GPG-oriented research. Behind the ubiquitous language of GPGs, 'partnership' and 'consensus', however, new forms of exclusion and restriction are emerging within everyday practice, reproducing North-South inequalities and undermining the ability of these programmes to respond to the needs of projected beneficiaries. PMID:21485456

  19. Is international agricultural research a global public good? The case of rice biofortification.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The status of international agricultural research as a global public good (GPG) has been widely accepted since the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. While the term was not used at the time of its creation, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) system that evolved at that time has been described as a 'prime example of the promise, performance and perils of an international approach to providing GPGs'. Contemporary literature on international agricultural research as a GPG tends to support this view and focuses on how to operationalize the concept. This paper adopts a different starting point and questions this conceptualization of the CGIAR and its outputs. It questions the appropriateness of such a 'neutral' concept to a system born of the imperatives of Cold War geopolitics, and shaped by a history of attempts to secure its relevance in a changing world. This paper draws on a multi-sited, ethnographic study of a research effort highlighted by the CGIAR as an exemplar of GPG-oriented research. Behind the ubiquitous language of GPGs, 'partnership' and 'consensus', however, new forms of exclusion and restriction are emerging within everyday practice, reproducing North-South inequalities and undermining the ability of these programmes to respond to the needs of projected beneficiaries.

  20. The Tropical Fruit Research Program of the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical and subtropical fruit crops are of major importance in commercial and subsistence agriculture. The globalization of the economy and the increased demand for healthy and more diverse food products have opened a large market for many of these fruit crops. Despite this fact, increased produc...

  1. What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

  2. Agricultural (nonbiomedical) animal research outside the laboratory: a review of guidelines for institutional animal care and use committees.

    PubMed

    Granstrom, David E

    2003-01-01

    Challenges and published guidelines associated with appropriate care and use of farm animals in agricultural research conducted outside the laboratory are briefly reviewed. The Animal Welfare Act (Title 9 of the 2000 Code of Federal Regulations), which regulates the care and use of agricultural animals in biomedical research, does not include livestock and poultry used in agricultural research. Farm animal research funded (and thereby regulated) by the US Public Health Service is further discussed in the National Research Council's 1996 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. However, neither of these guidelines adequately addresses the unique attributes of research and teaching designed to improve production agriculture. That information is contained in the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (the Ag Guide), published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies in 1999. The Ag Guide provides excellent general recommendations for agricultural animal research. It serves as an invaluable resource for institutional animal care and use committees, which attempt to balance the welfare of farm animals and the needs of those working to improve animal agriculture.

  3. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    Scientific assessments of agricultural air quality, including estimates of emissions and potential sequestration of greenhouse gases, are an important emerging area of environmental science that offers significant challenges to policy and regulatory authorities. Improvements are needed in measurements, modeling, emission controls, and farm operation management. Controlling emissions of gases and particulate matter from agriculture is notoriously difficult as this sector affects the most basic need of humans, i.e., food. Current policies combine an inadequate science covering a very disparate range of activities in a complex industry with social and political overlays. Moreover, agricultural emissions derive from both area and point sources. In the United States, agricultural emissions play an important role in several atmospherically mediated processes of environmental and public health concerns. These atmospheric processes affect local and regional environmental quality, including odor, particulate matter (PM) exposure, eutrophication, acidification, exposure to toxics, climate, and pathogens. Agricultural emissions also contribute to the global problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and in how they interact within the various processes and media affected. Most important in the U.S. are ammonia (where agriculture accounts for approximately 90% of total emissions), reduced sulfur (unquantified), PM25 (approximately 16%), PM110 (approximately 18%), methane (approximately 29%), nitrous oxide (approximately 72%), and odor and emissions of pathogens (both unquantified). Agriculture also consumes fossil fuels for fertilizer production and farm operations, thus emitting carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), sulfur oxides (SO(x)), and particulates. Current research priorities include the quantification of point and nonpoint sources, the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia, reduced sulfur

  4. Autism research funding allocation: can economics tell us if we have got it right?

    PubMed

    Zwicker, Jennifer D; Emery, J C Herbert

    2014-12-01

    There is a concern that the allocation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research funding may be misallocating resources, overemphasizing basic science at the expense of translational and clinical research. Anthony Bailey has proposed that an economic evaluation of autism research funding allocations could be beneficial for funding agencies by identifying under- or overfunded areas of research. In response to Bailey, we illustrate why economics cannot provide an objective, technical solution for identifying the "best" allocation of research resources. Economic evaluation has its greatest power as a late-stage research tool for interventions with identified objectives, outcomes, and data. This is not the case for evaluating whether research areas are over- or underfunded. Without an understanding of how research funding influences the likelihood and value of a discovery, or without a statement of the societal objectives for ASD research and level of risk aversion, economic analysis cannot provide a useful normative evaluation of ASD research.

  5. [Research progress of Terahertz wave technology in quality measurement of food and agricultural products].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhan-Ke; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Ying, Yi-Bin

    2007-11-01

    The quality concern of food and agricultural products has become more and more significant. The related technologies for nondestructive measurement or quality control of food products have been the focus of many researches. Terahertz (THz) radiation, or THz wave, the least explored region of the spectrum, is the electromagnetic wave that lies between mid-infrared and microwave radiation, which has very important research and application values. THz spectroscopy and THz imaging technique are the two main applications of THz wave. During the past decade, THz waves have been used to characterize the electronic, vibrational and compositional properties of solid, liquid and gas phase materials. Recently, THz technology has gained a lot of attention of researchers in various fields from biological spectral analysis to bio-medical imaging due to its unique features compared with microwave and optical waves. In the present paper, the properties of THz wave and its uniqueness in sensing and imaging applications were discussed. The most recent researches on THz technology used in food quality control and agricultural products inspection were summarized. The prospect of this novel technology in agriculture and food industry was also discussed.

  6. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  7. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  8. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  9. Economic analysis of nutrition interventions for chronic disease prevention: methods, research, and policy.

    PubMed

    Wong, John B; Coates, Paul M; Russell, Robert M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Schuttinga, James A; Bowman, Barbara A; Peterson, Sarah A

    2011-09-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about the economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or healthcare policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and US regulatory, policy, and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development.

  10. Research on Economic Education: Is It Asking the Right Questions? Discussion Paper No. 510-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbrod, Burton A.

    Most research on economics education has focused on the production function for teaching economics in colleges and universities. This concentration on higher education is notable because the majority of students never go to a four-year college. They therefore have access to formal economics education only in high school or junior college, if at…

  11. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  12. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  13. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  14. 78 FR 8490 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision of the Previously Requested Experimental Economic Research-A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Economic Research Service Notice of Intent To Request Revision of the Previously Requested Experimental Economic Research--A New Generic Clearance for Information Collection AGENCY: Economic Research Service... changes that the Economic Research Service intends to make to a previously request for a new...

  15. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them.

  16. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them. PMID:25311906

  17. 7 CFR 2.67 - Administrator, Economic Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... development of a viable and sustainable global agricultural system. Such work may be carried out by: (i... resources, the quality of these resources, resource institutions, and watershed and river basin development... Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended, with funds administered by the...

  18. 7 CFR 2.67 - Administrator, Economic Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... development of a viable and sustainable global agricultural system. Such work may be carried out by: (i... resources, the quality of these resources, resource institutions, and watershed and river basin development... Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended, with funds administered by the...

  19. 76 FR 22667 - Solicitation of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ..., National Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW... Equity in Education Land-Grant Institutions Category Y. National Social Science Association Nominations... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Notices #0;...

  20. Research Priorities for Economic Analyses of Prevention: Current Issues & Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, D. Max; Hill, Laura Griner; Kuklinski, Margaret R.; Jones, Damon E.

    2013-01-01

    In response to growing interest in economic analyses of prevention efforts, a diverse group of prevention researchers, economists, and policy analysts convened a scientific panel, on “Research Priorities in Economic Analysis of Prevention” at the 19th annual conference of the Society for Prevention Research. The panel articulated four priorities that, if followed in future research, would make economic analyses of prevention efforts easier to compare and more relevant to policymakers, and community stakeholders. These priorities are: (1) increased standardization of evaluation methods, (2) improved economic valuation of common prevention outcomes, (3) expanded efforts to maximize evaluation generalizability and impact, as well as (4) enhanced transparency and communicability of economic evaluations. In this paper we define three types of economic analyses in prevention, provide context and rationale for these four priorities as well as related sub-priorities, and discuss the challenges inherent in meeting them. PMID:23963624

  1. Research in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Annual Southern Agricultural Education Research Meeting (44th, Wilmington, North Carolina, March 19-20, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim, Comp.

