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Sample records for agricultural experience sae

  1. Developing Programs of Supervised Agricultural Experience. Developing an SAE Program Using the Missouri Agricultural Record Book for Secondary Students. Analyzing the SAE Program Using the Missouri Farm Business Record Book. Instructor's Guide. Volume 21, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admire, Myron

    This curriculum guide to the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program contains four units of insturctor's materials as follows: Unit 1: Developing an SAE Program; Unit 2: Using the Missouri Agricultural Record Book for Secondary Students; Unit 3: Analyzing the SAE Program; and Unit 4: Using the Missouri Farm Business Record Book. The…

  2. Analysis of the Continuing Decline in Use of Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Roger

    1997-01-01

    When responses from 135 of 222 New York secondary agriculture teachers were compared with a 1983 study, a 10% decrease in supervised agricultural experience (SAE) was found. Barriers were low level of summer employment, limited release time, less funding for transportation, and scheduling problems. A comprehensive overhaul of the concept and…

  3. Theme: Is Problem-Solving Teaching and SAE Needed in Agricultural Education in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardlow, George, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Nine articles in this theme issue address problem-solving teaching and supervised agricultural experience. Topics covered include systems approaches to SAE, SAE for Y2K, SAE for science, applied SAE, types of SAE, and examples of activities. (JOW)

  4. Theme: SAE Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Supervised Experience" (Morgan et al.); "SAE [Supervised Agricultural Experience]: Putting Agricultural Education into Context" (Camp); "Agricultural Internships" (Sherman); "Remember Those Records" (Chase, Thom); "Developing SAE Programs for All Agriscience Students" (Prelesnik); "A Marriage Made in...?" (Biondo); and "Involving…

  5. Entry-Level Technical Skills That Teachers Expected Students to Learn through Supervised Agricultural Experiences (SAEs): A Modified Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jon W.; Edwards, M. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Supervised experiences are designed to provide opportunities for the hands-on learning of skills and practices that lead to successful personal growth and future employment in an agricultural career (Talbert, Vaughn, Croom, & Lee, 2007). In the Annual Report for Agricultural Education (2005-2006), it was stated that 91% of the respondents (i.e.,…

  6. Exploring the Paradox of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth B.; Moore, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural teachers in North Carolina were surveyed to assess their attitudes toward Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) and to identify barriers to implementation of SAE in their schools. The teachers gave the politically correct answers about why SAE was important. The teachers indicated that SAE was important (8.46 on a 10 point scale)…

  7. SAE: "E" Is for the Experience!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, David

    1995-01-01

    Traditional supervised agricultural experience remains valid, but nontraditional or alternative approaches can also work if they meet selection guidelines and match community resources to student interests and skills. (SK)

  8. Theme: The Role of the Teacher in Conducting Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Contains 13 theme articles on the role of teachers in supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs that offer suggestions, ideas, and practices to advance the implementation of SAE programs. (JOW)

  9. Developing a Model for Supervised Agricultural Experience Program Quality: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, James E.; Osborne, Edward W.

    1996-01-01

    A literature review revealed the following: (1) there are no standard criteria to measure the quality of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs; (2) teacher attitudes and past SAE experiences strongly influence quality; (3) the number of teachers with SAE experience is declining; and (4) school laboratory facilities are essential for…

  10. Benefits of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.; Dyer, James E.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 identified the benefits of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs, including agriculture knowledge and positive work attitudes. Classroom, SAE, and Future Farmers of America complemented each other. The research base is state specific and fragmented and lacks cohesiveness. (SK)

  11. Relationship of Supervised Agricultural Experience Program Participation and Student Achievement in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Jimmy G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Data from 537 high school students demonstrated the positive effect of participation in supervised agricultural experience (SAE) and Future Farmers of America (FFA) on agriscience achievement. FFA involvement and the scope of SAE were highly correlated. Student interest, socioeconomic status, and years of agriscience were related to achievement…

  12. Perceptions Regarding Planning Activities and Supervision Strategies for Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swortzel, Kirk A.

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 71% of 150 Tennessee agriculture teachers surveyed indicated that those teaching in multiple departments, subscribing to "Agricultural Education Magazine," and including supervised agricultural experiences (SAE) in grading were more positive about planning. Those not having agricultural education in high school, including SAE in…

  13. Supervision of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, James E.; Williams, David L.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 found that supervised agricultural experience (SAE) teachers, students, parents, and employers value the teachers' supervisory role. Implementation practices vary widely and there are no cumulative data to guide policies and standards for SAE supervision. (SK)

  14. Exploring Principals' Perceptions of Supervised Agricultural Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, John; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of principals at high schools with agricultural education programs in regard to Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE). There is evidence that suggests that high school principals' attitudes may both directly and indirectly affect factors that influence school climate and student achievement. In this study,…

  15. Barriers to Successful Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs in Semi-Rural and Urban High School Agricultural Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, David C.; Lucero, Dan

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with educators and students examined the value of and identified barriers to effective use of supervised agricultural experiences (SAE) in a Los Angeles high school and a semirural Colorado high school. Both programs overcame diverse challenges to develop valuable experiential learning through SAEs. Recommendations provide strategies…

  16. Career Development, Supervised Agricultural Experience, and FFA. The Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannebach, Alfred J.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was developed to help teachers and administrators in Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers to update and upgrade their vocational agriculture curriculum in the areas of career development, supervised agricultural experience (SAE), and Future Farmers of America (FFA). The curriculum incorporates the competencies…

  17. Supervised Agricultural Experience: An Examination of Student Knowledge and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lauren J.; Rayfield, John; Moore, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) knowledge and participation. This descriptive study was conducted in 120 randomly selected agricultural education programs throughout four purposively selected states representative of the National FFA regions. Students completed a questionnaire assessing…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of SAE Programs and Benefits for Students with Special Needs in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwager, Tony A.; White, James D.

    An Oklahoma study sought to identify specific benefits that accrue to students with special needs in secondary Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) programs and to determine teachers' perceptions of SAE programs for students with special needs. Data were gathered in the fall of 1993 through a mailed survey of all 362 agricultural education…

  19. SAE Scope and Student Achievement in Agribusiness and Natural Resources Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Larry R.; Cheek, Jimmy G.

    1990-01-01

    Study determined relationship between scope of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) as measured by total income and Productive Man Work Units (PMWU) and level of achievement of students enrolled in vocational agriculture classes in Florida. Responses from 98 Applied Principles and 249 Fundamentals students found low SAE participation and…

  20. Youth Organization and Supervised Agricultural Experience Participation as Predictors of the Career Maturity of Agricultural Education Students. Summary of Research 72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakar, Ab. Rahim; McCracken, J. David

    A study examined relationships between career maturity and participation in the Future Farmers of America (FFA) and between career maturity and participation in supervised agricultural experience (SAE). The primary hypothesis was that career maturity is positively related to participation in FFA and SAE. A cluster random sample was used with the…

  1. Value and Expectations of Supervised Agricultural Experiences as Expressed by Agriculture Instructors in Oklahoma Who Were Alternatively Certified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, J. Shane; Haynes, J. Chris

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to determine the value and expectations for student participation in supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs, as expressed by first-year, agricultural education teachers in Oklahoma who were alternatively certified. This study revealed that teachers in this study value the fact that…

  2. Entry-Level Technical Skills that Agricultural Industry Experts Expected Students to Learn through Their Supervised Agricultural Experiences: A Modified Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jon W.; Edwards, M. Craig

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council's (NRC) Report (1988), Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education, called on secondary agricultural education to shift its scope and purpose, including students' supervised agricultural experiences (SAEs). The NRC asserted that this shift should create opportunities for students to acquire supervised…

  3. An Assessment of Students' Perceptions toward Factors Influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lauren J.; Rayfield, John; Moore, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student perceptions toward factors influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) participation. This descriptive study was conducted in 120 randomly selected agricultural education programs throughout four purposively selected states representative of the National FFA regions. Within each state…

  4. Safety in High School Supervised Agricultural Experiences: Teachers' Training and Students' Injury Awareness.

    PubMed

    Pate, M L; Lawver, R G; Sorensen, T J

    2016-01-01

    This research study sought to gather evidence of school-based agriculture teachers' hazard perceptions, safety practices, training experiences, and awareness of student injuries related to supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs. Teachers agreed that students should follow safety guidelines developed by the National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Safety and Health during SAE work. Approximately 66% (f = 153) of teachers reported having general training in first aid, CPR, and AED. Twenty participants (8.6%) indicated having no safety certifications or training. Abrasions, lacerations, bites/stings, and burns accounted for a majority of the student SAE-related injuries that were reported. There were 82 participants (35.5%) who stated that no injuries had been reported or they were not aware of any injuries that occurred. The majority of teachers (66%) had received some form offirst aid or first response training, but fewer teachers had received safety training for ATVs (f = 25, 10.8%), tractors (f = 48, 20.7%), and livestock (f = 39, 16.8%). Results indicated a disparity between required safe work habits and the types of hazardous tasks students should be allowed to complete alone while participating in SAE activities. It appears most responding teachers in this study agreed to allow students to operate equipment and machinery alone. Recommendations for teachers include attending professional development training specific to SAE safety and keeping records of any risk assessments conducted during SAE supervision. Further development of best practices for SAE supervision and safety are needed to assist agricultural education professionals in protecting and shaping our future leaders in agriculture. PMID:27024993

  5. SAE Standards Support

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes PNNL activities in FY 2012 in support of the following two vehicle communication standards activities: • Technical support to SAE, ANSI and NIST technical working groups. PNNL actively contributed to the use case development, harmonization, and evaluation of the SAE standards activities for vehicle to grid communication • Tested and validated a set of potential technologies for meeting SAE communication requirements and provided recommendations for technology choices.

  6. The Extracytoplasmic Linker Peptide of the Sensor Protein SaeS Tunes the Kinase Activity Required for Staphylococcal Virulence in Response to Host Signals

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Taeok

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens often employ two-component systems (TCSs), typically consisting of a sensor kinase and a response regulator, to control expression of a set of virulence genes in response to changing host environments. In Staphylococcus aureus, the SaeRS TCS is essential for in vivo survival of the bacterium. The intramembrane-sensing histidine kinase SaeS contains, along with a C-terminal kinase domain, a simple N-terminal domain composed of two transmembrane helices and a nine amino acid-long extracytoplasmic linker peptide. As a molecular switch, SaeS maintains low but significant basal kinase activity and increases its kinase activity in response to inducing signals such as human neutrophil peptide 1 (HNP1). Here we show that the linker peptide of SaeS controls SaeS’s basal kinase activity and that the amino acid sequence of the linker peptide is highly optimized for its function. Without the linker peptide, SaeS displays aberrantly elevated kinase activity even in the absence of the inducing signal, and does not respond to HNP1. Moreover, SaeS variants with alanine substitution of the linker peptide amino acids exhibit altered basal kinase activity and/or irresponsiveness to HNP1. Biochemical assays reveal that those SaeS variants have altered autokinase and phosphotransferase activities. Finally, animal experiments demonstrate that the linker peptide-mediated fine tuning of SaeS kinase activity is critical for survival of the pathogen. Our results indicate that the function of the linker peptide in SaeS is a highly evolved feature with very optimized amino acid sequences, and we propose that, in other SaeS-like intramembrane sensing histidine kinases, the extracytoplasmic linker peptides actively fine-control their kinases. PMID:25849574

  7. Developing School Laboratories To Promote the Establishment of Individual Experience Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley Springs School District 2, AR.

    A project was conducted to promote and develop individual Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) programs in Arkansas through the development of laboratories. It was felt that strong SAE programs enhance the instructional portion of agriculture education, serve as a motivational tool, and improve the relations between the local school and…

  8. Fifteen-Year Enrollment Trends Related to the Three Components of Comprehensive Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retallick, Michael S.; Martin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the agricultural education enrollment trends in Iowa using 15 years of data collected from 1991 to 2005. It was found that agricultural education enrollment, Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) participation, and FFA membership have grown. Using annualized growth rates, agricultural education…

  9. Identifying Quality Indicators of SAE and FFA: A Delphi Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Charles Cordell, III; Kitchel, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine quality indicators for SAE and FFA according to 36 experts across the United States. This is a part of a larger study looking at all components of the traditional three-circle model. The study utilized the Delphi technique to garner expert opinion about quality indicators in Agricultural Education. For…

  10. The auxiliary protein complex SaePQ activates the phosphatase activity of sensor kinase SaeS in the SaeRS two-component system of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Do-Won; Cho, Hoonsik; Jones, Marcus B.; Shatzkes, Kenneth; Sun, Fei; Ji, Quanjiang; Liu, Qian; Peterson, Scott N.; He, Chuan; Bae, Taeok

    2012-01-01

    Summary In bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs), dephosphorylation of phosphorylated response regulators is essential for resetting the activated systems to the pre-activation state. However, in the SaeRS TCS, a major virulence TCS of Staphylococcus aureus, the mechanism for dephosphorylation of the response regulator SaeR has not been identified. Here we report that two auxiliary proteins from the sae operon, SaeP and SaeQ, form a protein complex with the sensor kinase SaeS and activate the sensor kinase’s phosphatase activity. Efficient activation of the phosphatase activity required the presence of both SaeP and SaeQ. When SaeP and SaeQ were ectopically expressed, the expression of coagulase, a sae target with low affinity for phosphorylated SaeR, was greatly reduced, while the expression of alpha-hemolysin, a sae target with high affinity for phosphorylated SaeR, was not, demonstrating a differential effect of SaePQ on sae target gene expression. When expression of SaePQ was abolished, most sae target genes were induced at an elevated level. Since the expression of SaeP and SaeQ is induced by the SaeRS TCS, these results suggest that the SaeRS TCS returns to the pre-activation state by a negative feedback mechanism. PMID:22882143

  11. Agricultural Experiment Stations and Branch Stations in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Calvin H.; Atucha, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    In 1887, Congress passed the Hatch Act, which formally established and provided a funding mechanism for agricultural experiment stations in each state and territory in the United States. The main purpose of agricultural experiment stations is to conduct agricultural research to meet the needs of the citizens of the United States. The objective of…

  12. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  13. Kansas Vocational Education in Agriculture Supervised Occupational Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmley, John D.

    Intended for secondary and postsecondary teachers of agriculture, this handbook presents guidelines for developing and supervising occupational experience programs. The first section is a general discussion of vocational education in agriculture. The next section considers identification of student occupational goals and development of an…

  14. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  15. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  16. RECORDS OF SUPERVISED OCCUPATIONAL EXPERIENCE AND TRAINING IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURCROFF, WALTER; AND OTHERS

    HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS MAY KEEP RECORDS OF THEIR SUPERVISED OCCUPATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN THIS RECORD BOOK. DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL COMMITTEE OF TEACHERS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHER EDUCATORS, IT PROVIDES SPACE FOR RECORDING ESSENTIAL PLANS, PLACEMENT AGREEMENTS, MONTHLY WORK EXPERIENCES, FINANCIAL SUMMARIES, ACTIVITIES, AND…

  17. Axle efficiency test procedure. SAE standard

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Data from this SAE Recommended Practice permit mapping axle efficiency and/or waste energy over the operating range of passenger cars, trucks, buses, and other highway vehicles. The procedure can be applied to single axles, tandem axles as a system, or other systems, by combining separate tests, such as tests of the front axle and power divider and rear axle of tandem or tri-drive type.

  18. Supervised Occupational Experience Programs in Vocational Agriculture. Bulletin No. 705.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Douglas A.; Slocombe, John W.

    A 1985 study examined the quality and quantity of Idaho supervised occupational experience (SOE) programs as perceived by a sample of 38 instructors and 1,198 students who returned questionnaires sent to all vocational agriculture students and teachers throughout the state. Data on the value of SOE as perceived by parents, employers, and…

  19. Perception of Teachers of Agriculture about Supervised Agricultural Experience Programmes (SAEP) in Secondary Schools in Ekiti and Ondo States Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Famiwole, Remi O.; Kolawole, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the perception of teachers of agriculture about Supervised Agricultural Experience Programmes (SAEP) in secondary schools in Ekiti and Ondo States. The population used for the study consisted of 520 teachers of agricultural science in all the secondary schools in Ekiti and Ondo States. The sample used for this study was 136…

  20. SAE J2579 Validation Testing Program: Powertech Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    McDougall, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Safety Working Group at the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has developed a new 'systems-level' document for hydrogen vehicles. This document, SAE TIR J2579, is a new approach to certification standards for components. The document eliminates the need for dozens of test samples, tested in isolation from each other. SAE TIR J2579 describes the components which create the 'high-pressure envelope', the components whose primary function is the containment of the high-pressure hydrogen on-board the vehicle, and has created a sequential test based on those specific components.

