Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural economics texas

  1. Teaching Agricultural Ethics in the Agricultural Economics Curriculum. Faculty Paper Series 86-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Paul B.

    The undergraduate course in agricultural ethics has been under development at Texas A&M University for four years. The course that has evolved is the result of discussion between the philosophy and agriculture departments. The course attempts to incorporate basic economic principles that affect agriculture as well as to tie these principles to…

  2. Agricultural Mechanical Skills Needed by Farmers in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Earl S.; Knotts, Clifton Don

    This study identified skills that should be taught in the agricultural mechanics area of production vocational agriculture courses in Texas high schools. The data were obtained from questionnaires given to 50 young farmers who had been recognized by the State Association of Young Farmers of Texas for outstanding farming programs during one of the…

  3. Analyzing the Texas High School Agricultural Communications Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery-White, Michelle; Lockaby, Jacqui; Akers, Cindy

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agricultural communications curriculum in Texas high schools using perceptions of agriscience teachers (n=145) in Texas high schools. Another intention of the study was to determine perceived abilities of agriscience teachers to teach agricultural communications courses. Answers to questions related to…

  4. Texas Agricultural Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ryan; Williams, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The researchers sought to find the Agricultural Science teachers' attitude toward five innovations (Computer-Aided Design, Record Books, E-Mail Career Development Event Registration, and World Wide Web) of information technology. The population for this study consisted of all 333 secondary Agricultural science teachers from Texas FFA Areas V and…

  5. Fuel ethanol and agriculture: an economic assessment. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, G.; Gavett, E.

    1986-08-01

    Increased fuel ethanol production through 1995 would raise net farm income, benefiting mainly corn and livestock producers. Production of additional byproduct feeds would depress the price of soybeans. Large ethanol subsidies, which are required to sustain the industry, would offset any savings in agricultural commodity programs. Increased ethanol production would also raise consumer expenditures for food. Any benefits of higher income to farmers would be more than offset by increased Government costs and consumer food expenditures. Direct cash payments to farmers would be more economical than attempting to boost farm income through ethanol subsidies.

  6. Agricultural land use mapping. [Pennsylvania, Montana, and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Wilson, A. D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Agricultural areas were selected or analysis in southeastern Pennsylvania, north central Montana, and southern Texas. These three sites represent a broad range of soils, soil parent materials, climate, modes of agricultural operation, crops, and field sizes. In each of these three sites, ERTS-1 digital data were processed to determine the feasibility of automatically mapping agricultural land use. In Pennsylvania, forest land, cultivated land, and water were separable within a 25,000 acre area. Four classes of water were also classified and identified, using ground truth. A less complex land use pattern was analyzed in Hill County, Montana. A land use map was prepared shown alternating patterns of summer fallow and stubble fields. The location of farmsteads could be inferred, along with that of a railroad line. A river and a creek flowing into the river were discernible. Six categories of water, related to sediment content and depth, were defined in the reservoir held by the Fresno dam. These classifications were completed on a 150 square mile area. Analysis of the data from Texas is in its formative stages. A test site has been selected and a brightness map has been produced.

  7. The Benefits and Barriers toward Diversity Inclusion regarding Agricultural Science Teachers in Texas Secondary Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVergne, Douglas D.; Larke, Alvin, Jr.; Elbert, Chanda D.; Jones, Wash A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed Texas secondary agricultural education teachers' (n = 232) attitudes toward diversity inclusion in Texas secondary agricultural education programs. Using a web-based questionnaire, the researcher employed a nonproportional stratified random sampling technique. Researchers used descriptive statistics to report demographic and…

  8. Mexican Americans--A Survey of Research by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, 1964-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Esteban; And Others

    Over the last decade the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (TAES) has stimulated and sponsored research related to the status, problems, and future prospects of Mexican Americans in Texas. This document lists the over 40 reports which were part of 6 TAES research projects. It also contains relevant TAES and Texas A&M research reports available…

  9. Agricultural Management and Economics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Kevin J.; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains four units and incorporates the needed component parts to aid agriculture teachers in the implementation of the Vocational Instructional Management System. The guide consists of these four units: economic principles in agriculture (6 lessons), business management (17 lessons), planning the farm business (9 lessons),…

  10. Does climatic variability influence agricultural land prices under differing uses? The Texas High Plains case

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Texas High Plains faces projections of increasing temperature and declining precipitation in the future on account of its semi-arid climate. This research evaluated the impact of climatic variability on agricultural land prices under different land uses in the Texas High Plains, employing the Ri...

  11. A Mass Media Profile of Agricultural Scientists at Texas A&M University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedrick, William E.

    The way in which agricultural scientists of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station research staff pereive aspects of the uses and importance of the mass media in communicating their research work was surveyed. The profile developed from the 65 responses to the survey shows that agricultural scientists place only moderate importance on mass…

  12. Municipal biosolid applications: Improving ecosystem services across urban, agricultural, and wildlife interfaces in Austin, Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our project encompasses emerging contaminants, ecosystem services, and urban-agriculture-wildlife interfaces. This seminal research collaboration between USDA-ARS Grassland, Soil, and Water Research Laboratory, The City of Austin Water Utility, and Texas Parks and Wildlife Environmental Contaminant...

  13. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF OZONE ON AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past attempts to assess the monetary impacts of ozone or other air pollutants on agriculture have had only sparse plant science information on which to base an assessment. This paper reports on an economic assessment of the effects of simulated changes in ambient ozone on U.S. ag...

  14. AN ANALYSIS OF HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE FROM EVALUATIONS OF GRADUATES IN WEST TEXAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EGGENBERGER, ULRICH LEWIS

    A STUDY OF THE 1953, 1954, AND 1955 WEST TEXAS HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES WHO HAD COMPLETED 1 OR MORE YEARS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) DETERMINE PRESENT OCCUPATIONAL STATUS, (2) DETERMINE FACTORS RELATED TO OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE, (3) EVALUATE HIGH SCHOOL COURSES AND VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE PROGRAMS AS RELATED TO OCCUPATIONS, AND (4)…

  15. An Assessment of the Basic Curriculum Guide for Teaching Vocational Agriculture in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Herman D.

    The major purpose of this study was to revise the basic production agriculture curriculum guide used by vocational agrculture teachers in Texas. A twenty-five member advisory committee for curriculum revision conducted the following activities: (1) obtained thirty-one curriculum guides for a technical agriculture program, (2) surveyed vocational…

  16. Examining iPod Use by Texas Agricultural Science and Technology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Miller, Kimberly A.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish baseline data regarding the adoption of iPods and similar technologies by agricultural science and technology teachers. The population consisted of all agricultural science and technology teachers in Texas. A sample of 310 was randomly drawn from the population. Study findings reveal that while…

  17. An Evaluation of Successful Collaboration among Agricultural Science Teachers and Extension Agents in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Harlin, Julie F.; Rayfield, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate collaboration between agricultural science teachers and Extension agents in Texas from the perspective of successful collaboration. Programs, leaders, and participants in both agricultural education and Extension can be impacted positively through collaboration. However, successful collaboration…

  18. Conceptual Framework and Basic Competencies for Vocational Home Economics Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document was developed for the purposes of (1) outlining the competencies and subcompetencies to be developed in vocational home economics classes in Texas; (2) providing guidance to teachers for local program planning; and (3) serving as a means of communicating the scope and content of vocational home economics education in Texas to others.…

  19. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  20. Post-Ike economic resilience along the Texas coast.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruoxi; Dudensing, Rebekka M

    2015-07-01

    The economic devastation resulting from recent natural disasters has spawned intense interest in programmes that promote regional resilience. The economic impacts of Hurricane Ike (September 2008) endured long beyond the storm's landfall, compounded by a national recession. This study analyses the pattern of post-Ike industrial growth in eight coastal counties of Texas, United States, and identifies sources of resilience and potential drivers of recovery. The results indicate that post-disaster growth patterns differ from established growth patterns. Levels of resilience vary across industrial sectors, and service sectors tend to lead a recovery. The resilience of the hotel and restaurant sector, for instance, suggests that the presence of relief workers might immunise certain sectors against a post-disaster economic downturn. Besides the sectors that are generally resilient, each county has its own distinct sectors that, depending on the extent of the damage suffered, tend to perform strongly after a disaster, owing to the characteristics of the respective county's economy. PMID:25581315

  1. External Economic Drivers and U.S. Agricultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S agriculture operates in a market driven economy. As with other businesses, agricultural producers respond to economic incentives and disincentives and make decisions to maximize their welfare. In this paper we examine external economic drivers that shape agricultural systems. Specifically, we c...

  2. Assessing the Learning Needs of Student Teachers in Texas regarding Management of the Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: Implications for the Professional Development of Early Career Teachers in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, P. Ryan; McKim, Billy R.

    2011-01-01

    Skills needed to manage a laboratory are essential knowledge for all school-based, agriculture teachers who instruct agricultural mechanics curriculum (Saucier, Terry, & Schumacher, 2009). This research investigated the professional development needs of Texas agricultural education student teachers regarding agricultural mechanics laboratory…

  3. A Guide for Planning Facilities for Vocational Agriculture in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Neal; Eggenberger, Lewis

    A guide to assist those concerned in planning adequate, well-designed facilities for departments of vocational agriculture that will serve their communities in the future. The program of vocational agriculture is an integral part of the total educational program of a school and considerable thought and careful study should be given to locating the…

  4. Factors Associated with Enrollment in Agricultural Science and Membership in the FFA in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Tom; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Of 1,697 Texas secondary agriculture students, 71 percent were white and 77 percent male, although total secondary enrollment is 50 percent male, 50 percent female, and 48 percent minority. Agriscience enrollment was influenced most by class characteristics and identity enhancement. Future Farmers of America also contributed to identity…

  5. Identifiying and evaluating a suitable index for agricultural drought monitoring in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a highly destructive natural phenomenon that affects portions of the United States almost every year. Severe water deficiencies can become catastrophic for agriculture and crop yields, especially in the Texas High Plains where generally inadequate rainfall is augmented by irrigation for c...

  6. Agricultural Modernization and Economic Inequality: The Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Aruna Nayyar

    1978-01-01

    Argues that agriculture production in developing nations should be organized to ensure economic viability. Government policy must emphasize participants' productive capacities and integrate agricultural workers into the new organization of production. (Author/DB)

  7. Quantitative studies in public and agricultural economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Adele Cecile

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation contains three essays. The first is entitled "Property Tax Treatment of Farmland: Does Tax Relief Delay Land Development?" I investigate use-value assessment, a state policy allowing farmland to be assessed at its agriculture-only value, rather than its full market value. Using Census data from 2963 counties over 1959--1987, I test the effect of use-value assessment on the proportion of county land in farming. Estimates indicate that after adoption, use-value assessment produced a gradually increasing proportion of farmland relative to counties who did not have the policy. The effect rose to ten percentage points more land in farming after twenty years. I present a model of the landowner's decision to develop farmland for urban uses and derive the effect of use-value assessment policy on the optimal development timing. The second essay is "State and Local Government Employment: Do Governments Respond Asymmetrically to Changes in Incomes?" I develop models for changes in government employment that allow an asymmetric response to increases and decreases in per capita private income to see whether government employment increases more in years of economic growth than it decreases in years of economic decline. I develop a model that does not require special assumptions to predict a positive relationship between the dependent and independent variables, and estimate it with U.S. Census data from 1970 to 1991 for 48 states. Results demonstrate symmetrical government employment response to incomes and are quite robust, holding consistently for several functional forms and other specifications of asymmetric response. I find that Democratic and Republican governors hire equivalently, but may slow layoffs in election years. The third essay is "Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Soil Management in Crop Production." I develop a theoretical model for optimal factor intensity (input per unit output). Using cross-sectional data from USDA's 1996

  8. Mapping evapotranspiration in the Texas Panhandle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for approximately 92% of groundwater withdrawals. Because groundwater levels are declining in the region, efficient agricultural water use is imperative for sustainability and regional economic viability. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps ...

  9. Intellectual Investment in Agriculture for Economic and Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In a project of agricultural research, education, and advice for economic growth and development, data was obtained from 14 countries and summarized with implications for action. Chapters in the report discuss: (1) Intellectual Investment and Economic and Social Development, (2) Intellectual Investment in Agriculture, (3) Agronomic Research, (4)…

  10. Agricultural Economics Students at Southern Land Grant Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, John L.; And Others

    Data were obtained in 1977 via mail questionnaires sent to students at all 1890 and 1860 Land Grant Universities in the South with programs in agriculture, to examine selected background characteristics and subjective perspectives of agricultural economics majors, compared with majors in production sciences and all agriculture curricula. The…

  11. Northeast Texas Agricultural Literacy Network: A-Lit-NeT: A Rural College Partnership Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, John

    In northeast Texas, 47% of the adults over the age of 25 have not graduated from high school. Area agricultural businesses are rapidly implementing new technologies and quality control measures, both of which require literate and highly trainable workers. To meet these needs, a partnership project was undertaken between Northeast Texas Community…

  12. Generic Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glauber, Joseph W.

    The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue generic certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity…

  13. Hydrological extremes and their agricultural impacts under a changing climate in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Gao, H.; Huang, M.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    With the changing climate, hydrologic extremes (such as floods, droughts, and heat waves) are becoming more frequent and intensified. Such changes in extreme events are expected to affect agricultural production and food supplies. This study focuses on the State of Texas, which has the largest farm area and the highest value of livestock production in the U.S. The objectives are two-fold: First, to investigate the climatic impact on the occurrence of future hydrologic extreme events; and second, to evaluate the effects of the future extremes on agricultural production. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which is calibrated and validated over Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed for this study. The VIC model is forced by the statistically downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The CMIP5 projections contain four different scenarios in terms of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) (i.e. 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5 w/m2). To carry out the analysis, VIC outputs forced by the CMIP5 model scenarios over three 30-year periods (1970-1999, 2020-2049 and 2070-2099) are first evaluated to identify how the frequency and the extent of the extreme events will be altered in the ten Texas major river basins. The results suggest that a significant increase in the number of extreme events will occur starting in the first half of the 21st century in Texas. Then, the effects of the predicted hydrologic extreme events on the irrigation water demand are investigated. It is found that future changes in water demand vary by crop type and location, with an east-to-west gradient. The results are expected to contribute to future water management and planning in Texas.

  14. Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

    2011-08-01

    Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

  15. Economic analysis of water conservation policies in the Texas Panhandle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer, management policy alternatives for extending the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle are evaluated. The study concludes that water conservation policies for the region significantly impact crop mix, reso...

  16. Rice blast disease in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is an important agricultural commodity in Texas, with an economic impact of more than $1 billion annually. Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases in rice. Texas Rice Belt provides a warm, humid climate favorable for the infection and reproduction of M....

  17. Economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production within a biomass system

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Flaim, S.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production in the United States is discussed. The beverage fermentation processes are compared and contrasted with the wet milling of corn, and alternative agricultural products for alcohol production are discussed. Alcohol costs for different fermentation methods and for various agricultural crops (corn, sugar cane, sugar beets, etc.) are presented, along with a brief discussion of US government policy implications. (JMT)

  18. 76 FR 62755 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, United States Department of Agriculture..., and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education,...

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Southern Research Conference in Agricultural Education (30th, Lubbock, Texas, July 21-23, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepica, M. J.; And Others

    These proceedings contain 20 presentations and reports made during the 30th Annual Research Conference in Agricultural Education in Lubbock, Texas. The keynote address on importance of research to agricultural education is followed by 16 research papers reporting on analysis of student teacher morale before and after student teaching;…

  20. Economic Effects of Technological Advances in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Comparisons of average food prices and hourly wages based on 40-hours work week in various capital cities of the world are presented. Such factors as mechanization, chemicals, and improved genetics have resulted in greater productivity, fewer but larger farms, and hardier plants and animals. The economic effects are discussed as they are felt by…

  1. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  2. Groundwater Depletion versus Soil Salinization in Irrigated Agriculture in Semiarid Southern High Plains, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Gates, J. B.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2008-12-01

    Because irrigated agriculture is the primary consumer of global freshwater resources, there is increased emphasis on using more water conservative irrigation application techniques to reduce depletion of water resources while maintaining crop productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of land use change from natural or rainfed agricultural ecosystems to irrigated agricultural ecosystems on water resources and soil salinity using data from the southern High Plains (SHP, 75,000 km2) in Texas, USA as an example. Approximately 11% of the land surface is irrigated with groundwater from the Ogallala (High Plains) Aquifer. Boreholes were drilled beneath irrigated cropland (13 boreholes) and beneath rainfed cropland (19 boreholes) and native vegetation (3 boreholes) to provide baseline control. Unsaturated zone soil samples were analyzed for water content, matric potential, and water-extractable chloride, bromide, sulfate, and nitrate concentrations. Increased drainage beneath irrigated sites displaced pre-existing salt bulges downward to 5 m in fine-grained soils and to greater than profile depths in coarser soils (4 - 17 m). Most irrigated profiles showed salt bulges which are attributed to deficit irrigation. Large inventories of nitrate and high correlations with chloride indicate overapplication of fertilizers and leaching below the root zone. Estimated drainage rates beneath irrigated sites are similar to the range of drainage/recharge rates beneath rainfed agriculture. These results emphasize the potential for soil salinization with deficit irrigation when the irrigation water quality is poor and precipitation is insufficient to flush accumulating salts.

  3. Agricultural Employment and Economic Growth in the Lower Rio Grande Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Conrad F.

    Using the basic input-output model developed by the Texas Input-Output Project for a 19 county South Texas Region, income transfer effects from the extension of unemployment insurance to the agricultural sector were derived. Total income transferred would have ranged from $1.5 million to $2.3 million depending upon coverage provisions. About…

  4. Nesting biology of laughing gulls Larus atricilla in relation to agricultural chemicals in south Texas USA 1978-1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Prouty, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Various aspects of the breeding biology of Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla) have been studied extensively in Florida (Dinsmore and Schreiber 1974, Schreiber et al. 1979, Schreiber and Schreiber 1980), New Jersey (Bongiorno 1970, Burger and Beer 1976, Burger 1976, Montevecchi 1978), and Massachusetts (Noble and Wurm 1943), but little is known of their yearly fledging success in Texas or elsewhere. The Laughing Gull is a common colonial nester along most of the Texas coast, second only to the Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) in breeding abundance; however, the Laughing Gull may be threatened in Texas because of suspected declines at certain traditional nesting locales (Blacklock et al. 1979). Since Laughing Gulls often nest in proximity to agricultural and industrial areas, we were concerned that environmental pollutants might be adversely affecting productivity. In 1978-1981 we conducted studies along the south Texas coast to learn more about the nesting ecology of Laughing Gulls and to evaluate the effects of environmental contaminants on reproduction.

  5. Dynamic impacts of socio-economic development in rural Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several development policies and programs have been enacted to improve the economic vitality, social well-being, and quality of life in rural communities. Predominant among these is the attempt by many rural communities to attract or expand industry to promote economic growth. The main objective of this study is to develop a dynamic interactive model that accommodates the projection of socio economic growth and the impact of additional employment from a new plant in a rural community. The economic account contains projections of business activities, income and employment by sector. A local input-output model is constructed by using the location quotient technique. The Leontief dynamic input-output framework is used to project the output levels by economic sector while considering capital replacement and expansion requirements as well as current consumption. The demographic account uses an age-sex cohort survival method to project population. The annual local labor force is estimated by labor participation rates for each age and sex cohort, and is used to determine the migration activities required to match employment requirements. The public service account is projected by the average standards method, and includes age-specific usage coefficients for local areas. The projections encompass education, medical, housing, criminal justice, fire protection, water supply, water treatment, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and transportation requirements.

  6. An Economic Analysis of USDA Erosion Control Programs: A New Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 560.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Roger, Ed.

    A study analyzed the total (public and private) economic costs and benefits of three U.S. Department of Agriculture erosion control programs. These were the Conservation Technical Assistance Program, Great Plains Conservation Program, and Agricultural Conservation Program. Significant efforts at funding for current programs were directed to…

  7. Land Resources for Crop Production. Agricultural Economic Report Number 572.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexem, Roger; Krupa, Kenneth S.

    About 35 million acres not being cultivated have high potential for crop use and 117 million more have medium potential, according to the 1982 National Resources Inventory (NRI) conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA committees evaluated the economic potential for converting land based on physical characteristics of the soil; size…

  8. Climate change effects on agriculture: economic responses to biophysical shocks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gerald C; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-03-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change. PMID:24344285

  9. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  10. Developing Transferable Research Skills in First Year Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppi, Tony; Nolan, Elizabeth; Field, Damien

    2010-01-01

    A problem-based learning approach was adopted for a unit of study in first year agricultural economics at the University of Sydney with the aim of starting development of students' research skills earlier than usual. The novel teaching approach employed a structured and guided problem activity in the first semester and progressed to a more…

  11. 78 FR 52496 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension,...

  12. 77 FR 11064 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension,...

  13. 77 FR 58978 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY..., and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education,...

  14. Industrial, agricultural, and petroleum contaminants in cormorants wintering near the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; Stafford, C.J.; Cain, B.W.; Mueller, A.J.; Hall, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus ) collected in the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA, in November shortly after their fall migration contained residues of several industrial, agricultural, and petroleum contaminants including polychlorinated styrenes (PCS's), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), DDE, and petroleum hydrocarbons. PCS concentrations in over-wintering birds collected in late February were three times higher than those in birds collected in November. PCB and petroleum concentrations remained at about the same level throughout the 3-month winter period. Petroleum hydrocarbons were present in all cormorants and residues in some individuals exceeded 25 ppm (wet weight). Mean DDE residues in samples collected in November and February were less than 1 ppm. Low concentrations of five other organochlorine compounds, not detected in cormorants collected in November, were recovered in birds collected in February.

  15. Comprehensive UAV agricultural remote-sensing research at Texas A M University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Olsenholler, Jeffrey; Valasek, John; Murray, Seth C.; Bishop, Michael P.

    2016-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have advantages over manned vehicles for agricultural remote sensing. Flying UAVs is less expensive, is more flexible in scheduling, enables lower altitudes, uses lower speeds, and provides better spatial resolution for imaging. The main disadvantage is that, at lower altitudes and speeds, only small areas can be imaged. However, on large farms with contiguous fields, high-quality images can be collected regularly by using UAVs with appropriate sensing technologies that enable high-quality image mosaics to be created with sufficient metadata and ground-control points. In the United States, rules governing the use of aircraft are promulgated and enforced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and rules governing UAVs are currently in flux. Operators must apply for appropriate permissions to fly UAVs. In the summer of 2015 Texas A&M University's agricultural research agency, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, embarked on a comprehensive program of remote sensing with UAVs at its 568-ha Brazos Bottom Research Farm. This farm is made up of numerous fields where various crops are grown in plots or complete fields. The crops include cotton, corn, sorghum, and wheat. After gaining FAA permission to fly at the farm, the research team used multiple fixed-wing and rotary-wing UAVs along with various sensors to collect images over all parts of the farm at least once per week. This article reports on details of flight operations and sensing and analysis protocols, and it includes some lessons learned in the process of developing a UAV remote-sensing effort of this sort.

  16. Bird use of agricultural fields under reduced and conventional tillage in the Texas Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    We conducted bird surveys in reduced-tillage and conventional tillage fields in spring, summer, fall, and winter from 1987 to 1991 in the Texas Panhandle. Eastern meadowlarks, longspurs, and savannah sparrows were more common in reduced-tillage (sorghum and wheat stubble) fields than in conventionally tilled (plowed) fields in at least 1 season. Other species also had patterns suggestive of greater abundance in reduced-tillage fields. Hornedlarks, which prefer habitat with sparse vegetation, were more abundant in plowed fields in all seasons except summer. Bird diversity was greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields in summer. Cover density and height were greater in reduced tillage fields in all seasons except spring. Cover density and height rather than cover composition (e.g.,grain stubble or live plants) seemed to be the important factors affecting bird distribution. Patterns of bird abundance between sorghum and wheat stubble fields also were dependent on cover. Herbicide use was not greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields. Reduced-tillage agriculture for sorghum and wheat farming should be encouraged in the southern Great Plains as a means of improving the attractiveness of agricultural land to many bird species.

  17. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Gerald; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Mueller, C.; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2013-12-16

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and will thus be directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the IPCC’s Representative Concentration Pathway that result in end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 watts per square meter. The mean biophysical impact on crop yield with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17 percent reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11 percent, increase area of major crops by 12 percent, and reduce consumption by 2 percent. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences includes model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  18. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d’Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2. The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change. PMID:24344285

  19. Surface energy balance based evapotranspiration mapping in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture on the Texas High Plains (THP) uses approximately 89% of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer. Consequently, groundwater levels are declining faster than the recharge rate. Therefore, efficient agricultural water use is essential for economic viability and sustainability of ...

  20. Agriculture, population, and economic planning in Ethiopia, 1953-1980.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W C; Yamazaki, F

    1986-04-01

    This paper deals with the economic development of Ethiopia in the 3 decades between 1950 and 1980. In particular, it examines governmental efforts at agricultural planning during this period compared to the actual experience of the country. The dominant forces governing the changes that occurred in this period were accelerated population growth and the declining availability of arable land, which combined to push a fragile, traditional ecosystem to the brink of disaster. Government planning efforts had little impact in the pre-1974 period, since they were too modest and small scale to affect the highly traditional and primitive mode of peasant cultivation. The sweeping structural changes introduced by the new regime since 1974 seem to have mainly adverse effects and to have decreased both productivity and yields. Ethiopia lacks the basic infrastructure and incentive system to create an environment in which technological change is possible. Presumably the declining agricultural growth rate from 1953 to 1974 suggests that the traditional, prerevolution system was failing to create these favorable conditions and hence was losing the race with population growth. The post-1974 revolutionary government's policy has been, in effect, an effort to jump to an advanced phase of agricultural development, and this seems to have been even less successful. These plans have, in all fairness, been hamstrung since 1981 by drought, famine, and civil war, but have probably themselves contributed to the severity of those events. Overall, Ethiopian agricultural planning has not been notably successful. From 1953-1980, total agricultural production is estimated to have grown at a slowly decreasing rate. The collapse of agriculture due to several years of drought obviously cannot be blamed on government planning, but its severity clearly has been at least partly a function of policy failures. PMID:12280692

  1. Quantifying the Role of Agriculture and Urbanization in the Nitrogen Cycle across Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helper, L. C.; Yang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Over-enrichment of nutrients throughout coastal areas has been a growing problem as population growth has enhanced agricultural and industrial processes. Enhanced nitrogen (N) fluxes from land to coast continue to be the result of over fertilization and pollution deposition. This over-enrichment of nutrients has led to eutrophication and hypoxic conditions in coastal environments. Global estimates indicate rivers export 48 Tg N yr -1 to coastal zones, and regionally North America exports 7.2 Tg N yr-1. These exports are primarily from anthropogenic N inputs (Boyer et al. 2006). Currently the U.S. is home to the second largest hypoxic zone in the world, the Mississippi River Basin, and previous work from Howarth et al. (2002) suggest much of the over enrichment of N is a result of agricultural practices. Aforementioned work has focused on global and large regional estimates; however an inventory has not been conducted on the full scope of N sources along the Gulf of Mexico. This study was conducted along the Gulf, through the state of Texas, in order to quantify all sources of N in a region which contains a large precipitation gradient, three major metropolitan areas, and one of the top livestock industries in the United States. Nitrogen inputs from fertilizer, livestock, and crop fixation were accounted for and totaled to be 0.91 Tg N for the year of 2007. Using estimates of leaching rates from Howarth et al. (2002), riverine export of N was at a minimum of 0.18 Tg for that year. Atmospheric deposition inputs were also analyzed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with online chemistry (WRF-Chem) and were found to be significantly smaller than those of agriculture. The developed regional high-resolution gridded N budget is now available to be used as N input to next-generation land surface models for nutrient leaching and riverine transport modeling. Ultimately, this comprehensive dataset will help better understand the full pathways of anthropogenic

  2. Forces Affecting the Improvement and Implementation of International Perspectives in Secondary Level Agricultural Programs in Texas. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 99-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Larry G.

    A study analyzed the forces affecting improvement and implementation of international agricultural perspectives in secondary programs of agricultural science in Texas. A mail survey, based on force-field analysis, was used to determine the effect of 14 variables, including 3 that involved perceptions of the relevance, knowledge, and implementation…

  3. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  4. Perspectives and Challenges for Water Desalination - A Socio-Economic Multi-Regional Analysis and a Case Study for Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowska, J. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Young, M.

    2013-12-01

    Water desalination is anticipated to become a prospective solution for mitigating future water shortages in Texas. As of 2010, 46 municipal brackish water desalination plants were operating in Texas with an estimated total desalination capacity of about 120 million gallons per day (2.3% of state water use) (TWDB 2010; TWDB 2013). In 2011, 99% of the State of Texas suffered extreme drought, with large portions suffering through exceptional drought. This event was classified as the one-year drought of record. Moreover, the growing population of Texas and the subsequent growing water demand create an immediate need for long-term planning for a reliable and efficient water supply. Desalination, even though acknowledged as a reliable option in many countries in the world, requires high investment costs and energy inputs. Current costs of desalinated water can range between US1.09/1,000 gallons and US3.7/1,000 gallons (Arroyo and Shirazi 2012), which are about two to three times higher than water costs from conventional sources (San Antonio Water System 2012; AustinTexas.gov 2013). Economic efficiency is still the main factor determining future developments of desalination investments in Texas, and the technology is still emerging. While currently only investment, maintenance and total capital costs per unit water are considered as factors determining viability of a desalination plant, this study aims at depicting a broader picture of socio-economic impacts related to the construction project itself, both in the immediate region and adjacent communities and interlinked sectors. This study presents an Input-Output model for the brackish water desalination plant in San Antonio, with the first stage expected to be completed in 2016. By using multi-regional and sectoral multipliers, the analysis shows that constructing the desalination plant can create 2,050 jobs in the San Antonio region, while it will add 316 more jobs in other regions in Texas by 2016. Construction will

  5. The economics of soil C sequestration and agricultural emissions abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.; Paustian, K.; Smith, P.; Moran, D.