    The proceedings includes the following: "Evaluation of the Leadership Development of Oklahoma Agricultural Leadership Program Graduates" (Lee-Cooper, Weeks); "Model for Undergraduate Academic Programs in Agricultural Communications" (Terry, Jr. et al.); "Competencies Needed for Graduates of Agricultural Communications Programs" (Terry,…

  2. Defining the Social Context through Agricultural Research. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (20th, Nashville, Tennessee, December 3, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Dennis C., Ed.; Bruening, Thomas H., Ed.

    Selected papers are as follows: "Agriculture, Environmental Science and the Relationship of Agriculture to Academic Courses as Perceived by 10th Grade Students" (Newsom-Stewart; Sutphin); "Factors Related to Recruitment and Retention of Ethnic Minority Youth in the Ohio 4-H Program" (Bankston, Cano); "Hispanics in Agriculture" (Nichols, Nelson);…

  3. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  4. An Attempt to Quantify the Economic Benefits of Scientific Research, Science Policy Studies No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byatt, I. C. R.; Cohen, A. V.

    This paper presents a possible methodology for measuring and predicting the future course of the long-range economic benefits of "curiosity-oriented" research. The basic premise is that much pure research tends to give rise to major industries in about one generation. Each industry will have some total economic benefit which can be discounted to a…

  5. Organical residue and agriculture like energetic reservoir: Study of economic and environmental effects in electricity production from biomass in Venice county

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoni, G.; Tromboni, S.

    1996-12-31

    The study proposes, through a technical analysis of feasibility, the individulation of a concrete solution that allows an reduction of pollution`s fonts that they burden on the Venice`s basin. This area, for his particular formation and position, contains a strongs intrinsic brittleness that progressively gets worse because of organic nature environmental pollution. This particularly forms of pollution are provoked by the agricultural activity and by other economic activity. This study examine an alternative and integrated system to utilize organic material coming from livestock farming, urban communities and various production activities that gravitates on the Venice`s logoon. This research exploits an innovative context where {open_quotes}waste implementation{close_quotes} by different methodologies is none of the most powerful means to defend the environment and to recuperate their potential energetical resources. In the present study we will try to transform the current concept of {open_quotes}eliminating and destroying{close_quotes} into a more progressive one where organic wastes take the role of raw material to be converted in energy. The loss of a high quantity of the potential energy that they present can be avoided by technologies and know-how, now available, by which we are able to transform such latent energy in alternative forms that can be directly utilized.

  6. The Impact of Vocational and Technical Education on Manpower and Economic Development. Economic Development Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Francis T.; Alexander, Arch B.

    Planners, administrators, economists, and all others involved with human resources and economic development are cautioned to never underestimate the role that vocational education can play in attracting new and expanding industries. Industrial expansion means new capital investments, a vital factor to the future well being of economically…

  7. FORT KEOGH LIVESTOCK & RANGE RESEARCH LABORATORY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-AGRICULTRAL RESEARCH SERVICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Article describes Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory to an audience of scientific researchers (i.e. ecologists) interested in the interactions among organisms and their environment. Article outlines the facilities, environment, history, and ongoing types of research. Emphasis is on...

  8. Introduction to the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory Special Rangelands Issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Labortory (PPRL) in Logan, UT will sponsor an edition of the magazine Rangelands. This paper provides a brief history and overview of the PPRL, mission statement, research objectives by CRIS, and the disciplines involved in the research....

  9. Conducting On-Farm Animal Research: Procedures & Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Pervaiz; Knipscheer, Hendrik C.

    This book is intended to give animal scientists elementary tools to perform on-farm livestock analysis and to provide crop-oriented farming systems researchers with methods for conducting animal research. Chapter 1 describes farming systems research as a systems approach to on-farm animal research. Chapter 2 outlines some important…

  10. Notes on Topics in the Economics of Education. Research Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Dean T.

    The assertion that productivity is declining in education, economists' work on educational production functions, and definitions of efficiency and productivity are discussed in three reports on the economics of education. The measurement and aggregation problems in the determination of productivity changes in education are explained, and three…

  11. The Economic Benefits of a Degree. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of tuition fees of up to 3,000 British Pounds a year for full-time undergraduates in England in 2006 has revitalised the debate about the benefits of a degree to the individual. As a contribution to this discussion Universities UK commissioned PricewaterhouseCoopers (in association with London Economics,) to produce a report on…

  12. A career in government: my experiences working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural sector provides highly diverse career opportunities that include private companies, academic institutions, non-government organizations, and government agencies. One possible career path is with the Federal government which is one of the largest employers of scientists and engineers...

  13. Theorizing about violence: observations from the Economic and Social Research Council's Violence Research Program.

    PubMed

    Stanko, Elizabeth A

    2006-06-01

    The director of the Economic and Social Research Council Violence Research Program (VRP) in the United Kingdom discusses and debates the impacts of the program in the context of contemporary ideas about violence and current U.K. policy and practice in the field. The projects in the program included 2 historical studies and 18 contemporary studies of violence in the home, schools, prisons, neighborhoods, leisure establishments, massage parlors, and on the street. For example, studies focusing on the nighttime economy in U.K. cities, on paramilitary punishment beatings in Northern Ireland, and on violence experienced and perpetrated by girls are discussed here. Five projects addressed gendered violence, and three addressed domestic violence specifically. Lessons from the VRP are drawn out in this article in a personal account. These lessons include the fact that violence is not hidden, that the meanings of violence are gendered, and that people's accounts of violence matter.

  14. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (9th, St, Louis, Missouri, December 3, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Arlington, VA. Agricultural Education Div.

    These proceedings contain the texts of 29 papers presented at the ninth Annual Agricultural Education Research Meeting. During the five sessions of the conference, various areas of agricultural education were addressed, such as inservice education, job satisfaction and morale, teacher concerns, national issues, program improvement, preservice…

  15. Contextualising Teaching and Learning in Rural Primary Schools: Using Agricultural Experience. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2. Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peter; Mulhall, Abigail

    This research project examined the potential role of agricultural experiences as a vehicle for meeting the diverse learning needs of rural primary students in developing countries. Volume 1 of the project report represents a literature review that investigated a "new role" for agriculture as a key element for developing rural students' basic…

  16. Central States Annual Research Conference in Agricultural Education Proceedings (42nd, Chicago, Illinois, February 21-22, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    The following papers are included in this conference report: "Generative Themes for Research in Agricultural Education," (Copa); "Factors Associated with Participation of Iowa Young Farmers in Agricultural Extension Programs" (Martin, Omer); "Personality Characteristics of Groups of Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education" (Petrick,…

  17. Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

    2013-01-01

    This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

  18. Environmental and economic development consequences of forest and agricultural sector policies in Latin America (a synthesis of case studies of Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Bolivia)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.; Gibson, D.

    1994-04-15

    This paper draws heavily on the results of case studies in Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador to explain how sectoral policies have tilted land use decisions against forestry and in favor of agriculture, and to present estimates of the economic development effects of those decisions. The paper summarizes information on forests and forest industries of the three countries, and it describes the framework within which policies are designed. It presents the effects of sectoral policies on land use and forest management, and then quantifies and discusses economic costs of relevant sectoral policies. Conclusions and recommendations for policy reform are offered.

  19. 7 CFR 2.68 - Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... committees concerned with agricultural science, education, and development activities, including library and... Service. 2.68 Section 2.68 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY... Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.68 Administrator, National...

  20. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  1. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  2. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  3. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  4. What motivates researchers in times of economic uncertainty.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucher, G. C.; Reece, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results of a study initiated late in 1970 to obtain both a measure of on-and-around-the-job factors which were 'motivating' to engineers and scientists, and to obtain an indication of how the relative importance of these factors changes as a result of the uncertain economic environment. A questionnaire, 'The Jackman Job Satisfaction Schedule,' was used to satisfy the needs of the study. It is concluded that managers can enhance the feeling of motivation by making individual job assignments interesting and challenging, by formulating significant milestones and end points into job content, and by assigning ample rewards with corresponding responsibility. In times of economic uncertainty increased emphasis should be given to security-related aspects of employment.