  1. A Needs Assessment to Determine Knowledge and Ability of Egyptian Agricultural Technical School Teachers Related to Supervised Agricultural Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, R. Kirby; Roberts, T. Grady; Samy, M. M.; Thoron, Andrew C.; Easterly, R. G., III

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted approximately one year after Egyptian Agricultural Technical School (ATS) instructors attended workshops on integrating placement Supervised Agricultural Experience as an instructional tool in their programs. Following a year of implementation, the purpose of this study was to determine ATS teacher knowledge and ability…

  2. Searsville Sediment Experiment: What is the ideal agricultural soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, J.; Lo, D.; Patel, N.; Gu, S.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to decide whether or not the sediment located within Searsville Dam at the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is well suited for agricultural soil. By utilizing various combinations of sediment, farm soil, compost, and horse manure to grow basil plants, we underwent an exploratory study in order to better understand what type of materials and nutrients plants can best thrive within. Our general experiment protocol includes watering the crops with irrigation every day while young, and then limiting that water exposure to only Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays as they become more established. The basil is growing in pots filled with the different amounts of material, and are arranged randomly to prevent certain plants from getting more sunlight than others. The whole experiment plot is covered with a thin white fabric and secured with bricks and wood to keep out pests in the garden. In order to observe trends in the basil development, plant height and leaf number is recorded once every week. During the third week of the study we performed soil texture tests, and within the fourth week we calculated pH data. We discovered that the sediment our project focuses upon is 10-18% clay and 50% sand which categorizes it as loam, and the Stanford farm soil that serves as our control group contains 20-26% clay and 30% sand so it is a silt loam material. The pH tests also showed an average of 7.45 for sediment, 7.3 for farm soil, 7.85 for compost, and 7.65 for horse manure. By looking at all of the data recorded over the five-week time period, we have so far noticed that the 50% sediment and 50% horse manure combination consistently has the best height increase as well as leaf size and content. The 50% sediment and 50% compost mixture has also performed well in those terms, and is therefore a possibility for the best agricultural soil. However, future lab work conducted by Stanford students to examine the nutrient content of the basil tissue, along

  3. Attitudes of Oregon Vocational Agriculture Teachers Toward the Supervised Occupational Experience Program Component of the Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herren, Ray; Cole, Lee

    1984-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of Oregon vocational agriculture teachers toward supervised occupational experience programs in light of the present economic climate. (JOW)

  4. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Klien, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198{trademark} getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198{trademark} stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful.

  5. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198 getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198 stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Agricultural Modernization and Economic Inequality: The Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Aruna Nayyar

    1978-01-01

    Argues that agriculture production in developing nations should be organized to ensure economic viability. Government policy must emphasize participants' productive capacities and integrate agricultural workers into the new organization of production. (Author/DB)

  7. Benchmark tests for a Formula SAE Student car prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariasiu, Florin

    2011-12-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a vehicle are important elements in its design and construction. A low drag coefficient brings significant fuel savings and increased engine power efficiency. In designing and developing vehicles trough computer simulation process to determine the vehicles aerodynamic characteristics are using dedicated CFD (Computer Fluid Dynamics) software packages. However, the results obtained by this faster and cheaper method, are validated by experiments in wind tunnels tests, which are expensive and were complex testing equipment are used in relatively high costs. Therefore, the emergence and development of new low-cost testing methods to validate CFD simulation results would bring great economic benefits for auto vehicles prototyping process. This paper presents the initial development process of a Formula SAE Student race-car prototype using CFD simulation and also present a measurement system based on low-cost sensors through which CFD simulation results were experimentally validated. CFD software package used for simulation was Solid Works with the FloXpress add-on and experimental measurement system was built using four piezoresistive force sensors FlexiForce type.

  8. Agricultural Education Early Field Experience through the Lens of the EFE Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Scott W.; Retallick, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this national study was to describe agricultural teacher education early field experience (EFE) practices using the EFE model. The population for this study was all agricultural education teacher preparation programs (N = 83) listed in the AAAE Directory of University Faculty in Agricultural Education. Data were collected via an…

  9. Engineering and agronomy aspects of a long-term precision agriculture field experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much research has been conducted on specific precision agriculture tools and implementation strategies, but little has been reported on long-term evaluation of integrated precision agriculture field experiments. In 2004 our research team developed and initiated a multi-faceted “precision agriculture...

  10. What Does an Inventory of Recent Innovation Experiences Tell Us about Agricultural Innovation in Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triomphe, Bernard; Floquet, Anne; Kamau, Geoffrey; Letty, Brigid; Vodouhe, Simplice Davo; Ng'ang'a, Teresiah; Stevens, Joe; van den Berg, Jolanda; Selemna, Nour; Bridier, Bernard; Crane, Todd; Almekinders, Cornelia; Waters-Bayer, Ann; Hocde, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Within the context of the European-funded JOLISAA project (JOint Learning in and about Innovation Systems in African Agriculture), an inventory of agricultural innovation experiences was made in Benin, Kenya and South Africa. The objective was to assess multi-stakeholder agricultural innovation processes involving smallholders. Approach:…

  11. Fuel economy measurement road test procedure. SAE standard

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This SAE Standard incorporates driving cycles that produce fuel consumption data relating to urban, suburban, and interstate driving patterns and is intended to be used to determine the relative fuel economy among vehicles and driving patterns under warmed-up conditions on test tracks, suitable roads, or chassis dynamometers. The cycle forms the basis of a cold-start test procedure described in SAE J1256. This document provides uniform testing procedures for measuring the fuel economy of light duty vehicles (motor vehicles designed primarily for transportation of persons or property and rated at 4,500 kg (10,000 lb) or less) on suitable roads.

  12. SAE2.py : a python script to automate parameter studies using SCREAMER with application to magnetic switching on Z.

    SciTech Connect

    Orndorff-Plunkett, Franklin

    2011-05-01

    The SCREAMER simulation code is widely used at Sandia National Laboratories for designing and simulating pulsed power accelerator experiments on super power accelerators. A preliminary parameter study of Z with a magnetic switching retrofit illustrates the utility of the automating script for optimizing pulsed power designs. SCREAMER is a circuit based code commonly used in pulsed-power design and requires numerous iterations to find optimal configurations. System optimization using simulations like SCREAMER is by nature inefficient and incomplete when done manually. This is especially the case when the system has many interactive elements whose emergent effects may be unforeseeable and complicated. For increased completeness, efficiency and robustness, investigators should probe a suitably confined parameter space using deterministic, genetic, cultural, ant-colony algorithms or other computational intelligence methods. I have developed SAE2 - a user-friendly, deterministic script that automates the search for optima of pulsed-power designs with SCREAMER. This manual demonstrates how to make input decks for SAE2 and optimize any pulsed-power design that can be modeled using SCREAMER. Application of SAE2 to magnetic switching on model of a potential Z refurbishment illustrates the power of SAE2. With respect to the manual optimization, the automated optimization resulted in 5% greater peak current (10% greater energy) and a 25% increase in safety factor for the most highly stressed element.

  13. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  14. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Book for Agricultural Resource Conservation, Environmental Management and Forestry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickles, Tom

    The record book was designed to meet the occupational experience recordkeeping requirements of vocational agriculture students enrolled in forestry, environmental management, or agriculture resource conservation programs in Ohio. It provides guidelines and forms for recording on-the-job, in-the-school lab, and occupational experience project data.…

  15. Crystal structures of Staphylococcal SaeR reveal possible DNA-binding modes.

    PubMed

    Ko, Tzu-Ping; Huang, Cheng-Yang; Hsieh, Tung-Ju; Chen, Sheng-Chia; Chen, Yu-Ren; Yang, Chia-Shin; Kuo, Hao-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Lung; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Yeh

    2016-06-10

    Two-component system SaeRS of Staphylococcus regulates virulence factor expression through phosphorylation of the DNA-binding regulator SaeR by the sensor histidine kinase SaeS. Here crystal structures of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of SaeR from two Staphylococcal species Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were determined and showed similar folds. Analyzing the DNA binding activity of three mutants of SeSaeR, we observed that Thr217 is important in binding to the phosphate group of DNA and Trp219 may interact with the base pairs. Additionally, the tandem arrangement of DBD may represent a possible way for SaeR oligomerization on DNA. PMID:27150628

  16. SUMO-activating SAE1 transcription is positively regulated by Myc

    PubMed Central

    Amente, Stefano; Lavadera, Miriam Lubrano; Palo, Giacomo Di; Majello, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Myc protein plays a fundamental role in regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis by modulating the expression of a large number of targets. Here we report the transactivation ability of the human Myc protein to activate the SUMO-activating enzyme SAE1 transcription. We found that Myc activates SAE1 transcription via direct binding to canonical E-Boxes sequences located close to the SAE1 transcription start site. A recent report has highlighted the crucial role of the SAE gene expression in Myc mediated oncogenesis. Our study adds new insight in this context since we show here that Myc directly activates SAE1 transcription, suggesting that Myc oncogenic activity which depends on SAE1 is ensured by Myc itself through direct binding and transcriptional activation of SAE1 expression. PMID:22679563

  17. Effect of Leadership Experience on Agricultural Education Student Teacher Self-Efficacy in Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Foster, Daniel D.; Birkenholz, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning agriculture teachers often cite classroom management as the most important problem they face in their careers. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of leadership experience on self-perceived teacher efficacy among agricultural education student teachers. The three dimensions of teacher efficacy addressed in this study…

  18. Health Experiences, Concerns, and Interactions with Effectiveness of Secondary Agriculture Teachers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.; Westrom, Lyle E.

    This publication summarizes the findings of several initiatives in studying the health aspects of secondary agriculture teachers in the United States. The study was specifically conducted to determine the health experiences of secondary agriculture teachers, the health problems that cause them to miss work, their health care concerns, personal…

  19. Perceptions of North Carolina High School Agricultural Educators regarding Students with Special Needs Participating in Supervised Agricultural Experience and FFA Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lendy; Wilson, Elizabeth; Flowers, Jim; Croom, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of North Carolina high school agricultural educators toward including students with special needs when implementing Supervised Agricultural Experience and participating in FFA activities. The population was all high school agricultural educators in North Carolina with 12 month employment (N…

  20. Relationship of Length of Vocational Agriculture Teacher Contract to Supervised Occupational Experience Program Scope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Larry R.; McCracken, J. David

    1983-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to ascertain if the extent to which vocational agriculture teachers are employed on a 12-month basis is related to the scope of supervised occupational experience programs conducted by students. (SSH)

  1. Resolving the agriculture-petroleum conflict: the experience of cacao smallholders in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Scherr, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972, PEMEX, the Mexican national oil company, discovered huge reserves of oil and natural gas along the Gulf Coast, and began intensive exploitation in Tabasco and northern Chiapas states. Severe conflict between PEMEX and the agricultural economy of Tabasco seemed certain. But despite problems of labor scarcity, inflation, migration, pollution, agricultural production 1974 to 1979 increased for the state's major products - cacao, coconut, beef, and bananas. This study analyzes how agriculture-petroleum conflicts have been resolved in Tabasco, and how relevant its experience is to other agricultural areas undergoing rapid large-scale industrial development. Cacao farming was chosen as a case study. Detailed farm budget, family employment, and technical production data were used to document farm production strategies. Research results suggest that resolution of agriculture-petroleum conflicts depends on: demographic conditions, employment conditions, agricultural prices, petroleum company flexibility, government development policy, and farmer political strength. Support for the campesino sector is critical.

  2. Science Achievement of Secondary Agricultural Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sara Vicky

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this quantitative descriptive and correlational study were to describe the science achievements of secondary agricultural education students and determine if the number of agricultural education courses passed, FFA involvement, and SAE participation would statistically significantly improve students' performance on science…

  3. A Profile of Southern Agriculture Students. Journal Series No. 1-810032 of the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkelberger, John E.; And Others

    Questionnaires which focused on attributes of undergraduate agriculture students and their reasons for enrolling in agriculture were returned by 3,182 students attending land-grant universities in the South, and a profile of Southern agriculture students evolved. During the 1970's, more women and fewer Blacks enrolled in agricultural curricula.…

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  5. The Search for Energy Alternatives: Responses Received by State Agricultural Experiment Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, William M.

    Directors of the 51 agricultural experiment stations in the United States (including Guam) were mailed questionnaires inquiring as to the extent of requests which had been received for information about wind, solar, and other energy alternatives such as wood and gasahol. There was a total response of 88% with three mailings. The returned…

  6. Mexican Americans--A Survey of Research by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, 1964-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Esteban; And Others

    Over the last decade the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (TAES) has stimulated and sponsored research related to the status, problems, and future prospects of Mexican Americans in Texas. This document lists the over 40 reports which were part of 6 TAES research projects. It also contains relevant TAES and Texas A&M research reports available…

  7. Geostatistical analysis of the soil and crop parameters in a field experiment on precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, V. A.; Zhukovskii, E. E.; Lekomtsev, P. V.; Yakushev, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    A thorough geostatistical analysis was performed of the spatial variability of the soil properties, the sowing parameters, and the wheat yield in a field experiment under precision agriculture conditions. It was found that most of the soil parameters are significantly correlated and can be successfully mapped using kriging procedures, which ensure the optimum development of agrochemical cartograms for agricultural fields. It was also shown that the sowing parameters had a significantly lower spatial correlation; their cartograms could be drawn, although with worse accuracy. The quality parameters of the wheat grain showed no spatial correlation.

  8. SAES St 909 pilot scale methane cracking tests

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Sessions, H. T.

    2008-07-15

    Pilot scale (0.5 kg) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted for potential tritium process applications. Up to 1400 hours tests were done at 700 deg.C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 0.03 sLPM feed of methane plus impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. Carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered, but equating nitrogen to an equivalent amount of methane was nitrogen feed composition dependent. A decreased hydrogen feed increased methane getter rates while a 30 deg.C drop in one furnace zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate. (authors)

  9. Measuring the Interest of German Students in Agriculture: the Role of Knowledge, Nature Experience, Disgust, and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickel, Malte; Strack, Micha; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2015-06-01

    Modern knowledge-based societies, especially their younger members, have largely lost their bonds to farming. However, learning about agriculture and its interrelations with environmental issues may be facilitated by students' individual interests in agriculture. To date, an adequate instrument to investigate agricultural interests has been lacking. Research has infrequently considered students' interest in agricultural content areas as well as influencing factors on students' agricultural interests. In this study, a factorial design of agricultural interests was developed combining five agricultural content areas and four components of individual interest. The instrument was validated with German fifth and sixth graders ( N = 1,085) using a variance decomposition confirmatory factor analysis model. The results demonstrated a second-order factor of general agricultural interest, with animal husbandry, arable farming, vegetable and fruit cropping, primary food processing, and agricultural engineering as discrete content areas of agricultural interest. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that prior knowledge, garden experience, and disgust sensitivity are predictors of general agricultural interest. In addition, gender influenced interest in four of the five agricultural content areas. Implications are directed at researchers, teachers, and environmental educators concerning how to trigger and develop pupils' agricultural interests.

  10. Use of UAS to Support Management in Precision Agriculture: The AggieAir Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; ELarab, M.; Hassan Esfahani, L.; Jensen, A.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing applications for precision agriculture depend on acquiring actionable information at high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are capable of providing such imagery for use in various applications for precision agriculture (yield estimation, evapotranspiration, etc.). AggieAirTM, a UAS platform and sensory array, was designed and developed at Utah State University to acquire high-resolution imagery (0.15m -0.6 m) in the visual, near infrared, red edge, and thermal infrared spectra. Spectral data obtained from AggieAir are used to develop soil moisture, plant chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen and actual evapotranspiration estimates to support management in precision agriculture. This presentation will focus on experience in using the AggieAir system to provide information products of possible interest in precision agriculture. The discussion will include information about the direction and rate of development of UAS technology and the current and anticipated future state of the regulatory environment for use of these systems in the U.S.