    2015-04-01

    Carbon is a critical component of soil vitality and is crucial to our ability to produce food. Carbon sequestered in soils also provides a further regulating ecosystem service, valued as the avoided damage from global climate change. We consider the demand and supply attributes that underpin and constrain the emergence of a market value for this vital global ecosystem service: markets being what economists regard as the most efficient institutions for allocating scarce resources to the supply and consumption of valuable goods. This paper considers how a potentially large global supply of soil carbon sequestration is reduced by economic and behavioural constraints that impinge on the emergence of markets, and alternative public policies that can efficiently transact demand for the service from private and public sector agents. In essence, this is a case of significant market failure. In the design of alternative policy options, we consider whether soil carbon mitigation is actually cost-effective relative to other measures in agriculture and elsewhere in the economy, and the nature of behavioural incentives that hinder policy options. We suggest that reducing the cost and uncertainties of mitigation through soil-based measures is crucial for improving uptake. Monitoring and auditing processes will also be required to eventually facilitate wide-scale adoption of these measures.

  6. 76 FR 13124 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet March 30-31, 2011. The public may file written...

  7. 75 FR 61692 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet October 27-29, 2010. The public may file written...

  8. 78 FR 25691 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet May 28-30, 2013. The public may file written...

  9. 75 FR 12171 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet March 29-31, 2010. The public may file written...

  10. Groundwater levels in Northern Texas High Plains:Baseline for existing agricultural management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New groundwater policies are being debated for the northern High Plains of Texas due to the depletion of the underlying Ogallala Aquifer, the major source of water for irrigation, and they should be thoroughly evaluated using a calibrated groundwater model for assessing the impact on subsequent grou...

  11. Utility of Thermal Sharpening Over Texas High Plains Irrigated Agricultural Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated crop production in the Texas High Plains (THP) is dependent on water extracted from the Ogallala Aquifer, an area suffering from sever water shortage. Water management in this area is therefore highly important. Thermal satellite imagery at high-temporal (~daily) and high-spatial (~100 m...

  12. Understanding Canadian Agriculture. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyns, R. M. A.

    This document for secondary school Canadian students analyzes the role of agriculture in the national economy and in Canadian trade, describes characteristics of Canadian farms, and discusses governmental inlfuences on Canadian agriculture. The document stresses that agriculture is a large source of national wealth; about 30% of Canadian farm…

  13. Economic and Social Conditions Relating to Agriculture and Its Structure to Year 2000. CARD Miscellaneous Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.

    Possible economic and social trends in world agriculture by year 2000 will include increased energy costs; larger, fewer and more specialized farms; decreasing agricultural population; closer ties between farmers and large agribusinesses; more emphasis on consumer and environmental protection; and an increased importance of agriculture in…

  14. International Agricultural Trade and Policy: Issues and Implications for U.S. Agriculture. Texas Agricultural Market Research Center Special Series Report No. SS-2-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gary W.

    Historical events have set the stage for the current U.S. agricultural export performance. Agricultural exports in the early 1990s were as large or larger relative to the size of the agricultural sector than at any time since. A dramatic decrease in net farm income was caused by the Great Depression (1929-1932). Following passage of the…

  15. Contaminant exposure of willets feeding in agricultural drainages of the lower Rio Grande valley of south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) were collected in June and August 1986 at the outlets of two agricultural drainages into the Lower Laguna Madre of South Texas and at two other Texas coastal sites. Mean liver concentration of arsenic was higher in August than June. Over 20% of the livers had arsenic concentrations elevated above a suggested background level of 5.0 ppm dry weight (DW), but concentrations (maximum 15 ppm) were below those associated with acute toxicity. Selenium concentration in livers varied from 2.3 to 8.3 ppm DW for all locations and represented background levels. Mercury concentrations in livers for all locations (means = 2.0 to 3.4, maximum 17 ppm DW) were below those associated with avian mortality and similar to levels found in other estuarine/marine birds. DDE in carcasses was higher in adults (mean = 1.0 ppm wet weight) than juveniles (0.2 ppm), and higher in August (1.0 ppm) than June (0.5 ppm); however, DDE concentrations were generally at background levels. Based on brain cholinesterase activity, willets were not recently exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

  16. Contaminant exposure of willets feeding in agricultural drainages of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of South Texas.

    PubMed

    Custer, T W; Mitchell, C A

    1991-02-01

    Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) were collected in June and August 1986 at the outlets of two agricultural drainages into the Lower Laguna Madre of South Texas and at two other Texas coastal sites. Mean liver concentration of arsenic was higher in August than June. Over 20% of the livers had arsenic concentrations elevated above a suggested background level of 5.0 ppm dry weight (DW), but concentrations (maximum 15 ppm) were below those associated with acute toxicity. Selenium concentration in livers varied from 2.3 to 8.3 ppm DW for all locations and represented background levels. Mercury concentrations in livers for all locations (means = 2.0 to 3.4, maximum 17 ppm DW) were below those associated with avian mortality and similar to levels found in other estuarine/marine birds. DDE in carcasses was higher in adults (mean = 1.0 ppm wet weight) than juveniles (0.2 ppm), and higher in August (1.0 ppm) than June (0.5 ppm); however, DDE concentrations were generally at background levels. Based on brain cholinesterase activity, willets were not recently exposed to organophosphate pesticides. PMID:24241892

  17. World Food and Agriculture. Economic Problems and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asefa, Sisay, Ed.

    This book contains a series of essays based on public lectures delivered by six agricultural economists during the 1986-1987 academic year at Western Michigan University. Some of the main issues and problems addressed in the essays are the role of technical change in agricultural development, the value of learning from historical and comparative…

  18. The Role of Vocational Education in Agriculture--Economic Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillion, Martin B.

    1982-01-01

    Vocational agriculture is education for work. By meeting the needs of the economy and the job market, it can meet the needs of the individual. Although human resource development is important, vocational agriculture should focus on job-relevant competencies and cost effectiveness. (SK)

  19. The Agricultural Work Force of 1985. A Statistical Profile. Agricultural Economic Report 582.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Victor J.; Cox, E. Jane

    This report examines the demographic and employment characteristics, geographic distribution, and earnings of the agricultural work force in the United States as of 1985. Data are from the Agricultural Work Force Supplement to the December 1985 Current Population Survey. The three components of the agricultural work force--hired farmworkers, farm…

  20. Perceptions of Texas Agriscience and Technology Teachers Regarding Influence of Gender in Nontraditional Agricultural Mechanics Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, John M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 42 of 55 female and 92 of 110 male agriculture teachers revealed traditional preferences for instructional areas, although some equity progress was indicated by females preferring agricultural mechanics. Support for traditional beliefs in the advantages of single-sex classrooms was found, although male teachers acknowledged…

  1. Development of visible/infrared/microwave agriculture classification and biomass estimation algorithms, volume 2. [Oklahoma and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, W. D.; Mcfarland, M. J.; Theis, S. W.; Jones, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Agricultural crop classification models using two or more spectral regions (visible through microwave) were developed and tested and biomass was estimated by including microwave with visible and infrared data. The study was conducted at Guymon, Oklahoma and Dalhart, Texas utilizing aircraft multispectral data and ground truth soil moisture and biomass information. Results indicate that inclusion of C, L, and P band active microwave data from look angles greater than 35 deg from nadir with visible and infrared data improved crop discrimination and biomass estimates compared to results using only visible and infrared data. The active microwave frequencies were sensitive to different biomass levels. In addition, two indices, one using only active microwave data and the other using data from the middle and near infrared bands, were well correlated to total biomass.

  2. Development of visible/infrared/microwave agriculture classification and biomass estimation algorithms. [Guyton, Oklahoma and Dalhart, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, W. D.; Mcfarland, M. J.; Theis, S. W.; Jones, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Agricultural crop classification models using two or more spectral regions (visible through microwave) are considered in an effort to estimate biomass at Guymon, Oklahoma Dalhart, Texas. Both grounds truth and aerial data were used. Results indicate that inclusion of C, L, and P band active microwave data, from look angles greater than 35 deg from nadir, with visible and infrared data improve crop discrimination and biomass estimates compared to results using only visible and infrared data. The microwave frequencies were sensitive to different biomass levels. The K and C band were sensitive to differences at low biomass levels, while P band was sensitive to differences at high biomass levels. Two indices, one using only active microwave data and the other using data from the middle and near infrared bands, were well correlated to total biomass. It is implied that inclusion of active microwave sensors with visible and infrared sensors on future satellites could aid in crop discrimination and biomass estimation.

  3. Race, Labor Repression, and Capitalist Agriculture: Notes from South Texas, 1920-1930. Institute for the Study of Social Change Working Papers Series #102.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montejano, David

    Racism and racial exploitation, rather than disappearing with the march of capitalist development, appear instead as its intimate companions. The racial experience of the Mexican in South Texas was shaped by the rapid development of agriculture there in the early part of the century, between 1900-1910 and 1920-1930. The agrarian land revolution…

  4. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  5. The Applied and Workforce Baccalaureate at South Texas College: Specialized Workforce Development Addressing Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Juan E.

    2012-01-01

    South Texas College (STC), created in 1993 as South Texas Community College (STCC), has developed from a concept by visionary leaders in the region to currently offering more than one hundred degree and certificate options for students from the counties of Hidalgo and Starr, including two bachelor of applied technology (B.A.T.) degrees. These…

  6. An aerodynamic temperature-based regional ET model evaluation for Texas High Plains agrometeorological conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High groundwater pumping costs and rapidly declining water levels in the Texas High Plains makes it imperative to improve irrigation water management for sustainability and economic viability. In this area, agriculture uses approximately 90% of groundwater withdrawals. Accurate regional evapotrans...

  7. An analysis of producing ethanol and electric power from woody residues and agricultural crops in East Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismayilova, Rubaba Mammad

    The increasing U.S. dependence on imported oil; the contribution of fossil fuels to the greenhouse gas emissions and the climate change issue; the current level of energy prices and other environmental concerns have increased world interest in renewable energy sources. Biomass is a large, diverse, readily exploitable resource. This dissertation examines the biomass potential in Eastern Texas by examining a 44 county region. This examination considers the potential establishment of a 100-megawatt (MW) power plant and a 20 million gallon per year (MMGY) ethanol plant using lignocellulosic biomass. The biomass sources considered are switchgrass, sugarcane bagasse, and logging residues. In the case of electricity generation, co-firing scenarios are also investigated. The research analyzes the key indicators involved with economic costs and benefits, environmental and social impacts. The bioenergy production possibilities considered here were biofeedstock supported electric power and cellulosic ethanol production. The results were integrated into a comprehensive set of information that addresses the effects of biomass energy development in the region. The analysis indicates that none of the counties in East Texas have sufficient biomass to individually sustain either a 100% biomass fired power plant or the cellulosic ethanol plant. Such plants would only be feasible at the regional level. Co-firing biomass with coal, however, does provide a most attractive alternative for the study region. The results indicate further that basing the decision solely on economics of feedstock availability and costs would suggest that bioenergy, as a renewable energy, is not a viable energy alternative. Accounting for some environmental and social benefits accruing to the region from bioenergy production together with the feedstock economics, however, suggests that government subsidies, up to the amount of accruing benefits, could make the bioenergies an attractive business opportunity

  8. A generic bio-economic farm model for environmental and economic assessment of agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Sander; Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K

    2010-12-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  9. A Generic Bio-Economic Farm Model for Environmental and Economic Assessment of Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  10. Agriculture sector resource and environmental policy analysis: an economic and biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    House, R; McDowell, H; Peters, M; Heimlich, R

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural pollution of the environment is jointly determined by economic decisions driving land use, production practices, and stochastic biophysical processes associated with agricultural production, land and climate characteristics. It follows that environmental and economic statistics, traditionally collected independently of each other, offer little insight into non-point pollutant loadings. We argue that effective policy development would be facilitated by integrating environmental and economic data gathering, combined with simulation modelling linking economic and biophysical components. Integrated data collection links economics, land use, production methods and environmental loadings. An integrated economic/biophysical modelling framework facilitates policy analysis because monetary incentives to reduce pollution can be evaluated in the context of market costs and returns that influence land use and production activity. This allows prediction of environmental and economic outcomes from alternative policies to solve environmental problems. We highlight steps taken to merge economic and biophysical modelling for policy analysis within the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. An example analysis of a policy to reduce agricultural nitrogen pollution is presented, with the economic and environmental results illustrating the value of linked economic and biophysical analysis. PMID:10231835

  11. Government Intervention in Agriculture. Measurement, Evaluation, and Implications for Trade Negotiations. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 229.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report presents an analysis that defines and quantifies the extent of government intervention in the agricultural sectors of the market-oriented countries most active in trade. One aim is to provide usable economic information for the multilateral trade negotiations (MTN), recently launched under the auspices of the General Agreement on…

  12. Nesting biology of laughing gulls in relation to agricultural chemicals in south Texas, 1978-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Prouty, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla) were studied along the south Texas coast during 1978-1981 to determine productivity and to evaluate the effects of environmental pollutants on reproduction. The average clutch-size was 2.6, ranging from 2.3-2.8. Sixty-six percent of the eggs hatched and 82% of the pairs hatched at least one egg. Productivity (fledglings/total nests) averaged 1.0 fledgling per nest. DDE and other organochlorine residues were low in eggs (usually <3 ppm wet weight) and were not suspected of causing reproductive problems. However, organophosphate pesticides sprayed on crops near the study areas reduced productivity by as much as 33% during 3 of 4 years, implying that certain of these chemicals may pose serious threats to the population.

  13. Analysis And Assistant Planning System Ofregional Agricultural Economic Inform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jie; Zhang, Junfeng

    For the common problems existed in regional development and planning, we try to design a decision support system for assisting regional agricultural development and alignment as a decision-making tool for local government and decision maker. The analysis methods of forecast, comparative advantage, liner programming and statistical analysis are adopted. According to comparative advantage theory, the regional advantage can be determined by calculating and comparing yield advantage index (YAI), Scale advantage index (SAI), Complicated advantage index (CAI). Combining with GIS, agricultural data are presented as a form of graph such as area, bar and pie to uncover the principle and trend for decision-making which can't be found in data table. This system provides assistant decisions for agricultural structure adjustment, agro-forestry development and planning, and can be integrated to information technologies such as RS, AI and so on.

  14. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

  15. Discovering Information Use in Agricultural Economics: A Citation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2007-01-01

    This citation study investigated the research needs and activity of U.S. agricultural economists. Journals were the dominant format of cited sources. Books, government publications, and working papers formed the other important types of references, whereas electronic sources were sparsely used. Subject scatter in this interdisciplinary field was…

  16. Agricultural injuries in Central India: nature, magnitude, and economic impact.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, P S; Gite, L P; Dubey, A K; Kot, L S

    2002-02-01

    A study was carried out in Madhya Pradesh (Central India) to collect data on injury-causing agricultural incidents during the period 1995-1999. The overall incidence rate was 1.25/1000 workers/year. About 9.2% of the incidents were fatal, and most of the fatal incidents were due to tractors and snakebites (42.9% each). About 77.6% of all incidents were due to farm machinery, 11.8% were due to hand tools, and the remaining 10.6% were due to other sources like snakes, wells, etc. Data on 1,911 incidents reported in 10 leading newspapers published during the five-year period (1995-1999) from different regions of the state were also collected and analyzed, which indicated that only major or roadside agricultural incidents were reported in newspapers. Based on the survey data, it was estimated that in the year 2000 there would have been about 17,480 agricultural incidents in Madhya Pradesh, causing death to about 2,050 workers and injuries to about 16,770 workers, including amputations of limbs, burns, cuts, etc. Total monetary loss due to agricultural injuries in the state of Madhya Pradesh has been estimated as US $27 million/year. PMID:12002378

  17. Strategies and Economics for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION Agriculture can make significant contributions to climate change mitigation by a) increasing soil organic carbon sinks, b) reducing GHG emissions, and c) off-setting fossil fuel by promoting biofuels. The latter has the potential to counter-balance fossil-fuel emissions to some degree, ...

  18. Evaluation of the Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS) in the Semiarid Texas Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate models to simulate the soil water balance in semiarid cropping systems are needed to evaluate management practices for soil and water conservation in both irrigated and dryland production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of the Precision Agricultural Land...

  19. Instructional Materials Available from Agricultural Education Teaching Materials Center, College Station, Texas. Price List No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Teaching Materials Center, College Station, TX.

    Price lists and order forms are provided for courses of study, lesson plans, and laboratory exercises for vocational agriculture cooperative education and preemployment laboratory training. Courses of study and required references are listed for training employees for: (1) milk, meat, and poultry processing, (2) poultry hatcheries, (3) dairy…

  20. Evaluation of the precision agricultural landscape modeling system (PALMS) in the semiarid Texas southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate models to simulate the soil water balance in semiarid cropping systems are needed to evaluate management practices for soil and water conservation in both irrigated and dryland production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of the Precision Agricultural Land...

  1. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  2. The Role of Agriculture in the Economic Development of West Virginia: An Input-Output Analysis. Miscellaneous Publication No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Gerard E.; And Others

    This study deals with the structural interrelationships among agricultural sub-sectors, and between the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors of the West Virginia economy. The study is intended to offer information on which to base sound economic development decisions. An input-output economic model is used in order to focus on the interaction…

  3. Economic impact of wheat streak mosaic virus in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vectored by the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major limiting factor in wheat production in the Texas Panhandle. It is the most frequently encountered virus in the region, affecting both shoot and root biomass, and consequently it can drastically red...

  4. Support for agriculture during economic transformation: impacts on poverty and undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

    2012-07-31

    This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health risks associated with rising obesity in rural as well as urban areas. Thus, the transition process must be managed better, through targeted support for smallholder agriculture and health interventions, if the negative consequences of obesity and chronic disease are to be mitigated. PMID:21173245

  5. Support for agriculture during economic transformation: Impacts on poverty and undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health risks associated with rising obesity in rural as well as urban areas. Thus, the transition process must be managed better, through targeted support for smallholder agriculture and health interventions, if the negative consequences of obesity and chronic disease are to be mitigated. PMID:21173245

  6. The economic potential of carbon sequestration in Californian agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catala-Luque, Rosa

    This dissertation studies the potential success of a carbon sequestration policy based on payments to farmers for adoption of alternative, less intensive, management practices in California. Since this is a first approach from a Californian perspective, we focus on Yolo County, an important agricultural county of the State. We focus on the six more important crops of the region: wheat, tomato, corn, rice, safflower, and sunflower. In Chapter 1, we characterize the role of carbon sequestration in Climate Change policy. We also give evidence on which alternative management practices have greenhouse gas mitigation potential (reduced tillage, cover-cropping, and organic systems) based on a study of experimental sites. Chapter 2 advances recognizing the need for information at the field level, and describes the survey designed used to obtain data at the field level, something required to perform a complete integrated assessment of the issue. The survey design is complex in the sense that we use auxiliary information to obtain a control (subpopulation of conventional farmers)-case (subpopulation of innovative farmers) design with stratification for land use. We present estimates for population quantities of interest such as total variable costs, profits, managerial experience in different alternatives, etc. This information efficiently gives field level information for innovative farmers, a missing piece of information so far, since our sampling strategy required the inclusion with probability one of farmers identified as innovative. Using an agronomic process model (DayCent) for the sample and population units, we construct carbon mitigation cost curves for each crop and management observed. Chapter 3 builds different econometric models for cross-sectional data taking into account the survey design, and expanding the sample size constructing productivity potential under each alternative. Based on the yield productivity potential modeled for each unit, we conclude that a

  7. Review Article: Economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture - review and analysis of existing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, P.; Grelot, F.; Agenais, A.-L.

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, economic evaluation of flood management projects is increasingly used to help decision making. At the same time, the management of flood risk is shifting towards new concepts such as giving more room to water by restoring floodplains. Agricultural areas are particularly targeted by projects following those concepts since they are frequently located in floodplain areas and since the potential damage to such areas is expected to be lower than to cities or industries for example. Additional or avoided damage to agriculture may have a major influence on decisions concerning these projects and the economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture is thus an issue that needs to be tackled. The question of flood damage to agriculture can be addressed in different ways. This paper reviews and analyzes existing studies which have developed or used damage functions for agriculture in the framework of an economic appraisal of flood management projects. A conceptual framework of damage categories is proposed for the agricultural sector. The damage categories were used to structure the review. Then, a total of 42 studies are described, with a detailed review of 26 of them, based on the following criteria: types of damage considered, the influential flood parameters chosen, and monetized damage indicators used. The main recommendations resulting from this review are that even if existing methods have already focused on damage to crops, still some improvement is needed for crop damage functions. There is also a need to develop damage functions for other agricultural damage categories, including farm buildings and their contents. Finally, to cover all possible agricultural damage, and in particular loss of activity, a farm scale approach needs to be used.

  8. Hydro-economic analysis of groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture in California's Central Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellín-Azuara, Josué; MacEwan, Duncan; Howitt, Richard E.; Koruakos, George; Dogrul, Emin C.; Brush, Charles F.; Kadir, Tariq N.; Harter, Thomas; Melton, Forrest; Lund, Jay R.

    2015-09-01

    As in many places, groundwater in California (USA) is the major alternative water source for agriculture during drought, so groundwater's availability will drive some inevitable changes in the state's water management. Currently, agricultural, environmental, and urban uses compete for groundwater, resulting in substantial overdraft in dry years with lowering of water tables, which in turn increases pumping costs and reduces groundwater pumping capacity. In this study, SWAP (an economic model of agricultural production and water use in California) and C2VISim (the California Department of Water Resources groundwater model for California's Central Valley) are connected. This paper examines the economic costs of pumping replacement groundwater during drought and the potential loss of pumping capacity as groundwater levels drop. A scenario of three additional drought years continuing from 2014 show lower water tables in California's Central Valley and loss of pumping capacity. Places without access to groundwater and with uncertain surface-water deliveries during drought are the most economically vulnerable in terms of crop revenues, employment and household income. This is particularly true for Tulare Lake Basin, which relies heavily on water imported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Remote-sensing estimates of idle agricultural land between 2012 and 2014 confirm this finding. Results also point to the potential of a portfolio approach for agriculture, in which crop mixing and conservation practices have substantial roles.

  9. Spatial Modeling of Indian Agriculture, Economic Activity and Population under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, G. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present a spatial model of economic activity and human population built on physical geography that takes particular account of its effects through agricultural productivity and transport costs for trade. A major component of this work is an agricultural model, driven in part by high-resolution climate data and model output. We put forward India as the initial region for this modeling work; India is a relatively data-rich country, it exhibits significant within-country spatial and temporal variation in agricultural productivity, urbanization rates, and population growth rates, and the climate dynamics of the monsoon are well-studied and expected to change on decadal time scales. Agricultural productivity is modeled as a function of soil, climate, and technology variables. Farmers locate optimally given varying geography and transport costs; in turn, food availability defines urbanization rates and economic activity in non-agricultural sectors. This “social system” integrated assessment model is a step towards a valuable policy tool, but requires a significant mobilization of data and a grid-cell-level system of equations to describe the underlying dynamics of the model. We test against past trends of social-natural system progression in demography, human location, income, food production, etc., and argue that the model could be used to assess future trends under varying climate change scenarios, and eventually serve to model feedbacks through effects on migration, population growth rates, or economic activity.

  10. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

  11. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  12. Socio-Economic Background and Access to Internet as Correlates of Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegoke, Sunday Paul; Osokoya, Modupe M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated access to internet and socio-economic background as correlates of students' achievement in Agricultural Science among selected Senior Secondary Schools Two Students in Ogbomoso South and North Local Government Areas. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique. Simple random sampling was used to select 30 students from…

  13. PARAMETERIZING GPFARM: AN AGRICULTURAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR INTEGRATING SCIENCE, ECONOMICS, RESOURCE USE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few farmers and ranchers adopt agricultural software such as decision support systems (DSS). While numerous decision aids are available, most are too difficult for producers to use, exclude components (e.g., economic budgeting, weeds, multicriteria decision analysis) necessary for meaningful use on...

  14. Grade Performance of Face-to-Face versus Online Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina A.; Makus, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Online course offerings have been growing at a rapid pace in post-secondary education. An ordered probit model is estimated to analyze the effects of online vs. face-to-face course format in achieving specific letter grades. An upper-division agricultural economics course taught over 9 years using both formats is used for the analysis. For a…

  15. Teaching Basic Production Economic Principles to Secondary School Students of Vocational Agriculture: An Evaluative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, James E.

    Four modules of instruction on basic production economic principles were developed, tried in high school classes of students preparing for on- and off-farm agricultural occupations, and evaluated for content and teaching. Basic principles studied were supply and demand, value theory, variable proportions, and marginal analysis. Total and part…

  16. Analysis of economic impacts of climate change on agricultural water management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote, Luis; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    on changes in management practices due to adaptation or land use changes. These have been estimated through a socio-economic model that accounts for the evolution of population, GDP, agricultural land use and other relevant socio-economic variables linked to climate change adaptation. The combination of the results of the SARA model, the WAAPA model and the socioeconomic model allow the estimation of total economic value of agricultural production in terms of fraction of GDP.

  17. School-level economic disadvantage and obesity in middle school children in central Texas, USA: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Although children of lower socio-economic status (SES) in the United States have generally been found to be at greater risk for obesity, the SES-obesity association varies when stratified by racial/ethnic groups-with no consistent association found for African American and Hispanic children. Research on contextual and setting-related factors may provide further insights into ethnic and SES disparities in obesity. We examined whether obesity levels among central Texas 8th grade students (n=2682) vary by school-level economic disadvantage across individual-level family SES and racial/ethnicity groups. As a secondary aim, we compared the association of school-level economic disadvantage and obesity by language spoken with parents (English or Spanish) among Hispanic students. Methods Multilevel regression models stratified by family SES and ethnicity were run using cross-sectional baseline data from five school districts participating in the Central Texas CATCH Middle School project. For family SES, independent multi-level logistic regression models were run for total sample and by gender for each family SES stratum (poor/near poor/just getting by, living comfortably, and very well off), adjusting for age, ethnicity, and gender. Similarly, multi-level regression models were run by race/ethnic group (African American, Hispanic, and White), adjusting for age, family SES, and gender. Results Students attending highly economically disadvantaged (ED) schools were between 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.6) and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8) times more likely to be obese as students attending low ED schools across family SES groups (p<.05). African American (ORAdj =3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-11.4), Hispanic (ORAdj=1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0) and White (ORAdj=3.8, 95% CI: 1.6-8.9) students attending high ED schools were more likely to be obese as counterparts at low ED schools (p<.05). Gender-stratified findings were similar to findings for total sample, although fewer results reached significance. While

  18. Identifying Research-Based Teaching Strategies in Reading to Close the Achievement Gap for Low Socio-Economic Children in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Steven Albert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of scientifically research based (SRB) teaching strategies on the learning of students living in poverty in a Educational Service Center (ESC) Region VI of East Texas. By interviewing teachers within academically successful campuses with high economically disadvantaged student populations, an accurate assessment was…

  19. Texas Greenup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    June 2007 was one of the wettest Junes on record for the state of Texas. Starting in late May, a string of low-pressure systems settled in over the U.S. Southern Plains and unleashed weeks of heavy to torrential rain. During the final week of June, much of Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas received more than 330 percent of their average rainfall, said the National Climatic Data Center. The widespread heavy rain brought deadly floods to the entire region. On July 6, the Associated Press reported that every major river basin in Texas was at flood stage, an event that had not occurred since 1957. In addition to causing floods, the rains stimulated plant growth. The grassy, often arid, plains and plateaus of northern Mexico (bottom left), Texas (center), and New Mexico (top, left of center) burst to life with dense vegetation as this vegetation anomaly image shows. Regions where plants were growing more quickly or fuller than average are green, while areas where growth is below average are brown. Most of Texas is green, with a concentrated deep green, almost black, spot where vegetation growth was greatest. This area of western Texas is where the Pecos River flows out of New Mexico and heads southeast to the Rio Grande. In the darkest areas, vegetation was more than 100 percent above average. The brown spots in northeastern Texas and Oklahoma (top, right of center) may be areas where persistent clouds or water on the ground are hiding the plants from the satellite's view. Plants may also be growing less than average if swamped by too much rain. The image was made with data collected by the SPOT satellite between June 11 and June 20, 2007. NASA imagery created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using SPOT data provided courtesy of the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service and processed by Jennifer Small and Assaf Anyamba of the GIMMS Group at NASA GSFC.