  5. Preschool and Economic Development. Employment Research. Volume 13, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    "Employment Research" is published quarterly by the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment and Research. Issues appear in January, April, July, and October. This issue of "Employment Research" presents an article that summarizes the author's study of the effects of high-quality universal preschool education when it is treated as an economic…

  6. Research Universities: Producers of Economic Development or Luxury Goods? ASHE 1985 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Maureen W.

    Research that occurs in universities under conditions of patronage is distinguished from research that occurs under less distorted market conditions. It is claimed that academic research is shifting from an area of patronage consumption to one of economic development investment. In addition to considering the markets for academic research and…

  7. ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH STUDIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION, SOUTHERN REGION, 1965-66.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAKER, RICHARD A.

    THIRTY-ONE DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS, STAFF STUDIES, AND MASTERS' THESES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION ARE REPORTED IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS -- ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, ADMINISTRATOR ATTITUDES, ADULT VOCATIONAL EDUCATION, ADVISORY COMMITTEES, AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS, ASPIRATION, CURRICULUM, EDUCATIONAL NEEDS, EMPLOYMENT…

  8. 75 FR 49357 - United States Department of Agriculture Research Misconduct Regulations for Extramural Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... the President (OSTP), published in the Federal Register (65 FR 76260) the Federal Policy on Research... (73 FR 70915), requesting comments from the public. Comments were received on the proposed rule from... and animal research subjects. The OSTP policy (65 FR 76260) specifically states, ``This...

  9. Agricultural Research Service research highlights in remote sensing for calendar year 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, J. C. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Selected examples of research accomplishments related to remote sensing are compiled. A brief statement is given to highlight the significant results of each research project. A list of 1981 publication and location contacts is given also. The projects cover emission and reflectance analysis, identification of crop and soil parameters, and the utilization of remote sensing data.

  10. Economic and Physical Modeling of Land Use in GCAM 3.0 and an Application to Agricultural Productivity, Land, and Terrestrial Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Edmonds, James A.

    2014-09-01

    We explore the impact of changes in agricultural productivity on global land use and terrestrial carbon using the new agriculture and land use modeling approach developed for Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) version 3.0. This approach models economic land use decisions with regional, physical, and technological specificity while maintaining economic and physical integration with the rest of the GCAM model. Physical land characteristics and quantities are tracked explicitly, and crop production practices are modeled discretely to facilitate coupling with physical models. Economic land allocation is modeled with non-linear functions in a market equilibrium rather than through a constrained optimization. In this paper, we explore three scenarios of future agriculture productivity in all regions of the globe over this century, ranging from a high growth to a zero growth level. The higher productivity growth scenario leads to lower crop prices, increased production of crops in developing nations, preservation of global forested lands and lower terrestrial carbon emissions. The scenario with no productivity improvement results in higher crop prices, an expansion of crop production in the developed world, loss of forested lands globally, and higher terrestrial carbon emissions.

  11. RELATIONSHIP OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC POSITION TO THE CONNOTATIVE MEANING OF CERTAIN WORDS USED IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCMILLION, MARTIN B.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE (1) WHETHER THREE DIFFERENT SOCIOECONOMIC GROUPS OF STUDENTS AND VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS PLACED DIFFERENT CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS ON CERTAIN WORDS AND PHRASES IMPORTANT IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE, AND (2) THE EXTENT TO WHICH TEACHERS RECOGNIZED DIFFERENCES EXISTING AMONG STUDENTS. PUPILS IN 21 ILLINOIS…

  12. The role of the statistician in the Scottish Agricultural and Biological Research Institutes.

    PubMed

    McKendrick, Iain J

    2004-09-01

    Several of the Scottish Agricultural and Biological Research Institutes carry out research on domestic animal health and welfare. Statistical services are provided by Biomathematics & Statistics Scotland, a sister research organisation. At one of these institutes, a statistician has been an integral member of the animal experiments and ethics committee for over 10 years, and each animal experiment is examined by the committee statistician as part of the review process. This paper will describe this review process, and then discuss those areas in which statistical advice has had most impact in the reduction of animal numbers. It is suggested that most benefit does not come from simple sample-size calculations, but rather from the application of the principles of good experimental design and close collaboration between the scientist and the statistician in the design and analysis of experiments. The final conclusion is that scientists welcome constructive, long-term statistical input, although budgetary issues can prove to be a barrier.

  13. Agriculture, nutrition, and health in global development: typology and metrics for integrated interventions and research.

    PubMed

    Masters, William A; Webb, Patrick; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite rhetoric arguing that enhanced agriculture leads to improved nutrition and health, there is scant empirical evidence about potential synergies across sectors or about the mix of actions that best supports all three sectors. The geographic scale and socioeconomic nature of these interventions require integration of previously separate research methods. This paper proposes a typology of interventions and a metric of integration among them to help researchers build on each other's results, facilitating integration in methods to inform the design of multisector interventions. The typology recognizes the importance of regional effect modifiers that are not themselves subject to randomized assignment, and trade-offs in how policies and programs are implemented, evaluated, and scaled. Using this typology could facilitate methodological pluralism, helping researchers in one field use knowledge generated elsewhere, each using the most appropriate method for their situation.

  14. Quality of Rural Economic Development Data. Testimony to the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation, Joint Economic Committee, Ninety-Ninth Congress (June 13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulver, Glen C.

    Although the private sector has the primary role for job generation in the U.S. market economy, local community leaders can play a significant part in creating a growth-stimulating economic environment. A comprehensive economic development strategy appropriate to a community's specific goals and conditions requires careful analysis of the…

  15. Impact of the agricultural research service watershed assessment studies on the conservation effects assessment project cropland national assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA initiated the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in 2002 to analyze societal and environmental benefits gained from the increased conservation program funding provided in the 2002 Farm Bill. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and...

  16. What current literature tells us about sustainable diets: emerging research linking dietary patterns, environmental sustainability, and economics.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), "Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations." Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed.

  17. What Current Literature Tells Us about Sustainable Diets: Emerging Research Linking Dietary Patterns, Environmental Sustainability, and Economics12

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), “Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations.” Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. PMID:25593141

  18. Adding Value through Research in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (19th, St. Louis, Missouri, December 4, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundt, John P., Comp.

    Among 53 conference papers, are the following: "Perceptions of Administrators, Guidance Counselors, and Science Teachers Concerning Pilot Agriscience Courses" (Johnson, Newman); "Relationship of Supervised Agricultural Experience Program Participation and Student Achievement in Agricultural Education (AE)" (Cheek et al.); "Student Achievement,…

  19. 21st Century Research for Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the National Agricultural Education Research Conference (27th, San Diego, California, December 6, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Greg, Ed.

    These proceedings contain 48 presentations and 15 poster abstracts. Papers include "Computer Tasks Required in Selected Undergraduate Agriculture Courses" (Johnson, Ferguson, Vokinnns, Lester); "College of Agriculture Faculty Perceptions of Electronic Technologies in Teaching" (Dooley, Murphy); "Steering Through Turbulent Waters While Developing a…

  20. Green Revolution research saved an estimated 18 to 27 million hectares from being brought into agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, James R; Villoria, Nelson; Byerlee, Derek; Kelley, Timothy; Maredia, Mywish

    2013-05-21

    New estimates of the impacts of germplasm improvement in the major staple crops between 1965 and 2004 on global land-cover change are presented, based on simulations carried out using a global economic model (Global Trade Analysis Project Agro-Ecological Zone), a multicommodity, multiregional computable general equilibrium model linked to a global spatially explicit database on land use. We estimate the impact of removing the gains in cereal productivity attributed to the widespread adoption of improved varieties in developing countries. Here, several different effects--higher yields, lower prices, higher land rents, and trade effects--have been incorporated in a single model of the impact of Green Revolution research (and subsequent advances in yields from crop germplasm improvement) on land-cover change. Our results generally support the Borlaug hypothesis that increases in cereal yields as a result of widespread adoption of improved crop germplasm have saved natural ecosystems from being converted to agriculture. However, this relationship is complex, and the net effect is of a much smaller magnitude than Borlaug proposed. We estimate that the total crop area in 2004 would have been between 17.9 and 26.7 million hectares larger in a world that had not benefited from crop germplasm improvement since 1965. Of these hectares, 12.0-17.7 million would have been in developing countries, displacing pastures and resulting in an estimated 2 million hectares of additional deforestation. However, the negative impacts of higher food prices on poverty and hunger under this scenario would likely have dwarfed the welfare effects of agricultural expansion. PMID:23671086