  11. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  12. SAES ST 909 PILOT SCALE METHANE CRACKING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J; Henry Sessions, H

    2007-07-02

    Pilot scale (500 gram) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted to determine material performance for tritium process applications. Tests that ran up to 1400 hours have been performed at 700 C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 30 sccm feed of methane, with various impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. A 2.5 vol% methane feed was reduced below 30 ppm for 631 hours. A feed of 1.1 vol% methane plus 1.4 vol% carbon dioxide was reduced below 30 ppm for 513 hours. The amount of carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered to estimate a reduced bed life for methane cracking. The effect of 0.4 vol % and 2.1 vol% nitrogen in the feed reduced the time to exceed 30 ppm methane to 362 and 45 hours, respectively, but the nitrogen equivalence to reduced methane gettering capacity was found to be dependent on the nitrogen feed composition. Decreased hydrogen concentrations increased methane getter rates while a drop of 30 C in one bed zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if the nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate.

  13. Supervised Occupational Experience and Achievement of Students Mainstreamed in Ohio Vocational Agriculture Programs. Summary of Research 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Oscar B.; McCracken, J. David

    The purpose of this study was to examine the type and scope of supervised occupational experience programs (SOEPs) and the achievement of students mainstreamed in vocational agriculture in Ohio. Achievement was measured by the grade students received in vocational agriculture during the first semester of the 1983-84 school year. The sample for the…

  14. The Effects of the Student Teaching Experience on Cooperating Teachers in Secondary Agricultural Education Programs: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Stephen Wyatt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the effects of the student teaching experience on secondary agricultural education teachers. Eight of the thirteen participants in this study served as a cooperating teacher during the 2012 spring semester for pre-service teachers in agricultural education from a land-grant institution.…

  15. Contextualising Teaching and Learning in Rural Primary Schools: Using Agricultural Experience. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2. Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peter; Mulhall, Abigail

    This research project examined the potential role of agricultural experiences as a vehicle for meeting the diverse learning needs of rural primary students in developing countries. Volume 1 of the project report represents a literature review that investigated a "new role" for agriculture as a key element for developing rural students' basic…

  16. THE EFFECT OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASS ENROLLMENT AND FARM EXPERIENCE ON ANIMAL SCIENCE KNOWLEDGE OF FIRST YEAR STUDENTS ENROLLED IN OKLAHOMA COLLEGES OF AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUTON, JOHN C.

    A WRITTEN EXAMINATION WAS ADMINISTERED TO 605 FRESHMEN ENROLLED IN OKLAHOMA COLLEGES OFFERING AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS TO DETERMINE WHETHER CERTAIN BACKGROUND EXPERIENCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE STUDENT'S KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF MAJOR CONCEPTS IN ANIMAL SCIENCE, TO MAKE INFORMATION AVAILABLE TO THE ANIMAL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF OKLAHOMA STATE…

  17. A career in government: my experiences working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural sector provides highly diverse career opportunities that include private companies, academic institutions, non-government organizations, and government agencies. One possible career path is with the Federal government which is one of the largest employers of scientists and engineers...

  18. Vegetation water content mapping in a diverse agricultural landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Tao, Jing; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2010-05-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE'06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE'06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/m2. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy.

  19. Synthetic viability genomic screening defines Sae2 function in DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Puddu, Fabio; Oelschlaegel, Tobias; Guerini, Ilaria; Geisler, Nicola J; Niu, Hengyao; Herzog, Mareike; Salguero, Israel; Ochoa-Montaño, Bernardo; Viré, Emmanuelle; Sung, Patrick; Adams, David J; Keane, Thomas M; Jackson, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR) requires 3′ single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) generation by 5′ DNA-end resection. During meiosis, yeast Sae2 cooperates with the nuclease Mre11 to remove covalently bound Spo11 from DSB termini, allowing resection and HR to ensue. Mitotic roles of Sae2 and Mre11 nuclease have remained enigmatic, however, since cells lacking these display modest resection defects but marked DNA damage hypersensitivities. By combining classic genetic suppressor screening with high-throughput DNA sequencing, we identify Mre11 mutations that strongly suppress DNA damage sensitivities of sae2Δ cells. By assessing the impacts of these mutations at the cellular, biochemical and structural levels, we propose that, in addition to promoting resection, a crucial role for Sae2 and Mre11 nuclease activity in mitotic DSB repair is to facilitate the removal of Mre11 from ssDNA associated with DSB ends. Thus, without Sae2 or Mre11 nuclease activity, Mre11 bound to partly processed DSBs impairs strand invasion and HR. PMID:25899817

  20. Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patricia D; Gano, Kelsey A; Davis-Richardson, Austin; Fagen, Jennie R; Brown, Christopher T; Giongo, Adriana; Drew, Jennifer C; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A; Arp, Dan J; Camargo, Flavio A O; Daroub, Samira H; Clark, Ian M; McGrath, Steve P; Hirsch, Penny R; Triplett, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural land management, such as fertilization, liming, and tillage affects soil properties, including pH, organic matter content, nitrification rates, and the microbial community. Three different study sites were used to identify microorganisms that correlate with agricultural land use and to determine which factors regulate the relative abundance of the microbial signatures of the agricultural land-use. The three sites included in this study are the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA, and the Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan, USA. The effects of agricultural management on the abundance and diversity of bacteria and archaea were determined using high throughput, barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, the relative abundance of these organisms was correlated with soil features. Two groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle were highly correlated with land use at all three sites. The ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by Ca. Nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agriculture while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management. Analysis of successional plots showed that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing-archaea declined and the abundance of bradyrhizobia increased with time away from agriculture. This observation suggests that the effect of agriculture on the relative abundance of these genera is reversible. Soil pH and NH3 concentrations were positively correlated with archaeal abundance but negatively correlated with the abundance of Bradyrhizobium. The high correlations of Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium abundances with agricultural management at three long-term experiments with different edaphoclimatic conditions allowed us to suggest these two genera as signature microorganisms for agricultural land use. PMID:23641242

  1. Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patricia D.; Gano, Kelsey A.; Davis-Richardson, Austin; Fagen, Jennie R.; Brown, Christopher T.; Giongo, Adriana; Drew, Jennifer C.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Arp, Dan J.; Camargo, Flavio A. O.; Daroub, Samira H.; Clark, Ian M.; McGrath, Steve P.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Triplett, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural land management, such as fertilization, liming, and tillage affects soil properties, including pH, organic matter content, nitrification rates, and the microbial community. Three different study sites were used to identify microorganisms that correlate with agricultural land use and to determine which factors regulate the relative abundance of the microbial signatures of the agricultural land-use. The three sites included in this study are the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA, and the Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan, USA. The effects of agricultural management on the abundance and diversity of bacteria and archaea were determined using high throughput, barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, the relative abundance of these organisms was correlated with soil features. Two groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle were highly correlated with land use at all three sites. The ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by Ca. Nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agriculture while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management. Analysis of successional plots showed that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing-archaea declined and the abundance of bradyrhizobia increased with time away from agriculture. This observation suggests that the effect of agriculture on the relative abundance of these genera is reversible. Soil pH and NH3 concentrations were positively correlated with archaeal abundance but negatively correlated with the abundance of Bradyrhizobium. The high correlations of Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium abundances with agricultural management at three long-term experiments with different edaphoclimatic conditions allowed us to suggest these two genera as signature microorganisms for agricultural land use. PMID:23641242

  2. Agricultural soil moisture experiment, Colby, Kansas 1978: Measured and predicted hydrological properties of the soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, L. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Predictive procedures for developing soil hydrologic properties (i.e., relationships of soil water pressure and hydraulic conductivity to soil water content) are presented. Three models of the soil water pressure-water content relationship and one model of the hydraulic conductivity-water content relationship are discussed. Input requirements for the models are indicated, and computational procedures are outlined. Computed hydrologic properties for Keith silt loam, a soil typer near Colby, Kansas, on which the 1978 Agricultural Soil Moisture Experiment was conducted, are presented. A comparison of computed results with experimental data in the dry range shows that analytical models utilizing a few basic hydrophysical parameters can produce satisfactory data for large-scale applications.

  3. TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR THE EFFECTIVE USE OF "RECORDS OF SUPERVISED OCCUPATIONAL EXPERIENCE AND TRAINING IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTIN, W. HOWARD; AND OTHERS

    A NATIONAL COMMITTEE OF TEACHERS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, AND SUPERVISORS DEVELOPED THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE TO THE "RECORDS OF SUPERVISED OCCUPATIONAL EXPERIENCE AND TRAINING IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE" (VT 001 592). THE FEATURES, STUDENTS, PRINCIPLES, AND PROCEDURES OF THE EXPERIENCE PROGRAM ARE DISCUSSED. SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS AND SAMPLE ENTRIES FOR USING…

  4. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  5. Hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the SAES St707 non-evaporable getter at various temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Irving; Mills, Bernice E.

    2010-08-01

    A prototype of a tritium thermoelectric generator (TTG) is currently being developed at Sandia. In the TTG, a vacuum jacket reduces the amount of heat lost from the high temperature source via convection. However, outgassing presents challenges to maintaining a vacuum for many years. Getters are chemically active substances that scavenge residual gases in a vacuum system. In order to maintain the vacuum jacket at approximately 1.0 x 10{sup -4} torr for decades, nonevaporable getters that can operate from -55 C to 60 C are going to be used. This paper focuses on the hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the St707{trademark} non-evaporable getter by SAES. Using a getter testing manifold, we have carried out experiments to test these characteristics of the getter over the temperature range of -77 C to 60 C. The results from this study can be used to size the getter appropriately.

  6. Impact of the functional status of saeRS on in vivo phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus sarA mutants

    PubMed Central

    Beenken, Karen E.; Mrak, Lara N.; Zielinska, Agnieszka K.; Atwood, Danielle N.; Loughran, Allister J.; Griffin, Linda M.; Matthews, K. Alice; Anthony, Allison M.; Spencer, Horace J.; Post, Ginell R.; Lee, Chia Y.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We investigated the in vivo relevance of the impact of sarA and saeRS on protease production using derivatives of the USA300 strain LAC. The results confirmed that mutation of saeRS or sarA reduces virulence in a bacteremia model to a comparable degree. However, while eliminating protease production restored virulence in the sarA mutant, it had little impact in the saeRS mutant. Additionally, constitutive activation of saeRS (saeRSC) enhanced the virulence of LAC and largely restored virulence in the isogenic sarA mutant. Based on these results, together with our analysis of the representative virulence factors alpha toxin, protein A (Spa), and extracellular nucleases, we propose a model in which the attenuation of saeRS mutants is defined primarily by decreased production of such factors, while constitutive activation of saeRS increases virulence, and reverses the attenuation of sarA mutants, because it results in both increased production and decreased protease-mediated degradation of these same factors. This regulatory balance was also apparent in a murine model of catheter-associated infection, with the results suggesting that the impact of saeRS on nuclease production plays an important role during the early stages of these infections that is partially offset by increased protease production in sarA mutants. PMID:24779437

  7. Classification of energy-conserving engine oil for passenger cars, vans, sport utility vehicles, and light-duty trucks (revised May 97). (SAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This SAE Standard was developed cooperatively by SAE, ASTM, and API to define and identify energy conserving engine oils for passenger cars, vans, and light-duty (3856 kg (8500 lb) GVW or less) trucks.

  8. Relations between Education and Technical Progress in Agriculture: Training of Specialists: The Sudanese Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutelman, Michel; And Others

    Focusing on the training of agricultural specialists (supervisors and operational technicians) in Sudan, this study identifies issues in the general agricultural situation and the type of agricultural development practiced there, the education system's output of technicians, and the degree of harmony between education and national needs. The…

  9. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  10. Regulation of animal care and research? Viewpoint of an agricultural experiment station scientist.

    PubMed

    Ullrey, D E

    1980-08-01

    The issue of regulating animal care in modern animal production systems and in the research laboratory is discussed from the perspective of an animal scientist with a farm background and 25 years of agricultural experiment station experience. Evidence is presented for a long-term association of humans with (and dependence on) animals, which extends into prehistory far beyond the beginnings of animal domestication some 11,000 years ago. The problem of feeding humans without animals was discussed, and it is concluded that the world population of humans cannot be adequately nourished by plant foods alone. Man's activities affect all of his companion creatures in many ways, and he is obviously a participant in a global ecosystem, not just an observer. It is vital to his welfare and to that of his fellow creatures that he manage this ecosystem fellow creatures that he manage this ecosystem correctly, including members of both the animal and vegetable kingdoms. There is a serious difference in perspective between many "animal philosophers" and professional animal scientists. The latter believe that they have an obligation to practice and to teach respect for the lives and welfare of the animals with which they work. Human qualities of kindness, mercy and compassion should govern actions toward animals. However, anthropomorphism is a philosophy to which the author and many other animal scientists do not subscribe. PMID:7440444

  11. Long-Term Network Experiments and Interdisciplinary Campaigns Conducted by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Cosh, M. H.; Moran, S. M.; Marks, D. G.; Jackson, T. J.; Bosch, D. D.; Rango, A.; Seyfried, M. S.; Scott, R. L.; Prueger, J. H.; Starks, P. J.; Walbridge, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service has led, or been integrally involved in, a myriad of interdisciplinary field campaigns in a wide range of locations both nationally and internationally. Many of the shorter campaigns were anchored over the existing national network of ARS Experimental Watersheds and Rangelands. These long-term outdoor laboratories provided a critical knowledge base for designing the campaigns as well as historical data, hydrologic and meteorological infrastructure coupled with shop, laboratory, and visiting scientist facilities. This strong outdoor laboratory base enabled cost-efficient campaigns informed by historical context, local knowledge, and detailed existing watershed characterization. These long-term experimental facilities have also enabled much longer term lower intensity experiments, observing and building an understanding of both seasonal and inter-annual biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interactions across a wide range of conditions. A sampling of these experiments include MONSOON'90, SGP97, SGP99, Washita'92, Washita'94, SMEX02-05 and JORNEX series of experiments, SALSA, CLASIC and longer-term efforts over the ARS Little Washita, Walnut Gulch, Little River, Reynolds Creek, and OPE3 Experimental Watersheds. This presentation will review some of the highlights and key findings of these campaigns and long-term efforts including the inclusion of many of the experimental watersheds and ranges in the Long-Term Agro-ecosystems Research (LTAR) network. The LTAR network also contains several locations that are also part of other observational networks including the CZO, LTER, and NEON networks. Lessons learned will also be provided for scientists initiating their participation in large-scale, multi-site interdisciplinary science.

  12. Total Program Efficacy: A Comparison of Traditionally and Alternatively Certified Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Dennis W.; Ricketts, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine agriculture teachers' perceived levels of efficacy as they relate to managing the total program of agricultural education, both for traditionally and alternatively certified teachers. The constructs used in this study were technical content, FFA/leadership development/SAE, teaching and learning, and…

  13. Sae2 Function at DNA Double-Strand Breaks Is Bypassed by Dampening Tel1 or Rad53 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gnugnoli, Marco; Menin, Luca; Clerici, Michela; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The MRX complex together with Sae2 initiates resection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to generate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that triggers homologous recombination. The absence of Sae2 not only impairs DSB resection, but also causes prolonged MRX binding at the DSBs that leads to persistent Tel1- and Rad53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint activation and cell cycle arrest. Whether this enhanced checkpoint signaling contributes to the DNA damage sensitivity and/or the resection defect of sae2Δ cells is not known. By performing a genetic screen, we identify rad53 and tel1 mutant alleles that suppress both the DNA damage hypersensitivity and the resection defect of sae2Δ cells through an Sgs1-Dna2-dependent mechanism. These suppression events do not involve escaping the checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest. Rather, defective Rad53 or Tel1 signaling bypasses Sae2 function at DSBs by decreasing the amount of Rad9 bound at DSBs. As a consequence, reduced Rad9 association to DNA ends relieves inhibition of Sgs1-Dna2 activity, which can then compensate for the lack of Sae2 in DSB resection and DNA damage resistance. We propose that persistent Tel1 and Rad53 checkpoint signaling in cells lacking Sae2 increases the association of Rad9 at DSBs, which in turn inhibits DSB resection by limiting the activity of the Sgs1-Dna2 resection machinery. PMID:26584331

  14. The Teacher-Coordinator's Manual for Directed Work-Experience Programs in Agriculture. Cornell Miscellaneous Bulletin 91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Harold R.; And Others

    To assist vocational agriculture teacher-coordinators in development and improvement of directed work experience programs, a project was initiated to (1) develop tentative procedures, (2) pre-test the procedures, (3) evaluate procedures and outcomes, and (4) revise the procedures for dissemination. Representing the final stage of this project,…

  15. Supervised Agricultural Experience Programmes (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE): Panacea for Empowering Youths and Preventing Joblessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Famiwole, Remigius O.