  20. Blue water scarcity and the economic impacts of future agricultural trade and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Christoph; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Gerten, Dieter; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Biewald, Anne; Popp, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    An increasing demand for agricultural goods affects the pressure on global water resources over the coming decades. In order to quantify these effects, we have developed a new agroeconomic water scarcity indicator, considering explicitly economic processes in the agricultural system. The indicator is based on the water shadow price generated by an economic land use model linked to a global vegetation-hydrology model. Irrigation efficiency is implemented as a dynamic input depending on the level of economic development. We are able to simulate the heterogeneous distribution of water supply and agricultural water demand for irrigation through the spatially explicit representation of agricultural production. This allows in identifying regional hot spots of blue water scarcity and explicit shadow prices for water. We generate scenarios based on moderate policies regarding future trade liberalization and the control of livestock-based consumption, dependent on different population and gross domestic product (GDP) projections. Results indicate increased water scarcity in the future, especially in South Asia, the Middle East, and north Africa. In general, water shadow prices decrease with increasing liberalization, foremost in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Policies to reduce livestock consumption in developed countries not only lower the domestic pressure on water but also alleviate water scarcity to a large extent in developing countries. It is shown that one of the two policy options would be insufficient for most regions to retain water scarcity in 2045 on levels comparable to 2005.

  1. Application of integrated remote sensing and GIS technologies to geological, agricultural, water and environmental issues in far west Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongjie

    This study focuses on applying integrated remote sensing and GIS technologies to geological, agricultural, water and environmental studies in the far west Texas area. The primary technical topics that have been investigated and employed include radar image processing, speckle removal, destriping, data fusion, seamless image mosaicking technology, mask and ROI techniques, DEM processing and 3D visualization, image classification techniques, gravity and magnetic data processing, algorithm implementation for automatic image registration, ArcView/ArcInfo GIS techniques, and GIS database building. JPL/NASA's AIRSAR/TOPSAR is a multipolarimetric, multiwavelength, and interferometric airborne synthetic aperture radar capable of imaging in C-, L-, and P-bands (5.7, 24.5, and 68 cm). The study mainly focuses on its preprocessing, despeckling, and destriping. Among statistical adaptive speckle removal algorithms, G-MAP (Gamma Maximum A Posteriori) had the best performance. For banding removal, we derived a new method that we call combined principal components analysis (CPCA) that was very effective with our data. Signature differences were studied and compared at different radar wavelengths and between radar and optical (ETM+) images. Some subsurface objects (like water pipelines) were clearly visible in the radar images, especially for the P-band. Data fusion based on the color transform technique was employed to integrate Landsat 7 (30 m ETM+ data fused with the accompanying 15 m panchromatic data) and TOPSAR data after speckle and banding removal. The resulting fused image brought out new features that were not evident in the original images and helped identify many features whose origin was not clear in the original images. AIRSAR/TOPSAR and TM/ETM+ images have been successfully used for mapping the East Franklin Mountains fault scarp and related small faults within the Hueco bolson as well as the Mayfield fault scarp. Remote sensing analysis of nuclear waste disposal

  2. Potential ecological and economic consequences of climate-driven agricultural and silvicultural transformations in central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, Nadezhda M.; Zander, Evgeniya V.; Pyzhev, Anton I.; Parfenova, Elena I.; Soja, Amber J.

    2014-05-01

    Increased warming predicted from general circulation models (GCMs) by the end of the century is expected to dramatically impact Siberian forests. Both natural climate-change-caused disturbance (weather, wildfire, infestation) and anthropogenic disturbance (legal/illegal logging) has increased, and their impact on Siberian boreal forest has been mounting over the last three decades. The Siberian BioClimatic Model (SiBCliM) was used to simulate Siberian forests, and the resultant maps show a severely decreased forest that has shifted northwards and a changed composition. Predicted dryer climates would enhance the risks of high fire danger and thawing permafrost, both of which challenge contemporary ecosystems. Our current goal is to evaluate the ecological and economic consequences of climate warming, to optimise economic loss/gain effects in forestry versus agriculture, to question the relative economic value of supporting forestry, agriculture or a mixed agro-forestry at the southern forest border in central Siberia predicted to undergo the most noticeable landcover and landuse changes. We developed and used forest and agricultural bioclimatic models to predict forest shifts; novel tree species and their climatypes are introduced in a warmer climate and/or potential novel agriculture are introduced with a potential variety of crops by the end of the century. We applied two strategies to estimate climate change effects, motivated by forest disturbance. One is a genetic means of assisting trees and forests to be harmonized with a changing climate by developing management strategies for seed transfer to locations that are best ecologically suited to the genotypes in future climates. The second strategy is the establishment of agricultural lands in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats, because the forests would retreat northwards. Currently, food, forage, and biofuel crops primarily reside in the steppe and forest-steppe zones which are known to have favorable

  3. Hydrologic conditions and water quality in an agricultural area in Kleberg and Nueces Counties, Texas, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Petri, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    During 1996?98, rainfall and runoff were monitored on a 49,680-acre agricultural watershed in Kleberg and Nueces Counties in South Texas. Nineteen rainfall samples were analyzed for selected nutrients, and runoff samples from 29 storms were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and pesticides. Loads of nutrients in rainfall and loads of nutrients and pesticides in runoff were computed. For a 40,540-acre part of the watershed (lower study area), constituent loads entering the watershed in rainfall, in runoff from the upper study area, and from agricultural chemical applications to the lower study area were compared with runoff loads exiting the lower study area. Total rainfall for 1996?98 averaged 25.86 inches per year, which is less than the long-term annual average rainfall of 29.80 inches for the area. Rainfall and runoff during 1996?98 were typical of historical patterns, with periods of below average rainfall and runoff interspersed with extreme events. Five individual storms accounted for about 38 percent of the total rainfall and 94 percent of the total runoff. During the 3-year study, the total nitrogen runoff yield from the lower study area was 1.3 pounds per acre per year, compared with 49 pounds per acre per year applied as fertilizer and 3.1 pounds per acre per year from rainfall. While almost all of the fertilizer and rainfall nitrogen was ammonia and nitrate, most of the nitrogen in runoff was particulate organic nitrogen, associated with crop residue. Total nitrogen exiting the lower study area in surface-water runoff was about 2.5 percent of the nitrogen inputs (fertilizer and rainfall nitrogen). Annual deposition of total nitrogen entering the lower study area in rainfall exceeded net yields of total nitrogen exiting the watershed in runoff because most of the rainfall does not contribute to runoff. During the study, the total phosphorus runoff yield from the lower study area was 0.48 pound per acre per year compared with 4.2 pounds per acre per year

  4. CGE simulation analysis on the labor transfer, agricultural technical progress, and economic development in Chongqing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Ran, Maosheng

    2014-01-01

    The basic structure of a CGE model dividing Mainland China into two parts, including Chongqing and rest regions, is described. Based on this CGE model, both the unilateral impact and collaborative impact of two policies, agricultural technical progress and supporting policies for improving rural labor transfer on the economic development in Chongqing, are simulated and analyzed. The results demonstrate that compared with the sum of each unilateral policy effect, the collaboration of two policies has more effective impact on facilitating the labor transfer, promoting regional economic growth, and improving income and welfare of urban and rural residents. PMID:24892037

  5. CGE Simulation Analysis on the Labor Transfer, Agricultural Technical Progress, and Economic Development in Chongqing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Ran, Maosheng

    2014-01-01

    The basic structure of a CGE model dividing Mainland China into two parts, including Chongqing and rest regions, is described. Based on this CGE model, both the unilateral impact and collaborative impact of two policies, agricultural technical progress and supporting policies for improving rural labor transfer on the economic development in Chongqing, are simulated and analyzed. The results demonstrate that compared with the sum of each unilateral policy effect, the collaboration of two policies has more effective impact on facilitating the labor transfer, promoting regional economic growth, and improving income and welfare of urban and rural residents. PMID:24892037

  6. Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Walsh, M.; McLaughlin, S.

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  7. Environmental and socio-economic vulnerability of agricultural sector in Armenia.

    PubMed

    Melkonyan, Ani

    2014-08-01

    Being a mountainous country, Armenia has undergone different kinds of natural disasters, such as droughts, floods, and storms, which have a direct influence on economy and are expected to occur more frequently in terms of climate change, raising the need to estimate economic vulnerability especially in agricultural sector. Agriculture plays a great role in national economy of Armenia, with 21% share in Gross Domestic Production (GDP). For this reason, the estimation of agricultural resources of the country, their vulnerability towards current and future climate, and assessment of economical loss of the agricultural crop production due to climate change are the main goals of the given study. Crop productivity in dependence on climatic elements - temperature, radiation, precipitation, wind field, etc. has been estimated, further on interpolating these relations for future climate conditions using climate projections in the region for the time period of 2011-2040. Data on air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed and direction for the period of 1966-2011 have been taken from 30 stations from the measuring network of Armenian State Hydrometeorological Service. Other climatic parameters like potential and actual evapotranspiration, soil temperature and humidity, field capacity, and wilting point have been calculated with the help of an AMBAV/AMBETTI (agroclimatic) model (German Weather Service). The results showed that temperature increase accompanied with evapotranspiration increase and water availability decrease especially in low and mid-low altitudes (where the main national crop production is centralized) caused a significant shift in the phenological phases of crops, which is very important information for effective farming dates, giving an opportunity to raise efficiency of agricultural production through minimizing the yield loss due to unfavorable climatic conditions. With the help of macroeconomical analysis of the crop market, it was

  8. Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Texas: 1997 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liang Y.

    This report provides an update of the costs of alcohol and drug abuse for 1997. The 1997 costs were estimated by multiplying the percent changes in various socioeconomic factors from 1989 to 1997 by the cost estimates. The adverse health and social consequences of substance abuse extensively increased costs to the state. The total economic costs…

  9. Future Projections for Southern High Plains Agriculture Using Coupled Economic and Hydrologic Models and Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainwater, K.; Tewari, R.; Willis, D.; Stovall, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Hernandez, A.; Mauget, S. A.; Leiker, G.; Johnson, J.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the hypothesis that predicted climate change will affect the useful life of the Ogallala aquifer in the Southern High Plains (SHP) through its impact on the amount of irrigation withdrawals, and thus affect the yields and economic costs and net income. A ninety-year time frame has been considered, although the research team recognizes that long-term predictions of crop prices and selections are perhaps even more uncertain than long-term weather projections. Previous work by the research team recently demonstrated the development of regionally downscaled climate projections for the SHP. Quantitative projections of precipitation, potential evaporation, and temperature trends for the 90-yr duration were selected from a downscaled set of high-resolution (one-eighth degree) daily climate and hydrological simulations covering the entire Great Plains region, driven by the latest IPCC AR4 climate model outputs. These projections were used as input to the Ogallala Ag Tool software developed by the USDA-ARS to predict daily and seasonal values of those variables, which directly affect irrigation, at different locations in the study area. Results from the Ogallala Ag Tool were then used to drive future projected crop production functions for cotton, corn, wheat, and sorghum using the DSSAT crop model. These production functions were then included in an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling approach that coupled an economic optimization model with a groundwater hydrological model. The groundwater model was based on the Texas Water Development Board's Southern Ogallala Groundwater Availability Model, which has been recalibrated by the research team for previous applications. The coupling of the two models allowed better recognition of spatial heterogeneity across the SHP, such that irrigation water availability was better represented through the spatial variations in pumping demands and saturated thickness. With this hydrologic

  10. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in

  11. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  12. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; N. Tubiello, Francesco; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5′×5′ latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  13. Coupled urbanization and agricultural ecosystem services in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z X; Li, J; Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystems offer material and environmental support for human habitation and development in those areas of the earth where people choose to live. However, urbanization is an inexorable trend of human social development and threatens the health of those ecosystems inhabited by humans. This study calculates the values of NPP (net primary productivity), carbon sequestration, water interception, soil conservation, and agricultural production in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone. At the same time, we combined DMSP/OLS (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line Scanner) night lights remote sensing data and statistical data to analyze the level of urbanization. Quantitative analysis was performed on the interactions between the ecosystem service functions and urbanization based on the calculations of their coupled coordination degrees. The results were the following: (1) The values of NPP, carbon sequestration, and agricultural production showed a trend of increase. However, water interception decreased before increasing, while soil conservation showed the reverse trend; (2) Urbanization levels in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone for the last 10 years have proceeded at a fast pace with comprehensive promotion; and (3) Coupled and coupled coordination degrees between urbanization and ecosystem services show increasing trends. This research can provide a theoretical basis for the region's rapid economic development in the balance. PMID:27117147

  14. Llano Grande Center's Oral History Project Sparks Cultural and Economic Renewal in Texas's Rio Grande Valley. Rural Trust Featured Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elizabeth Higgins

    The Llano Grande Center for Research and Development started as an oral history experiment in two of Texas's poorest school districts. Since the 1920s, when this arid region in the southernmost tip of Texas was first transformed into the orchards and farmlands of the "Magic Valley," workers of Mexican descent have worked the land. Over time,…

  15. Evaluating the Impacts of an Agricultural Water Market in the Guadalupe River Basin, Texas: An Agent-based Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; Cai, X.; Minsker, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture comprises about 80 percent of the total water consumption in the US. Under conditions of water shortage and fully committed water rights, market-based water allocations could be promising instruments for agricultural water redistribution from marginally profitable areas to more profitable ones. Previous studies on water market have mainly focused on theoretical or statistical analysis. However, how water users' heterogeneous physical attributes and decision rules about water use and water right trading will affect water market efficiency has been less addressed. In this study, we developed an agent-based model to evaluate the benefits of an agricultural water market in the Guadalupe River Basin during drought events. Agricultural agents with different attributes (i.e., soil type for crops, annual water diversion permit and precipitation) are defined to simulate the dynamic feedback between water availability, irrigation demand and water trading activity. Diversified crop irrigation rules and water bidding rules are tested in terms of crop yield, agricultural profit, and water-use efficiency. The model was coupled with a real-time hydrologic model and run under different water scarcity scenarios. Preliminary results indicate that an agricultural water market is capable of increasing crop yield, agricultural profit, and water-use efficiency. This capability is more significant under moderate drought scenarios than in mild and severe drought scenarios. The water market mechanism also increases agricultural resilience to climate uncertainty by reducing crop yield variance in drought events. The challenges of implementing an agricultural water market under climate uncertainty are also discussed.

  16. Water-Quality Assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Pesticides in Streams Draining an Urban and an Agricultural Area, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.; Brown, Mariann F.

    1996-01-01

    Water and bed-sediment samples from streams draining an urban and an agricultural area in the Trinity River Basin, Texas, were analyzed. The samples were collected during March 1993?September 1995 by the Trinity River Basin study-unit team of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. A comparison of pesticide data for water samples from seven streams in the Dallas-Fort Worth urban area with five streams in an agricultural area in the west-central part of the Trinity River Basin showed detections of 24 herbicides in urban-area streams and 19 herbicides in agricultural-area streams and 10 insecticides in each area. Atrazine, a herbicide, was detected in all samples from both areas. Diazinon, an insecticide, was detected in all samples collected in urban-area streams and in about 60 percent of the samples collected in agricultural-area streams. Concentrations of alachlor, atrazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, and pendimethalin (herbicides) were always greater in agricultural-area streams, and prometon and simazine concentrations were always greater in urban-area streams. Atrazine was the only herbicide with concentrations greater than a health advisory limit of 3 micrograms per liter. Concentrations were greater in about 20 percent of the samples; all were in the agricultural area and occurred during spring and during higher streamflow. Diazinon was the only insecticide with concentrations greater than the health advisory of 0.6 microgram per liter. Concentrations were greater in about 15 percent of the samples from the urban area. All exceedances were during spring through early fall and during all ranges of streamflow. In the agricultural area, atrazine and metolachlor concentrations peaked during spring and early summer and increased with increasing streamflow; in the urban area, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon peaked in April and remained relatively high during the summer and increased with increasing streamflow. A comparison of pesticide data for

  17. A hydro-economic modelling framework for optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Sahuquillo, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    SummaryA hydro-economic modelling framework is developed for determining optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. A holistic optimization model determines the spatial and temporal fertilizer application rate that maximizes the net benefits in agriculture constrained by the quality requirements in groundwater at various control sites. Since emissions (nitrogen loading rates) are what can be controlled, but the concentrations are the policy targets, we need to relate both. Agronomic simulations are used to obtain the nitrate leached, while numerical groundwater flow and solute transport simulation models were used to develop unit source solutions that were assembled into a pollutant concentration response matrix. The integration of the response matrix in the constraints of the management model allows simulating by superposition the evolution of groundwater nitrate concentration over time at different points of interest throughout the aquifer resulting from multiple pollutant sources distributed over time and space. In this way, the modelling framework relates the fertilizer loads with the nitrate concentration at the control sites. The benefits in agriculture were determined through crop prices and crop production functions. This research aims to contribute to the ongoing policy process in the Europe Union (the Water Framework Directive) providing a tool for analyzing the opportunity cost of measures for reducing nitrogen loadings and assessing their effectiveness for maintaining groundwater nitrate concentration within the target levels. The management model was applied to a hypothetical groundwater system. Optimal solutions of fertilizer use to problems with different initial conditions, planning horizons, and recovery times were determined. The illustrative example shows the importance of the location of the pollution sources in relation to the control sites, and how both the selected planning horizon and the target recovery time can

  18. Agriculture and the Property Tax: A Forward Look Based on a Historical Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 392.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stam, Jerome M.; Sibold, Ann G.

    Assessing the property tax in terms of agriculture, this report analyzes the following in an historical sense in order to draw implications for the future: (1) the importance of the property tax to the agricultural sector; (2) the horizontal equity of the property tax for the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in terms of income and wealth;…

  19. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation. [economic impact and aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The economic benefits attributable to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation are discussed. Topics covered include: the ag-air industry, the data base used to estimate the potential benefits and a summary of the potential benefits from technological improvements; ag-air activities in the United States; foreign ag-air activities; major ag-air aircraft is use and manufacturers' sales and distribution networks; and estimates of the benefits to the United States of proposed technological improvements to the aircraft and dispersal equipment. A bibliography of references is appended.

  20. Policy toward individual economic holdings and private enterprises in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, November 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    On 29 November 1988, Viet Nam adopted a policy allowing individual economic holdings and private enterprises in the areas of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. The policy recognizes the positive effect of such holdings and charges the state with creating favorable conditions for them. Ownership and inheritance rights are recognized, and all citizens are entitled to apply for permission to use certain land for business purposes. The production of exports is encouraged, and such enterprises may engage in financial transactions, including borrowing money. PMID:12344312

  1. Socio-economic impacts of irrigated agriculture in Mbarali District of south west Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    Irrigation has been found to be central in curbing food scarcity not only in Tanzania but also in many other developing countries. It has been proved that continued reliability on rainfall in agriculture cannot sustain the increase in population. This study examines the impacts of smallholder irrigated agriculture in improving social and economic benefits in Igurusi Ward of Mbarali District which is located in the southern-western part of Tanzania. The study applies the Participatory Rural Appraisal Framework for data collection. The study was confined to five villages in Igurusi ward which are Majenje, Igurusi, Chamoto, Uhambule and Mahango. The study examined critically paddy production for smallholder farmers that practice irrigation and those who cultivates rain-fed paddy. The study examined both existing traditional and modern irrigation systems. It was found that, most of the respondents (79%) practice irrigated agriculture in paddy production while the remaining 21% practice rain-fed agriculture. Forty percent of households that practice irrigated agriculture harvest paddy two seasons per year. The return to labour in paddy production for smallholder farmers who irrigate their paddy fields is about US 2.5/manday which is above the poverty line of US 1.0/day. The smallest return to labour (US $ 0.85/manday) is obtained by an average smallholder farmer who cultivates rain-fed paddy using hand hoe and family labour. The potential implication of the current irrigation systems is that if irrigation is managed properly it may lead to sustainable increases in small farmer’s productivity and income, thus alleviating rural poverty.

  2. From plantation agriculture to oil storage: economic development and social transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines two separate concepts of development. At the macrolevel, development is viewed as an advance in the organization of production and the extension of capitalist relations of production. At the community level, it is viewed as a process leading to qualitative change in a people's say of life. Focusing on a rural coastal valley and bay ecosystem in St. Lucia, a Windward Island in the Lesser Antilles, this research distinguished three separate stages in this ecosystem's economic development and examines the consequences of these economic transitions on a single rural village and group of fisherman living within it. The economic stages described begin with the terminal era of sugar cane cultivation, followed by the rationalization of commercial agriculture under translational control and the introduction of bananas, and concludes with the breaking up of the valley plantation and the introduction of a petroleum transshipment terminal. Each of these enterprises defined the valley's resources differently and each had a distinct organization of production. The relationship between hillside households and these enterprises varied accordingly. Households went from being an essential part of the productive process to being marginalized by it. Fishermen also became excluded from this environment. For these rural St. Lucians, large-scale economic development has not lead to qualitative improvement in their lives.

  3. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  4. Hydrologic Conditions and Quality of Rainfall and Storm Runoff in Agricultural and Rangeland Areas in San Patricio County, Texas, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2002-01-01

    During 2000?2001, rainfall and runoff were monitored in one mixed agricultural watershed and two rangeland watersheds in San Patricio County, located in the Coastal Bend area of South Texas. During this period, five rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for selected nutrients. Ten runoff samples from nine runoff events were collected at the three watershed monitoring stations. Runoff samples were analyzed for selected nutrients, major ions, trace elements, pesticides, and bacteria. Study area rainfall during 2000 and 2001 was 33.27 and 28.20 inches, respectively, less than the long-term average annual of 36.31 inches. Total runoff from the study area watersheds during 2000?2001 was 2.46 inches; the regional average is about 2 inches per year. Rainfall and runoff during the study period was typical of historical patterns, with periods of below average rainfall interspersed with extreme events. Three individual storm events accounted for about 29 percent of the total rainfall and 86 percent of the total runoff during 2000?2001. Runoff concentrations of nutrients, major ions, and trace elements generally were larger in the mixed agricultural watershed than runoff concentrations in the rangeland watersheds. Pesticides were detected in two of eight runoff samples. Three pesticides (atrazine, deethylatrazine, and trifluralin) were detected in very small concentrations; only deethylatrazine was detected in a concentration greater than the laboratory minimum reporting level. Bacteria in agricultural and rangeland runoff is a potential water-quality concern as all fecal coliform and E. coli densities in the runoff samples exceeded Texas Surface Water Quality Standards for receiving waters. However, runoff and relatively large bacteria densities represent very brief and infrequent conditions, and the effect on downstream water is not known. Rainfall deposition is a major source of nitrogen delivered to the study area. Rainfall nitrogen (mostly ammonia and nitrate

  5. Groundwater economics: An object-oriented foundation for integrated studies of irrigated agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, David R.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.; Yang, Xiaoying; Bulatewicz, Tom; Herrera-Rodriguez, Mauricio; Mao, Dazhi; Hendricks, Nathan

    2009-05-01

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater wells and agricultural parcels is employed to couple these models using geographic information science technology and open modeling interface protocols. This approach is used to study the collective action problem of the common pool. Three different policies (existing, regulation, and incentive based) are studied in the semiarid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer in the central United States. Results show that while regulation using the prior appropriation doctrine and incentives using a water buy-back program may each achieve the same level of water savings across the study region, each policy has a different impact on spatial patterns of groundwater declines and farm level economic activity. This represents the first time that groundwater and econometric models of irrigated agriculture have been integrated at the well-parcel level and provides methods for scientific investigation of this coupled natural-human system. Results are useful for science to inform decision making and public policy debate.

  6. Modelling the economic consequences of the EU Water Framework Directive for Dutch agriculture.

    PubMed

    Helming, John; Reinhard, Stijn

    2009-10-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires member states to take measures to ensure that bodies of water will be in good chemical and ecological condition by 2015. Important measures to achieve this goal include reducing emissions of nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P(2)O(5)) from manure and mineral fertilizers into the environment. In regions with a high livestock density, this measure is expected to affect agricultural production and income. To quantify these effects, an environmental economic model is required that can assess alternatives capable of reducing N and P(2)O(5) potential emissions to water. In this paper, we develop a model that is capable of analysing changes in potential emissions to water of N and P(2)O(5) and apply it to the Netherlands, a country with large nutrient emissions. Compared to a 2015 reference scenario based on current efforts to reduce nutrient emissions, we found that the WFD measures will increase regional transport and export of manure and reduce the number of animals in the Netherlands. Fodder adjustments (defined as lower N and P(2)O(5) input in purchased fodder) to decrease nutrient excretion in manure were a less attractive option than amongst others export, transportation of manure to another region, land use changes or reduction of the number of livestock. Compared to the reference scenario in 2015, total agricultural income will decrease by about 81.5 million euros per year (about 49 euros /ha per year), although the effects will differ among parts of the Netherlands and agricultural sectors. The average predicted decrease in N emissions from agricultural sites, vulnerable to leaching into bodies of water will be almost 20% or approximately 14.7 kg N/ha per year. The reduction in N emissions to air from animal sheds, manure storage systems, application of animal manure and mineral fertilisers to the crops and grazing animals equals 6.5% or 5 kg ammonia (NH(3)) per hectare. PMID:19716645

  7. The utility of ERTS-1 data for applications in agriculture and forestry. [Montana, Nebraska, Iowa, Georgia, California, and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive study has been undertaken to determine the extent to which ERTS-1 data could be used to detect, identify (classify), locate and measure features of applications interest in the disciplines of Agriculture and Forestry. The study areas included: six counties in five states in which were located examples of the most important crops and practices of American agriculture; and a portion of the Sam Houston National Forest, a typical Gulf coastal plain pine forest. The investigation utilized conventional image interpretation and computer-aided (spectral pattern recognition) analysis using both image products and computer compatible tapes. The emphasis was generally upon the computer-aided techniques. It was concluded that ERTS-1 data can be used to detect, identify, locate and measure a wide array of features of interest in agriculture and forestry.

  8. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  9. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  10. Economical and environmental implications of solid waste compost applications to agricultural fields in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qazi, M Akram; Akram, M; Ahmad, N; Artiola, Janick F; Tuller, M

    2009-09-01

    Application of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) to agricultural soils is becoming an increasingly important global practice to enhance and sustain soil organic matter (SOM) and fertility levels. Potential risks associated with heavy metals and phosphorus accumulations in surface soils may be minimized with integrated nutrient management strategies that utilize MSWC together with mineral fertilizers. To explore the economic feasibility of MSWC applications, nutrient management plans were developed for rice-wheat and cotton-wheat cropping systems within the Punjab region of Pakistan. Three-year field trials were conducted to measure yields and to determine the economic benefits using three management strategies and two nutrient doses. Management strategies included the application of mineral fertilizers as the sole nutrient source and application of mineral fertilizers in combination with MSWC with and without pesticide/herbicide treatments. Fertilizer doses were either based on standard N, P and K recommendations or on measured site-specific soil plant available phosphorus (PAP) levels. It was found that combining MSWC and mineral fertilizer applications based on site-specific PAP levels with the use of pesticides and herbicides is an economically and environmentally viable management strategy. Results show that incorporation of MSWC improved soil physical properties such as bulk density and penetration resistance. The PAP levels in the surface layer increased by the end of the trials relative to the initial status. No potential risks of heavy metal (Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) accumulation were observed. Treatments comprised of MSWC and mineral fertilizer adjusted to site-specific PAP levels and with common pest management showed highest cumulative yields. A basic economic analysis revealed a significantly higher cumulative net profit and value-to-cost ratio (VCR) for all site-specific doses. PMID:19501499

  11. Evaluating the Mathematics Achievement Levels of Students Participating in the Texas FFA Agricultural Mechanics Career Development Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edney, Kirk Clowe

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mathematics enrichment activity used to improve the mathematics performance of students relative to participation in the State Agricultural Mechanics Career Development Event (CDE) and in mandated assessments. The treatment group (13 schools, 43 students) participated in a…

  12. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  13. Economic and energetic evaluation of alcohol fuel production from agriculture: Yolo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Meo, M.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation reviews the technical aspects of alcohol fuel production and consumption, examines the set of policy-related issues that affect both the private and the public sectors, and investigates the economic and energetic feasibility of small-scale on-farm production on a representative Sacramento Valley field and vegetable crop farm. Candidate feedstocks, including both starch and sugar-rich crops, are: barley, corn, fodder beet, grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, tomatoes, and wheat. The leading fuel crops were found to be sweet sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, corn, fodder beet, and grain sorghum in order of declining preference. With better than average crop yields and the current mix of financial incentives, the breakeven cost of alcohol fuel is $1.03 per gallon when diesel fuel and gasoline prices are $1.30 and $1.46, respectively. Without subsidy, the breakeven cost is $1.62 per gallon. An energy analysis was calculated for each of the feedstocks under consideration. With the exception of sweet sorghum, wheat, and barley, all feedstocks showed a negative net energy balance. The use of agricultural residues as a boiler fuel, however, made a significant difference in the overall energy balance. The role of government in energy policy is reviewed and typical policy instruments are discussed. Although on-farm alcohol fuel production is not currently economically competitive with gasoline and diesel fuel, technological innovation and the return of increasing petroleum prices could alter the situation.

  14. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  15. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology's report on the Petrographic, Stratigraphic, and Structural Evidence for Dissolution of Upper Permian Bedded Salt, Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Fenster, D.F.; Anderson, R.Y.; Gonzales, S.; Baker, V.R.; Edgar, D.E.; Harrison, W.