  1. Green Revolution research saved an estimated 18 to 27 million hectares from being brought into agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, James R; Villoria, Nelson; Byerlee, Derek; Kelley, Timothy; Maredia, Mywish

    2013-05-21

    New estimates of the impacts of germplasm improvement in the major staple crops between 1965 and 2004 on global land-cover change are presented, based on simulations carried out using a global economic model (Global Trade Analysis Project Agro-Ecological Zone), a multicommodity, multiregional computable general equilibrium model linked to a global spatially explicit database on land use. We estimate the impact of removing the gains in cereal productivity attributed to the widespread adoption of improved varieties in developing countries. Here, several different effects--higher yields, lower prices, higher land rents, and trade effects--have been incorporated in a single model of the impact of Green Revolution research (and subsequent advances in yields from crop germplasm improvement) on land-cover change. Our results generally support the Borlaug hypothesis that increases in cereal yields as a result of widespread adoption of improved crop germplasm have saved natural ecosystems from being converted to agriculture. However, this relationship is complex, and the net effect is of a much smaller magnitude than Borlaug proposed. We estimate that the total crop area in 2004 would have been between 17.9 and 26.7 million hectares larger in a world that had not benefited from crop germplasm improvement since 1965. Of these hectares, 12.0-17.7 million would have been in developing countries, displacing pastures and resulting in an estimated 2 million hectares of additional deforestation. However, the negative impacts of higher food prices on poverty and hunger under this scenario would likely have dwarfed the welfare effects of agricultural expansion.

  2. Research: Accomplishments, Opportunities, Challenges. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Conference (28th, New Orleans, LA, December 12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotrlik, Joe W., Ed.; Burnett, Michael F., Ed.

    This document contains 48 papers from a conference on agricultural education research. The following papers are among those included: "Analysis of the Relationships between Computer Experiences, Self-Efficacy, and Knowledge of Undergraduate Students Entering a Land-Grant College of Agriculture" (Donald M. Johnson, Melissa L. Lester, James A.…

  3. Beyond Technology Transfer: Us State Policies to Harness University Research for Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L.; Sa, Creso

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the recent history of State-level policies in the United States for knowledge-based economic development, and identifies an emerging model based on technology creation. This new model goes beyond traditional investments in technology transfer and prioritizes cutting-edge scientific research in economically relevant fields. As…

  4. Fifteen Years of Research on Graduate Education in Economics: What Have We Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Wendy A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors summarize their 15 years of research on graduate education in economics in the United States. They examine all stages of the process, from the undergraduate origins of eventual economics PhDs to their attrition and time-to-degree outcomes. For PhD completers, the authors examine job market outcomes, research…

  5. Ergonomics Perspective in Agricultural Research: A User-Centred Approach Using CAD and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Thaneswer; Sanjog, J.; Karmakar, Sougata

    2016-09-01

    Computer-aided Design (CAD) and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) (specialized CAD software for virtual human representation) technologies endow unique opportunities to incorporate human factors pro-actively in design development. Challenges of enhancing agricultural productivity through improvement of agricultural tools/machineries and better human-machine compatibility can be ensured by adoption of these modern technologies. Objectives of present work are to provide the detailed scenario of CAD and DHM applications in agricultural sector; and finding out means for wide adoption of these technologies for design and development of cost-effective, user-friendly, efficient and safe agricultural tools/equipment and operator's workplace. Extensive literature review has been conducted for systematic segregation and representation of available information towards drawing inferences. Although applications of various CAD software have momentum in agricultural research particularly for design and manufacturing of agricultural equipment/machinery, use of DHM is still at its infancy in this sector. Current review discusses about reasons of less adoption of these technologies in agricultural sector and steps to be taken for their wide adoption. It also suggests possible future research directions to come up with better ergonomic design strategies for improvement of agricultural equipment/machines and workstations through application of CAD and DHM.

  6. Ergonomics Perspective in Agricultural Research: A User-Centred Approach Using CAD and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Thaneswer; Sanjog, J.; Karmakar, Sougata

    2016-06-01

    Computer-aided Design (CAD) and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) (specialized CAD software for virtual human representation) technologies endow unique opportunities to incorporate human factors pro-actively in design development. Challenges of enhancing agricultural productivity through improvement of agricultural tools/machineries and better human-machine compatibility can be ensured by adoption of these modern technologies. Objectives of present work are to provide the detailed scenario of CAD and DHM applications in agricultural sector; and finding out means for wide adoption of these technologies for design and development of cost-effective, user-friendly, efficient and safe agricultural tools/equipment and operator's workplace. Extensive literature review has been conducted for systematic segregation and representation of available information towards drawing inferences. Although applications of various CAD software have momentum in agricultural research particularly for design and manufacturing of agricultural equipment/machinery, use of DHM is still at its infancy in this sector. Current review discusses about reasons of less adoption of these technologies in agricultural sector and steps to be taken for their wide adoption. It also suggests possible future research directions to come up with better ergonomic design strategies for improvement of agricultural equipment/machines and workstations through application of CAD and DHM.

  7. Developmental Research of Off-Farm Agricultural Businesses in Berks County, Pennsylvania. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berks County Schools, Reading, PA.

    Student vocational interest and agricultural business surveys were conducted in Berks County, Pennsylvania to gauge career opportunities in off-farm agricultural occupations. The seven categories of businesses surveyed included agriculture supplies, agriculture mechanics, horticulture mechanics, floriculture, landscaping, turf, and garden center…

  8. The economic value of remote sensing information: a case study of agricultural production and groundwater vulnerability using applied environmental science and hydrogeospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, wforney@usgs.gov, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities

  9. The NASA Lewis Research Center's Expendable Launch Vehicle Program: An Economic Impact Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austrian, Ziona

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the economic impact of the Lewis Research Center's (LeRC) Expendable Launch Vehicle Program (ELVP) on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures ELVP's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they 'ripple' throughout the economy. The study uses regional economic multipliers based on input-output models to estimate the effect of ELVP spending on the Northeast Ohio economy.

  10. The NASA Lewis Research Center's Expendable Launch Vehicle Program: An Economic Impact Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austrian, Ziona

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the economic impact of the Lewis Research Center's (LeRC) Expendable Launch Vehicle Program (ELVP) on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures ELVP's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they "ripple" throughout the economy. The study uses regional economic multipliers based on input-output models to estimate the effect of ELVP spending on the Northeast Ohio economy.

  11. Rural Development Research: A Foundation for Policy. Contributions in Economics and Economic History, Number 170.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Thomas D., Ed.; And Others

    This book addresses the need for research information that can be used as a foundation for rural development policy. Part I deals with the four components of rural development: education (human capital), entrepreneurship, physical infrastructure, and social infrastructure. Part II examines analytic methods of measuring rural development efforts,…

  12. Comprehensive UAV agricultural remote-sensing research at Texas A M University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Olsenholler, Jeffrey; Valasek, John; Murray, Seth C.; Bishop, Michael P.

    2016-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have advantages over manned vehicles for agricultural remote sensing. Flying UAVs is less expensive, is more flexible in scheduling, enables lower altitudes, uses lower speeds, and provides better spatial resolution for imaging. The main disadvantage is that, at lower altitudes and speeds, only small areas can be imaged. However, on large farms with contiguous fields, high-quality images can be collected regularly by using UAVs with appropriate sensing technologies that enable high-quality image mosaics to be created with sufficient metadata and ground-control points. In the United States, rules governing the use of aircraft are promulgated and enforced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and rules governing UAVs are currently in flux. Operators must apply for appropriate permissions to fly UAVs. In the summer of 2015 Texas A&M University's agricultural research agency, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, embarked on a comprehensive program of remote sensing with UAVs at its 568-ha Brazos Bottom Research Farm. This farm is made up of numerous fields where various crops are grown in plots or complete fields. The crops include cotton, corn, sorghum, and wheat. After gaining FAA permission to fly at the farm, the research team used multiple fixed-wing and rotary-wing UAVs along with various sensors to collect images over all parts of the farm at least once per week. This article reports on details of flight operations and sensing and analysis protocols, and it includes some lessons learned in the process of developing a UAV remote-sensing effort of this sort.

  13. Efficacy of Indexing and Abstracting Services for the Dissemination of Agricultural Information Resources in the Institure for Agricultural Research Library, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, KASA, M.