    2015-01-01

    Youths from Nigerian schools and tertiary institutions are usually unemployable after schooling because they are not empowered with the required saleable skills to earn them a job or with which to establish as entrepreneurs. This paper examines the relevance of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programme (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE) as…

  16. Designing experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of precision agricultural practices on research fields. Part 1. Concepts for formulation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to present a unique formulation methodology for designing experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of a precision agricultural practice on a research farm field. We demonstrate an efficient method of combining the georeferenced treatment structure and the georeferenc...

  17. MyAgRecord: An Online Career Portfolio Management Tool for High School Students Conducting Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emis, Larry; Dillingham, John

    Texas's online career portfolio management tool for high school students participating in supervised agricultural experience programs (SAEPs) was developed in 1998 by a committee of Texas high school teachers of agriscience and Texas Education Agency personnel. The career portfolio management tool reflects General Accepted Accounting Principles…

  18. Supervised Occupational Experience Programs and Achievement of Students in Vocational Agriculture. Summary of Research Series, SR 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Raymond H.; McCracken, J. David

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the quality of a supervised occupational experience (SOE) program (in terms of income and scope of program) and level of academic achievement on a test measuring technical knowledge in production agriculture. A fifty-item multiple choice achievement test was administered to…

  19. Proteomic Identification of saeRS-Dependent Targets Critical for Protective Humoral Immunity against Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fan; Cheng, Brian L; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Alegre, Maria-Luisa; Daum, Robert S; Chong, Anita S; Montgomery, Christopher P

    2015-09-01

    Recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common despite detectable antibody responses, leading to the belief that the immune response elicited by these infections is not protective. We recently reported that S. aureus USA300 SSTI elicits antibodies that protect against recurrent SSTI in BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice, and in this study, we aimed to uncover the specificity of the protective antibodies. Using a proteomic approach, we found that S. aureus SSTI elicited broad polyclonal antibody responses in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and identified 10 S. aureus antigens against which antibody levels were significantly higher in immune BALB/c serum. Four of the 10 antigens identified are regulated by the saeRS operon, suggesting a dominant role for saeRS in protection. Indeed, infection with USA300Δsae failed to protect against secondary SSTI with USA300, despite eliciting a strong polyclonal antibody response against antigens whose expression is not regulated by saeRS. Moreover, the antibody repertoire after infection with USA300Δsae lacked antibodies specific for 10 saeRS-regulated antigens, suggesting that all or a subset of these antigens are necessary to elicit protective immunity. Infection with USA300Δhla elicited modest protection against secondary SSTI, and complementation of USA300Δsae with hla restored protection but incompletely. Together, these findings support a role for both Hla and other saeRS-regulated antigens in eliciting protection and suggest that host differences in immune responses to saeRS-regulated antigens may determine whether S. aureus infection elicits protective or nonprotective immunity against recurrent infection. PMID:26169277

  20. Animal Science, Including Instruction in Agricultural Mechanics, Careers, Leadership, and Supervised Occupational Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City. Agricultural Education Section.

    Developed and reviewed by a committee of 16 teachers, the state supervisory staff, and the teacher education staff, this curriculum guide is for vocational agriculture teacher use with ninth grade students interested in agricultural occupations. Some objectives for this 1-year course in animal science are--(1) to develop competencies in…

  1. Enhancing the Undergraduate Experience: The Role of a Student Organization for Preservice Agricultural Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, T. Grady; Harlin, Julie F.; Murphrey, Theresa P.; Dooley, Kim E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a need exists to establish an organization specifically for preservice agricultural science teachers and if so, the attributes of such an organization. Selected peer preservice agricultural education programs were examined and focus groups were conducted with preservice and inservice teachers. Results…

  2. Electric Vehicle Communications Standards Testing and Validation - Phase II: SAE J2931/1

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard M.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2013-01-15

    Vehicle to grid communication standards enable interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers and provide the capability to implement charge management. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee/HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified vehicle to grid communication performance requirements and developed a test plan as part of SAE J2931/1 committee work. This laboratory test plan was approved by the SAE J2931/1 committee and included test configurations, test methods, and performance requirements to verify reliability, robustness, repeatability, maximum communication distance, and authentication features of power line carrier (PLC) communication modules at the internet protocol layer level. The goal of the testing effort was to select a communication technology that would enable automobile manufacturers to begin the development and implementation process. The EPRI/Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) testing teams divided the testing so that results for each test could be presented by two teams, performing the tests independently. The PNNL team performed narrowband PLC testing including the Texas Instruments (TI) Concerto, Ariane Controls AC-CPM1, and the MAXIM Tahoe 2 evaluation boards. The scope of testing was limited to measuring the vendor systems communication performance between Electric Vehicle Support Equipment (EVSE) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). The testing scope did not address PEV’s CAN bus to PLC or PLC to EVSE (Wi-Fi, cellular, PLC Mains, etc.) communication integration. In particular, no evaluation was performed to delineate the effort needed to translate the IPv6

  3. Effectiveness of a Science Agricultural Summer Experience (SASE) in Recruiting Students to Natural Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Edward; Lindline, Jennifer; Petronis, Michael S.; Pilotti, Maura

    2012-12-01

    The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects an increase in Natural Resource Management (NRM) jobs within the next 10 years due to baby-boomer retirements and a 12% increase in demand for these occupations. Despite this trend, college enrollment in NRM disciplines has declined. Even more critical is the fact that the soon-to-be-majority Hispanic population is underrepresented in NRM disciplines. The goal of the present study was to determine if an in-residence, two-week, summer science program for underrepresented minorities would not only increase interest in science, actual science knowledge, and perceived science knowledge, but also have an overall impact on underrepresented minority students' decisions to attend college, major in a scientific discipline and pursue a career in science. During a four-year period, 76 high school students participated in a Science Agricultural Summer Experience (SASE) in Northern New Mexico. A pre/post science-knowledge exam and satisfaction survey were administered to participants. We demonstrate that participants improved significantly ( p < .05) in all areas measured. In particular, comfort with science field and lab activities, science knowledge and perceived science knowledge were enhanced after exposure to the program. Students not only found science exciting and approachable after participation, but also exhibited increased interest in pursuing a degree and career in science. Of the 76 SASE participants within graduation age ( n = 44), all graduated from high school; and 86% enrolled in college. These findings suggest that the implemented SASE initiative was effective in recruiting and increasing the confidence and abilities of underrepresented minority students in science.

  4. Soil apparent conductivity measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments: A case study from Western-Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Sebastian; Wongleecharoen, Chalermchart; Lark, Richard Murray; Marchant, Ben Paul; Garré, Sarah; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry; Weihermueller, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    In agricultural experiments the success or failure of a potential improvement is generally evaluated based on the plant response, using proper experimental designs with sufficient statistical power. Because within-site variability can negatively affect statistical power, improvements in the experimental design can be achieved if this variation is well understood and incorporated into the experimental design, or if some surrogate variable is used as a covariate in the analysis. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa), measured by electromagnetic induction (EMI) may be one source of this information. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of EMI-derived ECa measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments. ECa and plant height measurements of maize (the response variable) were taken from an agricultural experiment in Western Thailand. A statistical model of these variables was used to simulate experiments with different designs and treatment effects. The simulated data were used to quantify the statistical power when testing three orthogonal contrasts. The following experimental designs were considered: a simple random design (SR), a complete randomized block design (CRB), and a complete randomized block design with spatially adjusted blocks on plot means of ECa (CRBECa). According to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) the smallest effect sizes could be detected using the CRBECa design, which suggests that ECa survey measurements could be used in the planning phase of an experiment to achieve efficiencies by better blocking. Also, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that larger power improvements could be achieved when ECa was used as a covariate in the analysis. We therefore recommend that ECa measurements should be used to describe subsurface variability and to support the statistical analysis of agricultural experiments.

  5. Two-component signal transduction system SaeRS is involved in competence and penicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qiang; Ma, Yuanfang; Qu, Di

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, the S. epidermidis SaeRS was identified to negatively regulate the expression of genes involved in competence (comF, murF), cytolysis (lrgA), and autolysis (lytS) by DNA microarray or real-time RT-PCR analysis. In addition, saeRS mutant showed increased competence and higher susceptibility to antibiotics such as penicillin and oxacillin than the wild-type strain. The study will be helpful for understanding the characterization of the SaeRS in S. epidermidis. PMID:26898187

  6. CQESTR Simulation of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments across USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollany, H.; Liang, Y.; Albrecht, S.; Rickman, R.; Follett, R.; Wilhelm, W.; Novak, J.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) has important chemical (supplies nutrients, buffers and adsorbs harmful chemical compounds), biological (supports the growth of microorganisms and micro fauna), and physical (improves soil structure and soil tilth, stores water, and reduces surface crusting, water runoff) functions. The loss of 20 to 50% of soil organic carbon (SOC) from USA soils after converting native prairie or forest to production agriculture is well documented. Sustainable management practices for SOC is critical for maintaining soil productivity and responsible utilization of crop residues. As crop residues are targeted for additional uses (e.g., cellulosic ethanol feedstock) developing C models that predict change in SOM over time with change in management becomes increasingly important. CQESTR, pronounced "sequester," is a process-based C balance model that relates organic residue additions, crop management and soil tillage to SOM accretion or loss. The model works on daily time-steps and can perform long-term (100-year) simulations. Soil organic matter change is computed by maintaining a soil C budget for additions, such as crop residue or added amendments like manure, and organic C losses through microbial decomposition. Our objective was to simulate SOM changes in agricultural soils under a range of soil parent materials, climate and management systems using the CQESTR model. Long-term experiments (e.g. Champaign, IL, >100 yrs; Columbia, MO, >100 yrs; Lincoln, NE, 20 yrs) under various tillage practices, organic amendments, crop rotations, and crop residue removal treatments were selected for their documented history of the long-term effects of management practice on SOM dynamics. Simulated and observed values from the sites were significantly related (r2 = 94%, P < 0.001) with slope not significantly different from 1. Recent interest in crop residue removal for biofuel feedstock prompted us to address that as a management issue. CQESTR successfully simulated a

  7. Electric Vehicle Communication Standards Testing and Validation Phase I: SAE J2847/1

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard M.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-09-21

    Executive Summary Vehicle to grid communication standards are critical to the charge management and interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee / HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. While the standard development is in progress for more than two years, no definitive guidelines are available for the automobile manufacturers, charging station manufacturers and utility backhaul network systems. At present, there is a wide range of proprietary communication options developed and supported in the industry. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified performance requirements and test plan based on possible communication pathways using power line communication over the control pilot and mains. Though the communication pathways and power line communication technology options are identified, much work needs to be done in developing application software and testing of communication modules before these can be deployed in production vehicles. This report presents a test plan and results from initial testing of two power line communication modules developed to meet the requirements of SAE J2847/1 standard.

  8. Phosphorylation-Regulated Transitions in an Oligomeric State Control the Activity of the Sae2 DNA Repair Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiong; Chow, Julia; Bernstein, Kara A.; Makharashvili, Nodar; Arora, Sucheta; Lee, Chia-Fang; Person, Maria D.; Rothstein, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    In the DNA damage response, many repair and signaling molecules mobilize rapidly at the sites of DNA double-strand breaks. This network of immediate responses is regulated at the level of posttranslational modifications that control the activation of DNA processing enzymes, protein kinases, and scaffold proteins to coordinate DNA repair and checkpoint signaling. Here we investigated the DNA damage-induced oligomeric transitions of the Sae2 protein, an important enzyme in the initiation of DNA double-strand break repair. Sae2 is a target of multiple phosphorylation events, which we identified and characterized in vivo in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both cell cycle-dependent and DNA damage-dependent phosphorylation sites in Sae2 are important for the survival of DNA damage, and the cell cycle-regulated modifications are required to prime the damage-dependent events. We found that Sae2 exists in the form of inactive oligomers that are transiently released into smaller active units by this series of phosphorylations. DNA damage also triggers removal of Sae2 through autophagy and proteasomal degradation, ensuring that active Sae2 is present only transiently in cells. Overall, this analysis provides evidence for a novel type of protein regulation where the activity of an enzyme is controlled dynamically by posttranslational modifications that regulate its solubility and oligomeric state. PMID:24344201

  9. When Study-Abroad Experience Fails to Deliver: The Internal Resources Threshold Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderman, Gretchen; Kroll, Judith F.

    2009-01-01

    Some second language (L2) learners return from study-abroad experiences (SAEs) with seemingly no change in their L2 ability. In this study we investigate whether a certain level of internal cognitive resources is necessary in order for individuals to take full advantage of the SAE. Specifically, we examine the role of working memory resources in…

  10. Overview of engineering and agricultural design considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, N.E.; Engen, I.A.; Yrene, C.S.

    1982-04-01

    The engineering and agricultural considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment are presented. The experiment is designed to investigate the thermal characteristics of a subsurface pipe network for cooling power-plant condenser effluent, and crop responses to soil warming in an open-field plot. The subsurface soil-warming system is designed to dissipate approximately 100 kW of heat from circulating, 38/sup 0/C geothermal water. Summer operating conditions in the Raft River area, located on the Intermountain Plateau are emphasized. Design is based on the thermal characteristics of the local soil, the climate of the Raft River Valley, management practices for normal agriculture, and the need for an unheated control plot. The resultant design calls for 38-mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in a grid composed of parallel loops, for dissipating heat into a 0.8-hectare experimental plot.

  11. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  12. Embrapa's experience in the production and development of agriculture reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, A. R. A.; Souza, G. B.; Bossu, C. M.; Bianchi, S. R.; Verhalen, T. R.; Silva, P. T.; Peixoto, A. A. J.; Silva, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    The main challenge of Embrapa is to develop a model of genuine Brazilian tropical agriculture and livestock. To get this task, the quality of laboratories results is mandatory, increasing the demand for reference materials. Projects were proposed to produce reference materials to support the national agriculture laboratories and consolidate a network able to perform reliable and reproducible analytical testing laboratory within the internationally standards required. Reference materials were produced and available to interested laboratories and collaborative tests were conducted to obtain consensus values. The results and statistical evaluations were performed with the use of software developed by Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste.

  13. Changing Horses: Shifting Agricultural Experiment Station Publications from Paper to Electronic Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodenbaugh, Eric; Holcombe, Gloria; Hartman, Amy

    2003-01-01

    The Agricultural Experimental Station at Kansas State University switched from paper publication to compact discs. The change resulted in savings of more than $20,000 in 1 year and allowed for a searchable, comprehensive package of information rather than a single publication. (Contains 10 references.) (JOW)

  14. Integrated description of agricultural field experiments and production: the ICASA version 2.0 data standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural research increasingly seeks to quantify complex interactions of processes for a wide range of environmental conditions and crop management scenarios, leading to investigation where multiple sets of experimental data are examined using tools such as simulation and regression. The use of ...

  15. Implementation and monitoring measures to reduce agricultural impacts on water quality: US experience

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As European nations move toward compliance with the EU Water Framework Directive, national efforts to manage and regulate agricultural impacts on water quality in the US can provide useful guidance. Concentration of livestock and poultry production in the US has changed the distribution of nutrient...

  16. An Evaluation of a Welding Fumes Exhaust System. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 284.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    A study evaluated the feasibility of introducing unheated outside air into the airstream of a cross-flow welding exhaust system to reduce heating energy costs of a school welding laboratory. The physical facility used was the agricultural mechanics laboratory at the University of Arizona, which is similar to facilities in which instruction in…

  17. Implementation and monitoring to reduce agricultural impacts on water quality: US experiance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As European nations move toward compliance with the EU Water Framework Directive, national efforts to manage and regulate agricultural impacts on water quality in the US can provide useful guidance. Concentration of livestock and poultry production in the US has changed the distribution of nutrient...

  18. New Jersey Land-Use Planning Techniques and Legislation. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin AE-338.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Lee D.