    1984-08-01

    The following recommendations for improving the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology (TBEG) report entitled Petrographic, Stratigraphic, and Structural Evidence for Dissolution of Upper Permian Bedded Salt, Texas Panhandle have been abstracted from the body of this review report. The TBEG report should be resided to conform to one of the following alternatives: (1) If the report is intended to be a review or summary of previous work, it should contain more raw data, be edited to give equal treatment to all types of data, and include summary tables and additional figures. (2) If the report is intended to be a description and interpretation of petrographic evidence for salt dissolution, supported by collateral stratigraphic and structural evidence, the relevant indirect and direct data should become the focal point of the report. The following recommendations apply to one or both of the options listed above. (1) The text should differentiate more carefully between the data and inferences based on those data. (2) The authors should retain the qualifiers present in cited works. Statements in the report that are based on earlier papers are sometimes stronger than those in the papers themselves. (3) The next revision should present more complete data. (4) The authors should achieve a more balanced presentation of alternative hypotheses and interpretations. They could then discuss the relative merits of the alternative interpretations. (5) More attention should be given to clear exposition.

  16. Reorienting Agricultural Education towards a Free Market Model Emphasizing Economic Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberson, Max L.

    Agricultural education has grown and flourished in the past because it took students with farm backgrounds and helped them become better managers and producers, thus improving agriculture in general. Now that fewer students are coming from farms into agricultural education, agricultural education has lost its protected status and become just…

  17. Structural Changes in Illinois Agriculture and Industry: Impact on Illinois School Finance. Series E. Agricultural Economics. No. 85-E-335.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicoine, David L.; Langston, Suzanne W.

    Simulation of changes through 1988-89 in the distribution of general school aid (GSA) in Illinois demonstrated implications of a dual state economy for educational finance. Agricultural and heavy manufacturing areas were found to have suffered loss of tax revenue while service and light industry areas experienced increased revenue. Downstate…

  18. Increasing organic carbon stocks in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Eriksson, Jan O.; Lundblad, Mattias; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Management changes can induce significant alterations of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Including trends in SOC within a certain land-use category can thus strongly influence the annual national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. In 2013, the European Union has therefore decided that all member states shall report the evolvement of SOC within agricultural soils to increase the incentives to mitigate climate change by improving the management of those soils. Here, we present the country and county-wise SOC trends in Swedish agricultural mineral soils on the basis of three soil inventories conducted between 1988 and 2013. In the past two decades, the average topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC content of the whole country increased from 2.48% to 2.67% representing a relative change of 7.7% or 0.38% yr-1. This is in contrast to trends observed in neighboring countries such as Norway and Finland. We attributed this positive SOC trend to the increasing cultivation of leys throughout the country. Indeed, the below-ground carbon input of perennial grasses is up to fourfold as compared to cereals, which leads to a significant soil carbon sequestration potential under cropping systems with ley. The increase in ley proportion was significantly correlated to the increase in horse population in each county (R2=0.71), which has more than doubled in the past three decades. Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area as long-term set-aside land (mostly old leys) also contributed to an increase in leys. This discloses the strong impact of rather local socio-economic trends on soil carbon storage, which also need to be considered in larger-scale model applications. This database is used in the continuous validation process of the Swedish national system for reporting changes in SOC stocks.

  19. Promotion of Physical Activity Among Mexican-Origin Women in Texas and South Carolina: An Examination of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Medina, Deborah; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K.

    2011-01-01

    Interventions to improve physical activity levels among Latinos must take into consideration the social, cultural, economic, and environmental contexts of Latino communities. We report findings of formative assessments related to Mexican-origin women’s levels of readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in regular leisure time physical activity in two diverse locations, the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley and the South Carolina Midlands. The ENLACE project employed a Community-Based Participatory Research approach. Formative assessment activities focused on identification of community assets and resources and exploration of community members’ experiences, opinions, values, preferences, and perceived needs related to physical activity. Data sources included windshield tours, walkability assessments of local neighborhoods; community inventory exercises, focus groups, and individual interviews. Barriers to regular physical activity included the dominance of work and family responsibilities, social norms, lack of social support, social isolation, environmental constraints, economics, and low levels of personal knowledge and motivation. PMID:21731409

  20. Status of Teaching Pre-Vocational Subjects in the Junior Secondary School Level (Agricultural Science and Home Economics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndem, J. U.; Akubue, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the status of teaching pre-vocational subjects in junior secondary school level. The study adopted descriptive survey method. The population of the study was 2,916, while the sample for the study was 215 pre-vocational teachers and agricultural science and home economics students. The study was carried out in Afikpo Education…

  1. A Comparison of Transfer and Nontransfer Agriculture and Home Economics Undergraduate Students: Academic Aptitude, Achievement, and Degree Persistence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of data on 82 agricultural and home economics transfer students from community colleges and 103 regular undergraduates revealed transfer students had lower academic aptitude; ag majors had higher ACT composite scores than home ec majors; transfers' cumulative quality point averages were equal to those earned by nontransfers; and transfers…

  2. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries:Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AgroAtlas is a comprehensive on-line bilingual reference on the geographic distribution of economic plants, their diseases, pests and weeds, and environmental factors that influence agricultural production through out the Former Soviet Union. Online users can read about and examine maps and ima...

  3. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen losses from cropland soil in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leip, A.; Marchi, G.; Koeble, R.; Kempen, M.; Britz, W.; Li, C.

    2007-07-01

    For the comprehensive assessment of the policy impact on greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape are important factors that must be considered. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI with the bio-geochemistry model DNDC to simulate greenhouse gas fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (greenhouse gas emissions), air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analysed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists in four steps (i) the definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii) downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii) setting up of environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv) aggregating results for interpretation. We show first results of the nitrogen budget in cropland for the area of fourteen countries of the European Union. These results, in terms of estimated nitrogen fluxes, must still be considered as illustrative as needs for improvements in input data (e.g. the soil map) and management data (yield estimates) have been identified and will be the focus of future work. Nevertheless, we highlight inter-dependencies between farmer's choices of land uses and the environmental impact of different cultivation systems.

  4. The Impacts and Economic Costs of Climate Change in Agriculture and the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, A.; Quiroga, S.; Garrote, L.; Cunningham, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides monetary estimates of the effects of agricultural adaptation to climate change in Europe. The model computes spatial crop productivity changes as a response to climate change linking biophysical and socioeconomic components. It combines available data sets of crop productivity changes under climate change (Iglesias et al 2011, Ciscar et al 2011), statistical functions of productivity response to water and nitrogen inputs, catchment level water availability, and environmental policy scenarios. Future global change scenarios are derived from several socio-economic futures of representative concentration pathways and regional climate models. The economic valuation is conducted by using GTAP general equilibrium model. The marginal productivity changes has been used as an input for the economic general equilibrium model in order to analyse the economic impact of the agricultural changes induced by climate change in the world. The study also includes the analysis of an adaptive capacity index computed by using the socio-economic results of GTAP. The results are combined to prioritize agricultural adaptation policy needs in Europe.

  5. Water-Quality Assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Pesticides in a Coastal Prairie Agricultural Area, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Agriculture is a major land use in the coastal prairie area located in the southern part of the Trinity River Basin. Crops grown in the area include rice, sorghum, and soybeans. Pesticide- use estimates for the area show that compounds with the highest use are the herbicides: molinate, propanil, thiobencarb, metolachlor, acifluorfen, bentazon, and atrazine and the insecticides: carbaryl and methyl parathion. More than 20 pesticide samples collected from each of three streams in the coastal prairie resulted in detections of 29 different pesticide compounds. The most frequently detected compounds were the herbicides: atrazine, metolachlor, and molinate, which were detected in more than 75 percent of the samples. Herbicides were detected more frequently than insecticides. Maximum concentrations of atrazine, metolachlor, and molinate occurred in the spring and were 4, 1.9, and 200 micrograms per liter (?g/L), respectively. Almost all concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor were below drinking water standards; no standard is available for molinate. Concentrations and estimated loads and percent of applied compound lost to the streams were generally higher in the watersheds where more of the pesticides were applied to crops.

  6. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    SciTech Connect

    Mccarl, Bruce A.; Schneider, Uwe; Murray, Brian; Williams, Jimmy; Sands, Ronald D.

    2001-05-14

    This paper examines the relative contribution of agricultural and forestry activities in an emission reduction program, focusing in part on the relative desirability of sequestration in forests and agricultural soils. The analysis considers the effects of competition for land and other resources between agricultural activities, forestry activities and traditional production. In addition, the paper examines the influence of saturation and volatility.

  7. Hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Fernandez, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two primarily agricultural subwatersheds of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is about 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed tributary to Oso Creek (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is about 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during the study period October 2005-September 2008. Seventeen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Twenty-four composite runoff water-quality samples (12 at West Oso Creek, 12 at Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-six discrete suspended-sediment samples (12 West Oso Creek, 14 Oso Creek tributary) and 17 bacteria samples (10 West Oso Creek, 7 Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the two subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the two subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff from the two subwatersheds occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 13.95 inches compared with 9.45 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 3

  8. Hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek Watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two (primarily) agricultural areas (subwatersheds) of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed Oso Creek tributary (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during October 2005-September 2007. Fourteen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Nineteen composite runoff samples (10 West Oso Creek, nine Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-two discrete suspended-sediment samples (10 West Oso Creek, 12 Oso Creek tributary) and 13 bacteria samples (eight West Oso Creek, five Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the study subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff at both subwatershed outlet sites occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 10.83 inches compared with 7.28 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 2-year study period averaged 2.61 pounds

  9. The system-wide economics of a carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage network: Texas Gulf Coast with pure CO2-EOR flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Carey W.; Gülen, Gürcan; Cohen, Stuart M.; Nuñez-Lopez, Vanessa

    2013-09-01

    This letter compares several bounding cases for understanding the economic viability of capturing large quantities of anthropogenic CO2 from coal-fired power generators within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas electric grid and using it for pure CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the onshore coastal region of Texas along the Gulf of Mexico. All captured CO2 in excess of that needed for EOR is sequestered in saline formations at the same geographic locations as the oil reservoirs but at a different depth. We analyze the extraction of oil from the same set of ten reservoirs within 20- and five-year time frames to describe how the scale of the carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) network changes to meet the rate of CO2 demand for oil recovery. Our analysis shows that there is a negative system-wide net present value (NPV) for all modeled scenarios. The system comes close to breakeven economics when capturing CO2 from three coal-fired power plants to produce oil via CO2-EOR over 20 years and assuming no CO2 emissions penalty. The NPV drops when we consider a larger network to produce oil more quickly (21 coal-fired generators with CO2 capture to produce 80% of the oil within five years). Upon applying a CO2 emissions penalty of 602009/tCO2 to fossil fuel emissions to ensure that coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture remain in baseload operation, the system economics drop significantly. We show near profitability for the cash flow of the EOR operations only; however, this situation requires relatively cheap electricity prices during operation.

  10. Evaluating the relative impact of climate and economic changes on forest and agricultural ecosystem services in mountain regions.

    PubMed

    Briner, Simon; Elkin, Ché; Huber, Robert

    2013-11-15

    Provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) in mountainous regions is predicted to be influenced by i) the direct biophysical impacts of climate change, ii) climate mediated land use change, and iii) socioeconomic driven changes in land use. The relative importance and the spatial distribution of these factors on forest and agricultural derived ES, however, is unclear, making the implementation of ES management schemes difficult. Using an integrated economic-ecological modeling framework, we evaluated the impact of these driving forces on the provision of forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region of southern Switzerland. Results imply that forest ES will be strongly influenced by the direct impact of climate change, but that changes in land use will have a comparatively small impact. The simulation of direct impacts of climate change affects forest ES at all elevations, while land use changes can only be found at high elevations. In contrast, changes to agricultural ES were found to be primarily due to shifts in economic conditions that alter land use and land management. The direct influence of climate change on agriculture is only predicted to be substantial at high elevations, while socioeconomic driven shifts in land use are projected to affect agricultural ES at all elevations. Our simulation results suggest that policy schemes designed to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on forests should focus on suitable adaptive management plans, accelerating adaptation processes for currently forested areas. To maintain provision of agricultural ES policy needs to focus on economic conditions rather than on supporting adaptation to new climate. PMID:23995509

  11. Texas Irrigation Situation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The irrigation situation in Texas is an interaction between hydrology and water policies. In 2012, according to National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) four High Plains counties, Gainesville, Yoakum, Terry and Cochran, accounted for approximately 60% of the 150,000 acres of peanut productio...

  12. Using Coupled Hydrologic and Agro-economic Models to Evaluate the Impact of Agricultural Activity on Streamflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugger, D. R.; Maneta, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation substantially alters the timing and magnitude of surface water flows, and continued agricultural intensification to keep up with demand means perpetual stress on surface water resources. A critical challenge is to manage irrigation in a way that balances ecosystem health with sustaining agricultural economies. Coupled hydrologic-agroeconomic models are promising tools for meeting this challenge: the models can quantify 1) how water withdrawal for irrigation impacts streamflows, 2) how these impacts propagate through a surface water system, 3) how the amount of water available for irrigation changes the allocation of resources (e.g. land, water) to available crops, and 4) the impact of water availability on agricultural economies. However, these models can be very data intensive, which limits their applicability. We present a parsimonious coupled hydrologic-agroeconomic model that uses the Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) method, extensively used in agricultural resource economics, and calibrates to data on allotment of agricultural inputs, available from sources such as the USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service. PMP assumes that farmers allocate resources to maximize net revenues, justifying the use of optimality conditions to constrain the parameters of the agroeconomic model. We improve the standard PMP model by 1) having the calibrated model reproduce not only the observed input allotment but also the observed yield, and 2) using the ensemble Kalman filter equations to solve the mathematical programming problem recursively, which permits refinement of the model calibration as new observations become available. We demonstrate the proposed agroeconomic model by coupling it to HEC-HMS, a hydrologic model capable of simulating regional natural and man-made water distribution networks, to investigate the sensitivity of streamflows to the allocation of agricultural inputs (land and water) in response to changes in climatic and economic

  13. 77 FR 64794 - Cancellation of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board scheduled for October 23-25, 2012 has been cancelled. The..., and Economics Advisory Board; telephone: (202) 720-3684; fax: (202) 720-6199; or email:...

  14. Texas Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wind-Whipped Fires in East Texas     View Larger Image ... western side of the storm stoked fires throughout eastern Texas, which was already suffering from the worst one-year drought on record ...

  15. Assessment of China's economic loss resulting from the degradation of agricultural land in the end of 20th century.

    PubMed

    Hao, Fang-hua; Chang, Ying; Ning, Da-tong

    2004-01-01

    Land degradation is a consequence stemming from both natural processes and social economic activities. On the bases of analyzing general situation of agricultural land degradation in China, the monetary estimating methods such as market value method and shadow engineering method were used to quantitatively assess the economic loss resulting from land deterioration. Results showed that the economic loss in 1999 was 326.81 billion RMB Yuan, which accounted for 4.1% of GDP in the same year of China. If taking five items namely farmland conversion, soil erosion, salinization, decline in reservoir functions, and siltation in waterways and, comparing with that in 1992, the percentage of economic loss to GDP has increased by 1.5 in the only 7 years. PMID:15137638

  16. Using U-series Isotopes To Determine Sources Of Pedogenic Carbonates: Comparison Of Natural And Agricultural Soils In The Semi-arid Southern New Mexico And Western Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Borrok, D. M.; Jin, L.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Pedogenic carbonates commonly precipitate from infiltrating soil water in arid and semi-arid lands and are observed in soils of southern New Mexico and western Texas. These carbonates could form an impermeable layer in the soil horizons impairing water infiltration, thus affecting crop growth and yield. It is important to determine the source of C and Ca in these carbonates and to understand conditions favoring their formation, kinetics and precipitation rates. In this study, major elements and U-series isotopes in bulk calcic soils, and weak acid leachates and residues were measured from one irrigated alfalfa site in the Hueco basin near El Paso, TX and one natural shrubland site on the USDA Jornada experimental range in southern NM. The combined geochemical and isotopic results allow us to determine the formation ages of the carbonates; investigate the mobility of U, Th, and major elements in these soils; and infer for the effects of irrigation on carbonate formation in agricultural soils. Our results show distinctive U and Th isotope systems in the two soil profiles analyzed. For example, (234U/238U) ratios in the Jornada bulk soils decrease from ~1.01 to 0.96 towards the surface, consistent with a preferential loss of 234U over 238U during chemical weathering. At the Jornada site, (238U/232Th) ratios decrease while (230Th/238U) increase towards the surface, consistent with a general depletion of U and the immobility of Th in the natural soils. By contrast at the Alfalfa site, (234U/238U) ratios of bulk soils increase from ~ 0.97 to 1.02 towards the surface, suggesting an additional source of external uranium, most likely the irrigation water from Rio Grande which has a (234U/238U) ratio of ~ 1.5 near El Paso. The (238U/232Th) and (230Th/238U) ratios also imply leaching of U from shallower soils but precipitation in greater depths at Alfalfa site; suggests that partial dissolution and re-precipitation of younger carbonates occur. Calculated carbonate ages from U

  17. Integrated Modeling to Assess the Impacts of Changes in Climate and Socio Economics on Agriculture in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Malek, K.; Nelson, R.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the impacts of climate change and socio economics on agriculture in the Columbia River basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. and a portion of Southwestern Canada. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of CRB water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area. Agriculture is an important component of the region's economy, with an annual value over 5 billion in Washington State alone. Therefore, the region is relevant for applying a modeling framework that can aid agriculture decision making in the context of a changing climate. To do this, we created an integrated biophysical and socio-economic regional modeling framework that includes human and natural systems. The modeling framework captures the interactions between climate, hydrology, crop growth dynamics, water management and socio economics. The biophysical framework includes a coupled macro-scale physically-based hydrology model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC model), and crop growth model (CropSyst), as well as a reservoir operations simulation model. Water rights data and instream flow target requirements are also incorporated in the model to simulate the process of curtailment during water shortage. The economics model informs the biophysical model of the short term agricultural producer response to water shortage as well as the long term agricultural producer response to domestic growth and international trade in terms of an altered cropping pattern. The modeling framework was applied over the CRB for the historical period 1976-2006 and compared to a future 30-year period centered on the 2030s. Impacts of climate change on irrigation water availability, crop irrigation demand, frequency of curtailment, and crop yields are quantified and presented. Sensitivity associated with estimates of water availability, irrigation demand, crop

  18. 75 FR 48384 - Texas Disaster #TX-00361

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00361 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Texas (FEMA-1931-DR... Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Texas: Brooks, Crockett, Dimmit Duval, Edwards, Kenedy, Kinney...

  19. Agro-ecology, household economics and malaria in Uganda: empirical correlations between agricultural and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper establishes empirical evidence relating the agriculture and health sectors in Uganda. The analysis explores linkages between agricultural management, malaria and implications for improving community health outcomes in rural Uganda. The goal of this exploratory work is to expand the evidence-base for collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors in Uganda. Methods The paper presents an analysis of data from the 2006 Uganda National Household Survey using a parametric multivariate Two-Limit Tobit model to identify correlations between agro-ecological variables including geographically joined daily seasonal precipitation records and household level malaria risk. The analysis of agricultural and environmental factors as they affect household malaria rates, disaggregated by age-group, is inspired by a complimentary review of existing agricultural malaria literature indicating a gap in evidence with respect to agricultural management as a form of malaria vector management. Crop choices and agricultural management practices may contribute to vector control through the simultaneous effects of reducing malaria transmission, improving housing and nutrition through income gains, and reducing insecticide resistance in both malaria vectors and agricultural pests. Results The econometric results show the existence of statistically significant correlations between crops, such as sweet potatoes/yams, beans, millet and sorghum, with household malaria risk. Local environmental factors are also influential- daily maximum temperature is negatively correlated with malaria, while daily minimum temperature is positively correlated with malaria, confirming trends in the broader literature are applicable to the Ugandan context. Conclusions Although not necessarily causative, the findings provide sufficient evidence to warrant purposefully designed work to test for agriculture health causation in vector management. A key constraint to modeling the

  20. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Pederson, Gregory; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Prato, Tony; Qui, Zeyuan; Williams, Jimmie R.

    2010-01-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960–2005) and future climate period (2006–2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting

  1. Investigating the Time Lag Effect between Economic Recession and Suicide Rates in Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry Workers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Junger, Washington; Kim, Boo-Wook; Kim, Young-Joo; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies on the vast increase in suicide mortality in Southeast Asia have indicated that suicide rates increase in parallel with a rise in unemployment or during periods of economic recession. This paper examines the effects of economic recession on suicidal rates amongst agriculture, fisheries, and forestry workers in Korea. Monthly time-series gross domestic product (GDP) data were linked with suicidal rates gathered from the cause of death records between1993-2008. Data were analyzed using generalized additive models to analyze trends, while a polynomial lag model was used to assess the unconstrained time lag effects of changes in GDP on suicidal rate. We found that there were significant inverse correlations between changes in GDP and suicide for a time lag of one to four months after the occurrence of economic event. Furthermore, it was evident that the overall relative risks of suicide were high enough to bring about social concern. PMID:23251845

  2. Groundwater economics: An object-oriented foundation for integrated studies of irrigated agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater we...

  3. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  4. Economic Analysis of Energy Crop Production in the U.S. - Location, Quantities, Price, and Impacts on Traditional Agricultural Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.E.; De La Torre Ugarte, D.; Slinsky, S.; Graham, R.L.; Shapouri, H.; Ray, D.

    1998-10-04

    POLYSYS is used to estimate US locations where, for any given energy crop price, energy crop production can be economically competitive with conventional crops. POLYSYS is a multi-crop, multi-sector agricultural model developed and maintained by the University of Tennessee and used by the USDA-Economic Research Service. It includes 305 agricultural statistical districts (ASD) which can be aggregated to provide state, regional, and national information. POLYSYS is being modified to include switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow on all land suitable for their production. This paper summarizes the preliminary national level results of the POLYSYS analysis for selected energy crop prices for the year 2007 and presents the corresponding maps (for the same prices) of energy crop production locations by ASD. Summarized results include: (1) estimates of energy crop hectares (acres) and quantities (dry Mg, dry tons), (2) identification of traditional crops allocated to energy crop production and calculation of changes in their prices and hectares (acres) of production, and (3) changes in total net farm returns for traditional agricultural crops. The information is useful for identifying areas of the US where large quantities of lowest cost energy crops can most likely be produced.

  5. Coupled Hydro-Economic Dynamics of Groundwater Irrigated Agriculture in a Hard Rock Region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, V.; Fishman, R.; Siegfried, T. U.; Raj, P.; Vasquez, V.; Narula, K.; Lall, U.

    2009-12-01

    We analyze the dynamics of groundwater and irrigated agriculture in a semi-arid, hard rock region of India, which is characterized by low-yield, limited storativity aquifers. Telengana, in western Andhra Pradesh has witnessed a relentless expansion of the total irrigated area. Total crop irrigation water requirements have increased by more than 50 percent over the last 30 years. Nowadays, more than 80 percent of the net irrigated area in the region is irrigated from groundwater. Given limited, period monsoonal recharge to the aquifers, it can be estimated that groundwater irrigation intensity is surpassing sustainable allocation levels by a factor of 3. It is not further surprising that the region is increasingly affected by widespread groundwater depletion, with negative consequences for farmers and the energy sector as well as the natural environment. Using data on water tables, precipitation and agricultural land use, we show how both rainfall and farmers’ choices effect water tables and how these, in turn, re-effect farmers choices and agricultural outcomes in a dynamic relationship that allows us to model the interaction between the natural hydrological and agricultural-social dynamics. We use the model to elucidate and quantify the meaning of groundwater mining in this hard rock environment. In contrast to deep alluvial aquifers, excessive extraction does not lead to sustained long term deepening of the water table, but to increased fluctuations in the supply of groundwater for irrigation and the loss of the buffering capacity. For the farmers, this potentially translates into increasingly perilous agricultural production outcomes during monsoonal failures. Furthermore, the dry season agricultural production that entirely depends on the availability of sufficient amounts of irrigation water is progressively threatened under the current allocation scenario. Alternative management practices to address the aquifer depletion issues are discussed. We show that

  6. Crop diversity effects on productivity and economic returns under dryland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing crop diversity has been identified as a method to improve agronomic performance of cropping systems and increase provision of ecosystem services. However, there is a need to understand the economic performance of more diverse cropping systems. Crop productivity and economic net returns we...

  7. The Relationship between Residential Land Use Patterns and the Educational Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zandt, Shannon; Wunneburger, Douglas F.

    2011-01-01

    Disparate outcomes resulting from economic segregation in public primary schools have been the subject of much debate and litigation. Little research, however, examines whether negative outcomes may be exacerbated by inequities in the distribution of housing across metropolitan areas. This article explores connections between residential land use…

  8. The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Juan Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. Schools of today are expected to show continuous improvement in student achievement from year to year, regardless of the students' family background, ethnicity, or…

  9. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Agricultural Economics. Planning for Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Michael; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on farm management for energy savings was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their…

  10. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  11. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…

  12. A Study of the Aquaculture Industry in Texas to Assist in Establishing Aquaculture as a Course Offering in Agricultural Science and Technology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, John; And Others

    A 1989-90 project determined the knowledge and skills necessary for employment in the aquaculture industry. The study identified technical materials and other resources available in private industry and higher education institutions. Two surveys determined the status of aquaculture in Texas school districts and identified tasks performed by…

  13. Satellite-guided hydro-economic analysis for integrated management and prediction of the impact of droughts on agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta, M. P.; Howitt, R.; Kimball, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural activity can exacerbate or buffer the impact of climate variability, especially droughts, on the hydrologic and socioeconomic conditions of rural areas. Potential negative regional impacts of droughts include impoverishment of agricultural regions, deterioration or overuse of water resources, risk of monoculture, and regional dependence on external food markets. Policies that encourage adequate management practices in the face of adverse climatic events are critical to preserve rural livelihoods and to ensure a sustainable future for agriculture. Diagnosing and managing drought effects on agricultural production, on the social and natural environment, and on limited water resources, is highly complex and interdisciplinary. The challenges that decision-makers face to mitigate the impact of water shortage are social, agronomic, economic and environmental in nature and therefore must be approached from an integrated multidisciplinary point of view. Existing observation technologies, in conjunction with models and assimilation methods open the opportunity for novel interdisciplinary analysis tools to support policy and decision making. We present an integrated modeling and observation framework driven by satellite remote sensing and other ancillary information from regional monitoring networks to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of drought impacts on agricultural production, water resources, management decisions and socioeconomic policy. The core of this framework is a hydroeconomic model of agricultural production that assimilates remote sensing inputs to quantify the amount of land, water, fertilizer and labor farmers allocate for each crop they choose to grow on a seasonal basis in response to changing climatic conditions, including drought. A regional hydroclimatologic model provides biophysical constraints to an economic model of agricultural production based on a class of models referred to as positive mathematical programming (PMP

  14. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationship. Volume II--Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane; Stanton, Marge

    Information on the supply of new college graduates seeking home economics-related positions, home economics job openings, and projected levels of employment is presented. Based on a Department of Agriculture manpower assessment project, supply and demand relationships through 1990 were analyzed, and supply data were aggregated by 11 educational…

  15. The Texas Twin Project

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Tackett, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic position, racial/ethnic minority status, and other characteristics of the macro-environment may be important moderators of genetic influence on a wide array of psychosocial outcomes. Designed to maximize representation of low socioeconomic status families and racial/ethnic minorities, the Texas Twin Project is an on-going study of school-age twins (preschool through 12th grade) enrolled in public schools in the Austin, Texas and Houston, Texas metropolitan areas. School rosters are used to identify twin families from a target population with sizable populations of African-American (18%), Hispanic / Latino (48%), and non-Hispanic White (27%) children and adolescents, over half of whom meet U.S. guidelines for classification as economically disadvantaged. Initial efforts have focused on a large-scale, family-based survey study involving both parent and child reports of personality, psychopathology, physical health, academic interests, parent-child relationships, and aspects of the home environment. In addition, the Texas Twin Project is the basis for an in-laboratory study of adolescent decision-making, delinquency, and substance use. Future directions include geographic expansion of the sample to the entire state of Texas (with a population of over 25 million people) and genotyping of participating twins. PMID:23111007

  16. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, Benjamin; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295–728 million annually. PMID:27441108

  17. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Waterhouse, Benjamin; Boyer, Stephane; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295-728 million annually. PMID:27441108

  18. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen and carbon losses from arable soils in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leip, A.; Marchi, G.; Koeble, R.; Kempen, M.; Britz, W.; Li, C.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of policy impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural soils requires careful consideration of both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact assessment) with the biogeochemistry model DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition) to simulate GHG fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on a wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (GHG emissions), air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analyzed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists of four steps: (i) definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii) downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii) designing environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv) aggregating results for interpretation. We show the first results of the nitrogen budget in croplands in fourteen countries of the European Union and discuss possibilities to improve the detailed assessment of nitrogen and carbon fluxes from European arable soils.

  19. Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

  20. The U.S. Soybean Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 588.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, James; And Others

    This report describes the U.S. soybean industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on soybeans. Highlights are as follows: U.S. soybean production has increased sevenfold since 1950, making soybeans the second highest valued crop after corn. Soybean production has risen in response to…

  1. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  2. Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

  3. THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE OF 1966, A STATISTICAL REPORT. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REPORT NO. 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    INFORMATION ON THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE, AND ON THE EMPLOYMENT AND CASH EARNINGS FROM FARM AND NONFARM WAGE WORK FOR 1966 IS PRESENTED. THE DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM THE ANNUAL SURVEY CONDUCTED FOR THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE BY THE BUREAU OF CENSUS. THE SAMPLE INCLUDED APPROXIMATELY 35,000 HOUSEHOLDS INTERVIEWED…

  4. Economic analysis of small-scale agricultural digesters in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic digestion is a manure treatment option that is gaining popularity throughout the world due to its multiple environmental and economic benefits. However, further research is needed for anaerobic technology to become more readily available, cost effective and manageable for small-scale to m...