    2012-10-01

    The efficacy of Indexing and Abstracting service for effective organization, storage and retrieval of information resources for agricultural research in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria necessitated examining the situation in Agricultural Library, Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru. The study examines the processes, awareness and problems militating against the effective exploitation of the indexing and abstracting services in the Agricultural library established in 1975. The study was conducted ex post facto, data collected span from 2006 ñ 2010. Total sample sizes of 752 patrons and 20,236 intellectually indexed and abstracted resources were involved in the study. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that a total of 644 articles were indexed and abstracted, 35% of these was done in 2010. Results for awareness show 452 (60.11%) to be aware in 2008. A total 584 articles were indexed and abstracted from which 167 (28.59%) was retrieved in 2006. Patrons, 270 (35.90%) attributed the poor use of the service to assumption it is a referral unit. The hypothesis testing revealed that there is significant association between articles indexed and abstracted with information consulted by patrons (?2cal,100.31>?2tab,9.488) at 5% level of probability and df, 4. In conclusion, enormous documents on Nigerian agriculture are indexed and abstracted in the unit, implying that the service is desirous and consistent. The study recommends that the unit should explore the use of modern technology, employ a permanent subject specialist, train and retrain the unit staff as well as intensify it general orientation campaigns to focus on awareness and use of the indexing and abstracting services.

  14. Research Needs for Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negra, C.; Lovejoy, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Ashton, R.; Havemann, T.; Eaton, J.

    2009-12-01

    Improved management of terrestrial carbon in agriculture, forestry, and other land use sectors is a necessary part of climate change mitigation. It is likely that governments will agree in Copenhagen in December 2009 to incentives for improved management of some forms of terrestrial carbon, including maintaining existing terrestrial carbon (e.g., avoiding deforestation) and creating new terrestrial carbon (e.g., afforestation, soil management). To translate incentives into changes in land management and terrestrial carbon stocks, a robust technical and scientific information base is required. All terrestrial carbon pools (and other greenhouse gases from the terrestrial system) that interact with the atmosphere at timescales less than centuries, and all land uses, have documented mitigation potential, however, most activity has focused on above-ground forest biomass. Despite research advances in understanding emissions reduction and sequestration associated with different land management techniques, there has not yet been broad-scale implementation of land-based mitigation activity in croplands, peatlands, grasslands and other land uses. To maximize long-term global terrestrial carbon volumes, further development of relevant data, methodologies and technologies are needed to complement policy and financial incentives. The Terrestrial Carbon Group, in partnership with UN-REDD agencies, the World Bank and CGIAR institutions, is reviewing literature, convening leading experts and surveying key research institutions to develop a Roadmap for Terrestrial Carbon: Research Needs for Implementation of Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses. This work will summarize the existing knowledge base for emissions reductions and sequestration through land management as well as the current availability of tools and methods for measurement and monitoring of terrestrial carbon. Preliminary findings indicate a number of areas for future work. Enhanced information

  15. 77 FR 58978 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... discussion will include a ] briefing on ethical behavior for federal advisory committee members, an... business. Specific items on the agenda will include a discussion related to the international programs... Board; and to finalize Board business for the meeting. The Board Meeting will adjourn by 12 p.m....

  16. 76 FR 62755 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... CONTACT: J. Robert Burk, Executive Director or Shirley Morgan-Jordan, Program Support Coordinator...-3684; fax: (202) 720-6199; or e-mail: Robert.Burk@ars.usda.gov or Shirley.Morgan@ars.usda.gov... new members and interested incumbent members will be held from 1 p.m.-5:30 p.m. Specific topics...

  17. 75 FR 61692 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: J. Robert Burk, Executive Director or Shirley Morgan-Jordan, Program Support Coordinator...-3684; fax: (202) 720-6199; or e-mail: Robert.Burk@ars.usda.gov or Shirley.Morgan@ars.usda.gov... place at the Hotel Palomar, 2121 P Street, NW., Washington, DC 20037. Written comments from the...

  18. 76 FR 13124 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...-0321. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: J. Robert Burk, Executive Director or Shirley Morgan-Jordan... Board; telephone: (202) 720-3684; fax: (202) 720-6199; or e-mail: Robert.Burk@ars.usda.gov or Shirley.Morgan@ars.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On Wednesday, March 30, 2011, from 8 a.m.-5 p.m.,...

  19. A multiscale conceptual framework for integrated ecogeomorphological research to support stream naturalization in the agricultural Midwest.

    PubMed

    Frothingham, Kelly M; Rhoads, Bruce L; Herricks, Edwin E

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of fluvial systems necessitates interdisciplinary research in fluvial geomorphology and aquatic ecology to develop a fundamental understanding of interconnections among biotic and abiotic aspects of these systems. Integrated knowledge of this type is vital for environmental management of streams in human-dominated environments. A conceptual framework is presented for integrating geomorphological and ecological research on streams in East Central Illinois, USA, a glaciated low-relief agricultural landscape. The framework embodies a multiscale perspective in which a geomorphological conception of the fluvial system is used to define a hierarchy of characteristic spatial scales for exploring important linkages between stream geomorphology and aquatic ecology. The focus ecologically is on fish, because a rich body of historical information exists on fisheries in East Central Illinois and because past work has suggested that availability of physical habitat is a major factor influencing the community characteristics of fish in this human-altered environment. The hierarchy embodied in the framework includes the network, link, planform, bar unit, bar element, and bedform/grain scales. Background knowledge from past research is drawn upon to identify potential linkages between geomorphological and ecological conditions at each of these scales. The conceptual framework is useful for guiding integrated ecogeomorphological research at specific scales and across different scales. It also is helpful for illustrating how widespread human modification of streams has catastrophically altered the scalar structure of fluvial systems in East Central Illinois. Knowledge emerging from the integrated research provides a basis for environmental-management schemes directed toward stream naturalization.

  20. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture, C.E.E.M.A., version 1.0, report 2: Preliminary results of selected scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, S.N.

    1999-09-01

    This is one of three technical reports which document an integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to simultaneously assess the economic and the greenhouse gas emission impacts of agricultural policies at the regional and national levels. After an introduction on the importance of agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases and the need for a study of this issue, chapter 2 reviews the greenhouse gas emission model. Chapter 3 contains model-based estimates of greenhouse gas emission levels for the base year of 1990. Chapter 4 predicts future levels of emissions under medium-term baseline projections. Chapter 5 reviews some of the mitigation strategies available to Canadian farmers and assesses their impact on greenhouse emissions. Implications of trends in livestock production are also examined as a separate scenario. Using the scenarios developed in chapter 5, chapter 6 presents results of greenhouse gas emission estimates for individual gases, various production regions, and various emissions activities. The final chapter summarizes major results and discusses their implications for agricultural policy. Appendices include a description of the modelling methodology and a table showing estimates of the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions by crop and livestock production activities under various scenarios.

  1. Economic Analysis of Nutrition Interventions for Chronic Disease Prevention: Methods, Research, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John B.; Coates, Paul M.; Russell, Robert M.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Schuttinga, James A.; Bowman, Barbara A.; Peterson, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or health care policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and U.S. regulatory, policy and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  2. SUMMARIES OF RESEARCH STUDIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR THE PACIFIC REGION, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCOMAS, J.D.

    TWENTY DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS, STAFF STUDIES, AND MASTERS' THESES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION ARE REPORTED IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS -- AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES, CIVIL DEFENSE, COMMUNITY COLLEGES, CURRICULUM, EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION, DROPOUTS, EXTENSION EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES, JUNIOR COLLEGES, LAND LABORATORIES, OCCUPATIONAL…

  3. Research framework of integrated simulation on bilateral interaction between water cycle and socio-economic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, C. F.; Yang, X. L.; Niu, C. W.; Jia, Y. W.

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of bilateral interaction between natural water cycle evolution and socio-economic development has been obscured in current research due to the complexity of the hydrological process and the socio-economic system. The coupling of economic model CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) and distributed hydrological model WEP (Water and Energy transfer Processes) provides a model-based tool for research on response and feedback of water cycle and social development, as well as economic prospects under the constraint of water resources. On one hand, water policies, such as water use limitation and water price adjustment under different levels of socio-economic development, are to be evaluated by CGE model as assumed conditions and corresponding results of water demand could be put into WEP model to simulate corresponding response during the whole process of water cycle. On the other hand, variation of available water resources quantity under different scenarios simulated by WEP model may provide proper limitation for water demand in CGE model, and corresponding change of economic factors could indicate the influence of water resources constraints on socio-economic development. The research is believed to be helpful for better understanding of bilateral interaction between water and society.