    In response to recent urban to rural migration trends and the development of rather piecemeal land use policies and practices by local, state, and Federal decision makers, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has established a regional project (NE-78) and this report reflects the first of three major project objectives (to describe and appraise…

  19. Perceptions of Teaching Ability during the Student Teaching Experience in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krysher, Sheyenne; Robinson, J. Shane; Montgomery, Diane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the views student teachers in agricultural education at Oklahoma State University had regarding their 12-week student teaching internship. Using Q-methodology as a research approach, 28 interns rank-ordered a Q-set of 36 statements describing various aspects teacher responsibilities and performance. The…

  20. Overview of Probabilistic Methods for SAE G-11 Meeting for Reliability and Uncertainty Quantification for DoD TACOM Initiative with SAE G-11 Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Surendra N.

    2003-01-01

    The SAE G-11 RMSL Division and Probabilistic Methods Committee meeting during October 6-8 at the Best Western Sterling Inn, Sterling Heights (Detroit), Michigan is co-sponsored by US Army Tank-automotive & Armaments Command (TACOM). The meeting will provide an industry/government/academia forum to review RMSL technology; reliability and probabilistic technology; reliability-based design methods; software reliability; and maintainability standards. With over 100 members including members with national/international standing, the mission of the G-11's Probabilistic Methods Committee is to "enable/facilitate rapid deployment of probabilistic technology to enhance the competitiveness of our industries by better, faster, greener, smarter, affordable and reliable product development."

  1. Linked Data for Fighting Global Hunger:Experiences in setting standards for Agricultural Information Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Thomas; Keizer, Johannes

    FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, has the global goal to defeat hunger and eliminate poverty. One of its core functions is the generation, dissemination and application of information and knowledge. Since 2000, the Agricultural InformationManagement Standards (AIMS) activity in FAO's Knowledge Exchange and Capacity Building Division has promoted the use of Semantic Web standards to improve information sharing within a global network of research institutes and related partner organizations. The strategy emphasizes the use of simple descriptive metadata, thesauri, and ontologies for integrating access to information from a wide range of sources for both scientific and non-expert audiences. An early adopter of Semantic Web technology, the AIMS strategy is evolving to help information providers in nineteen language areas use modern Linked Data methods to improve the quality of life in developing rural areas, home to seventy percent of the world's poor and hungry people.

  2. Agricultural communication and the African non-literate farmer: the Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Soola, E O

    1988-01-01

    In Nigeria, there lies a relatively untapped potential for great agricultural growth. Since the 1960's, Nigeria's "days of agricultural glory," there has been great obstacles in the exchange of information between scientists and Nigerian farmers. There has been a great trend in rural-urban migration and a rise in unemployment; crime and school drop outs have ensued. The Nigerian non-literate farmer is in a neglected class who has suffered the scrutiny and non-support of government and financial institutions. His growth has been limited because he is considered a poor credit risk. Because of his illiteracy, he is limited to traditional methods of farming. However, the Nigerian farmer is not uneducable. He is information-conscious and can be instructed if a communicator is sensitive to the farmer's culture, tradition and farming practices. An agriculture extension agent must not only assess the farmer's needs but also convey relevant information in a manner that is amenable to the farmer's framework of communication. Working with opinion leaders, the mass media, a regional library, audio tapes and by portraying new information and farming practices through festivals and ceremonies are methods available to the extension agent or communicator in his work with the non-literate Nigerian farmer. PMID:12342253

  3. Theme: New Dimensions for Experiential Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Ten articles discuss experiential learning in agricultural education as it relates to career development, supervised agricultural experience (SAE), 4-H, technological tools such as electronic recordkeeping, a rationale for experiential learning, and the relevance of SAE to today's students. (JOW)

  4. An Examination of the Opinions and Supervised Occupational Experience Programs of Selected Vocational Agricultural Instructors in the U.S. Staff Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, Frank

    A study was made of the opinions and programs of a selected group of 77 vocational agriculture instructors to determine the status of supervised occupational experience (SOE) programs among secondary agricultural instructors who had been identified as some of the best in the states surveyed. Of particular interest was the relative role that the…

  5. Haemin represses the haemolytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus in an Sae-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Julia; Joost, Insa; Skaar, Eric P; Herrmann, Mathias; Bischoff, Markus

    2012-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and a common cause of nosocomial infections. This facultative pathogen produces a large arsenal of virulence factors, including the haemolysins, which allow the bacterium to lyse erythrocytes and thereby release large amounts of the haem-containing haemoglobin. The released haem is thought to be the main iron source of this organism during the course of infection, and is considered to be crucial for bacterial proliferation in vivo. High concentrations of haem and its degradation products, on the other hand, are known to be toxic for S. aureus, making it essential for the pathogen to tightly control haem release from red blood cells. Here we show that S. aureus responds to haemin by downregulating the expression of haemolysins. Subinhibitory concentrations of haemin were found to significantly reduce transcription of the haemolysin genes hlb (encoding β-haemolysin) and hlgA (encoding the S-class component of γ-haemolysin), while hla (encoding α-haemolysin) and RNAIII (encoding δ-haemolysin) transcription did not appear to be affected. The presence of haemin also reduced the haemolytic potential of the supernatants of S. aureus LS1 cultures. Inactivation of the sae locus in LS1 abolished the haemin effect on the transcription of haemolysin genes, indicating that the two-component regulatory system is required for this regulatory effect. Iron limitation, on the other hand, was found to induce the expression of haemolysins, and this effect was again abolished in the sae mutant, indicating that S. aureus modulates its haemolysin production in response to iron and haem availability in an Sae-dependent manner. PMID:22859613

  6. Retained Austenite in SAE 52100 Steel Post Magnetic Processing and Heat Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Nathaniel R; Watkins, Thomas R; Cavin, Odis Burl; Jaramillo, Roger A; Ludtka, Gerard Michael

    2007-01-01

    Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that contains up to 2% carbon by weight. Understanding which phases of iron and carbon form as a function of temperature and percent carbon is important in order to process/manufacture steel with desired properties. Austenite is the face center cubic (fcc) phase of iron that exists between 912 and 1394 C. When hot steel is rapidly quenched in a medium (typically oil or water), austenite transforms into martensite. The goal of the study is to determine the effect of applying a magnetic field on the amount of retained austenite present at room temperature after quenching. Samples of SAE 52100 steel were heat treated then subjected to a magnetic field of varying strength and time, while samples of SAE 1045 steel were heat treated then subjected to a magnetic field of varying strength for a fixed time while being tempered. X-ray diffraction was used to collect quantitative data corresponding to the amount of each phase present post processing. The percentage of retained austenite was then calculated using the American Society of Testing and Materials standard for determining the amount of retained austenite for randomly oriented samples and was plotted as a function of magnetic field intensity, magnetic field apply time, and magnetic field wait time after quenching to determine what relationships exist with the amount of retained austenite present. In the SAE 52100 steel samples, stronger field strengths resulted in lower percentages of retained austenite for fixed apply times. The results were inconclusive when applying a fixed magnetic field strength for varying amounts of time. When applying a magnetic field after waiting a specific amount of time after quenching, the analyses indicate that shorter wait times result in less retained austenite. The SAE 1045 results were inconclusive. The samples showed no retained austenite regardless of magnetic field strength, indicating that tempering removed the retained austenite. It is apparent

  7. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: The National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE’06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation i...

  8. Vocational Agriculture I Basic Core. Section C--Supervised Experience Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains five units teaching preservice vocational teachers to conduct supervised experience programs. Each unit contains an objective (e.g., "After completing this unit, the student should be able to choose and plan supervised occupational experience programs"); specific objectives (e.g., "State reasons for having a…

  9. Remote sensing experiment in West Africa. [drought effects on desert agriculture and vegetation in Niger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    There are substantial needs of the Sahelien Zone to detail the state of regional agricultural resources in the face of a sixth year of serious drought conditions. While most of the work has been done in the Republic of Niger, the principles which have emerged from the analysis seem to be applicable to much of the Sahel. The discussion relates to quite specific rehabilitation and development initiations under consideration in Niger which are based in part upon direct analysis of ERTS imagery of the country, in part on field surveys and on discussions with Nigerian officials and technicians. Again, because the entire Sahelien Zone (including Niger) has large zones of similar ecologic characteristics, modificiations of the approaches suggested for Niger are applicable to the solution of rehabilitation of the desert, the savannah and the woodlands of West Africa in general.

  10. Field experiments to evaluate nitrate-leaching from drained agriculturally used areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednorz, Denise; Tauchnitz, Nadine; Christen, Olaf; Rupp, Holger; Meissner, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural land use is one of the main sources for diffuse nitrogen (N) inputs into surface- and groundwater. To fulfill the objectives of the European water protection policy it is mandatory to optimize agricultural management and to adopt it to site specific conditions. N present in soil is dominated by organic N, and after mineralization inorganic plant available N, obtaining the components ammonia and nitrate (NO3-N). In the environment, NO3-N occurs as the negatively charged ion NO3- which is generally solved. Thus, NO3-N is the major N-species in waters, whereas its transport is directly influenced by the flow regime. In dependence of soil type and meteorological conditions, subsurface drainage was often installed to prevent water logged zones as a requirement for agricultural use. But drainage systems were often discussed as one of the main sources for NO3-N inputs into surface water due to temporary high discharge rates and short residence time of soil water resulting in limited conditions for NO3-N degradation via denitrification. In the study presented herein, two adjacent tile-drained agriculturally used areas with adjusted agronomic conditions but different soil properties were investigated regarding their flow regime and their N-kinetic from 11/1/2013 until 10/31/2015. Both fields obtained the same size and drainage network (drain depth 0.8 m, gab distance 10 m). Field I was influenced by confined groundwater conditions due to an alternating strata of sandy and loamy layers. Field II was impermeable from a depth of one meter, showing a backwater influenced flow regime. The temporal course of soil moisture (35, 60 and 85 cm depth), drain rate as well as ground- and backwater head was registered continuously at both sites. Furthermore NH4-N- and NO3-N-concentrations (cNO3-N) in each compartment were measured. The experimental results showed that field I revealed significantly lower discharged drain rates and NO3-N-loads (17.1 mm and 2.5 kg N

  11. Interdependence of soil and agricultural practice in a two - year phytoremediation in situ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia; Onyeike, Eugene; Frac, Magdalena; Iwo, Godknows

    2016-04-01

    A two - year plant - based soil clean - up was carried out at a crude oil spill agricultural site in a Niger Delta community in Nigeria to access further clean - up potentials of Cymbopogon citratus. Applied diagnostic ratios identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs. Up to 90.8% sequestration was obtained for carcinogenic PAHs especially Benz (a) pyrene in a 2 - phase manner. A community level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to differentiate spatial and temporal changes in the soil microbial communities. In relation to pollution, soil conditioning notably decreased the lag times and showed mixed effects for colour development rates, maximum absorbance and the overall community pattern. For rate and utilization of different carbon substrates in BIOLOG wells, after day 3, in comparison to control soil communities, contamination with hydrocarbons and associated types increased amines and amides consumption. Consumption of carbohydrates in all polluted and unamended regimes decreased markedlyin comparison to those cultivated with C. citratus. We found a direct relationship between cellulose breakdown, measurable with B-glucosidase activity, organic matter content and CO2 realease within all soils in the present study. Organic amendment rendered most studied contaminants unavailable for uptake in preference to inorganic fertilizer in both study years. Generally, phytoremediation improved significantly the microbial community activity and thus would promote ecosystem restoration in relation to most patronised techniques. Supplementation with required nutrients, in a long - term design would present many ecological benefits. Keywords: Agricultural soils; Recovery; Hydrocarbon pollution; Ecology; Management practice.

  12. Fundamental Experiment to Determine Escape Countermeasures for Frogs Falling into Agricultural Canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Takemura, Takeshi

    Frogs often drown in agricultural canals with deep concrete walls, which are installed commonly in paddy fields after land improvement projects in Japan, because they cannot escape after falling into the canal. Therefore, countermeasures that enable frogs to escape from canals are required in some rural areas. An experimental canal with partially sloped walls was used as an escape countermeasure to investigate the preferable angle of slope for the walls, water depth and flow velocity that enables Tokyo Daruma Pond Frogs (Rana porosa porosa), which have no adhesive discs, to easily escape. Walls with slopes of 30-45 degrees allowed 50-60% of frogs to escape from the experimental canals, frogs especially easily climbed the 30 degree sloped walls. When the water depth was 5 cm or flow velocity was greater than 20 cm/s, approximately 80% of the frogs moved downstream and reached the sloped walls because the frogs' toes did not reach the bottom of the canal. However, if the depth was 2 cm and the flow velocity was 5 cm/s, only 4% of the frogs climbed the sloped walls because they could move freely. The frogs appeared to not be good at long-distance swimming and could not remain a long-time under running water. Therefore, walls sloped less than 30 degrees and control of both water depth and flow velocity appears important for enabling frogs to easily escape from canals.

  13. Disparity in the In Vitro versus In Vivo Regulation of Fibronectin-Binding Proteins by 2 Global Regulators, saeRS and sigB, in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ambrose L.; Yang, Soo-Jin; Bayer, Arnold S.; Xiong, Yan Q.

    2010-01-01

    Fibronectin-binding protein A plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus endovascular infections. We characterized the sigB-saeRS-fnbA expression network with fibronectin binding in vitro and in an experimental infective endocarditis (IE) model using parental strains RN6390 and SH1000 and their respective isogenic saeRS mutants. In contrast to the in vitro data, there was no influence of saeRS on fnbA expression in the IE model, yet ex vivo fibronectin binding was reduced in saeRS mutants. Moreover, as opposed to the in vitro findings, sigB appeared to have a positive rather than a negative effect on saeRS expression within cardiac vegetations. PMID:19807278

  14. A Teaching Experiment in the Use of Greenhouse Facilities in Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drawbaugh, Charles Calvin

    Major purposes were to measure the comparative effectiveness of school greenhouses, community greenhouses, and classroom windowsills and a laboratory manual, functional experience, and teacher's own method for learning plant science principles relative to the environmental factors of light, temperature, moisture, aeration, and nutrients. Minor…

  15. Planning an integrated agriculture and health program and designing its evaluation: Experience from Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Donald C.; Levin, Carol; Loechl, Cornelia; Thiele, Graham; Grant, Frederick; Girard, Aimee Webb; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). In planning the program we drew upon information from needs assessments, stakeholder consultations, and a first round of the implementation evaluation of a pilot project. The multi-disciplinary team worked with partner organizations to develop a program theory of change and an impact pathway which identified aspects of the program that would be monitored and established evaluation methods. Responding to the growing demand for greater rigour in impact evaluations, we carried out quasi-experimental allocation by health facility catchment area, repeat village surveys for assessment of change in intervention and control areas, and longitudinal tracking of individual mother-child pairs. Mid-course corrections in program implementation were informed by program monitoring, regular feedback from implementers and partners’ meetings. To assess economic efficiency and provide evidence for scaling we collected data on resources used and project expenses. Managing the multi-sectoral program and the mixed methods evaluation involved bargaining and trade-offs that were deemed essential to respond to the array of stakeholders, program funders and disciplines involved. PMID:27003730

  16. Planning an integrated agriculture and health program and designing its evaluation: Experience from Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cole, Donald C; Levin, Carol; Loechl, Cornelia; Thiele, Graham; Grant, Frederick; Girard, Aimee Webb; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). In planning the program we drew upon information from needs assessments, stakeholder consultations, and a first round of the implementation evaluation of a pilot project. The multi-disciplinary team worked with partner organizations to develop a program theory of change and an impact pathway which identified aspects of the program that would be monitored and established evaluation methods. Responding to the growing demand for greater rigour in impact evaluations, we carried out quasi-experimental allocation by health facility catchment area, repeat village surveys for assessment of change in intervention and control areas, and longitudinal tracking of individual mother-child pairs. Mid-course corrections in program implementation were informed by program monitoring, regular feedback from implementers and partners' meetings. To assess economic efficiency and provide evidence for scaling we collected data on resources used and project expenses. Managing the multi-sectoral program and the mixed methods evaluation involved bargaining and trade-offs that were deemed essential to respond to the array of stakeholders, program funders and disciplines involved. PMID:27003730