  5. Food Stamp Participation of Hired Farmworker Families. Agriculture Economic Report No. 403.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leslie Whitener; Rowe, Gene

    The Food Stamp Program allows low-income households to purchase a nutritionally adequate diet through normal channels of trade. Because of the generally low income of hired farmworkers, food stamp assistance is an important addition to the economic and nutritional status of these workers and their families. This report presents a socioeconomic…

  6. Balancing limiting factors and economic drivers for sustainable midwestern U.S. agricultural residue feedstock supplies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading the soil and other natural resources. This review examine...

  7. An Economic Study of the Investment Effects of Education in Agriculture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Edgar A.; And Others

    To determine the absolute economic return to adult farm business management education, the diminishing marginal return effect from added increments of education, and benefit-cost ratio of the educational program for participants and the sponsoring community, data were collected from 3,578 farm business records representing farmers enrolled in farm…

  8. Economic Benefits of Predictive Models for Pest Control in Agricultural Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various forms of crop models or decision making tools for managing crops have existed for many years. The potential advantage of all of these decision making tools is that more informed and economically improved crop management or decision making is accomplished. However, examination of some of thes...

  9. The U.S. Oats Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 573.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Linwood A.; Livezey, Janet

    This report describes the United States oats industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on oats. Background information on oats is provided first. The report then examines the basic factors of supply, demand, and price to determine what caused the decline in the importance of oats and…

  10. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Eriksson, J.; Lundblad, M.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-03-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past two decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988-1997 (Inventory I), 2001-2007 (Inventory II) and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III), and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr-1) over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72). Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys) also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  11. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Eriksson, J.; Lundblad, M.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past 2 decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988-1997 (Inventory I), 2001-2007 (Inventory II) and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III), and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr-1) over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72). Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys) also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  12. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI): methodology and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatewicz, T.; Yang, X.; Peterson, J. M.; Staggenborg, S.; Welch, S. M.; Steward, D. R.

    2010-03-01

    Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI). This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  13. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI): methodology and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatewicz, T.; Yang, X.; Peterson, J. M.; Staggenborg, S.; Welch, S. M.; Steward, D. R.

    2009-11-01

    Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI). This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  14. Applications of remote sensing to precision agriculture with dual economic and environmental benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, George; Laguette, Soizik; Seelan, Santhosh K.; Lawrence, Rick; Nielsen, Gerald A.; Clay, David; Dalsted, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    In the U.S. Northern Great Plains, growing seasons are short but extremely productive. Farms and ranches are large, so many of precision agriculture's early adopters reside in the region. Crop yield maps at season's end reveal sizable variations across fields. Farm management relying upon uniform chemical applications is ineffective and wasteful. We provided information about crop and range status in near- real-time, so that in-season decisions could be made to optimize final yields and minimize environmental degradation. We created learning communities, in which information is shared among scientists, farmers, ranchers, and data providers. The new information for agricultural producers was satellite and aerial imagery. Value-added information was derived from ETM+, AVHRR, IKONOS, and MIDOS sensors. The emphasis was on reducing the time between acquisition of data by a satellite and delivery of value-added products to farmers and ranchers. To distribute large spatial data sets in short times to rural users we relied upon satellite transmission (Direct PC). Results include: (1) management zone delineation, (2) variable-rate fertilizer applications, (3) weed detection, (4) irrigation efficiency determination, (5) detection of insect infestation, (6) specification of crop damage due to inadvertent chemical application, and (7) determination of livestock carrying capabilities on rangelands.

  15. Economic Impact of Water Allocation on Agriculture in the Lower Chattahoochee River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Paudel, Krishna P.; Musleh, Fuad; Cruise, James F.; Hatch, L. Upton

    2004-01-01

    The relative value of irrigation water was assessed for three important crops (corn, cotton, and peanuts) grown in the southeastern United States. A decision tool was developed with the objective of allocating limited available water among competing crops in a manner that would maximize the economic returns to the producers. The methodology was developed and tested for a hypothetical farm located in Henry County, Alabama in the Chattahoochee river basin. Crop yield - soil moisture response functions were developed using Monte Carlo simulated data for cotton, corn, and peanuts. A hydrologic model was employed to simulate runoff over the period of observed rainfall the county to provide inflows to storage facilities that could be used as constraints for the optimal allocation of the available water in the face of the uncertainty of future rainfall and runoff. Irrigation decisions were made on a weekly basis during the critical water deficit period in the region. An economic optimization model was employed with the crop responses, and soil moisture functions to determine the optimum amount of water place on each crop subject to the amount of irrigation water availability and climatic uncertainty. The results indicated even small amounts of irrigation could significantly benefit farmers in the region if applied judiciously. A weekly irrigation sequence was developed that maintained the available water on the crops that exhibited the most significant combination of water sensitivity and cash value.

  16. Developing Livestock Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C; Robertson, A; Hullinger, P

    2006-10-24

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of livestock diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each livestock facility within the US. At the present time, the only national database of livestock facilities that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data.' The NASS data provides facility data at the county level for various livestock types (i.e., beef cows, milk cows, cattle on feed, other cattle, total hogs and pigs, sheep and lambs, milk goats, and angora goats). However, the number and sizes of facilities for the various livestock types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of livestock, and some livestock are of more than one type (e.g., 'other cattle' that are being fed for slaughter are also 'cattle on feed'). In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of animals or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D.'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or animals. At the same time, it must account for all the animals, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual livestock operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national livestock facility database with twenty-eight facility types. The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed within the NASS database. The second step converts the NASS livestock types into the operational facility

  17. Economic evaluation and conceptual design of optimal agricultural systems for production of food and energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    The major technical and economic considerations which determined the scope of the study and the structure of the linear programming (LP) models are discussed. Four models, each representing a typical crop, beef, dairy, or swine farm in conjunction with ethanol facilities are characterized by the same general behavioral and mathematical model structure. Specific activities, constraints, and data for each of the four models are presented. An overview of the model structure is provided in the context of the general scope and background assumptions, and of its LP implementation. Simulated initial conditions and outcomes are reported for typical Illinois farms. Policy implications are discussed as related to agriculture, energy, and inter-industry coordination. (MHR)

  18. Seeking Solutions for Tomorrow's Challenges. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (13th, Dallas, Texas, December 5, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Alan A., Ed.

    This proceedings volume contains a total of 39 papers. The following 28 selected titles are cited as those most clearly relevant to education: "A National Study of Teacher Educators and State Supervisors in Agricultural Education" (Foster, Horner); "A Profile of the Effective Vocational Agriculture Teacher" (Rheault, Miller); "Analysis of Needs:…

  19. An Analysis of Induction-Year Agricultural Education Teachers' Attitude toward Teaching during the 2011-2012 School Year in Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shannon Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Teacher shortages are a critical issue for education, and agricultural education has not been exempt from this trend. Many factors possibly contribute to this lack of qualified teachers. Researchers suggest that retention practices, stress factors associated with agricultural education, and job satisfaction may be areas for improvement within the…

  20. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  1. Climate, Health, Agricultural and Economic Impacts of Tighter Vehicle-Emission Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; VanDingen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-01-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  2. Energy potential from livestock and poultry wastes in the South. Agricultural Economic Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H.B.; Ogden, E.A.

    1984-11-01

    Livestock and poultry wastes could produce significant amounts of biomass energy if conventional energy prices continue to rise. This study estimates the economically recoverable energy available through anaerobic digestion or direct burning of animal wastes in the South for the base year 1980 with projections for 1985 and 1990. Potential thermal energy from livestock and poultry wastes in 1990 could total more than 79.5 trillion Btu, or about 30 percent of the energy from such sources nationwide. The total potential farm value of biomass energy from livestock and poultry enterprises in the South could range from $344 million to $1.08 billion in 1990 depending upon the types of conventional energy displaced. Energy products from these wastes attained their highest value when substituted for LP gas.

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Nutrients in streams draining an agricultural and an urban area, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.; Shipp, Allison A.

    1996-01-01

    Water samples collected from streams draining an agricultural area in the west-central part of the Trinity River Basin upstream from the Richland-Chambers Reservoir and from streams draining an urban area in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area during March 1993 - September 1995 were analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds). A comparison of the data for agricultural and urban streams shows the maximum concentration of total nitrogen is from an urban stream and the maximum concentration of total phosphorus is from an agricultural stream. One-half of the samples have total nitrogen concentrations equal to or less than 1.1 and 1.0 milligrams per liter in the agricultural and urban streams, respectively; and one-half of the samples have total phosphorous concentrations equal to or less than 0.04 and 0.05 milligram per liter in the agricultural and urban streams, respectively. The highest concentrations of total nitrogen in both types of streams are in the spring. The minimum concentrations of total nitrogen are during the summer in the agricultural streams and during the winter in the urban streams. Concentrations of total phosphorus in agricultural streams show negligible seasonal variability. The highest concentrations of total phosphorus are in spring and possibly late summer in the urban streams. In the midrange of streamflow in the urban streams and throughout the range of streamflow in the agricultural streams, concentrations of total nitrogen increase. Concentrations of total phosphorus increase with streamflow in the middle and upper ranges of streamflow in both agricultural and urban streams.

  4. Environmental economics reality check: a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project.

    PubMed

    Isla, Ana; Thompson, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project in the Arenal Conservation Area, Costa Rica. Microenterprise is the Sustainable Development and the Women in Development model for gender equity and environment of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and large non-government organizations, like the World Wildlife Fund-Canada. The authors of this paper argue that debt-for-nature investment in microenterprise and ecological economic models are not distinct from neoclassical economic and development models that created the environmental, social and cultural crises in the first place. This case study shows that the world market accommodates only one model of development: unsustainable export-oriented production based on flexible labour markets, low wages, indebtedness and low cost production. Working standards in those micro-enterprises are eroded due to many factors,including indebtedness. What happened at a national level in non-industrial countries with the international debt crisis is now mirrored in individual indebtedness through microenterprise. Is current development policy creating a new form of indentured servitude? Medicinal plants, prior to commodification, were a source of women's power and upon commodification in international development projects, are the source of their exploitation. PMID:12859005

  5. Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osters, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Texas A&M University is a research extensive institution located in College Station. More than 45,000 students attend the university (about 20% are graduate or professional students). Academically, the university is known for its engineering, business, and agricultural and veterinary medicine programs, although there are more than 150 programs of…

  6. The economic impact of climate change on Kenyan crop agriculture: A Ricardian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Karanja, Fredrick K.

    2007-06-01

    This paper measures the economic impact of climate on crops in Kenya. We use cross-sectional data on climate, hydrological, soil and household level data for a sample of 816 households. We estimate a seasonal Ricardian model to assess the impact of climate on net crop revenue per acre. The results show that climate affects crop productivity. There is a non-linear relationship between temperature and revenue on one hand and between precipitation and revenue on the other. Estimated marginal impacts suggest that global warming is harmful for crop productivity. Predictions from global circulation models confirm that global warming will have a substantial impact on net crop revenue in Kenya. The results also show that the temperature component of global warming is much more important than precipitation. Findings call for monitoring of climate change and dissemination of information to farmers to encourage adaptations to climate change. Improved management and conservation of available water resources, water harvesting and recycling of wastewater could generate water for irrigation purposes especially in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  7. Dynamic adjustment in agricultural practices to economic incentives aiming to decrease fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shanxia; Delgado, Michael S; Sesmero, Juan P

    2016-07-15

    Input- and output-based economic policies designed to reduce water pollution from fertilizer runoff by adjusting management practices are theoretically justified and well-understood. Yet, in practice, adjustment in fertilizer application or land allocation may be sluggish. We provide practical guidance for policymakers regarding the relative magnitude and speed of adjustment of input- and output-based policies. Through a dynamic dual model of corn production that takes fertilizer as one of several production inputs, we measure the short- and long-term effects of policies that affect the relative prices of inputs and outputs through the short- and long-term price elasticities of fertilizer application, and also the total time required for different policies to affect fertilizer application through the adjustment rates of capital and land. These estimates allow us to compare input- and output-based policies based on their relative cost-effectiveness. Using data from Indiana and Illinois, we find that input-based policies are more cost-effective than their output-based counterparts in achieving a target reduction in fertilizer application. We show that input- and output-based policies yield adjustment in fertilizer application at the same speed, and that most of the adjustment takes place in the short-term. PMID:27100331

  8. Developing Poultry Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C

    2007-12-05

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of poultry diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each poultry type operation within the US. At the present time, the only national database of poultry operations that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data'. The NASS data provides census data at the county level on poultry operations for various operation types (i.e., layers, broilers, turkeys, ducks, geese). However, the number of farms and sizes of farms for the various types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of operation. Furthermore, some data on the number of birds represents the number sold, which does not represent the number of birds present at any given time. In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of birds or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or birds. At the same time, it must account for all the birds, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual poultry operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national poultry facility database with twenty-six facility types (7 egg-laying, 6 broiler, 1 backyard, 3 turkey, and 9 others, representing ducks, geese, ostriches, emus, pigeons, pheasants, quail, game fowl breeders and 'other'). The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed

  9. An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38

  10. Why Do Global Long-term Scenarios for Agriculture Differ? An overview of the AgMIP Global Economic Model Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    von Lampe, Martin; Willenbockel, Dirk; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Cai, Yongxia; Calvin, Katherine V.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Nelson, Gerald; Sands, Ronald; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; van Meijl, Hans

    2013-12-02

    Recent studies assessing plausible futures for agricultural markets and global food security have had contradictory outcomes. Ten global economic models that produce long-term scenarios were asked to compare a reference scenario with alternate socio-economic, climate change and bioenergy scenarios using a common set of key drivers. Results suggest that, once general assumptions are harmonized, the variability in general trends across models declines, and that several common conclusions are possible. Nonetheless, differences in basic model parameters, sometimes hidden in the way market behavior is modeled, result in significant differences in the details. This holds for both the common reference scenario and for the various shocks applied. We conclude that agro-economic modelers aiming to inform the agricultural and development policy debate require better data and analysis on both economic behavior and biophysical drivers. More interdisciplinary modeling efforts are required to cross-fertilize analyses at different scales.

  11. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96€ before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO3-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N2O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. PMID:27471980

  12. 7 CFR 457.106 - Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106 Section 457.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. The...

  13. Texas Almanac Teacher's Guide, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barringer, Betty; Ferguson, Sharon; Haynes, Beverly; Jacobs, Margaret; Jameson, Eugenia E.; Massey, Linda; Moran, Rebecca; Wilson, Ann

    This interdisciplinary guide utilizes the subject matter in the 2002-2003 "Texas Almanac" to help classroom educators teach students in grades three to eight about the social, economic, cultural, and historical background of Texas. The guide has questions, puzzles, and activities that teachers can use to inform their students about the Lone Star…

  14. 7 CFR 457.106 - Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. The Texas Citrus Tree Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011...

  15. 7 CFR 457.106 - Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. The Texas Citrus Tree Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1999...

  16. 7 CFR 457.106 - Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. The Texas Citrus Tree Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011...

  17. Texas School Dropout Survey Project: A Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robledo, Maria del Refugio, Ed.

    This report summarizes the results of a large-scale study of the dropout problem in Texas. The report is divided into three major sections which deal with these questions, respectively: (1) What is the magnitude of the dropout problem in Texas? (2) What is the economic impact of the dropout problem for Texas? and (3) What is the nature and…

  18. Research, Education, and Economics Information System: An Engine for Strategic Planning and Information Policy Development at the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes the implementation of a strategic information policy audit as a key component in the development of the Research, Education, and Economics Information System (REEIS) at the Department of Agriculture that helps analyze the organization's infrastructure. Discusses the process as a generalized systems model for organizational research.…

  19. a Reflective Perspective Towards Agricultural Information-Based System Development in General Rural China and Farmers' Economic Association as the Entry Point of Icts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Miao; Zuo, Ting; Leninhan, Eamon

    The information-based agricultural system plays a profound role in agricultural economic and social development in long term. There are various practices worldwide, both successful and unsuccessful. In recent years new technologies blossomed, if those new technologies succeed in the developed world, does it hold true for China? The alternative choices in informationbased system development should be noticed in China. This article argues that China’s development policy should choose the way that adapts to China’s circumstances, not totally adopt the western way. In the current situation of general rural China, the theme of information-based agricultural system needs to be further addressed. It is suggested that the Farmers’ Economic Association can be considered as one of the most accessible entry-points for further development way.

  20. The importance of natural habitats to Brazilian free-tailed bats in intensive agricultural landscapes in the Winter Garden Region of Texas, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of natural lands to agriculture affects the distribution of biological diversity across the landscape. In particular, cropland monocultures alter insect abundance and diversity compared to adjacent natural habitats, but nevertheless can provide large numbers of insect pests as prey i...

  1. PROCEEDINGS OF ANNUAL SOUTHERN REGIONAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION, "TOOLING UP FOR RESEARCH," (13TH, TEXAS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE, JULY 29-31, 1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEACH, T.L.; WEBB, EARL

    THE PURPOSES OF THE CONFERENCE WERE TO CONSIDER PROBLEMS IN IMPLEMENTING AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION RESEARCH AND TO STUDY RECENT RESEARCH FINDINGS. TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, COLLEGE PROFESSORS, CHAIRMEN, DIRECTORS AND DEANS, REPRESENTATIVES FROM INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT, TEACHERS, AND A SCHOOL ADMINISTRATOR WERE AMONG THE 42 PARTICIPANTS.…

  2. The State of Texas Children: 2003. Texas Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Center for Public Policy Priorities.

    This Kids Count report details trends in the well-being of children in Texas. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of: (1) family and community population; (2) economic resources, security, and opportunity; (3) early care and education; (4) school success; (5) teens at risk; (6) physical, social, and emotional health; (7)…

  3. Economic viability of phytoremediation of a cadmium contaminated agricultural area using energy maize. Part I: effect on the farmer's income.

    PubMed

    Thewys, T; Witters, N; Van Slycken, S; Ruttens, A; Meers, E; Tack, F M G; Vangronsveld, J

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with the economic viability of using energy maize as a phytoremediation crop in a vast agricultural area moderately contaminated with metals. The acceptance of phytoremediation as a remediation technology is, besides the extraction rate, determined by its profitability, being the effects it has on the income of the farmer whose land is contaminated. This income can be supported by producing renewable energy through anaerobic digestion of energy maize, a crop that takes up only relatively low amounts of metals, but that can be valorised as a feedstock for energy production. The effect on the income per hectare of growing energy maize instead of fodder maize seems positive, given the most likely values of variables and while keeping the basic income stable, originating from dairy cattle farming activities. We propose growing energy maize aiming at risk-reduction, and generating an alternative income for farmers, yet in the long run also generating a gradual reduction of the pollution levels. In this way, remediation is demoted to a secondary objective with sustainable risk-based land use as primary objective. PMID:21166274

  4. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  5. The Texas Economy: Potential for Job Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Katy; And Others

    Designed for use as a resource by state and local level vocational education professionals and policymakers, this report provides information pertaining to the current economic conditions within Texas, the nature and measurement of economic activity, prevailing economic trends, and projections for the future. Outlined first are current economic…

  6. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  7. Acceptance of two US Department of Agriculture commodity whole-grain products: a school-based study in Texas and Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yen Li; Warren, Cynthia A; Sceets, Christine E; Murano, Peter; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2011-09-01

    Whole-grain intake among children and adolescents is below national recommendations, prompting efforts to increase intake in schools. The purpose of this study was to compare the acceptance of whole-grain pancakes and tortillas to refined grain counterparts when served as part of the school meal. Data were collected at 10 schools in Minnesota and seven schools in Texas during the Spring and Fall semesters of 2009. Three pancake and two tortilla products of varying red or white whole-wheat flour content were each served an average of four times per school. Aggregate plate waste was collected and percent consumption used to assess acceptance. Students rated each product on overall liking, taste, color, and softness on 5-point (elementary schools) or 9-point hedonic scales (middle and high schools). Analysis of covariance was used to compare intake and rating scores of all products. For all children, intake of whole-grain products was substantial (percent consumption ranging from 67% to 75%). No differences were noted in consumption of whole-wheat pancakes compared to refined wheat pancakes, while consumption of whole-wheat tortillas was lower than refined products. In elementary schools, overall liking scores of pancakes made with red whole-wheat and both types of whole-wheat tortillas were lower than refined products. However, in middle and high schools, overall liking scores of 100% red whole-wheat pancakes and 66% white whole-wheat tortillas were similar to refined products. Substituting refined grain with whole-grain options represents a viable approach to increasing consumption of whole-grain products in schools. PMID:21872702

  8. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  9. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  10. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  11. Environmental and economic development consequences of forest and agricultural sector policies in Latin America (a synthesis of case studies of Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Bolivia)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.; Gibson, D.

    1994-04-15

    This paper draws heavily on the results of case studies in Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador to explain how sectoral policies have tilted land use decisions against forestry and in favor of agriculture, and to present estimates of the economic development effects of those decisions. The paper summarizes information on forests and forest industries of the three countries, and it describes the framework within which policies are designed. It presents the effects of sectoral policies on land use and forest management, and then quantifies and discusses economic costs of relevant sectoral policies. Conclusions and recommendations for policy reform are offered.

  12. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  13. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture, C.E.E.M.A., version 1.0, report 1: Model description

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, S.N.

    1999-09-01

    This is one of three technical reports which document an integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to simultaneously assess the economic and the greenhouse gas emission impacts of agricultural policies at the regional and national levels. After an introduction on the background to the model and on the importance of agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases, chapter 2 outlines a conceptual basis for developing a sub-model for emission of greenhouse gases. It includes the conceptual linkages between agricultural production activities and the nature of greenhouse gas emissions. An overview of the sub-model and considerations involved in its development are provided in chapter 3. Chapter 4 follows with a description of the methodology adopted in the estimation of various emission coefficients for crop and livestock production activities. Results of a baseline scenario, agricultural production in 1994 as estimated in the CRAM model, are shown in chapter 5, and results of two alternative scenarios are presented in chapter 6. The final chapter summarizes the report and discusses areas of further research.

  14. Geologic Map Database of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.

  15. Economic and Physical Modeling of Land Use in GCAM 3.0 and an Application to Agricultural Productivity, Land, and Terrestrial Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Edmonds, James A.

    2014-09-01

    We explore the impact of changes in agricultural productivity on global land use and terrestrial carbon using the new agriculture and land use modeling approach developed for Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) version 3.0. This approach models economic land use decisions with regional, physical, and technological specificity while maintaining economic and physical integration with the rest of the GCAM model. Physical land characteristics and quantities are tracked explicitly, and crop production practices are modeled discretely to facilitate coupling with physical models. Economic land allocation is modeled with non-linear functions in a market equilibrium rather than through a constrained optimization. In this paper, we explore three scenarios of future agriculture productivity in all regions of the globe over this century, ranging from a high growth to a zero growth level. The higher productivity growth scenario leads to lower crop prices, increased production of crops in developing nations, preservation of global forested lands and lower terrestrial carbon emissions. The scenario with no productivity improvement results in higher crop prices, an expansion of crop production in the developed world, loss of forested lands globally, and higher terrestrial carbon emissions.

  16. Low-Income Rural People in East Central Arkansas Face Roadblocks to Jobs. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural Economic Report No. 290.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Richard N.; And Others

    From 1967 to 1971, a total of 742 low income, rural people in east central Arkansas were trained with funds provided by the Economic Opportunity Act (Title III-B). A total of 133 of these people were interviewed and divided into the following subgroups for purposes of comparison; (1) 74 respondents (46 blacks and 28 whites) who had been and…

  17. Quality of Rural Economic Development Data. Testimony to the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation, Joint Economic Committee, Ninety-Ninth Congress (June 13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulver, Glen C.

    Although the private sector has the primary role for job generation in the U.S. market economy, local community leaders can play a significant part in creating a growth-stimulating economic environment. A comprehensive economic development strategy appropriate to a community's specific goals and conditions requires careful analysis of the…

  18. A water resource assessment of the playa lakes of the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) staff are studying the water-resource potential of playa lakes in the Texas High Plains in partnership with the U. S. Department of Agriculture— Agricultural Research Service and Texas Tech University. Phase 1 of the research seeks to measure the volume of water ...

  19. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture, C.E.E.M.A., version 1.0, report 2: Preliminary results of selected scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, S.N.

    1999-09-01

    This is one of three technical reports which document an integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to simultaneously assess the economic and the greenhouse gas emission impacts of agricultural policies at the regional and national levels. After an introduction on the importance of agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases and the need for a study of this issue, chapter 2 reviews the greenhouse gas emission model. Chapter 3 contains model-based estimates of greenhouse gas emission levels for the base year of 1990. Chapter 4 predicts future levels of emissions under medium-term baseline projections. Chapter 5 reviews some of the mitigation strategies available to Canadian farmers and assesses their impact on greenhouse emissions. Implications of trends in livestock production are also examined as a separate scenario. Using the scenarios developed in chapter 5, chapter 6 presents results of greenhouse gas emission estimates for individual gases, various production regions, and various emissions activities. The final chapter summarizes major results and discusses their implications for agricultural policy. Appendices include a description of the modelling methodology and a table showing estimates of the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions by crop and livestock production activities under various scenarios.

  20. Economic effects of subsidence from underground coal mining on agricultural land in Illinois. Open file report, 1 September 1982-30 November 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Guither, H.D.

    1984-01-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the economic impact of subsidence from underground coal mining on agricultural lands in Illinois. In a survey of Illinois agricultural extension advisers, the presence of subsidence from underground coal mining was reported in 31 counties. The most frequently reported problems were the presence of depressions or potholes, standing water in depressed areas, surface drainage disruption, broken tile lines, and reduced crop yields. The most frequently reported attempts to restore productivity from subsidence damage were to dig surface drainage ditches, haul in fill dirt, fill in depressions with tractor and blade or land leveler, and replace tile lines; success was varied. Positive identification of all subsidence occurrences and measurement of the area affected is very elusive.

  1. Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

    As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

  2. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product ‘Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  3. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  4. Agricultural residues and energy crops as potentially economical and novel substrates for microbial production of butanol (a biofuel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review describes production of acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) from a variety of agricultural residues and energy crops employing biochemical or fermentation processes. A number of organisms are available for this bioconversion including Clostridium beijerinckii P260, C. beijerinckii BA101, C. a...

  5. Accessible intergration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (Open MI): methodology and initial results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated...

  6. Modelling economic and biophysical drivers of agricultural land-use change. Calibration and evaluation of the Nexus Land-Use model over 1961-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souty, F.; Dorin, B.; Brunelle, T.; Dumas, P.; Ciais, P.

    2013-12-01

    The central role of land-use change in the Earth System and its implications for food security, biodiversity and climate has spurred the development of global models that combine economical and agro-ecological drivers and constraints. With such a development of integrated approaches, evaluating the performance of global models of land-use against observed historical changes recorded by agricultural data becomes increasingly challenging. The Nexus Land-Use model is an example of land-use model integrating both biophysical and economical processes and constraints. This paper is an attempt to evaluate its ability to simulate historical agricultural land-use changes over 12 large but economically coherent regions of the world since 1961. The evaluation focuses on the intensification vs. extensification response of crop and livestock production in response to changes of socio-economic drivers over time, such as fertiliser price, population and diet. We examine how well the Nexus model can reproduce annual observation-based estimates of cropland vs. pasture areas from 1961 to 2006. Food trade, consumption of fertilisers and food price are also evaluated against historical data. Over the 12 regions considered, the total relative error on simulated cropland area is 2% yr-1 over 1980-2006. During the period 1961-2006, the error is larger (4% yr-1) due to an overestimation of the cropland area in China and Former Soviet Union over 1961-1980. Food prices tend to be underestimated while the performances of the trade module vary widely among regions (net imports are underestimated in Western countries at the expense of Brazil and Asia). Finally, a sensitivity analysis over a sample of input datasets provides some insights on the robustness of this evaluation.

  7. Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

  8. Texas Heart Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join us! James T. Willerson MD Cardiovascular Seminar Texas Heart Institute Journal Scientific Publications Library & Learning Resources ... Education 12th Annual Diabetes Symposium September 17, 2016 Texas Heart Institute Program Director: Mandeep Bajaj, MD Clinical ...

  9. 78 FR 1763 - Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 906 Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Valley in Texas, hereinafter referred to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the...

  10. Irrigation-dependent wetlands versus instream flow enhancement: economics of water transfers from agriculture to wildlife uses.