  4. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product ‘Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  5. 7 CFR 2.21 - Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193, under the following provisions of the... compliance with applicable pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR... U.S.C. 5923). (lxxix) Conduct a research initiative known as the Agricultural Genome Initiative,...

  6. 7 CFR 2.21 - Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., exercise the functions delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193... pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter... U.S.C. 5923). (lxxix) Conduct a research initiative known as the Agricultural Genome Initiative,...

  7. Agricultural Research: USDA's Outreach to Minority-Serving Institutions Could Improve Grant Competition. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazzaro, Robin M.

    The largest grant program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is the National Research Initiative (NRI). The General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked by Congress to examine the success of minority-serving institutions in competing for NRI research grants and to identify factors that could improve their success in competing for these…

  8. The Summaries of Research and Development Activities in Agricultural Education Completed in the United States of America 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutphin, H. Dean, Ed.

    This document includes abstracts of research and development projects dealing with agricultural education that were completed in the United States between September 1, 1987, and August 31, 1988. A total of 185 research abstracts are included (71 master's papers or theses, 44 doctoral dissertations, and 70 staff studies. Thirty institutions from 27…

  9. Annual Southern Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education Proceedings (21st, Mississippi State University, July 25-27, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    A 3-day meeting of the Southern Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education was held in July 1972 for 22 participants to study the research implications for performance-based teacher education. The following presentations were made: (1) "Performance-Based Teacher Education in Perspective" by O.L. Snowden, (2) "Utilizing Agricultural…

  10. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  11. Agricultural nonpoint source pollution and economic incentive policies. Issues in the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. Staff report

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, A.S.; Larson, B.A.; Ribaudo, M.

    1992-11-01

    The limited success of command-and-control policies for reducing nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution mandated under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) has prompted increased interest in economic incentive policies as an alternative control mechanism. No single policy, however, is likely to be effective in reducing all NPS pollution. Economic incentives may be effective in some cases, command-and-control practices in others.

  12. Linkage of Higher Education with Agricultural Research, Extension and Development in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belay, Kassa

    2008-01-01

    High-level agricultural manpower training in Ethiopian institutions of higher education (AIHE)specializing in agriculture and related fields was studied. The study reveals that high-level agricultural manpower training began in the early 1950s and that, at present, the country has seven institutions of higher learning, which train students in…

  13. Energy/economic model analysis. Macroeconomic impacts of research and development in gas supply and end use technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettle, R. J., IV; Hudson, E. A.

    1980-06-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) needs to consider the economic impact of the various technologies whose research and development is supported by GRI funding. Three energy-economic models are useful for such a technology assessment. These models are: Energy Economic Modeling System, Energy Policy Model, and Time Stepped Energy System Optimization/Long Term Inter-Industry Transaction Model. These three models were used to help in the economic impact evaluation of various GRI research and development programs.

  14. The Economic Impact of Eight Research Universities on the Boston Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simha, O. Robert

    2005-01-01

    The greater Boston region's eight research universities play a key role in the region's economic health and welfare. They are magnets for research and development talent and for billions of dollars in investment. These institutions contribute $7.4 billion dollars to the regional economy, jobs for about 50,000 university employees and 37,000…

  15. Modelling economic and biophysical drivers of agricultural land-use change. Calibration and evaluation of the Nexus Land-Use model over 1961-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souty, F.; Dorin, B.; Brunelle, T.; Dumas, P.; Ciais, P.

    2013-12-01

    The central role of land-use change in the Earth System and its implications for food security, biodiversity and climate has spurred the development of global models that combine economical and agro-ecological drivers and constraints. With such a development of integrated approaches, evaluating the performance of global models of land-use against observed historical changes recorded by agricultural data becomes increasingly challenging. The Nexus Land-Use model is an example of land-use model integrating both biophysical and economical processes and constraints. This paper is an attempt to evaluate its ability to simulate historical agricultural land-use changes over 12 large but economically coherent regions of the world since 1961. The evaluation focuses on the intensification vs. extensification response of crop and livestock production in response to changes of socio-economic drivers over time, such as fertiliser price, population and diet. We examine how well the Nexus model can reproduce annual observation-based estimates of cropland vs. pasture areas from 1961 to 2006. Food trade, consumption of fertilisers and food price are also evaluated against historical data. Over the 12 regions considered, the total relative error on simulated cropland area is 2% yr-1 over 1980-2006. During the period 1961-2006, the error is larger (4% yr-1) due to an overestimation of the cropland area in China and Former Soviet Union over 1961-1980. Food prices tend to be underestimated while the performances of the trade module vary widely among regions (net imports are underestimated in Western countries at the expense of Brazil and Asia). Finally, a sensitivity analysis over a sample of input datasets provides some insights on the robustness of this evaluation.

  16. Research in Agricultural Education: A Foundation for Excellence. Proceedings of the National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (15th, St. Louis, Missouri, December 2, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Alexandria, VA. Agricultural Education Div.

    This document contains 36 papers, most with critiques. Selected titles include "Qualitative Evaluation of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Pennsylvania's 4-H Program" (Etling); "Cognition Level of Instruction and Student Performance among Selected Ohio Production Agriculture Programs" (Cano, Newcomb); "Critical Thinking Skills of Agriculture…

  17. Financing prevention: opportunities for economic analysis across the translational research cycle.

    PubMed

    Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon

    2016-03-01

    Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact.

  18. Financing prevention: opportunities for economic analysis across the translational research cycle.

    PubMed

    Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon

    2016-03-01

    Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact. PMID:27012262

  19. Collaborative evaluation and market research converge: an innovative model agricultural development program evaluation in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, John M; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-11-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A partnership of local officials, agricultural development staff, and students worked with the outside team to craft a survey of agricultural traders working between northern Uganda and Southern Sudan the steps approach of a collaborative model. The goal was to create a market directory of use to producers, government officials and others interested in stimulating agricultural trade. The directory of agricultural producers and distributors served as an agricultural development and promotion tool as did the collaborative process itself.

  20. Collaborative evaluation and market research converge: an innovative model agricultural development program evaluation in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, John M; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-11-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A partnership of local officials, agricultural development staff, and students worked with the outside team to craft a survey of agricultural traders working between northern Uganda and Southern Sudan the steps approach of a collaborative model. The goal was to create a market directory of use to producers, government officials and others interested in stimulating agricultural trade. The directory of agricultural producers and distributors served as an agricultural development and promotion tool as did the collaborative process itself. PMID:22309968

  1. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  2. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states.

  3. Techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration using agricultural residue--a case study for an Indian district.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2015-04-01

    Presently, most of world electricity and other energy services are catered by fossil fuel resources. This is unsustainable in the long run both with respect to energy security and climate change problems. Fuel switching, specifically using biomass may partially address this problem. Polygeneration is an efficient way of delivering multiple utility outputs with one or more inputs. Decentralized small or large scale polygeneration using alternative fuels may be a future sustainable solution. In this paper, a techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration with four utility outputs and rice straw as input has been reported. Results of the simulation and real-life data as inputs are used for the techno-economic analysis. The analysis is specific for a district in the state of West Bengal of India. Results show that such a plant has strong potential to qualify in techno-economic performance in addition to higher efficiency and lower CO2 emission. PMID:25647027

  4. Techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration using agricultural residue--a case study for an Indian district.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2015-04-01

    Presently, most of world electricity and other energy services are catered by fossil fuel resources. This is unsustainable in the long run both with respect to energy security and climate change problems. Fuel switching, specifically using biomass may partially address this problem. Polygeneration is an efficient way of delivering multiple utility outputs with one or more inputs. Decentralized small or large scale polygeneration using alternative fuels may be a future sustainable solution. In this paper, a techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration with four utility outputs and rice straw as input has been reported. Results of the simulation and real-life data as inputs are used for the techno-economic analysis. The analysis is specific for a district in the state of West Bengal of India. Results show that such a plant has strong potential to qualify in techno-economic performance in addition to higher efficiency and lower CO2 emission.

  5. Research priorities in health economics and funding for palliative care: views of an international think tank.

    PubMed

    Harding, Richard; Gomes, Barbara; Foley, Kathleen M; Higginson, Irene J

    2009-07-01

    At the conclusion of the November 2007 meeting, the assembled international expert group identified the research agenda. The adoption of this agenda would take forward health economic research in palliative care, and generate the necessary data for improved funding decision making, and resource allocation. Recommendations for study included international comparative research into the components of care and settings, evaluative studies, methodologic development and strategies to initiate studies, and make better use of data.