  17. Influence of Sae-regulated and Agr-regulated factors on the escape of Staphylococcus aureus from human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Münzenmayer, Lisa; Geiger, Tobias; Daiber, Ellen; Schulte, Berit; Autenrieth, Stella E; Fraunholz, Martin; Wolz, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus is not a classical intracellular pathogen, it can survive within phagocytes and many other cell types. However, the pathogen is also able to escape from cells by mechanisms that are only partially understood. We analysed a series of isogenic S. aureus mutants of the USA300 derivative JE2 for their capacity to destroy human macrophages from within. Intracellular S. aureus JE2 caused severe cell damage in human macrophages and could efficiently escape from within the cells. To obtain this full escape phenotype including an intermittent residency in the cytoplasm, the combined action of the regulatory systems Sae and Agr is required. Mutants in Sae or mutants deficient in the Sae target genes lukAB and pvl remained in high numbers within the macrophages causing reduced cell damage. Mutants in the regulatory system Agr or in the Agr target gene psmα were largely similar to wild-type bacteria concerning cell damage and escape efficiency. However, these strains were rarely detectable in the cytoplasm, emphasizing the role of phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) for phagosomal escape. Thus, Sae-regulated toxins largely determine damage and escape from within macrophages, whereas PSMs are mainly responsible for the escape from the phagosome into the cytoplasm. Damage of macrophages induced by intracellular bacteria was linked neither to activation of apoptosis-related caspase 3, 7 or 8 nor to NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation. PMID:26895738

  18. Nutrient uptake by agricultural crops from biochar-amended soils: results from two field experiments in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karer, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Kloss, Stefanie; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    The use of biochar as soil amendment is considered as a promising agricultural soil management technique, combining carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvements. These expectations are largely founded on positive experiences with biochar applications to impoverished or degraded tropical soils. The validity of these results for soils in temperate climates needs confirmation from field experiments with typical soils representative for intensive agricultural production areas. Frequently biochar is mixed with other organic additives like compost. As these two materials interact with each other and each one may vary considerably in its basic characteristics, it is difficult to attribute the effects of the combined additive to one of its components and to a specific physico-chemical parameter. Therefore investigations of the amendment efficacy require the study of the pure components to characterize their specific behavior in soil. This is especially important for adsorption behavior of biochar for macro- and micronutrients because in soil there are multiple nutrient sinks that compete with plant roots for vital elements. Therefore this contribution presents results from a field amendment study with pure biochar that had the objective to characterize the macro- and microelement uptake of crops from different soils in two typical Austrian areas of agricultural production. At two locations in North and South-East Austria, two identical field experiments on different soils (Chernozem and Cambisol) were installed in 2011 with varying biochar additions (0, 30 and 90 t/ha) and two nitrogen levels. The biochar was a product from slow pyrolysis of wood (SC Romchar SRL). During the installation of the experiments, the biochar fraction of <2 mm was mixed with surface soil to a depth of 15 cm in plots of 33 m2 each (n=4). Barley (at the Chernozem soil) and maize (at the Cambisol) were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. The highest crop yields at both

  19. SAES St 909 Getter Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Holder, J. E

    2005-09-07

    Process gas tritium stripper technology has gone from catalytic oxidation followed by absorption on molecular sieve/zeolite beds to non-evaporate metal getter technology. SAES Getters produces a number of commercial getter products including St 909. St 909, a Zr-Mn-Fe alloy, is sold in pellet form, can decompose (''crack'') a number of process gas impurities, and retains lower levels of tritium than other getters. The performance of this material to remove process impurities, especially methane, under of variety of operating conditions has been part of a Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for five years. St 909 has been tested at the bench (6 gram) scale, the pilot (500 gram) scale, and at the full (5300) gram scale under a variety of test conditions. This paper gives a brief summary of test results obtained for the different scale tests.

  20. Influence of water cavitation peening with aeration on fatigue behaviour of SAE1045 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Ju, D. Y.; Jia, W. P.

    2007-10-01

    Water cavitation peening (WCP) with aeration is a recent potential method in the surface enhancement techniques. In this method, a ventilation nozzle is adopted to improve the process capability of WCP by increasing the impact pressure, which is induced by the bubble collapse on the surface of components in the similar way as conventional shot peening. In this paper, fatigue tests were conducted on the both-edge-notched flat tensile specimens to assess the influences of WCP on fatigue behaviour of SAE1045 steel. The notched specimens were treated by WCP, and the compressive residual stress distributions in the superficial layer were measured by X-ray diffraction method. The tension-tension ( R = Smin/ Smax = 0.1, f = 10 Hz) fatigue tests and the fracture surfaces observation by scan electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted. The experimental results show that WCP can improve the fatigue life by inducing the residual compressive stress in the superficial layer of mechanical components.

  1. Very high cycle fatigue behavior of SAE52100 bearing steel by ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification.

    PubMed

    Cho, In Shik; He, Yinsheng; Li, Kejian; Oh, Joo Yeon; Shin, Keesam; Lee, Chang Soon; Park, In Gyu

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the SAE52100 bearing steel contained large quantities of cementite dispersed in ferrite matrix was subjected to the ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) treatment that aims for the extension of fatigue life. The microstructure and fatigue life of the untreated and treated specimens were studied by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a developed ultra-high cycle fatigue test (UFT). After UNSM treatment, the coarse ferrite grains (- 10 μm) were refined to nanosize (- 200 nm), therefore, nanostructured surface layers were fabricated. Meanwhile, in the deformed layer, the number density and area fraction of cementite were increased up to - 400% and - 550%, respectively, which increased with the decrease in depth from the topmost treated surface. The improvement of hardness (from 200 Hv to 280 Hv) and high cycles fatigue strength by - 10% were considered the contribution of the developed nanostructure in the UNSM treated specimen. PMID:25958512

  2. An overview of SAE AE-9B high speed ring bus (HSRB) performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcoco, Robert J.; Kroeger, Brian W.; Kurtz, John J.

    The design, operating principles, and theoretical performance of a standard high-speed token-passing ring bus (HSRB) are described and illustrated with diagrams and graphs. The HSRB is being developed by the SAE AE-9B subcommittee to meet future military (ship and aircraft) requirements for high-speed local-area networking. Consideration is given to priority and short-message operations, the token frame, the message-frame format, minimal-station-delay protocols, ring synchronization, and fault-recovery methods. Comparative calculations show the performance of an optimized HSRB at 100 Mb/s to be superior to that of a linear contention bus or a linear token-passing bus. If maximum and average message length are kept to 512 and 100 words, respectively, it is estimated that the HSRB can attain throughput efficiency greater than 90 percent and high-priority-message latency time less than 500 microsec.

  3. Development of multi-element active aerodynamics for the formula sae car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, James Patrick

    This thesis focuses on the design, development, and implementation of an active aerodynamics system on 2013 Formula SAE car. The aerodynamics package itself consists of five element front and rear wings as well as an under body diffuser. Five element wings produce significant amounts of drag which is a compromise between the cornering ability of the car and the acceleration capability on straights. The active aerodynamics system allows for the wing angle of attack to dynamically change their configuration on track based on sensory data to optimize the wings for any given scenario. The wings are studied using computational fluid dynamics both in their maximum lift configuration as well as a minimum drag configuration. A control system is then developed using an electro mechanical actuation system to articulate the wings between these two states.

  4. Application of continuous casting steel 100Cr6 (SAE 52100) for bearing balls

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, F.; Hirsch, Th.; Mayr, P.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the investigation was to study the feasibility of applying continuous casting steel 100Cr6 (SAE 52100) for bearing balls. It was found that two of three continuous casted steel batches have longer or at least similar rolling contact fatigue lifetimes compared to one ingot casted batch. For one of the continuous casted batches, the rolling contact fatigue lifetime was 30% less. The micro- and macrostructure and the residual stresses below the surface of the balls were comparable. There is also no obvious difference between the four batches in the metallurgical parameters like contents of oxygen, titanium and sulfur as well as in the distribution of carbides and their network. The reason for the shorter lifetime of one batch finally was found to be due not to the continuous casting process itself. There was a difference in the cross section of the different casting moulds, and by this in the speed of solidification. As a consequence an increased segregation of alloying elements was observed. So the primary carbides of this batch were of bigger size and higher amounts have been detected within a larger cross section of the bloom. Finally the inferior distribution and size of carbides in the layers of maximum equivalent stress below the surface were found to be crack initiation points. The reduced lifetime of one batch therefore could be correlated to these metallurgical differences. It has been demonstrated that bearing balls made from continuous casted steel 100Cr6 (SAE 52100) have similar or better rolling contact fatigue lifetime than bearing balls made from ingot casted material. However, it is necessary to have minimal amounts of micro- and macro-inclusions as well as a homogeneous distribution of carbides, particularly in the main segregation areas. For that reason, the steel quality of every type of continuous casting machine has to be evaluated separately.

  5. Measuring the Interest of German Students in Agriculture: The Role of Knowledge, Nature Experience, Disgust, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Malte; Strack, Micha; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Modern knowledge-based societies, especially their younger members, have largely lost their bonds to farming. However, learning about agriculture and its interrelations with environmental issues may be facilitated by students' individual interests in agriculture. To date, an adequate instrument to investigate agricultural interests has been…

  6. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture; an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, R. M.; Augustin, J.; Alberti, G.; Ball, B. C.; Boeckx, P.; Cantarel, A.; Castaldi, S.; Chirinda, N.; Chojnicki, B.; Giebels, M.; Gordon, H.; Grosz, B.; Horvath, L.; Juszczak, R.; Klemedtsson, Å. K.; Klemedtsson, L.; Medinets, S.; Machon, A.; Mapanda, F.; Nyamangara, J.; Olesen, J.; Reay, D.; Sanchez, L.; Sanz Cobena, A.; Smith, K. A.; Sowerby, A.; Sommer, M.; Soussana, J. F.; Stenberg, M.; Topp, C. F. E.; van Cleemput, O.; Vallejo, A.; Watson, C. A.; Wuta, M.

    2012-07-01

    Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe and Zimbabwe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot based experiments. Arable experiments were conducted at Beano in Italy, El Encin in Spain, Foulum in Denmark, Logården in Sweden, Maulde in Belgium, Paulinenaue in Germany, Harare in Zimbabwe and Tulloch in the UK. Grassland experiments were conducted at Crichton, Nafferton and Peaknaze in the UK, Gödöllö in Hungary, Rzecin in Poland, Zarnekow in Germany and Theix in France. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at each site over a period of at least two years using static chambers. Emissions varied widely between sites and as a result of manipulation treatments. Average site emissions (throughout the study period) varied between 0.04 and 21.21 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, with the largest fluxes and variability associated with the grassland sites. Total nitrogen addition was found to be the single most important determinant of emissions, accounting for 15% of the variance (using linear regression) in the data from the arable sites (p < 0.0001), and 77% in the grassland sites. The annual emissions from arable sites were significantly greater than those that would be predicted by IPCC default emission factors. Variability in N2O within sites that occurred as a result of manipulation treatments was greater than that resulting from site to site and year to year variation, highlighting the importance of management interventions in contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation.

  7. Overview of the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment 2008 (BEAREX08): A field experiment evaluating methods for quantifying ET at multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evett, Steven R.; Kustas, William P.; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Anderson, Martha C.; Prueger, John H.; Howell, Terry A.

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, scientists from seven federal and state institutions worked together to investigate temporal and spatial variations of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface energy balance in a semi-arid irrigated and dryland agricultural region of the Southern High Plains in the Texas Panhandle. This Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment 2008 (BEAREX08) involved determination of micrometeorological fluxes (surface energy balance) in four weighing lysimeter fields (each 4.7 ha) containing irrigated and dryland cotton and in nearby bare soil, wheat stubble and rangeland fields using nine eddy covariance stations, three large aperture scintillometers, and three Bowen ratio systems. In coordination with satellite overpasses, flux and remote sensing aircraft flew transects over the surrounding fields and region encompassing an area contributing fluxes from 10 to 30 km upwind of the USDA-ARS lysimeter site. Tethered balloon soundings were conducted over the irrigated fields to investigate the effect of advection on local boundary layer development. Local ET was measured using four large weighing lysimeters, while field scale estimates were made by soil water balance with a network of neutron probe profile water sites and from the stationary flux systems. Aircraft and satellite imagery were obtained at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Plot-scale experiments dealt with row orientation and crop height effects on spatial and temporal patterns of soil surface temperature, soil water content, soil heat flux, evaporation from soil in the interrow, plant transpiration and canopy and soil radiation fluxes. The BEAREX08 field experiment was unique in its assessment of ET fluxes over a broad range in spatial scales; comparing direct and indirect methods at local scales with remote sensing based methods and models using aircraft and satellite imagery at local to regional scales, and comparing mass balance-based ET ground truth with eddy covariance

  8. Exposure to a heat wave under food limitation makes an agricultural insecticide lethal: a mechanistic laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Khuong V; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-10-01

    Extreme temperatures and exposure to agricultural pesticides are becoming more frequent and intense under global change. Their combination may be especially problematic when animals suffer food limitation. We exposed Coenagrion puella damselfly larvae to a simulated heat wave combined with food limitation and subsequently to a widespread agricultural pesticide (chlorpyrifos) in an indoor laboratory experiment designed to obtain mechanistic insights in the direct effects of these stressors in isolation and when combined. The heat wave reduced immune function (activity of phenoloxidase, PO) and metabolic rate (activity of the electron transport system, ETS). Starvation had both immediate and delayed negative sublethal effects on growth rate and physiology (reductions in Hsp70 levels, total fat content, and activity levels of PO and ETS). Exposure to chlorpyrifos negatively affected all response variables. While the immediate effects of the heat wave were subtle, our results indicate the importance of delayed effects in shaping the total fitness impact of a heat wave when followed by pesticide exposure. Firstly, the combination of delayed negative effects of the heat wave and starvation, and the immediate negative effect of chlorpyrifos considerably (71%) reduced larval growth rate. Secondly and more strikingly, chlorpyrifos only caused considerable (ca. 48%) mortality in larvae that were previously exposed to the combination of the heat wave and starvation. This strong delayed synergism for mortality could be explained by the cumulative metabolic depression caused by each of these stressors. Further studies with increased realism are needed to evaluate the consequences of the here-identified delayed synergisms at the level of populations and communities. This is especially important as this synergism provides a novel explanation for the poorly understood potential of heat waves and of sublethal pesticide concentrations to cause mass mortality. PMID:27390895

  9. Soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in digestate amended agricultural soils- a lysimeter scale experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Berns, Anne E.; Pütz, Thomas; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Zoriy, Myroslav; Flucht, Reinhold; Opitz, Thorsten; Hofmann, Diana

    2014-05-01

    Radiocesium and radiostrontium are among the most problematic soil contaminants following nuclear fallout due to their long half-lives and high fission yields. Their chemical resemblance to potassium, ammonium and calcium facilitates their plant uptake and thus enhances their chance to reach humans through the food-chain dramatically. The plant uptake of both radionuclides is affected by the type of soil, the amount of organic matter and the concentration of competitive ions. In the present lysimeter scale experiment, soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 was investigated in an agricultural silty soil amended with digestate, a residue from a biogas plant. The liquid fraction of the digestate, liquor, was used to have higher nutrient competition. Digestate application was done in accordance with the field practice with an application rate of 34 Mg/ha and mixing it in top 5 cm soil, yielding a final concentration of 38 g digestate/Kg soil. The top 5 cm soil of the non-amended reference soil was also submitted to the same mixing procedure to account for the physical disturbance of the top soil layer. Six months after the amendment of the soil, the soil contamination was done with water-soluble chloride salts of both radionuclides, resulting in a contamination density of 66 MBq/m2 for Cs-137 and 18 MBq/m2 for Sr-90 in separate experiments. Our results show that digestate application led to a detectable difference in soil-plant transfer of the investigated radionuclides, effect was more pronounced for Cs-137. A clear difference was observed in plant uptake of different plants. Pest plants displayed higher uptake of both radionuclides compared to wheat. Furthermore, lower activity values were recorded in ears compared to stems for both radionuclides.

  10. Quality, Evolution, and Positional Change of University Students' Argumentation Patterns about Organic Agriculture during an Argument-Critique-Argument Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Shu-Mey; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality, evolution, and position of university students' argumentation about organic agriculture over a 4-week argument-critique-argument e-learning experience embedded in a first year university biology course. The participants (N = 43) were classified into three groups based on their…

  11. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  12. Implications of the results of colonization experiments for designing riparian restoration projects adjacent to agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many headwater streams and their riparian habitats in the Midwestern United States have been modified for agricultural drainage. Agricultural drainage often results in reductions of physical habitat diversity, shifts from woody to herbaceous riparian vegetation, and the loss of riparian habitat. T...