    PubMed

    Peck, Dannele E; McLeod, Doanald M; Hewlett, John P; Lovvorn, James R

    2004-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture throughout western North America faces increasing pressure to transfer water to nonagricultural uses, including instream flows for fish and wildlife management. In an important case, increased instream flows are needed in Nebraska's Platte River for recovery of threatened and endangered fish and wildlife species. Irrigated agriculture in the Laramie Basin of southeast Wyoming is a potential water source for the effort to enhance instream flow. However, flood irrigation of hayfields in the Laramie Basin has created many wetlands, both ephemeral and permanent, over the last century. Attempting to increase Platte River instream flows by purchasing water rights or improving irrigation efficiency in the Laramie Basin would transform irrigated agriculture, causing a substantial fraction of the Laramie Basin's wetlands to be lost. A creative solution is needed to prevent the sacrifice of one ecosystem on behalf of another. A rotating short-term water-leasing program is proposed. The program allows Laramie Basin producers to contribute to instream flows while continuing to support local wetlands. Permanent wetland desiccation is prevented and regional environmental water needs are met without impairing local ecological resources. Budget analysis is used to provide an initial cost estimate for acquiring water from agriculture through the short-term leasing program. The proposed approach is more expensive than traditional programs but allows contribution to instream flows without major wetland loss. Short-term leasing is a more efficient approach if benefits from wetlands exceed the difference in cost between the short-term lease program and programs that do not conserve wetlands. PMID:15633027

  11. Techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration using agricultural residue--a case study for an Indian district.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2015-04-01

    Presently, most of world electricity and other energy services are catered by fossil fuel resources. This is unsustainable in the long run both with respect to energy security and climate change problems. Fuel switching, specifically using biomass may partially address this problem. Polygeneration is an efficient way of delivering multiple utility outputs with one or more inputs. Decentralized small or large scale polygeneration using alternative fuels may be a future sustainable solution. In this paper, a techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration with four utility outputs and rice straw as input has been reported. Results of the simulation and real-life data as inputs are used for the techno-economic analysis. The analysis is specific for a district in the state of West Bengal of India. Results show that such a plant has strong potential to qualify in techno-economic performance in addition to higher efficiency and lower CO2 emission. PMID:25647027

  12. 7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Actual Production History (APH) regulations, 7 CFR part 400, subpart G, and applicable policy provisions... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas...

  13. 7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Actual Production History (APH) regulations, 7 CFR part 400, subpart G, and applicable policy provisions... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas...

  14. 7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Actual Production History (APH) regulations, 7 CFR part 400, subpart G, and applicable policy provisions... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas...

  15. 7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Actual Production History (APH) regulations, 7 CFR part 400, subpart G, and applicable policy provisions... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas...

  16. TENET: Texas Education Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Connie

    The Texas Education Agency sought to create an enhanced electronic communications network (TENET) capable of transmitting information among and between the members of the public education system in Texas. They contracted with the Texas Higher Education Network (THEnet), an existing distributed network which is an NSF (National Science Foundation)…

  17. Treasured Texas Theaters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Dallas artist Jon Flaming's deep love of Texas is evident in his paintings and sculpture. Although he has created one sculptural Texas theater, his work primarily showcases old Texas barbershops, vacant homes, and gas stations. In this article, the author describes how her students, inspired by Flaming's works, created three-dimensional historical…

  18. East Texas Storytellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brandi, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, "Loblolly Magazine" is published twice a year. Issues are frequently devoted to a distant theme. The theme of this issue, "East Texas Storytellers," attempts to capture some of the local color and regional history of eastern Texas. The first article, "Timothy Griffith, Master…

  19. Rural Health Care in Texas: The Facts--1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Nolan; And Others

    The size of Texas and the distribution of its population result in service delivery, economic, educational, transportation, communication, and health problems. Texas is the second largest state in the nation, is third largest in population, has a population growing at a faster rate than the national average, and is a primarily rural state--20% of…

  20. East Texas Oilfield Schools: Expansion, Diminution and Reorganization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCompte, Karon; Nicol, Tom

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the rise, diminution, and reorganization of East Texas Oilfield schools which was defined by the socio-economic conditions of the oil era, from the mid-nineteenth century until the third quarter of the twentieth century. Citizens of East Texas seized the opportunity at the time of oil discovery to provide superior school…

  1. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    PubMed

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production. PMID:25836353

  2. Losing Chlordimeform Use in Cotton Production. Its Effects on the Economy and Pest Resistance. Agricultural Economic Report Number 587.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteen, Craig; Suguiyama, Luis

    This report examines the economic implications of losing chlordimeform use on cotton and considers chlordimeform's role in managing the resistance of bollworms and tobacco budworms to synthetic pyrethroids. It estimates changes in prices, production, acreage, consumer expenditures, aggregate producer returns, regional crop effects, and returns to…

  3. A Comparative Economic Analysis of North-Central New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 211.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Garrey E.; Eastman, Clyde

    North-Central New Mexico has many of the problems common to other rural areas. Unemployment and underemployment rates tend to be high and per capita income relatively low. This study evaluated regional economic performance over a 19-year period (1949-1968) as compared to other regions and the nation. Shift analysis (a means of examining regional…

  4. An Analysis of Investment in Teacher Education: The Texas Case, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye

    1982-01-01

    Assesses the economic benefits derived by Texas teachers in 1978-79 from their investment in teacher education and compares Texas teachers' returns on education to those of White workers with high school or higher education degrees. Concludes that Texas teachers' investments in education were not profitable at any degree level. (Author/RW)

  5. Differences in Hispanic Graduation Rates at Texas Community Colleges over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Shelly; Joyner, Sheila A.; Slate, John

    2011-01-01

    With projections of the decline of the Texas economic base, graduation rates and percentages of Hispanic students at Texas community colleges were examined to determine whether statistically significant increases were present from the years 2000 to 2008. In 2010, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board modified the major initiative Closing…

  6. Agricultural Electronics. Curriculum Guide for Agriscience 324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This guide outlines the topics of instruction and goals/objectives of a half-unit shop/laboratory course in agricultural electronics (Agriscience 324) that is part of Texas' secondary-level agricultural science and technology program. Presented first are lists of the essential elements common to all agricultural science and technology courses…

  7. Statewide summary for Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Gibeaut, Jim; Thatcher, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Seafood landed at Texas ports valued $240 million in 2011, and recreational saltwater fishing alone provided nearly 17,000 jobs (Texas GLO, 2013). Fishes directly dependent upon wetland habitats include multiple shrimp species, blue crab, eastern oyster, black drum, flounder, sheepshead, and snapper. Texas has the highest number of hunters, anglers, and hunting expenditures in the nation (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012). Hunting yields $2.3 billion for the state, and recreational fishing yields $3.2 billion. Texas is the top birding destination in the Nation. Tourism in Texas generates $7.5 billion for the state, and wildlife viewing generates $2.9 billion.

  8. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  9. Economic gains from targeted measures related to non-point pollution in agriculture based on detailed nitrate reduction maps.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Brian H; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2016-06-15

    From 1990 to 2003, Denmark reduced N-leaching from the root zone by 50%. However, more measures are required, and in recent years, the focus has been on how to differentiate measures in order to ensure that they are implemented where the effect on N-loss reductions per ha is the greatest. The purpose of the NiCA project has been to estimate the natural nitrate reduction in the groundwater more precisely than before using a plot size down to 1ha. This article builds on these findings and presents the possible economic gains for the farmer when using this information to reach a given N-loss level. Targeted measures are especially relevant where the subsurface N-reduction varies significantly within the same farm and national analyses have shown that a cost reduction of around 20-25% using targeted measures is likely. The analyses show an increasing potential with increasing variation in N-reduction in the catchment. In this analysis, the knowledge of spatial variation in N-reduction potential is used to place measures like catch crops or set-a-side at locations with the greatest effect on 10 case farms in the Norsminde Catchment, Denmark. The findings suggest that the gains are from 0 to 32€/ha and the average farm would gain approximately 14-21€/ha/year from the targeted measures approach. The analysis indicates that the economic gain is greater than the costs of providing the detailed maps of 5-10€/ha/year. When N-loss reduction requirements are increased, the economic gains are greater. When combined with new measures like mini-wetlands and early sowing the economic advantage is increased further. The paper also shows that not all farms can use the detailed information on N-reduction and there is not a clear link between spatial variation in N-reduction at the farm level and possible economic gains for all these 10 farms. PMID:26974574

  10. Consumer and Family Economics. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This consumer and family economics curriculum guide was developed for use in home economics education in Texas. At the beginning is a list of the competencies and the subcompetencies that are the essential elements and the subelements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for Vocational Home Economics. The conceptual outline as shown in the…

  11. Read Across Texas! 2002 Texas Reading Club Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgmon, Missy; Ferate-Soto, Paolo; Foley, Lelana; Hager, Tina; Heard, Adriana; Ingham, Donna; Lopez, Nohemi; McMahon, Dorothy; Meyer, Sally; Parrish, Leila; Rodriguez-Gibbs, Josefina; Moreyra-Torres, Maricela; Travis, Gayle; Welch, Willy

    The goal of the Texas Reading Club is to encourage the children of Texas to become library users and lifelong readers. This manual was created for the 2002 Texas Reading Club, a program of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission. The theme, "Read Across Texas!" invites children to explore the history, geography, and culture of Texas…

  12. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  13. Optimizing subsurface drip irrigation in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Texas High Plains (THP), irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the cultivated area and > 80% of crop production and gross incomes. This agriculture depends on water extracted from the Ogallala Aquifer, which is declining because withdrawals exceed natural recharge. This fact compromises ...

  14. The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological

  15. The Importance of Agriculture Science Course Sequencing in High Schools: A View from Collegiate Agriculture Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelus, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of Agriculture Science course sequencing in high schools, as a preparatory factor for students enrolled in collegiate agriculture classes. With the variety of courses listed in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Agriculture Science, it has been possible for counselors,…

  16. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources: Agriculture. Part 1: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornhauser, A. L.; Wilson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Potential economic benefits obtainable from a state-of-the-art ERS system in the resource area of intensive use of living resources, agriculture, are studied. A spectrum of equal capability (cost saving), increased capability, and new capability benefits are quantified. These benefits are estimated via ECON developed models of the agricultural marketplace and include benefits of improved production and distribution of agricultural crops. It is shown that increased capability benefits and new capability benefits result from a reduction of losses due to disease and insect infestation given ERS's capability to distinguish crop vigor and from the improvement in world trade negotiations given ERS's worldwide surveying capability.

  17. Stress Levels of Agricultural Science Cooperating Teachers and Student Teachers: A Repeated Measures Comparative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Rayfield, John; Harlin, Julie; Adams, Andy

    2013-01-01

    This study compared job stress levels of Texas agricultural science cooperating teachers and Texas agricultural science student teachers across a semester. The research objectives included describing secondary agricultural science cooperating teachers and student teachers perceptions of stressors, by time of semester (beginning, middle, and end),…

  18. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  19. Earthquake history of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Seventeen earthquakes, intensity V or greater, have centered in Texas since 1882, when the first shock was reported. The strongest earthquake, a maximum intensity VIII, was in western Texas in 1931 and was felt over 1 165 000 km 2. Three shocks in the Panhandle region in 1925, 1936, and 1943 were widely felt. 

  20. Fireball Over Texas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Video of the fireball seen over Texas this morning (12/7/12); it was taken by a NASA camera located near Mayhill, New Mexico. It is very unusual for us to see a meteor all the way across Texas. The...

  1. Patterns of household immigration into South Texas.

    PubMed

    Briody, E K

    1987-01-01

    This article examines Mexican migration into South Texas in recent decades and focuses on changes in the characteristics of the migrants' households. An ethnographic approach is used in examining 56 permanent, immigrant households. "This article introduces a hypothesis for explaining the increase and permanency of household immigration." It is found that "immigration often leads to downward social mobility with respect to legal status of household members, type of employment, and property ownership. Of particular note is the transformation of the household from a single to a multiple worker unit, in response to agricultural labor demands and growing employment opportunities in the non-agricultural sector." PMID:12314666

  2. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

  3. The role of microalgae as biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting: Economics, agro-energy competitiveness, and potential impacts on regional agricultural feedstock production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boll, Matias G.

    The objective of this study is to obtain a realistic evaluation of the potential role of microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting. First, microalgae economics are estimated, including the detailed design of a 400 ha microalgae open pond production farm together with the microalgae biomass and crude oil production costs calculations. Sensitivity analysis and a stochastic evaluation of the microalgae venture chances for profit are also included. Next, microalgae potential for biodiesel production is compared to traditional oil crops such as soybeans and African palm. This comparison is performed using the Northeast Region (NER) of Brazil as background. Six potential biodiesel feedstock sources produced in the NER and microalgae are compared considering selected environmental, economic and social sustainability indicators. Finally, in the third chapter, the study proposes a cropland allocation model for the NER. The model aims to offer insights to the decision maker concerning biofuel development strategies and their impact on regional agricultural feedstock production. In the model, cropland allocation among three agriculture feedstock sectors, namely staple food, commodity export and biofuel is optimized through the use of the multiple objective technique referred to as compromise programming (CP). Our results indicate a projected microalgae total production cost of R 78,359 ha-1 (US43,533), which has a breakdown as follows: R 34,133 ha-1 (US18,963) for operating costs and R 44,226 ha-1 (US24,570) for overhead (ownership) costs. Our stochastic analysis indicates that microalgae production under the conditions assumed in the baseline scenario of this study has a 0% chance to present a positive NPV for a microalgae crude oil price of R 1.86. This price corresponds to an international oil price around US 77 bbl-1. To obtain a reasonable investment return (IRR = 12%) from the microalgae farm, an international oil price as high as US 461 bbl-1 is

  4. Proceedings of the conference on alternative energy sources for Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, I.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four primary areas of study for alternative energy sources for Texas are considered. These are: energy demand supply and economics; prospects for energy resources (oil, lignite, coal, nuclear, goethermal and solar) and conservation; financial and technical constraints; and future planning. The following papers are presented: US energy outlook to 1990; energy supply and demand projections; comparative economics of solar energy in the generation of big power; gas present and future prospects; prospects for enhanced recovery of oil in Texas; the outlook for coal in USA; implementation of nuclear power in Texas; future outlook - geopressured-geothermal energy for Texas; future prospects for conservation and solar energy; financing and money supply constraints; technical constraints to energy supply increase; planning for the future - the crisis that drones on. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  5. Insect population trends in different tillage systems of cotton in south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted during 2000 – 2006 in experimental plots of the USDA-ARS-Subtropical Agricultural Research Center in Weslaco, Texas and privately owned cotton fields near Hargill and Santa Rosa, Texas. We evaluated the effects of conservation and conventional tillage systems in dryland and ...

  6. Cotton production potential and water conservation impact using the regional irrigation demand model of northern Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Revised irrigation demands are calculated for the 21 northernmost counties in Texas, identified as Panhandle Region (also known as Region A), using the TAMA (Texas A&M–Amarillo) agricultural water use demand estimation model. Year 2000 demands are presented using the existing mixture of crops, aver...

  7. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Arizona) (7 CFR 51.680 through 51.714) or in the U.S. Standards for Grades of Grapefruit (Texas and States other than Florida, California and Arizona) (7 CFR 51.620 through 51.653). ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34....

  8. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Arizona) (7 CFR 51.680 through 51.714) or in the U.S. Standards for Grades of Grapefruit (Texas and States other than Florida, California and Arizona) (7 CFR 51.620 through 51.653). ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34....

  9. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Arizona) (7 CFR 51.680 through 51.714) or in the U.S. Standards for Grades of Grapefruit (Texas and States other than Florida, California and Arizona) (7 CFR 51.620 through 51.653). ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34....

  10. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Arizona) (7 CFR 51.680 through 51.714) or in the U.S. Standards for Grades of Grapefruit (Texas and States other than Florida, California and Arizona) (7 CFR 51.620 through 51.653). ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34....

  11. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Arizona) (7 CFR 51.680 through 51.714) or in the U.S. Standards for Grades of Grapefruit (Texas and States other than Florida, California and Arizona) (7 CFR 51.620 through 51.653). Editorial Note: After January... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34....

  12. 78 FR 8047 - Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 959 Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY... rate established for the South Texas Onion Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.025 to $0.03 per 50-pound equivalent of onions handled. The Committee locally...

  13. Geo-spatial analysis of land-water resource degradation in two economically contrasting agricultural regions adjoining national capital territory (Delhi).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Minhas, P S; Jain, P C; Singh, P; Dubey, D S

    2009-07-01

    The present study was aimed at characterizing the soil-water resource degradation in the rural areas of Gurgaon and Mewat districts, the two economically contrasting areas in policy zones-II and III of the National Capital Region (NCR), and assessing the impact of the study area's local conditions on the type and extent of resource degradation. This involved generation of detailed spatial information on the land use, cropping pattern, farming practices, soils and surface/ground waters of Gurgaon and Mewat districts through actual resource surveys, standard laboratory methods and GIS/remote sensing techniques. The study showed that in contrast to just 2.54% (in rabi season) to 4.87% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Gurgaon district, about 11.77% (in rabi season) to 24.23% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Mewat district were irrigated with saline to marginally saline canal water. Further, about 10.69% of agricultural lands in the Gurgaon district and 42.15% of agricultural lands in the Mewat district were drain water irrigated. A large part of this surface water irrigated area, particularly in Nuh (48.7%), Nagina (33.5%), and Punhana (24.1%) blocks of Mewat district, was either waterlogged (7.4% area with agricultural lands in the Mewat district. Geo-spatial analysis showed that due to seepage of these degraded waters from unlined drains and canals, ground waters of about 39.6% of Mewat district were salt affected (EC(m)ean = 7.05 dS/m and SAR(m)ean = 7.71). Besides, sub-surface drinking waters of almost the entire Mewat district were contaminated with undesirable concentrations of chromium (Cr 2.0-3.23 ppm

  14. Reservoir evaporation in Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Ayala, Rolando A.

    2014-03-01

    The role of reservoir surface evaporation in river/reservoir water budgets and water management is explored using a modeling system that combines historical natural hydrology with current conditions of water resources development and management. The long-term mean evaporation from the 3415 reservoirs in the Texas water rights permit system is estimated to be 7.53 billion m3/year, which is equivalent to 61% of total agricultural or 126% of total municipal water use in the state during the year 2010. Evaporation varies with the hydrologic conditions governing reservoir surface areas and evaporation rates. Annual statewide total evaporation volumes associated with exceedance probabilities of 75%, 50%, and 25% are 7.07, 7.47, and 7.95 billion m3/year, respectively. Impacts of evaporation are greatest during extended severe droughts that govern water supply capabilities.

  15. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  16. Successes and challenges in a novel doctoral program in systems agriculture: a case example.

    PubMed

    Lust, D; Topliff, D; Deotte, R

    2010-01-01

    A doctoral program in Systems Agriculture was initiated at West Texas A&M University, Canyon, TX, in September, 2003. The stated objective of the program was "..to prepare leaders for the agricultural industry that are trained in a multidisciplinary, research-based curriculum that emphasizes a systems approach to problem solving". The program offers a single doctoral degree in Agriculture and accepts qualified students with a master's or professional degree in agricultural or related disciplines. Courses related to systems methodologies, leadership, agricultural economics, plant and soil science, and animal science are required. Additional program requirements include a systems research project and dissertation, leadership training, and written and oral exams. The program has exceeded enrollment and graduation targets, suggesting interest in this approach to a doctoral degree. Students have entered the program with M.S. backgrounds in education, traditional agricultural disciplines, veterinary medicine, business, and physics. Graduates have gained employment in industry, university teaching and research, government research/administration, and extension. Doctoral student projects in systems agriculture contributed to curriculum changes and to the conceptual framework adopted by a multi-state research group. Designing and teaching courses for students with diverse backgrounds has been challenging. Development of a common understanding of systems agriculture was identified by a third-party program review as an issue for faculty. Development and maintenance of program standards and administrative procedures posed additional challenges. Leadership, administrative support, and timely and continuing program assessment are suggested as necessary components for a nontraditional doctoral program. PMID:20491404

  17. The economic value of remote sensing information: a case study of agricultural production and groundwater vulnerability using applied environmental science and hydrogeospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, wforney@usgs.gov, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities

  18. Sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas.

    PubMed

    Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Mancini Barbieri, F; Amati, M; Casulli, A; Pozio, E

    2001-06-01

    There are no published reports of domestic or sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas. The aim of the present survey was to determine the presence of Trichinella species in selected representative species of potential wildlife reservoirs in southern Texas. In 1998-99, tongues of 211 wild mammals were collected in southern Texas: 154 coyotes (Canis latrans), three bobcats (Lynx rufus), 32 racoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), four ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and five wild boars (Sus scrofa). Presence of Trichinella sp. larvae was investigated by artificial digestion and larvae of positive samples were identified at the species level by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Nine (5.8%) coyotes had trichinellosis; in the muscles of seven of these coyotes, the larvae were identified as Trichinella murrelli. This is the first report of sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas. PMID:11484391

  19. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  20. Comprehensive Home Economics. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a number of curriculum guides developed for use in vocational home economics education in Texas. The guide is correlated closely with the essential elements prescribed by the State Board of Education. The competencies in the guide are the essential elements, and the subcompetencies are the subelements prescribed in…

  1. Economics, Kindergarten-Grade 6. A Curriculum Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Council for Economic Education, Houston.

    This resource guide results from a joint project of the Texas Council on Economic Education and the Texas Education Agency. For each of the elementary school grades, the guide presents interdisciplinary lessons that feature an integrated approach to the teaching of economics. The lessons are devoted to a number of basic economics concepts. The…

  2. Assessing the biophysical and socio-economic potential of Sustainable Land Management and Water Harvesting Technologies for rainfed agriculture across semi-arid Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Brian; Fleskens, Luuk; Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Stakeholders in recent EU projects identified soil erosion as the most frequent driver of land degradation in semi-arid environments. In a number of sites, historic land management and rainfall variability are recognised as contributing to the serious environmental impact. In order to consider the potential of sustainable land management and water harvesting techniques stakeholders and study sites from the projects selected and trialled both local technologies and promising technologies reported from other sites . The combined PESERA and DESMICE modelling approach considered the regional effects of the technologies in combating desertification both in environmental and socio-economical terms. Initial analysis was based on long term average climate data with the model run to equilibrium. Current analysis, primarily based on the WAHARA study sites considers rainfall variability more explicitly in time series mode. The PESERA-DESMICE approach considers the difference between a baseline scenario and a (water harvesting) technology scenario, typically, in terms of productivity, financial viability and scope for reducing erosion risk. A series of 50 year rainfall realisations are generated from observed data to capture a full range of the climatic variability. Each realisation provides a unique time-series of rainfall and through modelling can provide a simulated time-series of crop yield and erosion risk for both baseline conditions and technology scenarios. Subsequent realisations and model simulations add to an envelope of the potential crop yield and cost-benefit relations. The development of such envelopes helps express the agricultural and erosional risk associated with climate variability and the potential for conservation measures to absorb the risk, highlighting the probability of achieving a given crop yield or erosion limit. Information that can directly inform or influence the local adoption of conservation measures under the climatic variability in semi

  3. Effects of Land Use, Topography and Socio-Economic Factors on River Water Quality in a Mountainous Watershed with Intensive Agricultural Production in East China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

  4. A study of pesticide safety and health perceptions among pesticide applicators in Tarrant County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Robert; Gratton, Terrance B; Coggin, Claudia; René, Antonio; Waller, William

    2004-01-01

    Pesticide applicators from North Texas participated in a survey that was based on the constructs of the Health Belief Model of Strecher and Rosenstock. The survey assessed the knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy of pesticide applicators working for municipalities or in farming/ranching operations in Tarrant County, Texas. It was administered during a continuing-education class on pesticides sponsored by the Texas Agriculture Extension Service in Fort Worth, Texas. Results showed that while knowledge of the use of personal protective equipment was high, knowledge of the risk from dermal exposure was low. PMID:14768280

  5. Texas State Department of Health Migrant Project. Annual Report 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Health Resources, Austin.

    The Texas Migrant Health Project under the State Department of Health aims to: (1) promote and improve medical, dental, and public health services for the domestic agricultural worker and his dependents and (2) encourage and support migrant efforts to participate in and be responsible for personal and family health. During 1969-70, the state was…

  6. Seepage investigations of Noyes Canal, Menard County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, Ivan Dale

    1953-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, and the Menard Irrigation Company, a seepage investigation was made on Noyes Canal (Menard Irrigation Company Canal) in Menard County, Texas, from the headgates of the canal to where the canal empties back into the San Saba River.

  7. Environmental Education: A Guide to Teaching Conservation in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This document describes Texas' natural resources and suggests ways to correlate conservation instruction into the existing curriculum. Resources discussed include: 1) soil (soil formation; properties of soils; soil survey, soil use in agriculture; soils and the state economy, land value; specific soil resources); 2) air (principal pollutants and…

  8. TEXAS STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH MIGRANT PROJECT. ANNUAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Health Resources, Austin.

    IN THE STATE OF TEXAS APPROXIMATELY 167,000 AGRICULTURAL LABORERS MIGRATED DURING 1965, USUALLY FOLLOWING FOUR DESCRIBED MIGRATION PATTERNS. SEVEN PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES PROVIDED HEALTH SERVICES TO THESE MIGRANTS IN THE FORM OF IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMS, TUBERCULIN TESTING, AND FOLLOWUP SERVICES. SANITATION SERVICES IN THE VARIOUS COMMUNITIES INCLUDED…

  9. Economic and engineering evaluation of plant oils as a diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; LePori, W.A.; Johnson, L.A.; Griffin, R.C.; Diehl, K.C.; Moore, D.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Coble, C.G.; Lusas, E.W.; Hiler, E.A.

    1982-04-15

    The annual total yield of plant oils in the US is about 3.7 billion gallons. Diesel use by agriculture is about 2.0 billion gallons annually and is growing rapidly relative to gasoline use. Based on these amounts, plant oils could satisfy agriculture's diesel fuel requirements during the near future. However, diversion of large quantities of plant oils for such purposes would have dramatic impacts on plant oil prices and be reflected in numerous adjustments throughout agriculture and other sectors of the economy. The competitive position of sunflowers for plant oil production in Texas was analyzed. In those regions with a cotton alternative, sunflowers were not, for the most part, economically competitive. However, sunflower production is competitive with grain sorghum in certain cases. To develop a meaningful production base for oilseed crops in Texas, yields need to be improved or increases in oilseed prices relative to cotton must take place. This implies some limitations for the potential of Texas to produce large quantities of plant oils.

  10. ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT - SUPPLEMENT 2: PROCEDURES USED IN SETTING UP THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The procedures used in setting up the agricultural production model used in a study of alternatives for reducing insecticides on cotton and corn are described. The major analytical tool used is a spatial equilibrium model of U.S. agriculture. This is a linear programming model th...

  11. 7 CFR 2.68 - Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.68 Administrator, National Agricultural..., Education, and Economics to the Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service: (1) Prepare crop... Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics; (iv) Stationing representatives at such institutions...

  12. 7 CFR 2.68 - Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.68 Administrator, National Agricultural..., Education, and Economics to the Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service: (1) Prepare crop... Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics; (iv) Stationing representatives at such institutions...

  13. Texas Almanac, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary G., Ed.

    The 61st edition of the "Texas Almanac" has a reputation as the definitive source for Texas information since 1857. It contains details of the Census 2000 official population count, including statewide, county and town counts, plus an analysis of the numbers by experts at Texas's State Data Center. It includes information about politics,…

  14. Transforming Developmental Education in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Developmental Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with support from the Texas Legislature, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board has funded various developmental education initiatives, including research and evaluation efforts, to help Texas public institutions of higher education provide more effective programs and services to underprepared students. Based on evaluation…

  15. The Historiography of American Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, R. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Provides secondary school U.S. history teachers with a beginning bibliography for incorporating agricultural history into their classes. Annotates books covering the social, economic, and political aspects of agricultural history. Identifies works dealing with topical matters such as land settlement, slavery, agricultural policy, and the Dust…

  16. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  17. Replacing Property Taxes with Sales Taxes Is the Wrong Answer for Texas Families and Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Public education is the foundation of our democracy and the engine of our economy, and Texans have a collective responsibility to ensure that public education is adequately supported. This responsibility needs to be fairly distributed among Texas families in a way that supports economic growth. Recently, some have proposed that Texas replace local…

  18. Charter School Education in Texas: Student Achievement on the Exit Level Assessment in Math and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jeffery E.

    2013-01-01

    Public schools in the state of Texas are held accountable for performance and quality of education. Accountability is important to all schools, but it is critical to open-enrollment charter schools to remain in good standing. The current economic situation in Texas public education has brought attention as well as the need for alternative…

  19. Relationships between Financial Aid Policies, Practices and Procedures at Texas Public Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Desiree Kornrum

    2006-01-01

    The economic success of the state of Texas is dependent upon future market participants having access to higher education. The ability of Texas citizens to access higher education is dependent upon access to financial aid resources to pay for higher education. Much is known about the impact of particular financial aid outcomes on access and…

  20. College-Readiness Rates of Special Needs High School Graduates in Texas Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Jacob Ross

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the college-readiness rates of high school graduates in Texas designated as being (a) economically disadvantaged, (b) Limited English Proficient (LEP), or (c) enrolled in special education using archival data from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS). Data,…

  1. Mexican American Youth and Vocational Education in Texas: Summary and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulman, Sam; And Others

    Included in this publication is a summary of principal findings and recommendations of the report entitled "Mexican American Youth and Vocational Education in Texas." The summary indicates that the Mexican American in Texas is more economically and educationally disadvantaged than his Anglo American counterpart. It is further concluded that, while…

  2. MyAgRecord: An Online Career Portfolio Management Tool for High School Students Conducting Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emis, Larry; Dillingham, John

    Texas's online career portfolio management tool for high school students participating in supervised agricultural experience programs (SAEPs) was developed in 1998 by a committee of Texas high school teachers of agriscience and Texas Education Agency personnel. The career portfolio management tool reflects General Accepted Accounting Principles…

  3. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  4. Problems of Manpower in Agriculture. OECD Documentation in Food and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Problems related to rapid reduction of the agricultural labor force were examined in the 21 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The size and changes of the agricultural labor force, economic forces tending towards change, technical requirements for labor in agriculture, and obstacles hindering economic adjustment of…

  5. Tornado from Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Santa Fe School Superintendent Yvonne Gonzales, the "Texas Tornado," was hired to fix a 40% student-dropout rate and a white/Hispanic gap in achievement test scores. Gonzales is an avid integrationist; relies on humor, appeasement, and persuasion tactics; and has alienated some school employees by increasing central office administrators. (MLH)

  6. NARSTO Texas Final Report

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-06

    Final Report for the Texas PM2.5 Sampling and Analysis Study (March 11, ... Tropp,et al, 1998     NOTE: The Final Report is separated into the following PDF files: Section 1: ... Mass and Chemical Composition (PDF) Section 5: Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations and Section 6 Bibliography (PDF) ...