  6. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    PubMed

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production.

  7. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    PubMed

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production. PMID:25836353

  8. PROCEEDINGS OF ANNUAL SOUTHERN REGIONAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION, "TOOLING UP FOR RESEARCH," (13TH, TEXAS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE, JULY 29-31, 1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEACH, T.L.; WEBB, EARL

    THE PURPOSES OF THE CONFERENCE WERE TO CONSIDER PROBLEMS IN IMPLEMENTING AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION RESEARCH AND TO STUDY RECENT RESEARCH FINDINGS. TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, COLLEGE PROFESSORS, CHAIRMEN, DIRECTORS AND DEANS, REPRESENTATIVES FROM INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT, TEACHERS, AND A SCHOOL ADMINISTRATOR WERE AMONG THE 42 PARTICIPANTS.…

  9. Losing Chlordimeform Use in Cotton Production. Its Effects on the Economy and Pest Resistance. Agricultural Economic Report Number 587.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteen, Craig; Suguiyama, Luis

    This report examines the economic implications of losing chlordimeform use on cotton and considers chlordimeform's role in managing the resistance of bollworms and tobacco budworms to synthetic pyrethroids. It estimates changes in prices, production, acreage, consumer expenditures, aggregate producer returns, regional crop effects, and returns to…

  10. Long-Term Farm Policy to Succeed the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 (Research, Extension, and Teaching). Part 5. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Departmental Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (June 6, 7, 12, and 13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This congressional hearing is the fifth of five volumes examining various aspects of agricultural research, extension, and teaching as a prelude to determining what changes are to be made in Title XIV of the farm bill. Focuses are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) biotechnology program plans and regulatory concerns and the public benefits…

  11. The Ecological Areawide Management (TEAM) of leafy spurge program of the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gerald L; Prosser, Chad W; Wendel, Lloyd E; Delfosse, Ernest S; Faust, Robert M

    2003-01-01

    The Ecological Areawide Management (TEAM) of Leafy Spurge program was developed to focus research and control efforts on a single weed, leafy spurge, and demonstrate the effectiveness of a coordinated, biologically based, integrated pest management program (IPM). This was accomplished through partnerships and teamwork that clearly demonstrated the advantages of the biologically based IPM approach. However, the success of regional weed control programs horizontally across several states and provinces also requires a vertical integration of several sectors of society. Awareness and education are the essential elements of vertical integration. Therefore, a substantial effort was made to produce a wide variety of information products specifically designed to educate different segments of society. During its tenure, land managers and agency decision makers have seen the potential of using the TEAM approach to accelerate the regional control of leafy spurge. The example set by the TEAM organization and participants is viewed as a model for future weed-control efforts.

  12. Public Progress, Data Management and the Land Grant Mission: A Survey of Agriculture Researchers' Practices and Attitudes at Two Land-Grant Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Peter; Eaker, Christopher; Swauger, Shea; Davis, Miriam L. E. Steiner

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a survey about data management practices and attitudes sent to agriculture researchers and extension personnel at the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture (UTIA) and the College of Agricultural Sciences and Warner College of Natural Resources at Colorado State University. Results confirm agriculture…

  13. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    PubMed

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different. PMID:26775431

  14. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    PubMed

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different.

  15. Integrated Assessments of the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: An Overview of AgMIP Regional Research in South Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermid, Sonali P.; Dileepkumar, Guntuku; Murthy, K. M. Dakshina; Nedumaran, S.; Singh, Piara; Srinivasa, Chukka; Gangwar, B.; Subash, N.; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    South Asia's growing population. In order to assess the future of food and livelihood security across South Asia, the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has undertaken integrated climate-crop-economic assessments of the impact of climate change on food security and poverty in South Asia, encompassing Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. AgMIP has funded, on a competitive basis, four South Asian regional research teams (RRTs) and one South Asian coordination team (CT) to undertake climate-crop-economic integrated assessments of food security for many districts in each of these countries, with the goal of characterizing the state of food security and poverty across the region, and projecting how these are subject to change under future climate change conditions.

  16. Preface to special section on Fifty Years of Research and Data Collection: U.S. Department of Agriculture Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed 1930

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Special Section of Water Resources Research and the associated web site (http://www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/dap/) describe 50 years of data collection and the most recent research results at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Walnut Gulch Experimental Waters...

  17. Economic gains from targeted measures related to non-point pollution in agriculture based on detailed nitrate reduction maps.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Brian H; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2016-06-15

    From 1990 to 2003, Denmark reduced N-leaching from the root zone by 50%. However, more measures are required, and in recent years, the focus has been on how to differentiate measures in order to ensure that they are implemented where the effect on N-loss reductions per ha is the greatest. The purpose of the NiCA project has been to estimate the natural nitrate reduction in the groundwater more precisely than before using a plot size down to 1ha. This article builds on these findings and presents the possible economic gains for the farmer when using this information to reach a given N-loss level. Targeted measures are especially relevant where the subsurface N-reduction varies significantly within the same farm and national analyses have shown that a cost reduction of around 20-25% using targeted measures is likely. The analyses show an increasing potential with increasing variation in N-reduction in the catchment. In this analysis, the knowledge of spatial variation in N-reduction potential is used to place measures like catch crops or set-a-side at locations with the greatest effect on 10 case farms in the Norsminde Catchment, Denmark. The findings suggest that the gains are from 0 to 32€/ha and the average farm would gain approximately 14-21€/ha/year from the targeted measures approach. The analysis indicates that the economic gain is greater than the costs of providing the detailed maps of 5-10€/ha/year. When N-loss reduction requirements are increased, the economic gains are greater. When combined with new measures like mini-wetlands and early sowing the economic advantage is increased further. The paper also shows that not all farms can use the detailed information on N-reduction and there is not a clear link between spatial variation in N-reduction at the farm level and possible economic gains for all these 10 farms. PMID:26974574

  18. Public-Private Policy Change and Its Influence on the Linkage of Agricultural Research, Extension and Farmers in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to show the linkage of Iranian agricultural research centres with extension and farmers, using three case studies in 1999, 2005 and 2010. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected through document analyses, structured and semi-structured interviews and observations. Findings: The 1999 and 2005 cases were…

  19. Annual Southern Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education Proceedings (35th, North Little Rock, Arkansas, March 22-24, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolloff, John A., Comp.

    These proceedings contain a summary of each of the 15 papers presented and the discussants' reactions. The keynote address and reflections on the outcome of the conference are also included. The keynote address is "Priorities for Continuing Progress in Research in Agricultural Education" (J. Robert Warmbrod). Presentations include "Assessment of…

  20. Summaries of Research and Development Activities in Agricultural Education, 1981-1982, in the United States of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotrlik, Joe W., Comp.

    This compilation, the seventh in an annual series, includes abstracts of 155 studies in agricultural education completed during the period July 1, 1981, to June 30, 1982. Twenty-five of the completed studies represent staff research, 84 represent master's studies or theses, and 46 are doctoral dissertations. Also included is a listing of the 175…

  1. Summaries of Research and Development Activities in Agricultural Education Completed in the United States of America 1989-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Jerry L., Ed.

    This document includes abstracts of 190 completed research projects in agricultural education from September 1, 1989 to August 31, 1990. They report on 102 masters' papers or theses, 40 doctoral dissertations, and 48 staff studies. Thirty-two institutions from 29 states are represented. Abstracts are listed alphabetically by state and within each…

  2. Locally Generated Printed Materials in Agriculture: Experience from Uganda and Ghana. Education Research Paper. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Isabel

    The needs of grassroots farmers in Uganda and Ghana for locally developed print materials were examined through a postal survey of nearly 200 organizations and examinations of 75 autonomous farmer groups and 95 organizations sharing agricultural information in both countries. Both printed agricultural information relevant to grassroots farmers and…

  3. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  4. USDA-ARS Highlights and emerging research on agricultural water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture production accounts for 16% of the $9 trillion gross domestic product, 8% of exports and 17% of employment. Although less than 2% of Americans work on farms, 100% of citizens are users of farm products. Since WWII, the growth of agricultural inputs has remained flat, while productivity h...

  5. Creating Agricultural Communication Centers for Training, Research, and Information Services. Report Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, William B.