  13. The Cultural Adaptation Process of Agricultural and Life Sciences Students on Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Nathan William

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during short-term study abroad programs. The specific objectives of this study were to describe how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experienced culture throughout…

  14. Post-stratification sampling in small area estimation (SAE) model for unemployment rate estimation by Bayes approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanike, Yusrianti; Sadik, Kusman; Kurnia, Anang

    2016-02-01

    This research implemented unemployment rate in Indonesia that based on Poisson distribution. It would be estimated by modified the post-stratification and Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Post-stratification was one of technique sampling that stratified after collected survey data. It's used when the survey data didn't serve for estimating the interest area. Interest area here was the education of unemployment which separated in seven category. The data was obtained by Labour Employment National survey (Sakernas) that's collected by company survey in Indonesia, BPS, Statistic Indonesia. This company served the national survey that gave too small sample for level district. Model of SAE was one of alternative to solved it. According the problem above, we combined this post-stratification sampling and SAE model. This research gave two main model of post-stratification sampling. Model I defined the category of education was the dummy variable and model II defined the category of education was the area random effect. Two model has problem wasn't complied by Poisson assumption. Using Poisson-Gamma model, model I has over dispersion problem was 1.23 solved to 0.91 chi square/df and model II has under dispersion problem was 0.35 solved to 0.94 chi square/df. Empirical Bayes was applied to estimate the proportion of every category education of unemployment. Using Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), Model I has smaller mean square error (MSE) than model II.

  15. Fur is required for the activation of virulence gene expression through the induction of the sae regulatory system in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Miranda; Sengupta, Mrittika; Purves, Joanne; Tarrant, Emma; Williams, Peter H.; Cockayne, Alan; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Stephenson, Robert; Ledala, Nagender; Wilkinson, Brian J.; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K.; Morrissey, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that both Sae and Fur are required for the induction of eap and emp expression in low iron. In this study, we show that expression of sae is also iron-regulated, as sae expression is activated by Fur in low iron. We also demonstrate that both Fur and Sae are required for full induction of the oxidative stress response and expression of non-covalently bound surface proteins in low-iron growth conditions. In addition, Sae is required for the induced expression of the important virulence factors isdA and isdB in low iron. Our studies also indicate that Fur is required for the induced expression of the global regulators Agr and Rot in low iron and a number of extracellular virulence factors such as the haemolysins which are also Sae- and Agr-regulated. Hence, we show that Fur is central to a complex regulatory network that is required for the induced expression of a number of important S. aureus virulence determinants in low iron. PMID:20705504

  16. Design optimization of a smooth headlamp reflector to SAE/DOT beam-shape requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatz, Narkis E.; Bortz, John C.; Dassanayake, Mahendra S.

    1999-10-01

    The optical design of Ford Motor Company's 1992 Mercury Grand Marquis headlamp utilized a Sylvania 9007 filament source, a paraboloidal reflector and an array of cylindrical lenses (flutes). It has been of interest to Ford to determine the practicality of closely reproducing the on- road beam pattern performance of this headlamp, with an alternate optical arrangement whereby the control of the beam would be achieved solely by means of the geometry of the surface of the reflector, subject to a requirement of smooth-surface continuity; replacing the outer lens with a clear plastic cover having no beam-forming function. To this end the far-field intensity distribution produced by the 9007 bulb was measured at the low-beam setting. These measurements were then used to develop a light-source model for use in ray tracing simulations of candidate reflector geometries. An objective function was developed to compare candidate beam patterns with the desired beam pattern. Functional forms for the 3D reflector geometry were developed with free parameters to be subsequently optimized. A solution was sought meeting the detailed US SAE/DOT constraints for minimum and maximum permissible levels of illumination in the different portions of the beam pattern. Simulated road scenes were generated by Ford Motor Company to compare the illumination properties of the new design with those of the original Grand Marquis headlamp.

  17. Design and fabrication of intake manifold for formula SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) race car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, Sylvie; Lavallee, Patrice

    1997-01-01

    Every year, a group of students from Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) in Montreal design and build a formula-type race car and compete in the Formula SAE competition. In this paper, we examine the design and fabrication of the ir intake system, A number of constraints challenge the designers. For example, to ensure the security of amateur drivers, motors are restrained to 600 cc and a circular restriction of 20 mm in diameter is placed at the entry of the system. Under these conditions, it is important to optimize the quality of the air/fuel mixture which depends mostly on the air intake system. A theoretical analysis reduced the field of possible runner length. However, the influence of runner configuration, plenum shape and size can only be determined experimentally. Polyacrylic functional prototypes were produced and tested on a dynamometric bench. A stereolithography model representing the inner passageways of the optimal intake manifold was built and used as a positive for a polyurethane mold. A composite lamination process was used to laminate the pre-production prototype over a molded wax plug. The major advantage of this approach over craftsmanship or even machining is the time saved to make the mold and the unlimited complexity of the shape permitted by the rapid prototyping systems.

  18. Effects of agricultural tillage practise on green house gas balance of an arable soil in a long term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, Jean Charles; Schilling, Rolf; Ruth, Bernhard; Fuss, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Soils are an important part of the global carbon cycle. A large proportion of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is released from soils, though carbon sequestration occurs. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of soils are also believed to contribute significantly to the green house effect as well as the stratospheric ozone depletion. An important source of N2O emissions is denitrification of nitrate from nitrogen fertilized soils. Although it is desirable to minimize these emissions while maintaining high crop yields it is still poorly understood how green house gas emissions may be steered by agricultural management practise, i.e. tillage and fertilization systems . In an ongoing long term field experiment at the research farm Scheyern, Bavaria, a arable field with one homogenous soil formation was transformed into plots in a randomized design 14 years ago. Since then, they are managed using conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) as well as low and high fertilization. A conventional crop rotation is maintained on the field. Starting 2007, CO2 and N2O emissions were monitored continuously for 2.5 years. Furthermore water content, temperature and redox potential were measured in-situ as they are major factors on microbial activity and denitrification. Soil was sampled from the Ap horizons of the plots about twice a month and extracts from these soil samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). According to the results soil density and hydrology are clearly affected by tillage practise. DOC is more affected by tillage while concentration of nitrogen species is controlled mainly by fertilization. There are distinct differences in redox potential between CT and NT plots with CT plots having more anaerobic periods. CO2 and N2O emissions exhibit a clear seasonal pattern and are affected by both tillage system and fertilization

  19. Just How Much Can School Pupils Learn from School Gardening? A Study of Two Supervised Agricultural Experience Approaches in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okiror, John James; Matsiko, Biryabaho Frank; Oonyu, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    School systems in Africa are short of skills that link well with rural communities, yet arguments to vocationalize curricula remain mixed and school agriculture lacks the supervised practical component. This study, conducted in eight primary (elementary) schools in Uganda, sought to compare the learning achievement of pupils taught using…

  20. The effectiveness of agricultural stewardship for improving water quality at the catchment scale: Experiences from an NVZ and ECSFDI watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Paul; Grayson, Richard; Phillips, Martin; Stanley, Karen; Dodsworth, Alan; Hanson, Ann; Walker, Andrew; Foulger, Miles; McDonnell, Iain; Taylor, Simon

    2012-02-01

    SummaryAgriculture is estimated to be responsible for 70% of nitrate and 30-50% of phosphorus pollution, contributing to ecological and water treatment problems. Despite the fact that significant gaps remain in our understanding, it is known that agricultural stewardship can be highly effective in controlling water pollution at the plot and field scales. Knowledge at the catchment scale is, to a large extent, entirely lacking though and this is of paramount concern given that the catchment is the management unit used by regulatory authorities. The few studies that have examined the impact of agricultural stewardship at the catchment scale have found that Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) in the UK have resulted in little improvement in water quality which concurs with the current catchment study. In addition to NVZs, there was little evidence to suggest that the England Catchment Sensitive Farming Delivery Initiative had impacted water quality and suggestions have been made for improvements, such as ensuring that stewardship measures are used in key pollution source areas and their implementation and impacts are monitored more closely. This will be essential if agricultural catchment management schemes are going to provide the benefits expected of them. Nevertheless, more intensive monitoring than that carried out by regulators showed a significant trend in decreasing winter nitrate peaks in some streams which is hypothesised to be due to recent reduced inorganic fertiliser application as a result of increasing prices. It was concluded that, collectively, these findings indicate that agricultural stewardship measures have the potential to improve water quality at the catchment scale but that voluntary schemes with insufficient financial reward or regulatory pressure are unlikely to be successful.

  1. Overview of the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing experiment 2008 (BEAREX08): A field experiment evaluating methods for quantifying ET at multiple scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, scientists from seven federal and state institutions worked together to investigate temporal and spatial variations of the surface energy balance and evapotranspiration (ET) in a semi-arid irrigated and dryland agricultural region of the Southern High Plains in the Texas Panhandle. Microme...

  2. Round-robin testing of Soleq EV cort according to the SAE J1634 test procedure dated May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, G.H.

    1993-05-01

    The Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice, SAE J1634, {open_quotes}Electric Vehicle Energy Consumption and Range Test Procedure{close_quotes}, May 1993, describes a standard method of determining the range and energy consumption for electric vehicles. Consequent to the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) rulemaking released on February 4, 1994, the EPA is currently considering factoring electric vehicles into the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) calculations using the SAE J1634 procedure. The purpose of this project is to provide information regarding the suitability of this recommended practice for determining the energy economy value to be factored into the CAFE. Issues leading to possible inconsistent results (such as the repeatability of the procedure, thoroughness of the procedure`s methods, and variance between different laboratories using different dynamometers) need to be resolved prior to passing legislation which will mandate use of this test in determining the electric vehicle CAFE credit. To this end, separate tests were performed on a Soleq EVcort vehicle by the INEL, the EPA, Ford Motor Company, Southwest Research Institute, and the California Air Resources Board using their own facilities and personnel. Acceptable departures from the driving profile prescribed by SAEJ1634 are not well defined. This deficiency in the procedure is even more noticeable due to the EVcort`s marginal acceleration performance.

  3. Caffeine impairs resection during DNA break repair by reducing the levels of nucleases Sae2 and Dna2.

    PubMed

    Tsabar, Michael; Eapen, Vinay V; Mason, Jennifer M; Memisoglu, Gonen; Waterman, David P; Long, Marcus J; Bishop, Douglas K; Haber, James E

    2015-08-18

    In response to chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs), eukaryotic cells activate the DNA damage checkpoint, which is orchestrated by the PI3 kinase-like protein kinases ATR and ATM (Mec1 and Tel1 in budding yeast). Following DSB formation, Mec1 and Tel1 phosphorylate histone H2A on serine 129 (known as γ-H2AX). We used caffeine to inhibit the checkpoint kinases after DSB induction. We show that prolonged phosphorylation of H2A-S129 does not require continuous Mec1 and Tel1 activity. Unexpectedly, caffeine treatment impaired homologous recombination by inhibiting 5' to 3' end resection, independent of Mec1 and Tel1 inhibition. Caffeine treatment led to the rapid loss, by proteasomal degradation, of both Sae2, a nuclease that plays a role in early steps of resection, and Dna2, a nuclease that facilitates one of two extensive resection pathways. Sae2's instability is evident in the absence of DNA damage. A similar loss is seen when protein synthesis is inhibited by cycloheximide. Caffeine treatment had similar effects on irradiated HeLa cells, blocking the formation of RPA and Rad51 foci that depend on 5' to 3' resection of broken chromosome ends. Our findings provide insight toward the use of caffeine as a DNA damage-sensitizing agent in cancer cells. PMID:26019182

  4. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

    2014-05-01

    Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological

  5. Theme: In-Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Seven theme articles review the history and philosophy of vocational agriculture, its relationship to the national goals for education, the place of sustainable agriculture and supervised experience in the curriculum, diversifying the curriculum, and fisheries education programs in Alaska. (SK)

  6. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  7. Can agricultural soils effectively remove legacy carbon from the atmosphere? Lessons from Australian long-term soil experiments. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, J.; Baldock, J.; Farquharson, R.

    2009-12-01

    One of the greatest changes that has occurred in soils during the Anthropocene is loss of organic matter due to agriculture. This loss has resulted in both large declines in soil fertility and large emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere. On the billions of hectares in production, humans are likely the only agent that will significantly change this situation. From a theoretical standpoint, any management practice which results in greater carbon return to the soil, increased stabilisation of soil carbon, or a reduction in losses should lead to positive carbon sequestration rates. Indeed, Australian field trial evidence indicates that there was a relative gain in soil carbon between most conventional and improved-management treatments. However, when soil carbon stocks were followed through time, the majority of these same studies indicated that there was an actual decrease in the quantity of carbon stored in the soil even in the improved-management treatments. These seemingly contradictory results suggest that many agricultural soils may still be responding to initial land clearing and that many management improvements are just slowing the loss soil carbon. This reduction in rate of loss of soil carbon represents a real greenhouse gas abatement in the form of avoided emissions. However, the predictive power of results from most agronomic field trials to alternative situations where these management practices have been implemented is questionable without detailed knowledge of the state of the soil carbon in the systems being considered.

  8. Hop2 and Sae3 Are Required for Dmc1-Mediated Double-Strand Break Repair via Homolog Bias during Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hong-Rae; Kong, Yoon-Ju; Hong, Soo-Gil; Kim, Keun Pil

    2016-01-01

    During meiosis, exchange of DNA segments occurs between paired homologous chromosomes in order to produce recombinant chromosomes, helping to increase genetic diversity within a species. This genetic exchange process is tightly controlled by the eukaryotic RecA homologs Rad51 and Dmc1, which are involved in strand exchange of meiotic recombination, with Rad51 participating specifically in mitotic recombination. Meiotic recombination requires an interaction between homologous chromosomes to repair programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this study, we investigated the budding yeast meiosis-specific proteins Hop2 and Sae3, which function in the Dmc1-dependent pathway. This pathway mediates the homology searching and strand invasion processes. Mek1 kinase participates in switching meiotic recombination from sister bias to homolog bias after DSB formation. In the absence of Hop2 and Sae3, DSBs were produced normally, but showed defects in the DSB-to-single-end invasion transition mediated by Dmc1 and auxiliary factors, and mutant strains failed to complete proper chromosome segregation. However, in the absence of Mek1 kinase activity, Rad51-dependent recombination progressed via sister bias in the hop2Δ or sae3Δ mutants, even in the presence of Dmc1. Thus, Hop2 and Sae3 actively modulate Dmc1-dependent recombination, effectively progressing homolog bias, a process requiring Mek1 kinase activation. PMID:27329041

  9. Hop2 and Sae3 Are Required for Dmc1-Mediated Double-Strand Break Repair via Homolog Bias during Meiosis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong-Rae; Kong, Yoon-Ju; Hong, Soo-Gil; Kim, Keun Pil

    2016-07-01

    During meiosis, exchange of DNA segments occurs between paired homologous chromosomes in order to produce recombinant chromosomes, helping to increase genetic diversity within a species. This genetic exchange process is tightly controlled by the eukaryotic RecA homologs Rad51 and Dmc1, which are involved in strand exchange of meiotic recombination, with Rad51 participating specifically in mitotic recombination. Meiotic recombination requires an interaction between homologous chromosomes to repair programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this study, we investigated the budding yeast meiosis-specific proteins Hop2 and Sae3, which function in the Dmc1-dependent pathway. This pathway mediates the homology searching and strand invasion processes. Mek1 kinase participates in switching meiotic recombination from sister bias to homolog bias after DSB formation. In the absence of Hop2 and Sae3, DSBs were produced normally, but showed defects in the DSB-to-single-end invasion transition mediated by Dmc1 and auxiliary factors, and mutant strains failed to complete proper chromosome segregation. However, in the absence of Mek1 kinase activity, Rad51-dependent recombination progressed via sister bias in the hop2Δ or sae3Δ mutants, even in the presence of Dmc1. Thus, Hop2 and Sae3 actively modulate Dmc1-dependent recombination, effectively progressing homolog bias, a process requiring Mek1 kinase activation. PMID:27329041

  10. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  11. Effect of Microstructure and Texture on Anisotropy and Mechanical Properties of SAE 970X Steel Under Hot Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Mohammad; Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.; de Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the effect of microstructure and crystallographic texture by developed in hot rolling and different post-treatments on anisotropic and mechanical properties of SAE 970X steel. The experimental results showed that the hot-rolled sample followed by quenching and consequent tempering at 700 °C led to a significant improvement in anisotropic and mechanical properties. This happened due to the reduction in the number of grains oriented with {001} planes parallel to normal direction. Also, the formation of new strain-free and recrystallized grains associated with {111}//ND and {110}//ND directions improved the mechanical properties. These grains corresponded to the close-packed planes in BCC structure as well.