  7. East Texas Quilts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Karen, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Patchwork quilting is an original folk art in the United States. Pilgrims first used worn out scraps of cloth to make bed covers in an age of scarcity. Featured here are stories on East Texas Quilts, their origins, the love and hard work which goes into the making of a quilt (Ira Barr and others). The techniques needed to construct a quilt are…

  8. West Texas State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ed D.

    1988-01-01

    Threats in the external environment, the arrival of a planning-oriented new president, and new regional reaccreditation criteria prompted West Texas State University to undertake a successful strategic planning venture. Leadership must focus strategic planning in a manner that recognizes the decentralized and collegial elements present in higher…

  9. ECOREGION DELINEATION IN TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Level III ecoregions are being refined and subdivided into level IV for the state of Texas. This work is consistent with ecoregion revision and subdivision that has been completed or is on-going in 37 of the conterminous United States. The two-year project is collaborative, inv...

  10. Texas Hunter Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Steve

    This handbook serves as a reference for the mandatory hunter education course in Texas. The "Introduction" explains hunter education's goal to produce safe, knowledgeable, responsible, and informed hunters. It also gives information related to hunting opportunities, administration, and management. Chapter 2, "Our Hunting Heritage," gives a…

  11. The Woodlands, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHaney, Larry J.; Bernhardt, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe the "central project" concept for implementing technology education while addressing education reform. The central project is a topic around which students, teachers, administrators, and the community focus their energies as a team. At McCullough High School (Texas), the central project involved design and development of a…

  12. Texas and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Texas and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead the…

  13. Trouble at Texas Southern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…

  14. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  15. Texas-Oklahoma

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Texas-Oklahoma Border     ... important resources for farming, ranching, public drinking water, hydroelectric power, and recreation. Both originate in New Mexico and ... NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science ...

  16. The Texas Formula System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Ralph W.; And Others

    Explained and illustrated is the formula funding system used for colleges and universities in Texas. This system is considerably more complicated than the formulas used in other states. Data for institutions in the state system for fiscal 1978 are presented; actual appropriations are used rather than requests, and formula-produced amounts are…

  17. Wind powering America - Texas

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, K.

    2000-04-13

    This fact sheet contains a description of the wind energy resources in the state of Texas and the state's efforts to develop wind energy production, green power, and net metering programs. The fact sheet also includes a list of contacts for those interested in obtaining more information.

  18. Advanced Child Development. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide, developed for use in secondary vocational home economics education in Texas, is correlated closely with the essential elements prescribed by the State Board of Education. The competencies in each guide are the essential elements, and the subcompetencies are the subelements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for…

  19. Seismicity of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    A four year seismic study has found the Basin and Range province of west Texas and the adjacent area of Mexico to be more seismically active then than heretofore known. A University of Texas five station seismic array around the Marfa Basin has located or detected approximately 800 local and regional earthquakes with S-P times of less than 30 sec. A crustal model for the Basin and Range is derived from natural and artificial sources and contains four layers having velocities of 3.60, 4.93, 6.11, and 6.60 km/sec, respectively, overlying a mantle of 8.37 km/sec. A moderate level of seismic activity has been detected near Van Horn, in the Marfa Basin, and along the Texas-Mexico border between latitudes 30 and 31/sup 0/N. Five earthquake sequences were recorded, two near the Texas-Mexico border and three in the Marfa Basin. Four of these sequences showed quiescent periods in foreshock activity preceding the main shock. On the eastern side of the Marfa Basin a diffuse linear seismic zone may represent an unmapped fault, striking N 50/sup 0/W that coincides with Muehlberger's proposed eastern boundary of Basin and Range faulting. A new epicenter for the Valentine, Texas earthquake of August 16, 1931 has been relocated instrumentally at the northern end of this diffuse zone. Regional and local teleseismic P-wave arrival time anomalies observed for the nearby Gnome underground nuclear explosion of 1961 are used to determine station corrections and thus to locate the new 1931 epicenter at 3.69/sup 0/N, 104.57/sup 0/W. Several estimates of magnitude (m/sub b/) based on intensity data range from 5.6 to 6.4. Fault-plane and composite fault-plane solutions support Muehlberger's hypothesis that the Basin and Range is undergoing extension in a SW-NE direction.

  20. Catalogue of Texas spiders.

    PubMed

    Dean, David Allen

    2016-01-01

    This catalogue lists 1,084 species of spiders (three identified to genus only) in 311 genera from 53 families currently recorded from Texas and is based on the "Bibliography of Texas Spiders" published by Bea Vogel in 1970. The online list of species can be found at http://pecanspiders.tamu.edu/spidersoftexas.htm. Many taxonomic revisions have since been published, particularly in the families Araneidae, Gnaphosidae and Leptonetidae. Many genera in other families have been revised. The Anyphaenidae, Ctenidae, Hahniidae, Nesticidae, Sicariidae and Tetragnathidae were also revised. Several families have been added and others split up. Several genera of Corinnidae were transferred to Phrurolithidae and Trachelidae. Two genera from Miturgidae were transferred to Eutichuridae. Zoridae was synonymized under Miturgidae. A single species formerly in Amaurobiidae is now in the Family Amphinectidae. Some trapdoor spiders in the family Ctenizidae have been transferred to Euctenizidae. Gertsch and Mulaik started a list of Texas spiders in 1940. In a letter from Willis J. Gertsch dated October 20, 1982, he stated "Years ago a first listing of the Texas fauna was published by me based largely on Stanley Mulaik material, but it had to be abandoned because of other tasks." This paper is a compendium of the spiders of Texas with distribution, habitat, collecting method and other data available from revisions and collections. This includes many records and unpublished data (including data from three unpublished studies). One of these studies included 16,000 adult spiders belonging to 177 species in 29 families. All specimens in that study were measured and results are in the appendix. Hidalgo County has 340 species recorded with Brazos County at 323 and Travis County at 314 species. These reflect the amount of collecting in the area. PMID:27103878

  1. Catalogue of Texas spiders

    PubMed Central

    Dean, David Allen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This catalogue lists 1,084 species of spiders (three identified to genus only) in 311 genera from 53 families currently recorded from Texas and is based on the “Bibliography of Texas Spiders” published by Bea Vogel in 1970. The online list of species can be found at http://pecanspiders.tamu.edu/spidersoftexas.htm. Many taxonomic revisions have since been published, particularly in the families Araneidae, Gnaphosidae and Leptonetidae. Many genera in other families have been revised. The Anyphaenidae, Ctenidae, Hahniidae, Nesticidae, Sicariidae and Tetragnathidae were also revised. Several families have been added and others split up. Several genera of Corinnidae were transferred to Phrurolithidae and Trachelidae. Two genera from Miturgidae were transferred to Eutichuridae. Zoridae was synonymized under Miturgidae. A single species formerly in Amaurobiidae is now in the Family Amphinectidae. Some trapdoor spiders in the family Ctenizidae have been transferred to Euctenizidae. Gertsch and Mulaik started a list of Texas spiders in 1940. In a letter from Willis J. Gertsch dated October 20, 1982, he stated “Years ago a first listing of the Texas fauna was published by me based largely on Stanley Mulaik material, but it had to be abandoned because of other tasks.” This paper is a compendium of the spiders of Texas with distribution, habitat, collecting method and other data available from revisions and collections. This includes many records and unpublished data (including data from three unpublished studies). One of these studies included 16,000 adult spiders belonging to 177 species in 29 families. All specimens in that study were measured and results are in the appendix. Hidalgo County has 340 species recorded with Brazos County at 323 and Travis County at 314 species. These reflect the amount of collecting in the area. PMID:27103878

  2. Home Economics Career Preparation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuiston, Wendy; Stevens, Sarah; Mathieson, Mary

    This handbook is designed to help secondary education teachers in Texas to conduct courses in a broad range of occupationally-specific training options in home economics. These programs usually include general related instruction, specific related instruction, and work-based instruction for careers in home economics areas. The handbook is divided…

  3. Surface Energy Balance Based Evapotranspiration Mapping in the Texas High Plains

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Prasanna H.; Chávez, José L.; Howell, Terry A.; Marek, Thomas H.; New, Leon L.

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture on the Texas High Plains (THP) uses approximately 89% of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer. Consequently, groundwater levels are declining faster than the recharge rate. Therefore, efficient agricultural water use is essential for economic viability and sustainability of the THP. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on actual crop water use. In this study, METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution using Internalized Calibration), a remote sensing based ET algorithm, was evaluated for mapping ET in the THP. Two Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper images acquired on 27 June (DOY 178) and 29 July (DOY 210) 2005 were used for this purpose. The performance of the ET model was evaluated by comparing the predicted daily ET with values derived from soil moisture budget at four commercial agricultural fields. Daily ET estimates resulted with a prediction error of 12.7±8.1% (mean bias error ± root mean square error) on DOY 178 and -4.7±9.4% on DOY 210 when compared with ET derived from measured soil moisture through the soil water balance. These results are good considering the prevailing advective conditions in the THP. METRIC have the potential to be used for mapping regional ET in the THP region. However, more evaluation is needed under different agroclimatological conditions.

  4. 78 FR 23671 - Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... action was published in the Federal ] Register on February 5, 2013 (78 FR 8047). Copies of the proposed... / Monday, April 22, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 959 Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY:...

  5. Education, Off-Farm Employment and Rural Economic Development: Perspectives from States in the Southeast. Proceedings of a Rural Development Symposium at the Annual Meeting of the Southern Agricultural Economics Association (Lexington, Kentucky, February 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debertin, David L., Ed.

    This publication presents a series of five papers based on presentations given at a rural development symposium dealing with the role of education in off-farm employment and rural economic development. The first paper, "Education and Rural Economic Development" (Thomas G. Johnson), discusses linkages between the regional educational attainment…

  6. 78 FR 14071 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION... to fill 10 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics... October 1, 2012. ADDRESSES: National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

  7. 78 FR 25691 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION... the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: All... Agriculture, National Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, 1400...

  8. Analysis of Special Education Mediations in Texas, 2006-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Diana Lane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variables which might influence the frequency of Texas special education mediations used for dispute resolution. Variables such as district size, location, economic level, and the State Accountability Rating were investigated and evaluated. In order to determine if there were any relationships between the…

  9. Those Awful Texas Social Studies Standards: And What about Yours?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In March, the Texas board of education gave preliminary approval to new social studies standards that, according to the New York Times, "will put a conservative stamp on history and economics textbooks, stressing the superiority of American capitalism, questioning the Founding Fathers' commitment to a purely secular government, and presenting…

  10. Establishment of new rice disease nurseries in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic resistance is the most effective and economical method to manage rice diseases. However, high levels of resistance to sheath blight, narrow brown leaf spot, and bacterial panicle blight are often not readily available in the leading, high-yielding varieties. Texas producers are in need of ne...

  11. Assessing State Policy on Postsecondary Completion: Texas vs. SREB Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, David A.; Scott, Joyce A.; Kim, JoHyun

    2015-01-01

    Prompted by changing demographics, economic pressures, and global competition, Texas and members of the Southern Regional Education Board adopted policies to boost minority enrollment and success in higher education around the turn of the century. This study draws upon IPEDS graduation rate data for a benchmark year, 2002, and for 2006 through…

  12. The Rural Texas Environment: A Profile of Stressors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain, Karen; and Others

    Questionnaire data from 168 rural residents of Atacosa, Cass, Freestone, Scurry, and Upton counties, 153 health and human services providers and interviews with 125 residents of 25 rural communities identified and described stressors in the rural Texas environment. Rural Texans viewed economic problems (money, lack of jobs, poverty, working…

  13. The Aftermath of the Bracero: A Study of the Economic Impact on the Agricultural Hired Labor Market of Michigan from the Termination of Public Law 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John Dancer

    To test the "stoop labor" hypotheses that the supply response of domestic migrants to increased wages would be inelastic, this study examined wage adjustment in Michigan agriculture after 1964, supply response to wage changes in the pickle industry, and acreage decline and capital substitution following the termination of the bracero program.…

  14. A Descriptive and Economic Analysis of Agricultural Teacher Education Programs in Land-Grant Universities of the North-Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Larry D.; Crawford, Harold R.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a study which assessed the inputs and outputs of the agricultural programs of land-grant universities in the North-Central region. It was found that programs in this region are fairly homogeneous, particularly at the undergraduate level. (CT)

  15. Medicolegal hell in Texas.

    PubMed

    Korcok, M

    1995-10-01

    In the "war zones" of Texas, lawyers use billboards, television commercials and Yellow Page advertisements to announce their availability to help the "unjustly injured," and medicolegal lawsuits are as common as the rain that sweeps in from the nearby Gulf of Mexico. Almost 75% of the suits are dismissed without award or settlement, since many are plainly frivolous. However, even these can mean torment for physicians, who have to hire lawyers, answer charges, collect paperwork, take time off work for depositions and consultations, and then worry about how insurers will react the next time premiums are due--even if they are cleared. Texas estimates that defensive medicine practised because of legal fears costs the state at least $702 million annually, spending that is bound to continue as long as one lawsuit is filed annually for every 5.3 doctors in the state. PMID:7553498

  16. San Antonio, Texas, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This sharp, cloud free view of San Antonio, Texas (29.5N, 98.5W) illustrates the classic pattern of western cities. The city has a late nineteenth century Anglo grid pattern overlaid onto an earlier, less regular Hispanic settlement. A well marked central business district having streets laid out north/south and east/west is surrounded by blocks of suburban homes and small businesses set between the older colonial radial transportation routes.

  17. Corpus Christi, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This near vertical view of the south Texas coast shows the city of Corpus Christi (28.0N, 97.0W) and Corpus Christi Bay. Mustang Island and the Gulf of Mexico are seen in the Southeast corner of the view. The Nueces River flows into the bay from the west. The light toned squiggly lines in Corpus Christi Bay are mud trails caused by shrimp boats dragging their nets along the shallow bottom of the bay.

  18. Agriculture Cooperative Training Student Workbook. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This work is designed to help cooperative agricultural students (especially in Texas) to gain a better understanding of some principles that are fundamental for successful entry into the world of work. The workbook provides information needed by students to help them narrow the possible career choices that are appropriate to the individual. Also,…

  19. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  20. Agriculture Cluster Brief. Vocational Education in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Gordon

    This guide sets forth minimum approval criteria for vocational agriculture cluster programs in Oregon. The agriculture cluster program includes instruction in six areas: animal science, soil science, plant science, agricultural economics, agriculture mechanics, and leadership development. The information in the guide is intended for use by…

  1. Opportunities for horizontal drilling in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Laubach, S.E.; Tyler, N.; Holtz, M.H. )

    1991-03-01

    To date, horizontal drilling in Texas has been effective in achieving production increases where natural fracturing is significant, as in the Pearsall field of the Austin Chalk trend of south Texas. Projected average ultimate recoveries of 500,000 bbl of oil and 500 mmcf of gas per horizontal well compare with 75,000 bbl and 82 mmcf for vertical wells in that field. In addition to increasing production from naturally fractured reservoirs, horizontal drilling applications can enhance production where coning problems exist, where the reservoir zone is thin, where a gravity drainage mechanism exists, or where macroscale heterogeneity can be overcome to produce from complex, compartmentalized reservoirs. Major Texas reservoirs have been classified into 47 oil plays and 73 gas plays that are useful in evaluating the application of horizontal drilling. Geological character amenable to horizontal drilling is evident in at least 10 oil plays containing 144 reservoirs, more than two Bbl of proved reserves, and eight Bbbl of uncovered mobile oil. At least seven gas plays containing more than 124 reservoirs with cumulative production of more than 19.7 tcf are amenable to horizontal drilling. Tight gas reservoirs may benefit from multiple hydraulic fracture treatments from horizontal well sections drilled parallel to the minimum horizontal stress direction. Although play analysis defines general suitability, applications of horizontal drilling depend upon geologic, engineering, and, most importantly, economic assessments of specific prospects. Increased understanding of fractured reservoirs and of scales of reservoir heterogeneity will enhance future applications.

  2. Current and Future Leaders' Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Miller, Rene P.

    2009-01-01

    Were elected state FFA officers' attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology significantly different from elected Texas legislators' attitudes about the same topic? The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed in agricultural biotechnology perceptions or information source preferences when compared by leadership status:…

  3. Zoning of agricultural field using a fuzzy indicators model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. One method for deciding how to subdivide a field into a few relatively homogenous zones is using applications of fuzzy sets theory. Data collected from a precision agriculture study in central Texas...

  4. Bradford's Law and the Literature of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawani, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of separate data on the literature of tropical and subtropical agriculture, and the world literature of agricultural economics and rural socilogy, in relation to Bradford's law. (8 references) (Author/SJ)

  5. Economic and legal analysis of strategies for managing agricultural pollution of ground water. Final report, 1 October 1986-15 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Batie, S.S.; Kramer, R.A.; Cox, W.E.

    1989-10-15

    The overall objectives were to identify constitutional and legal strategies for the management of ground-water quality, to design alternative state and/or federal strategies for the management of environmental risks associated with agricultural pollution of ground water, and to estimate first-round impacts of farm income, land use, government revenues, and ground-water pollution levels resulting from implementation of alternative management strategies in a case-study context.

  6. Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, C. M.; Gowda, P. H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Xiao, X.

    2009-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts’ ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater models to evaluate economic feasibility for various crop rotations systems and irrigation management practices. In this study, we used a novel approach to derive an irrigated area map covering a 4-county area (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties) in the northwest region of the Texas High Plains from a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on August 13, 2008. The spectral band ratios and vegetation indices were used to define threshold value for the irrigated pixels. The hierarchical rule-based decision tree classification algorithm was employed to delineate final irrigated class. Ground truth data collected for accuracy assessment included land cover type, irrigation practices and their geographic locations using a global positioning system. Accuracy assessment of the irrigated area map indicated that we achieved an overall mapping accuracy of 96% with omission and commission errors at 9% and 8%, respectively, which are mainly due to clouds and shadows of clouds. Irrigated acreages of summer crops derived from the TM image closely matched with that from agricultural statistical reports for the 4-county area. At present, a spring image is being processed to identify irrigated area planted with winter wheat in the study area. The combined irrigated area map will be used in the comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes.

  7. Commercial Space Port Planning in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, L.; Looke, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Texas Legislature is providing funding to support research and planning activities aimed at creating a commercial spaceport in the state. These monies have been allocated to regional Spaceport Development Corporations that have been established in three countries containing candidate site locations: Willacy County (in South Texas); Brazoria County (East Texas); and Pecos County (West Texas). This program is being sponsored and coordinated by the Texas Aerospace Commission (TAC). The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) at the University of Houston is providing research, planning and design support to TAC and is a member of each of the three regional development teams. Planning must carefully consider special support requirements and operational characteristics of all prospective launch systems along with geographic, infrastructure and environmental factors at each site. Two of the candidate sites are in coastal areas; a priority for certain launch service providers; whereas the third inland site is more attractive to others. Candidate launch systems include winged horizontal takeoff air-launch vehicles, vertical multi-stage reusable launch vehicles, and expendable sub-orbital surrounding rockets. Important research and planning activities include environmental impact assessments, analyses of overflight hazards, investigations of economic impacts and business plan development. The results of these activities will guide master plan development for each site, including: a physical plan (site layout, infrastructure improvements and facility construction); and a strategic plan (user agreements, licenses, finance sources and participants). Commercial spaceport development demands compliance with stringent FAA regulations established by the Office of Commercial Space Transportation (OCST) which exceed minimum standards allowed for U.S. Government spaceport facilities. Key among these requirements are 15,000 ft. radius on-site clear zones

  8. Hydrologic data for Cow Bayou, Brazos River Basin, Texas, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, R.N.; Wehmeyer, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Soil Conservation Service is actively engaged in the implementation of flood- and soil-erosion reducing measures in Texas under the authority of. "The Flood Control Act of 1936 and 1944" and "Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act" (Public Law 566), as amended. The Soil Conservation Service has found a total of approximately 3,500 floodwater~retarding structures to be physically and economically feasible in Texas. As of September 30, 1975, 1,680 of these structures had been built.

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi screening in Texas blood donors, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M N; Woc-Colburn, L; Rossmann, S N; Townsend, R L; Stramer, S L; Bravo, M; Kamel, H; Beddard, R; Townsend, M; Oldham, R; Bottazzi, M E; Hotez, P J; Murray, K O

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease is an important emerging disease in Texas that results in cardiomyopathy in about 30% of those infected with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Between the years 2008 and 2012, about 1/6500 blood donors were T. cruzi antibody-confirmed positive. We found older persons and minority populations, particularly Hispanic, at highest risk for screening positive for T. cruzi antibodies during routine blood donation. Zip code analysis determined that T. cruzi is associated with poverty. Chagas disease has a significant disease burden and is a cause of substantial economic losses in Texas. PMID:25170765

  10. Solar Hot Water for Motor Inn--Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Final report describes solar domestic-hot-water heater installation at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas which furnished 63% of total hot-water load of new 98-unit inn. Report presents a description of system, drawings and photographs of collectors, operations and maintenance instructions, manufacturers' specifications for pumps, and an engineer's report on performance.

  11. Irrigation Management in the Texas High Plains: Present Status, Challenges, and Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance and a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation on cropland. Any attempt to improve water use efficiency must be based on reliable estimates of ET for irrigation scheduling purposes. In the Texas High Plains, irrigation scheduling is implemented using lysimeter-based crop coefficients and reference ET data from the Texas High Plains ET Network. This presentation will discuss the current state of irrigation management in the Texas High Plains, knowledge gaps, ongoing developments, and role of remote sensing based regional ET mapping algorithms with respect to irrigated agriculture.

  12. Nearly 50 Years Post-Jim Crow: Persisting and Expansive School Segregation for African American, Latina/o, and ELL Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the segregation of English language learner (ELL) students in schools across Texas. We descriptively analyze levels of racial, economic, and linguistic isolation experienced by ELL students across the state of Texas. We also examine the association between segregation by race/ethnicity, economic disadvantage, and language…

  13. AGRICULTURAL SIMULATION MODEL (AGSIM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AGSIM is a large-scale econometric simulation model of regional crop and national livestock production in the United States. The model was initially developed to analyze the aggregate economic impacts of a wide variety issues facing agriculture, such as technological change, pest...

  14. Stronger management needed to protect agricultural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Shikui

    1983-01-01

    This article examines environmental issues and management in developed agricultural areas of China. Agricultural environmental management is defined as the adoption of countermeasures by applying the theories and methods of environmental science and management science and abiding by economic laws and ecological laws to prevent pollution of the agricultural environment and destruction of the agro-ecology by man; to coordinate the relationship between the development of agricultural production and the protection of the agricultural environment and to satisfy increasing demands for agricultural by-products. Topics considered include the basis for developing agricultural environmental management, the present condition of the agricultural environment in China, and several management proposals.

  15. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  16. Overview: Research Funding in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining more federal funds is the expressed research goal in "Closing the Gaps by 2015." It states: By 2015, increase the level of federal science and engineering research and development obligations to Texas institutions to 6.5 percent of obligations to higher education institutions across the nation. In 2006, Texas institutions of higher…

  17. Texas Education Miracle No Mirage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.

    2000-01-01

    Defends the significant increases seen in Texas student achievement during the 1990s, addressing attacks on the validity of these improvements. Supports the governor's emphasis on accountability testing because of its positive results, concluding that the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills holds students and schools accountable and provides…

  18. Alternative Teacher Certification in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This publication describes alternative teacher certification programs in Texas that train interns who are generally mature, mid-career individuals. The document is organized into seven sections: (1) "Alternative Certification in Texas" discusses the history and background of the programs including legislation, the first alternative teacher…

  19. Texas Coastal Cleanup Report, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Kathryn; And Others

    During the 1986 Coastweek, a national event dedicated to improvement of the marine environment, a large beach cleanup was organized on the Texas coast. The goals of the cleanup were to create public awareness of the problems caused by marine debris, and to collect data on the types and quantities of debris found on the Texas coastline. The…

  20. 77 FR 67329 - Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment... collection associated with the Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) of 1978. DATES: We will... Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) Program Manager, Natural Resources Analysis Group, Economic...

  1. The Future of the Workplace in Texas: A Preliminary Identification of Planning Issues for Technical, Vocational, and Adult Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Karla; And Others

    During the past 15 years, fluctuations in the prevailing price of oil have had a profound effect on Texas' economic affairs and labor market. Efforts to forecast what the Texas labor market will be like in the future must allow for the diversity among the state's gulf coast, border, plains, eastern, metroplex, and central corridor regions.…

  2. The High Cost of Dropping Out: How Many? How Come? How Much? A Texas KIDS COUNT Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deviney, Frances; Cavazos, Leticia

    2006-01-01

    Every May, hundreds of thousands of Texas high school seniors don caps and gowns to celebrate an academic rite of passage: high school graduation. Texas' youth face a rapidly changing world, one increasingly dependent upon education as the cornerstone for economic success. Without the skills to succeed in the nation's new economy, students who…

  3. Access to Doctoral Study for Hispanic Students: The Pragmatics of "Race" in (Recent) Texas History and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Maricela

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the historical developments and major policy shifts that contextualize higher education access for Hispanic and other underrepresented students in Texas. Describes the doctoral program of University of Texas-Pan American as an example of an effort to address the state's moral and economic imperatives of ensuring access to higher…

  4. Formation of Pedogenic Carbonates in the Semi-arid Rio Grande Valley: Insights from Carbon, Major elements, and U-series isotopes in Natural and Agricultural Soils of Southern New Mexico and Western Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Jin, L.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    .2 × 1.7 ka to 15× 17 ka. Furthermore, these ages decrease with depth suggesting faster carbonate precipitation downward. These ages most likely represent mixing of natural old carbonates and recently formed carbonates due to frequent irrigation. The carbonates at Jornada however, are much older ranging from 14.5 × 6.8 ka to 117 × 26 ka. Older carbonates at Jornada could be due to slower water infiltration from limited rainfall, Ca and insufficient dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) thus slow formation of pedogenic carbonates. Our findings show differing carbonate formation rates in arid zones. In agricultural settings, carbonates are precipitated faster due to loading of Ca and DIC from flood irrigation. Soil organic carbon is also an important C reservoir, releasing soil CO2 to form carbonates. In natural settings however, relatively older carbonate suggest slower precipitation kinetics.

  5. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  6. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  7. Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eddie; And Others

    To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural…

  8. The Texas We Create: State of Texas Children 2012--Texas KIDS COUNT Annual Data Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deviney, Frances; Hattemer, Kori

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 data book explores how our kids have fared during the last decade--some outcomes are positive, some negative. But positive or negative outcomes for kids don't just happen. They are the inevitable results of effective or failed policy choices. The State of Texas Children 2012 combines data and policy to tell the story of Texas kids. It's…

  9. State Agency Applications of EOS Data in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, G. L.

    2001-05-01

    Texas offers a good model for the introduction of remotely sensed data products into the daily operations of state agencies by virtue of its large size and population. The diversity of the Texas landscape coupled with the long distances traveled to perform site inspections place special burdens on the land resource agencies responsible for monitoring crop conditions, water availability, environmental hazards and other natural resource issues. To assist these agencies, the Texas Synergy team has adopted a two-phase approach that incorporates framework geospatial data products designed for the broad user community with remote sensing applications developed for user-specific analyses. A key element to the success of the effort is the development of remote sensing products within a Texas Reference Frame that corresponds to the components of the high-resolution National Spatial Data Infrastructure developed by the state, such as 1-meter CIR digital orthophotographs, digital elevation models, and vector layers for hypsography, hydrography, soils, transportation and boundaries. Users accustomed to working with NSDI products can easily begin to include recently-collected EOS data presented within the same reference frame. Examples of statewide data products made available through the Texas Synergy project are AVHRR NDVI and MODIS imagery, Landsat 7 ETM+ scenes and SPOT 10-meter panchromatic image tiles. Delivery of the products involves a number of mechanisms from CD distribution to Internet FTP downloads, but increasingly relies upon Internet map services, such as ESRI's ArcIMS. Beyond release of the base imagery products, the Texas Synergy team has worked with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Texas Soil and Water Conservation Board, Texas Department of Agriculture, Texas Water Development Board, National Park Service and USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service on a wide range of data applications. Throughout 1999-2000, the magnitude of drought conditions was

  10. Texas Gains on NAEP: Points of Light?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    Places the 1992-1996 gain in mathematics scores from Texas on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) from fourth to eighth grades, asserting that the so-called miracle in Texas looks much like the median elsewhere. Texas ranks 17th among the 35 states and 2 districts with NAEP scores for the period, but Texas is no worse than most…

  11. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  12. 21 CFR 808.93 - Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Texas. 808.93 Section 808.93 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.93 Texas. (a) The following Texas medical device requirement is enforceable... that, in enforcing this requirement, Texas apply the definition of “used hearing aid” in §...