    Several of the new agricultural universities in India have identified a special need to improve their communication capabilities through the better use of the mass media and other channels to narrow the communication gap between agricultural scientists, educators, and farmers. This paper discusses the basic concept, goals, administration,…

  6. Linking agriculture and health in low- and middle-income countries: an interdisciplinary research agenda.

    PubMed

    Dangour, Alan D; Green, Rosemary; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan; Shankar, Bhavani; Waage, Jeff

    2012-05-01

    Recent global fluctuations in food prices and continuing environmental degradation highlight the future challenge of feeding a growing world population. However, current dialogues rarely address the relationship between agricultural changes and health. This relationship is traditionally associated with the role of food in nutrition and with food safety, and while these are key interactions, we show in this paper that the relationship is far more complex and interesting. Besides the direct effects of agriculture on population nutrition, agriculture also influences health through its impact on household incomes, economies and the environment. These effects are felt particularly in low- and middle-income countries, where dramatic changes are affecting the agriculture-health relationship, in particular the growth of nutrition-related chronic disease and the associated double burden of under- and over-nutrition. Greater understanding of the negative effects of agriculture on health is also needed. While lengthening food value chains make the chain of influence between agricultural policy, food consumption, nutrition and health more complex, there remain opportunities to improve health by changing agricultural systems. The first challenge in doing this, we suggest, is to improve our capacity to measure the impact of agricultural interventions on health outcomes, and vice versa.

  7. New Challenges in Agricultural Advisory Services from a Research Perspective: A Literature Review, Synthesis and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faure, Guy; Desjeux, Yann; Gasselin, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Agricultural advisory services are perceived by many actors involved in rural development as a key driver behind innovation processes in agriculture. However, changes in national and global contexts cause dramatic changes in the orientation of advisory services, their organisation and their methods of intervention. This article aims to…

  8. Research Fresh from Florida. Proceedings of the National Agricultural Education Research Conference (26th, Orlando, Florida, December 11, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Education.

    The following are among the 47 papers included: "Academic Performance and Retention of College of Agriculture Students" (Garton, Dyer, King); "Perceptions of Recent Graduates and Employers about Undergraduate Programs in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources at Michigan State University" (Heyboer, Suvedi); "Survey of Early Leavers"…

  9. Setting priorities for research on pollution reduction functions of agricultural buffers.

    PubMed

    Dosskey, Michael G

    2002-11-01

    The success of buffer installation initiatives and programs to reduce nonpoint source pollution of streams on agricultural lands will depend the ability of local planners to locate and design buffers for specific circumstances with substantial and predictable results. Current predictive capabilities are inadequate, and major sources of uncertainty remain. An assessment of these uncertainties cautions that there is greater risk of overestimating buffer impact than underestimating it. Priorities for future research are proposed that will lead more quickly to major advances in predictive capabilities. Highest priority is given for work on the surface runoff filtration function, which is almost universally important to the amount of pollution reduction expected from buffer installation and for which there remain major sources of uncertainty for predicting level of impact. Foremost uncertainties surround the extent and consequences of runoff flow concentration and pollutant accumulation. Other buffer functions, including filtration of groundwater nitrate and stabilization of channel erosion sources of sediments, may be important in some regions. However, uncertainty surrounds our ability to identify and quantify the extent of site conditions where buffer installation can substantially reduce stream pollution in these ways. Deficiencies in predictive models reflect gaps in experimental information as well as technology to account for spatial heterogeneity of pollutant sources, pathways, and buffer capabilities across watersheds. Since completion of a comprehensive watershed-scale buffer model is probably far off, immediate needs call for simpler techniques to gage the probable impacts of buffer installation at local scales.

  10. Long-Term Network Experiments and Interdisciplinary Campaigns Conducted by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Cosh, M. H.; Moran, S. M.; Marks, D. G.; Jackson, T. J.; Bosch, D. D.; Rango, A.; Seyfried, M. S.; Scott, R. L.; Prueger, J. H.; Starks, P. J.; Walbridge, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service has led, or been integrally involved in, a myriad of interdisciplinary field campaigns in a wide range of locations both nationally and internationally. Many of the shorter campaigns were anchored over the existing national network of ARS Experimental Watersheds and Rangelands. These long-term outdoor laboratories provided a critical knowledge base for designing the campaigns as well as historical data, hydrologic and meteorological infrastructure coupled with shop, laboratory, and visiting scientist facilities. This strong outdoor laboratory base enabled cost-efficient campaigns informed by historical context, local knowledge, and detailed existing watershed characterization. These long-term experimental facilities have also enabled much longer term lower intensity experiments, observing and building an understanding of both seasonal and inter-annual biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interactions across a wide range of conditions. A sampling of these experiments include MONSOON'90, SGP97, SGP99, Washita'92, Washita'94, SMEX02-05 and JORNEX series of experiments, SALSA, CLASIC and longer-term efforts over the ARS Little Washita, Walnut Gulch, Little River, Reynolds Creek, and OPE3 Experimental Watersheds. This presentation will review some of the highlights and key findings of these campaigns and long-term efforts including the inclusion of many of the experimental watersheds and ranges in the Long-Term Agro-ecosystems Research (LTAR) network. The LTAR network also contains several locations that are also part of other observational networks including the CZO, LTER, and NEON networks. Lessons learned will also be provided for scientists initiating their participation in large-scale, multi-site interdisciplinary science.

  11. State Initiatives to Promote Technological Innovation and Economic Growth. Postsecondary Education Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Janice

    Activities undertaken by 43 states including Maryland to promote technological innovation and economic growth and the impact of these activities are identified. Implications for Maryland are also noted in a brief section of recommendations. State initiatives include: sponsoring research and development at colleges and companies, improving the…

  12. What Does Economics Tell Us about Early Childhood Policy? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience, developmental psychology, and program evaluation have been combined to develop a unified framework that provides evidence-based guidance related to early childhood policy. This research shows how insights from the field of economics-- human capital theory and monetary payoffs--also contribute to that framework.…

  13. Tools for Evaluating Research Output: Are Citation-based Rankings of Economics Journals Stable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Matthias; Kocher, Martin G.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the assignment of economics journals to different quartiles of citation-based rankings, a measure of journal quality that has implications for evaluating research output and academic promotions. Found that about 60% of journals remain in the same quartile, and about 95% remain the same or move up within 5- to 10-year intervals, suggesting…

  14. Catalysts of Economic Innovation: Building on the Applied Research Capacity of Ontario Colleges. ACAATO Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Ontario's economic productivity, competitiveness and growth in the 21st century depend on investments in three critical areas: highly qualified people, ideas (research and development), and the adoption and diffusion of new technologies. Compared to many other jurisdictions, Ontario is underutilizing its college system's potential to contribute to…

  15. Economic Evaluation Research in the Context of Child Welfare Policy: A Structured Literature Review and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Snowden, Lonnie R.; Wulczyn, Fred; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: With over 1 million children served by the US Child Welfare system at a cost of $20 billion annually, this study examines the economic evaluation literature on interventions to improve outcomes for children at risk for and currently involved with the system, identifies areas where additional research is needed, and discusses the use of…

  16. An Economic "Commons" Tragedy for Research Libraries: Scholarly Journal Publishing and Pricing Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that recent dramatic increases in the numbers and prices of scholarly journals are evidence of a distorted economic marketplace for scholarly information. The discussion covers the strategies needed to reshape the current system of scholarly communication and the need for leadership within the research library community. (34 references)…

  17. Economic Evaluation as a Component of Quality Effectiveness Research: Methodological and Practical Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As research moves from questions of efficacy (can an intervention work) to questions of effectiveness (does an intervention work in practice), questions of efficiency (what are the costs and consequences of the intervention) become increasingly important. The incorporation of economic evaluation into the planning and execution of…

  18. Economic Model Cost-Satisfaction in Inclusive Education. Based on Research Made in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantaluta, Ovidiu; Rukhadze, Nino

    2008-01-01

    This research comprises a brief analysis of the economic model design, projected for poor countries, where complex assessments of the health status, education outcomes and motivation for children with disabilities are impossible to be done; is possible to be applied on a national scale in Georgia, if the actual government has the necessary…

  19. Fulbright Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 1990. China's Economic Development: Research Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

    This collection of nine research papers concerning aspects of the economy of China were written by U.S. college and university professors who traveled to China as part of the Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program. The papers include: "The Impact of Economic Reforms on the Status of Women in China" (M. Eysenbach); "China's Agricultural…

  20. University Research and Economic Development in Arizona Today: A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Marvin

    One of the working papers in the final report of the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and Competitiveness, this study focuses on Arizona's university research and economic development. There is concern that America is losing its competitive edge in the crucial areas of science and technology as fewer students study…