  13. 21 CFR 808.93 - Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Texas. 808.93 Section 808.93 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.93 Texas. (a) The following Texas medical device requirement is enforceable... that, in enforcing this requirement, Texas apply the definition of “used hearing aid” in §...

  14. 21 CFR 808.93 - Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Texas. 808.93 Section 808.93 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.93 Texas. (a) The following Texas medical device requirement is enforceable... that, in enforcing this requirement, Texas apply the definition of “used hearing aid” in §...

  15. Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program: A Collaboration between the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, South Texas College, and Texas A&M University-Commerce. CBE Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca; Glancey, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This case study is part of a series on newer competency-based degree programs that have been emerging in recent years. In January 2014, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB), South Texas College (STC), and Texas A&M University-Commerce (A&M Commerce) launched the Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program, the state's first…

  16. 21 CFR 808.93 - Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Texas. 808.93 Section 808.93 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.93 Texas. (a) The following Texas medical device requirement is enforceable... that, in enforcing this requirement, Texas apply the definition of “used hearing aid” in §...

  17. Charter Schools in Texas: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Francisco; Slate, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we analyzed the literature regarding charter schools in the State of Texas. We specifically examined the evolution of the charter school movement in Texas. Moreover, data regarding the effectiveness/ineffectiveness of charter schools in Texas were discussed. Our overview of Texas charter schools, given their widespread presence in…

  18. 21 CFR 808.93 - Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Texas. 808.93 Section 808.93 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.93 Texas. (a) The following Texas medical device requirement is enforceable... that, in enforcing this requirement, Texas apply the definition of “used hearing aid” in §...

  19. TEXAS MIGRANT LABOR, THE 1964 MIGRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE OF MEXICAN EXTRACTION. MOST OF THE OTHER FIVE PERCENT ARE EAST TEXAS NEGROES. THE MECHANIZATION OF COTTON HARVESTING AND THE EXPIRATION OF THE "BRACERO PROGRAM" IN 1964 HAVE CAUSED MORE TEXAS MIGRANTS TO SEEK EMPLOYMENT OUTSIDE OF THE STATE. DURING 1964,…

  20. Agriculture, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remotely sensed data in agriculture are enumerated. These include: predictions of forage for range animal consumption, forest management, soil mapping, and crop inventory and management.

  1. Combined effects of nitrogen fertilization and biochar on the net global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity and net ecosystem economic budget in intensive vegetable agriculture in southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Fan, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Chen, Z. Z.; Sun, L. Y.; Xiong, Z. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization and biochar addition on the net global warming potential (net GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) and net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB). These experiments were conducted in an intensive vegetable field with 4 consecutive vegetable crops in 2012 and 2013 in southeastern China. The experiment was conducted with a 32 factorial design in triplicate at N fertilizer rates of 0, 1475, 1967 kg N ha-1 and biochar rates of 0, 20, and 40 t ha-1. Although CH4 emissions were not obviously affected by N fertilization, N2O emissions increased by 27.2-116.2% and the net GWP increased by 30.6-307.2%. Consequently, the GHGI increased significantly, but vegetable yield and the NEEB did not improve. Furthermore, biochar amendments did not significantly influence CH4 emissions, but significantly decreased the N2O emissions by 1.7-25.4%, the net GWP by 89.6-700.5%, and the GHGI by 89.5-644.8%. In addition, vegetable yields significantly increased by 2.1-74.1%, which improved the NEEB. Thus, N fertilization did not increase vegetable yields or the NEEB. However, N fertilization did increase the net GWP and GHGI. In contrast, biochar additions resulted in lower N2O emissions and net GWP and GHGI, but increased vegetable yield and the NEEB in the intensive vegetable production system. Therefore, appropriate biochar amendment should be studied to combat changing climate and to improve the economic profits of vegetable production.

  2. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, Agricultural Research Service. 2.65 Section 2.65 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics §...

  3. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, Agricultural Research Service. 2.65 Section 2.65 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics §...

  4. Apparel. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide for apparel is one of a number of guides developed for use in vocational home economics education in Texas. Introductory materials address use of the guide and list the essential elements upon which the content is based. The guide is divided into six units: individual and family apparel decisions, apparel management,…

  5. 75 FR 68598 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION... to 9 member positions of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board; Research Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

  6. Dalhart Texas 1972-2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    A water-rich polka dot pattern takes over the traditional rectangular patchwork of fields in this 40 year sequence of Landsat images of the dry Texas panhandle near the town of Dalhart. In this ser...

  7. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  9. Home Economics Careers in Apparel and Accessories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    This course of study on careers in apparel and accessories is one of a series on home economics careers designed to assist teacher-coordinators in Texas in promotion and/or teaching home economics cooperative education programs. The course of study consists of (1) an overview and job description, (2) a job analysis, (3) a course outline, (4)…

  10. Paleohydrology of Southwestern Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Baker, Victor R.; Patton, Peter C.

    1982-08-01

    Current statistical methods may be unable to accurately predict recurrence intervals of rare, large-magnitude floods, especially in semiarid regions having positively skewed annual flood distributions, great hydrologic variability, and widely spaced gaging stations. Current approaches rely on historical data, but catastrophic floods may have recurrence intervals far greater than the length of historical records. In the lower Pecos and Devils Rivers of southwestern Texas, paleoflood discharge and frequency estimates are extended over 10,000 years by the study of slack-water flood sediments. Slack-water deposits are typically fine-grained sand and silt that accumulate during floods in areas where current velocity is reduced, i.e., in back-flooded tributary mouths, channel expansions, downstream from bedrock spurs and/or slump blocks, and in shallow caves along bedrock walls. Radiocarbon dating of organic detritus in slack-water deposits establishes the flood chronology while paleoflood discharges can be estimated by slope-area techniques. Paleoflood information extracted from slack-water sediments can greatly extend flood records. These floods may be weighted like historical data in log Pearson type 3 calculations of flood frequency. Our morphostratigraphic approach combines recorded data with geomorphic evidence to derive estimates of flood frequency. This technique offers an inexpensive and rapid way to assess catastrophic flood risk.

  11. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  12. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  13. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste. PMID:26420088

  14. Texas lifestyle limits transmission of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Paul; Lathrop, Sarah; Bunning, Michel; Biggerstaff, Brad; Singer, Daniel; Tiwari, Tejpratap; Baber, Laura; Amador, Manuel; Thirion, Jaime; Hayes, Jack; Seca, Calixto; Mendez, Jorge; Ramirez, Bernardo; Robinson, Jerome; Rawlings, Julie; Vorndam, Vance; Waterman, Stephen; Gubler, Duane; Clark, Gary; Hayes, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Urban dengue is common in most countries of the Americas, but has been rare in the United States for more than half a century. In 1999 we investigated an outbreak of the disease that affected Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and Laredo, Texas, United States, contiguous cities that straddle the international border. The incidence of recent cases, indicated by immunoglobulin M antibody serosurvey, was higher in Nuevo Laredo, although the vector, Aedes aegypti, was more abundant in Laredo. Environmental factors that affect contact with mosquitoes, such as air-conditioning and human behavior, appear to account for this paradox. We conclude that the low prevalence of dengue in the United States is primarily due to economic, rather than climatic, factors. PMID:12533286

  15. Texas Lifestyle Limits Transmission of Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lathrop, Sarah; Bunning, Michel; Biggerstaff, Brad; Singer, Daniel; Tiwari, Tejpratap; Baber, Laura; Amador, Manuel; Thirion, Jaime; Hayes, Jack; Seca, Calixto; Mendez, Jorge; Ramirez, Bernardo; Robinson, Jerome; Rawlings, Julie; Vorndam, Vance; Waterman, Stephen; Gubler, Duane; Clark, Gary; Hayes, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Urban dengue is common in most countries of the Americas, but has been rare in the United States for more than half a century. In 1999 we investigated an outbreak of the disease that affected Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and Laredo, Texas, United States, contiguous cities that straddle the international border. The incidence of recent cases, indicated by immunoglobulin M antibody serosurvey, was higher in Nuevo Laredo, although the vector, Aedes aegypti, was more abundant in Laredo. Environmental factors that affect contact with mosquitoes, such as air-conditioning and human behavior, appear to account for this paradox. We conclude that the low prevalence of dengue in the United States is primarily due to economic, rather than climatic, factors. PMID:12533286

  16. Louisiana, Texas fabrication yards on busy upswing

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S. )

    1994-04-01

    Responding to the continued push to produce natural gas reserves, Texas and Louisiana fabrication yards anticipate a busy 1994 season. Sixty-five oil and gas production platforms are under construction for major companies and independents; total platforms built in 1994 could approach 100. While oil prices are still volatile, most projects are focusing on shallow-water fields. Advanced technology has helped fabricators improve designs by making structures lighter and more cost-effective. PC-Based software helps yards perform more thorough analyses of a structure, which means towers and fixed platforms can be more economically built. Software also enables yards to design cost-effective structures to develop fields with a marginal level of reserves. Several projects currently under development or recently completed are described.

  17. Morama bean research in Texas: a technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bousquet, J.E.

    1982-07-01

    The search for drought-resistant crops has energy-saving as well as water-saving goals. The agricultural potential of morama beans (Bauhinea esculenta, also known as Tylosema esculentum), a plant that grows extensively across southern Africa was investigated. The beans are usually eaten roasted, like peanuts. Morama tubers, which store water to assure the plant's survival in drought years, may be uprooted and eaten as a source of moisture and some other nutrients. The goals of the morama project were specifically to discover the tolerance of morama for Texas agronomic conditions, to discover the ideal conditions and methods of cultivation, to demonstrate the productivity and forage potential of the plants grown at various sites in Texas, and to measure the nutritional quality of the edible parts of this plant.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium sp. GHKF11, Isolated from Farmland Soil in Pecan Grove, Texas.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rupa; Damania, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobium sp. GHKF11 is an organophosphate-degrading bacterial strain that was isolated from farmland soil in Pecan Grove, Texas, USA. In addition to a capacity for pesticide degradation, GHKF11 shares conserved traits with other Rhizobium spp., including heavy metal resistance and transport genes that may have significant agricultural biotechnology applications. PMID:27445376

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium sp. GHKF11, Isolated from Farmland Soil in Pecan Grove, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Damania, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobium sp. GHKF11 is an organophosphate-degrading bacterial strain that was isolated from farmland soil in Pecan Grove, Texas, USA. In addition to a capacity for pesticide degradation, GHKF11 shares conserved traits with other Rhizobium spp., including heavy metal resistance and transport genes that may have significant agricultural biotechnology applications. PMID:27445376

  20. Monitoring ET over Texas High Plains using two source model and high resolution aster data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agriculture, evapotranspiration (ET) is a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation. In this study, we applied the Two-Source Model (TSM) to estimate daily ET from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data for the highly advective Texas High...

  1. Efficacy of Pichia anomala WLR-076 to control aflatoxin on corn in Texas, 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiments were conducted at three Texas Agricultural Experiment Stations on yellow corn hybrids to test the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala WRL-076. There were five replicates per treatment arranged in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were: (1) P. anomala WLR-076 applied ...

  2. Lysimetric evaluation of eddy covariance fluxes over irrigated sunflower in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water use efficiency of different cropping systems is of high interest to the agricultural community in arid and semi-arid regions such as the Texas High Plains. In these regions, irrigation is extensively used to supplement generally limited, erratic growing season rainfall to meet crop water deman...

  3. Reaction of sorghum hybrids to anthracnose, grain mold and grain weathering in Burleson County, Texas, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty commercial hybrids were evaluated for resistance against anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum and grain mold or grain weathering caused by a number of fungal species at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Experiment Station in College Station (Burleson County). Six hybrids wer...

  4. Hydrus-3D simulations: Irrigation management strategies for the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Half of the cultivated area and more than 80% of crop production in the Texas High Plains (THP) comes from irrigated agriculture, which depends on water from the Ogallala Aquifer. The water table of this aquifer is declining because groundwater withdrawals exceed recharge. This fact compromises its ...

  5. Wastewater reuse and Ogallala Aquifer Recharge in the Southern High Plains of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Municipalities in the Southern High Plains of TX use land application of treated wastewater extensively. For example, in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality’s Region 2 counties (Lubbock and surrounding counties), there are ~ 7285 ha of agricultural land over lying the Ogallala Aquifer per...

  6. The Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Practices among Texas Cotton Growers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes integrated pest management (IPM), a more advanced approach than chemical pesticide. Applies diffusion and farming-systems theories to create analytical model to explain IPM's adoption, use, and implications for agricultural change. Telephone surveys of Texas cotton growers on IPM practices found different sources of IPM information…

  7. Texas Nutrition Education and Training Program for Federal Fiscal Year 1992. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Mahassen

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Education and Training Program (NET) provides nutrition information and instructional resources for children, parents, educators, and food service personnel. This report describes the evaluation methods of the NET Program in Texas in fiscal year 1992, describes evaluation results, and offers…

  8. Evaluation of the Texas Nutrition Education and Training Program for Federal Fiscal Year 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Mahassen

    This report summarizes the results of the 1997 Texas Nutrition Education and Training (NET) program, one of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Child Nutrition Programs. NET provides nutrition education and instructional resources for children and key individuals in their learning environment. NET's target population includes parents or…

  9. Lysimetric evaluation of eddy covariance fluxes over irrigated cotton in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water use efficiency of different cropping systems is of high interest to the agricultural community in arid and semi-arid regions such as the Texas High Plains. In these regions, irrigation is extensively used to supplement inadequate growing season rainfall to meet crop water demand. Although larg...

  10. Developing a Skilled and Educated Workforce through Regional Planning. Status Report of Projects Sponsored by the Texas Department of Commerce, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and the Texas Education Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    As a result of a call by Texas agencies for demonstration programs in regional planning to assist economic development by educating the work force, three models were funded in December 1987, with plans to continue operating through June 30, 1989. One of the projects is being conducted by the Upper Rio Grande Private Industry Council in El Paso for…

  11. 75 FR 68398 - Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Texas, Oklahoma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad Company Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC (TOE), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Texas,...

  12. DNA contents in Texas bluegrass (Poa arachnifera) selected in Texas and Oklahoma determined by flow cytometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas bluegrass (Poa arachnifera Torr.) is a dioecious, perennial, cool-season grass native to southern Kansas, Oklahoma, western Arkansas and most of Texas. Its major use has been for forage on rangelands in Texas and Oklahoma. More recently, interspecific hybrids between Texas bluegrass and Kentuc...

  13. Formation evaluation in the Texas Cretaceous chalk trend

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, E. Jr.; Stedman, D.; Fertl, W.H.

    1982-06-01

    Skilled formation evaluation is essential to economic well completions in the Cretaceous carbonate trend of South and Central Texas. The Austin chalk and Buda lime wells within this trend are known for high initial production rates followed by rapid production decline probably due to completion in zones of insufficient porosity and permeability. Therefore, the proper use of geophysical wireline data to locate fractures and determine fracture quality and hydrocarbon potential prior to setting casing is an essential element in evaluating the economics of any given well. This work details current successful evaluation procedures utilized in the trend. 11 refs.

  14. Libraries in Texas: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Amarillo Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Harrington Library of the Health ... parrish_medical_libr.asp El Paso Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso Gallo Library ...

  15. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

  16. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. In this reporting period we revised all of the economic calculations, participated in technology transfer of project results, and began working on project closeout tasks in anticipation of the project ending December 31, 2005. In this research, we conducted five separate simulation investigations, or cases. These cases are (1) CO{sub 2} sequestration base case scenarios for 4,000-ft and 6,200-ft depth coal beds in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of east-central Texas, (2) sensitivity study of the effects of well spacing on sequestration, (3) sensitivity study of the effects of injection gas composition, (4) sensitivity study of the effects of injection rate, and (5) sensitivity study of the effects of coal dewatering prior to CO{sub 2} injection/sequestration. Results show that, in most cases, revenue from coalbed methane production does not completely offset the costs of CO{sub 2} sequestration in Texas low-rank coals, indicating that CO{sub 2} injection is not economically feasible for the ranges of gas prices and carbon credits investigated. The best economic performance is obtained with flue gas (13% CO{sub 2} - 87% N{sub 2}) injection, as compared to injection of 100% CO{sub 2} and a mixture of 50% CO{sub 2} and 50% N{sub 2}. As part of technology transfer for this project, we presented results at the West Texas Geological Society Fall Symposium in October 2005 and at the COAL-SEQ Forum in November 2005.

  17. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  18. Administrative Expenditures in Texas Public Universities, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin.

    This document presents text and graphs to provide an overview of administrative expenditures in institutions of higher education in Texas. Administrative expenditure indicators at Texas public senior universities are compared with each other, with national averages, and with averages of the 10 states nearest Texas in population. In constant…

  19. Master Plan for Texas Higher Education 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin.

    This 5-year plan for Texas higher education, designed to present a "road-map" for all participants in Texas higher education to use in their fulfillment of the higher education mission as established by the Texas Charter for Public Higher Education, is organized around six principles established by the charter. Following an overview on Texas…

  20. Texas School Law: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Kelly, Ed.; Horner, Jeff, Ed.; Camp, Bill, Ed.; Robinson, Vianei Lopez, Ed.

    Intended as a practical legal guide for Texas educators and lawyers, this book contains three major sections dealing with several chapters on various school law topics, each prepared by Texas attorneys. Section 1, "School Boards and Superintendents," includes chapters on school board members authority and relationship with staff, the Texas Open…

  1. Research on Texas Water and Recreation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station.

    The need for research pertaining to the best use of water and recreation resources in Texas is emphasized in these four papers presented at the 1968 Experiment Station Conference, College Station, Texas. "Parameters of Water Resources in Texas" identifies and elaborates upon the important elements presently constituting the water resources…

  2. Texas Public Library Statistics for 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin. Dept. of Library Development.

    Information presented in this report is taken from the 1986 Annual Report/System Membership Applications submitted by public libraries in Texas. The report is divided into five sections which contain: (1) general information, including listings of the Texas State Library governing or advisory committees; the Texas State Library Administrative…

  3. Texas Real Estate Curriculum Workshop Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Robert

    The Texas Real Estate Research Center-Texas Education Agency (TRERC-TEA) curriculum workshop was attended by over 40 participants representing 26 Texas community colleges. These participants divided into eight small groups by real estate specialty area and developed curriculum outlines and learning objectives for the following real estate courses:…

  4. 76 FR 58329 - Texas Disaster #TX-00381

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12815 and 12816 Texas Disaster TX-00381 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... the State of Texas (FEMA-4029-DR), dated 09/09/2011. Incident: Wildfires. Incident Period: 08/30/2011... Loans Only): Texas: Caldwell, Fayette, Lee, Travis, Williamson. The Interest Rates are: ] Percent...

  5. 78 FR 27468 - Texas Disaster # TX-00401

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00401 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Texas dated May 2, 2013... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Mclennan. Contiguous Counties: Texas: Bell;...

  6. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

  7. 76 FR 28841 - Texas Disaster # TX-00376

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12564 and 12565 Texas Disaster TX-00376 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... State of Texas dated 05/09/2011. Incident: Wichita County Complex Wildfires. Incident Period: 04/15/2011.... Contiguous Counties: Texas: Archer, Baylor, Clay, Wilbarger, Oklahoma: Cotton, Tillman. The Interest...

  8. 75 FR 70763 - Texas Disaster #TX-00363

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00363 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Texas dated 11/09/2010... Counties: Texas: Bastrop, Burnet, Coryell, Dallas, Denton, Ellis, Falls, Johnson, Lampasas, Lee,...

  9. 77 FR 6620 - Texas Disaster #TX-00385

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00385 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Texas dated 01/30/2012... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Harris. Contiguous Counties: Texas: Brazoria,...

  10. 76 FR 15358 - Texas Disaster #TX-00371

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00371 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Texas dated 03/14/2011. Incident: Texas Panhandle Wildfires. Incident Period: 02/27/2011 through 02/28/2011. Effective Date:...

  11. 76 FR 40765 - Texas Disaster #TX-00378

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00378 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Texas dated 07/05/2011... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Grimes. Contiguous Counties: Texas: Brazos,...

  12. 76 FR 24555 - Texas Disaster #TX-00375

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00375 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Texas. Dated 04/26/2011. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Jeff Davis. Contiguous Counties: Texas,...

  13. 76 FR 35260 - Texas Disaster # TX-00375

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00375 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of TEXAS dated 04/26...'s disaster declaration for the State of Texas, dated 04/26/2011 is hereby amended to establish...

  14. 78 FR 36631 - Texas Disaster #TX-00408

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00408 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Texas dated 06/12/2013... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Bexar. Contiguous Counties: Texas: Atascosa,...

  15. 78 FR 39822 - Texas Disaster #TX-00409

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00409 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Texas dated 06/25/2013... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Maverick. Contiguous Counties: Texas: Dimmit,...

  16. 75 FR 1421 - Texas Disaster # TX-00354

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Texas Disaster TX-00354 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Texas dated 01/04/2010... the disaster: Primary Counties: Angelina. Contiguous Counties: Texas: Cherokee, Houston,...

  17. Overview of the Texas Youth Fitness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Martin, Scott B.; Welk, Gregory J.; Zhu, Weimo; Meredith, Marilu D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the historical and legislative backgrounds leading to statewide testing of health-related physical fitness in Texas children grades 3-12 as mandated by Texas Senate Bill 530. The rationale and goals for an associated research project (the Texas Youth Fitness Study, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation) to evaluate…

  18. Testing in Texas: Accountability for Bilingual Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Rosalie Pedalino, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue has a special, multi-article section on student testing in Texas and contains three additional and unrelated articles. "The Texas Testing Case Documents: G.I. Forum, et al. v. Texas Education Agency, et al." section has five articles: "Overview" (Roger Clegg); a copy of the "First Amended Complaint"; "Expert Reports" (Susan E. Phillips,…

  19. In Texas, a Statewide Commitment to Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bonita C.; Cutright, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The Texas Transfer Success Conference, held at eight sites across Texas in May 2009, drew more than 1,000 attendees from Texas and international colleges and universities. The purpose of the conference was to discuss strategies and principles for increasing the effectiveness of inter-institutional transfer for students. The conference was planned…

  20. Texas Migrant Labor. Annual Report, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    Among the responsibilities of the Good Neighbor Commission of Texas are (1) a survey of conditions and (2) a study of problems related to migrant labor in Texas. This annual report of the 1969 migrant scene shows the results of that survey and study. Beginning with an overview of Texas migrant labor, which goes back several years and includes a…

  1. Replacing Property Taxes with Sales Taxes Would Be Bad for Texas Businesses, Families, and Public Education. Policy Page. No. 07-307

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Public education is the foundation of our democracy and the engine of our economy. Texans have a collective responsibility to ensure that public education is adequately supported. This responsibility needs to be fairly distributed among Texas families in a way that supports economic growth. Recently, some have proposed that Texas replace local…

  2. Freshwater withdrawals in Texas, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Barber, Nancy L.

    1990-01-01

    Freshwater withdrawal data was compiled for the 254 counties in Texas for 1985. Major categories of withdrawal are presented by county on maps of the State. Withdrawals are also shown by source, aquifer, and major river basin. Total freshwater withdrawals in Texas during 1985 were about 20, 100 million gal/day. Surface-water withdrawals were about 12,900 million gal/day or 64% of the total, and groundwater withdrawals were about 7,190 million gal/day or 36% of the total. More water was withdrawn for irrigation than for any other purpose, accounting for 40% of total freshwater withdrawals and for 75% of groundwater withdrawals. (USGS)

  3. Personnel Training--Secondary Vocational Agriculture Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Herman D.; And Others

    This document consists of three parts. The first part is a report on a project conducted to develop computer software needed by vocational agriculture teachers in Texas. The report details the process used to assess and develop software, and provides guidelines that can be used by others in evaluating computer software for vocational agriculture…

  4. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Curriculum Guide for Agribusiness 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed to help teachers in Texas provide training in occupational-related agricultural education to persons both in groups and on the job. The guide is organized in 33 sections. The first section covers group instruction with the remaining sections covering the following occupational titles: farm equipment operator;…

  5. Peer Advising in Agricultural Education: A Supplement to Faculty Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Bob; Weeks, William

    Peer Advising in Agricultural Education has been operating since the Fall Semester, 1987, at Texas A & M University. The program involves several undergraduate students nominated by faculty, who are supervised by two doctoral students. Responsibilities of the peer advisors include informing students of campus procedures, assisting in prescheduling…

  6. SPD Hockley County: Results of 1971 Agricultural Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bill; Nugent, Gene

    This report presents the statistical results of agricultural demonstrations for two crops--cotton and sorghum--in Hockley County, Texas. Demonstration results are geared to increase the knowledge and understanding of possible solutions to the many problems that are impediments in reaching long-range goals established by the County's Program…

  7. Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Sense of Teaching Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stripling, Christopher; Ricketts, John C.; Roberts, T. Grady; Harlin, Julie F.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a longitudinal examination of the teaching self-efficacy of preservice agricultural education teachers. Data were collected for two years at The University of Georgia and Texas A&M University during the Fall 2004 and Spring 2005 and the Fall 2005 and Spring 2006 semesters (N = 102). Data were collected at…

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. PMID:17827109

  9. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  10. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  11. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEALTON, ERNEST L.

    TODAY'S SUCCESSFUL FARMER MUST POSSESS THE SKILLS OF A BUSINESSMAN, SCIENTIST, AND MECHANIC TO SURVIVE COMPETITION IN AGRICULTURE, THE LARGEST INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS COMPETITION HAS CAUSED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF FARMS AND RANCHES IN AN ATTEMPT TO CURTAIL OPERATIONAL EXPENSES AND TO INCREASE PRODUCTION. WITH THE SCIENTIFIC…

  12. The prevalence and patterns of occupational injury among south Texas high school students.

    PubMed

    Weller, Nancy F; Cooper, Sharon P; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kelder, Steve H; Tortolero, Susan R

    2003-08-01

    High school students frequently work long hours during the school year, increasing their risk of injury. Few studies have examined the relation between work injury and weekly work hours. This paper describes injuries among students in South Texas, where economically disadvantaged Hispanic students are heavily represented. Anonymous surveys were collected from 3565 secondary students in 23 schools. Self-reported data included weekly work hours and type of injury and job when injured. A dose-response effect was observed: increasing weekly work hours were related to injury (1-10 hours, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.0; 11-20 hours, 1.4; 21+ hours, 1.5), P < .000. The AOR for restaurant work was 3.2; for construction, 3.0; for factory, office, or skilled labor, 2.9; for agriculture, 2.8; for yard work, 2.0; and for babysitting (1.0). Males (OR = 1.5) were more prone to injury. High-intensity weekly work increased the likelihood of injury. Prevention efforts should be targeted to youth to reduce work injuries. PMID:12961848

  13. South Texas Maquiladora Suppliers Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, J. Michael

    This project was undertaken to assist South Texas industries in improving export to nearby Mexican maquiladoras (factories). The maquiladora program is based on co-production by two plants under a single management, one on each side of the border. Activities addressed four objectives: (1) to determine the dollar value, quantity, and source of the…

  14. Bushland, Texas Reference ET Calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bushland Reference Evapotranspiration (ET) Calculator was developed at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, for calculating grass and alfalfa reference ET. It uses the ASCE Standardized Reference ET Equation for calculating reference ET at hourly and dai...

  15. A Big LEAP for Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Loraine; Roach, David; Williamson, Celia

    2014-01-01

    In Texas, educators working to coordinate the efforts of fifty community colleges, thirty-eight universities, and six university systems are bringing the resources of the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) Liberal Education and America's Promise (LEAP) initiative to bear in order to ensure that the state's nearly 1.5…

  16. "Fisher v. Texas": Strictly Disappointing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieli, Russell K.

    2013-01-01

    Russell K. Nieli writes in this opinion paper that as far as the ability of state colleges and universities to use race as a criteria for admission goes, "Fisher v. Texas" was a big disappointment, and failed in the most basic way. Nieli states that although some affirmative action opponents have tried to put a more positive spin on the…

  17. Texas Higher Education in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    The status of higher education in Texas is examined in this major report of changes in higher education over the past decade. Information on enrollment, cost, financial aid, job opportunities, and facilities in higher education institutions is given for private higher education, professional higher education, community colleges, and state colleges…

  18. Don't NOx Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, J.D.; Lachowicz, Y.

    2005-07-01

    Modifications to boiler combustion systems allow Fayette Power Projects units 1 and 2 to meet new NOx emissions limits east of La Grange in Eastern Texas. The article describes modifications executed by Alstom in 2004 which attained an overall reduction in NOx emissions of almost 69%. 4 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  19. How Texas Rewrote Your Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Wayne A.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews issues and events related to adopting high school biology textbooks in Texas. Specific reference is given to the viewpoints of Mel and Norma Gabler. It is argued that factors controlling textbook content should not result from past market forces, but from a permanent science constituency and an informed public. (DH)

  20. Texas Endangered Species Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kathleen Marie; Campbell, Linda

    This publication is the result of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Division's (TPWD's) commitment to education and the fertile partnerships formed between TPWD biologists and educators. This activity book brings together the expertise and practical knowledge of a classroom teacher with the technical knowledge and skills of a TPWD biologist and artist.…