  12. Effect of Microstructure and Texture on Anisotropy and Mechanical Properties of SAE 970X Steel Under Hot Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Mohammad; Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.; de Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the effect of microstructure and crystallographic texture by developed in hot rolling and different post-treatments on anisotropic and mechanical properties of SAE 970X steel. The experimental results showed that the hot-rolled sample followed by quenching and consequent tempering at 700 °C led to a significant improvement in anisotropic and mechanical properties. This happened due to the reduction in the number of grains oriented with {001} planes parallel to normal direction. Also, the formation of new strain-free and recrystallized grains associated with {111}//ND and {110}//ND directions improved the mechanical properties. These grains corresponded to the close-packed planes in BCC structure as well.

  13. On-Track Testing as a Validation Method of Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of a Formula SAE Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingart, Robert

    This thesis is about the validation of a computational fluid dynamics simulation of a ground vehicle by means of a low-budget coast-down test. The vehicle is built to the standards of the 2014 Formula SAE rules. It is equipped with large wings in the front and rear of the car; the vertical loads on the tires are measured by specifically calibrated shock potentiometers. The coast-down test was performed on a runway of a local airport and is used to determine vehicle specific coefficients such as drag, downforce, aerodynamic balance, and rolling resistance for different aerodynamic setups. The test results are then compared to the respective simulated results. The drag deviates about 5% from the simulated to the measured results. The downforce numbers show a deviation up to 18% respectively. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis of inlet velocities, ride heights, and pitch angles was performed with the help of the computational simulation.

  14. The Potential of a Multimedia Open Educational Resource Module in Enhancing Effective Teaching and Learning in a Postgraduate Agricultural Program: Experience From AgShare Project Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassen, Jemal Yousuf

    2013-01-01

    Graduate programs in agriculture in developing countries such as in Ethiopia are often designed in cognizance of the need for skilled manpower for agricultural development. In Ethiopia, the contribution of graduates of agricultural graduate programs to the attempt to transform smallholder agriculture has become a matter of urgency in the face of…

  15. MOBILIZATION AND TRANSPORT OF SOIL PARTICLES DURING INFILTRATION EXPERIMENTS IN AN AGRICULTURAL FIELD, SHENANDOAH VALLEY, VIRGINIA. (R824772)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence that fine particles mobilized and transported in
    soils and aquifers can have a profound influence on
    contaminant migration has spawned much interest recently
    in understanding colloid transport in natural materials.
    Repeated infiltration experiments on an i...

  16. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  17. Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eddie; And Others

    To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural…

  18. The Agricultural Educator's Role in Helping Elementary Pupils Learn About Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Malcolm; Donaldson, George W.

    1970-01-01

    Agriculture should occupy an important place in the curriculum of the schools. Children should be provided experiences that enable development of an understanding and appreciation of agriculture. (DM)

  19. Potentials of RapidEye time series for improved classification of crop rotations in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes: experiences from irrigation systems in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Christopher; Machwitz, Miriam; Schorcht, Gunther; Löw, Fabian; Fritsch, Sebastian; Dech, Stefan

    2011-11-01

    In Central Asia, more than eight Million ha of agricultural land are under irrigation. But severe degradation problems and unreliable water distribution have caused declining yields during the past decades. Reliable and area-wide information about crops can be seen as important step to elaborate options for sustainable land and water management. Experiences from RapidEye classifications of crop in Central Asia are exemplarily shown during a classification of eight crop classes including three rotations with winter wheat, cotton, rice, and fallow land in the Khorezm region of Uzbekistan covering 230,000 ha of irrigated land. A random forest generated by using 1215 field samples was applied to multitemporal RapidEye data acquired during the vegetation period 2010. But RapidEye coverage varied and did not allow for generating temporally consistent mosaics covering the entire region. To classify all 55,188 agricultural parcels in the region three classification zones were classified separately. The zoning allowed for including at least three observation periods into classification. Overall accuracy exceeded 85 % for all classification zones. Highest accuracies of 87.4 % were achieved by including five spatiotemporal composites of RapidEye. Class-wise accuracy assessments showed the usefulness of selecting time steps which represent relevant phenological phases of the vegetation period. The presented approach can support regional crop inventory. Accurate classification results in early stages of the cropping season permit recalculation of crop water demands and reallocation of irrigation water. The high temporal and spatial resolution of RapidEye can be concluded highly beneficial for agricultural land use classifications in entire Central Asia.

  20. "More drop per crop" when moving from gravitational to drip irrigated agriculture? Experiences from a North Moroccan case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltz, N.; Gaspart, F.; Vanclooster, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to save agricultural water, the famous FAO's "more crop per drop" has been taken literally in many arid or semi-arid places around the world and policies that aim improving "efficiencies" (irrigation efficiency…) have been implemented, often leading to the promotion of water saving technologies. In 1865, studying coal consumption, W.S. Jevons highlighted that improving coal use efficiency could, as a paradox, lead to higher global coal use. Many economists later extended this idea to resource saving technologies in general, showing that, due to the "rebound effect", the adoption of more efficient technologies, in terms of use of resources, could lead to a higher global consumption of this resource if this adoption didn't go with adjustment measures. Regarding these considerations, the emerging question is to which extent water saving technologies (i.e. that aim improving water related efficiencies) are appropriate to save water at large scale. Our study addresses this question through the analysis of the conversion from surface to drip irrigation in Triffa's irrigated perimeter (Morocco). We aim addressing this question using the detailed analysis of two data sets. First, available data were collected for every farm within the study area from the local administrations. Second, interviews were conducted with farmers to complete the dataset and to characterize their behavior. This allowed assessing water related efficiencies at farm scale. Subsequently, models were implemented to link efficiencies with general attributes and thereby identify the main drivers of water related efficiencies in the study area. Finally, these models were used to upscale farm-scale assessment to the perimeter scale. Our results show that, under current conditions, moving from surface to drip irrigation leads to higher global water withdrawal. However, the aforementioned "rebound effect" does not allow explaining the higher pressure because of contextual specificities. Deeper

  1. Vineyard weeds control practices impact on surface water transfers: using numerical tracer experiment coupled to a distributed hydrological model to manage agricultural practices spatial arrangements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, F.; Moussa, R.

    2009-04-01

    In rural basins, agricultural landscape management highly influences water and pollutants transfers. Landuse, agricultural practices and their spatial arrangements are at issue. Hydrological model are widely used to explore impacts of anthropogenic influences on experimental catchments. But planning all spatial arrangements leads to a possible cases count which cannot be considered. On the basis of the recent « numerical experiment » approach, we propose a « numerical tracer function » which had to be coupled to a distributed rainfall-runoff model. This function simulate the transfer of a virtual tracer successively spread on each distributed unit inside the catchment. It allows to rank hydrological spatial units according to their hydrological contribution to the surface flows, particularly at the catchment outlet. It was used with the distributed model MHYDAS in an agricultural context. The case study concerns the experimental Roujan vine-growing catchment (1km², south of France) studied since 1992. In this Mediterranean context, we focus on the soil hydraulic conductivity distributed parameter because it highly depends on weed control practices (chemical weeding induces a lot more runoff than mechanical weeding). We checked model sensitivity analysis to soil hydraulic conductivity spatial arrangement on runoff coefficient, peak discharge and catchment lag-time. Results show (i) the use of the tracer function is more efficient than a random approach to improve sensitivity to spatial arrangements from point of view of simulated discharge range, (ii) the first factor explaining hydrological simulations variability was practices area ratio, (iii) variability induced by practices spatial arrangements was significant on runoff coefficient and peak discharge for balanced practices area ratio and on lag-time for low area ratio of chemical weeding practices. From the actual situation on the experimental Roujan catchment (40% of tilled and 60% of non tilled vineyard

  2. Theme: Innovative Curriculum Ideas and Practices in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen theme articles discuss the following: curriculum ideas and innovations in agricultural education, agricultural literacy, Supervised Agricultural Experience, active learning, locating agricultural education resources, distance and web-based instruction, principles of forest management, professional development, and service learning. (JOW)

  3. Agriculture, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remotely sensed data in agriculture are enumerated. These include: predictions of forage for range animal consumption, forest management, soil mapping, and crop inventory and management.

  4. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Effects of Cyclic Loading on Mechanical Behavior of 24S-T4 and 75S-T6 Aluminum Alloys and SAE 4130 Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, C W; Grossman, N

    1952-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cyclic loading on the mechanical behavior of 24S-T4 and 75S-T6 aluminum alloys and SAE 4130 steel. Specimens of the three materials were subjected to various numbers of prior fatigue cycles both below and above the fatigue limits. Special slow-bend tests were employed to show the effects of prior cycles of fatigue stressing on the transition temperature to brittle fracture for SAE 4130 steel and on the energy-absorption capacity of the aluminum alloys. Micrographic studies were made to observe and measure crack formation and propagation and additional special tests were conducted to supplement the results of the slow-bend tests. These included Charpy impact tests, mirohardness surveys, tension tests, and fretting-corrosion studies.

  6. Water harvesting experience in sub-Saharan Africa - lessons for sustainable intensification of rainfed agriculture and the influence of available soils and rainfall data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowin, John; Bunclark, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    Africa is seen by many as the continent with the greatest potential for agricultural growth, but land degradation and environmental change threaten the African soil resource more severely than in many other regions of the planet. Achieving future food security will depend mainly on increasing production from rainfed agriculture. The challenge of delivering the required sustainable intensification in rainfed agriculture is most acute in the drylands - the semi-arid and dry sub-humid climatic regions. There are two broad strategies for increasing yields under these circumstances: (1) capturing more rainwater and storing it (increasing water availability), and (2) using the available water more effectively by increasing the plant growth and/or reducing non-productive soil evaporation (increasing water productivity). We focus on the first of these options - water harvesting, which is defined as, "the collection and concentration of rainfall runoff, or floodwaters, for plant production". The benefits of water harvesting have been documented from small scale experimental plot studies, but evidence of successful adoption and impact is weak. As a contribution to improving the evidence base, we present results from an investigation conducted in SSA to gather information on progress with efforts to promote adoption of water harvesting. The intention was to investigate in detail the processes and outcomes on a large enough sample area to draw some common conclusions. This was not a comprehensive analysis of all that is happening in each country, nor was it a random sample; this was a purposive sample guided by available baseline information to permit comparative analysis. Water harvesting seems to have made the most progress where techniques can be adopted by individual farmers: in Burkina Faso and Niger micro- scale zaï /tassa and demi-lune systems; in Sudan and Tanzania meso-scale majaruba and teras systems. Macro-scale systems requiring social organisation may offer

  7. An investigation of the weld region on the SAE 1020 joined with metal active gas and determination of the mismatch factor

    SciTech Connect

    Meric, C.; Tokdemir, M.

    1999-10-01

    In this study, the joining process of SAE 1020 low carbon steel, generally used in the industry, has been completed using the metal active gas (MAG) weld method. The goal of this study was to examine the mismatch between base and weld metal. After the joining process, mechanical properties of the samples of the base metal (BM), the heat affected zone (HAZ), and the weld metal (WM) were investigated, and the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) test was performed.

  8. A field experiment with variable-suction multi-compartment samplers to measure the spatio-temporal distribution of solute leaching in an agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloem, E.; Hogervorst, F. A. N.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2009-04-01

    Solutes spread out in time and space as they move downwards from the soil surface with infiltrating water. Solute monitoring in the field is often limited to observations of resident concentrations, while flux concentrations govern the movement of solutes in soils. A recently developed multi-compartment sampler is capable of measuring fluxes at a high spatial resolution with minimal disturbance of the local pressure head field. The objective of this paper is to use this sampler to quantify the spatial and temporal variation of solute leaching below the root zone in an agricultural field under natural rainfall in winter and spring. We placed two samplers at 31 and 25 cm depth in an agricultural field, leaving the soil above undisturbed. Each sampler contained 100 separate cells of 31 × 31 mm. Water fluxes were measured every 5 min for each cell. We monitored leaching of a chloride pulse under natural rainfall by frequently extracting the collected leachate while leaving the samplers buried in situ. This experiment was followed by a dye tracer experiment. This setting yielded information that widely surpassed the information that can be provided by separate anionic and dye tracer trials, and solute transport monitoring by coring or suction cups. The detailed information provided by the samplers showed that percolation at the sampling depth started much faster (approximately 3 h after the start of rainfall) in initially wet soil (pressure head above - 65 cm) than in drier soil (more than 14 h at pressure heads below - 80 cm). At any time, 25% of the drainage passed through 5-6% of the sampled area, reflecting the effect of heterogeneity on the flow paths. The amount of solute carried by individual cells varied over four orders of magnitude. The lateral concentration differences were limited though. This suggests a convective-dispersive regime despite the short vertical travel distance. On the other hand, the dilution index indicates a slight tendency towards

  9. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  10. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  11. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste. PMID:26420088

  12. Microstructure and Properties of SAE 2205 Stainless Steel After Salt Bath Nitrocarburizing at 450 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Gu, Tan; Zeng, Dezhi; Huang, Runbo; Ji, Xiong; Fan, Hongyuan

    2014-04-01

    Nitrocarburizing of the type SAE 2205 duplex stainless steel was conducted at 450 °C, using a type of salt bath chemical surface treatment, and the microstructure and properties of the nitrided surface were systematically researched. Experimental results revealed that a modified layer transformed on the surface of samples with the thickness ranging from 3 to 28 μm changed with the treatment time. After 2205 duplex stainless steel was subjected to salt bath nitriding at 450 °C for time less than 8 h, the preexisting ferrite zone in the surface transformed into austenite by active nitrogen diffusion. The main phase of the nitrided layer was the expanded austenite. When the treatment time was extended to 16 h, the preexisting ferrite zone in the expanded austenite was decomposed and transformed partially into ɛ-nitride precipitate. When the treatment time extended to 40 h, the preexisting ferrite zone in the expanded austenite was transformed into ɛ-nitride and CrN precipitate. Further, a large amount of nitride precipitated from preexisting austenite zone. The nitrided layer depth thickness changed intensively with the increasing nitriding time. The growth of the nitride layer takes place mainly by nitrogen diffusion according to the expected parabolic rate law. The salt bath nitriding can effectively improve the surface hardness. The maximum values measured from the treated surface are observed to be approximately 1400 HV0.1 after 8 h, which is about 3.5 times as hard as the untreated material (396 HV0.1). Low-temperature nitriding can improve the erosion/corrosion resistance. After nitriding for 4 h, the sample has the best corrosion resistance.

  13. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  14. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  15. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEALTON, ERNEST L.

    TODAY'S SUCCESSFUL FARMER MUST POSSESS THE SKILLS OF A BUSINESSMAN, SCIENTIST, AND MECHANIC TO SURVIVE COMPETITION IN AGRICULTURE, THE LARGEST INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS COMPETITION HAS CAUSED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF FARMS AND RANCHES IN AN ATTEMPT TO CURTAIL OPERATIONAL EXPENSES AND TO INCREASE PRODUCTION. WITH THE SCIENTIFIC…

  16. Agricultural Meteorology in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1982-03-01

    During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

  17. Effects of post-weld heat treatments on the residual stress and mechanical properties of electron beam welded SAE 4130 steel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.C.; Chuang, T.H.; Pan, Y.C.

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of the residual stresses of electron beam welded SAE 4130 and the effect of stress relief after various post-weld heat treatments (PWHT) were measured using X-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties and microstructure were also examined. Experimental results show that the tensile residual stress increased with the heat input of the electron beam. Most of the residual stresses were relieved by the PWHT at 530 C for 2 h followed by furnace cooling to 50 C. The strength of the welds decreased slightly, and the elongation of the welds increased after PWHT.

  18. Effects of post-weld heat treatments on the residual stress and mechanical properties of electron beam welded sae 4130 steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. C.; Pan, Y. C.; Chuang, T. H.

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of the residual stresses of electron beam welded SAE 4130 and the effect of stress relief after various post- weld heat treatments (PWHT) were measured using X- ray diffraction. The mechanical properties and microstructure were also examined. Experimental results show that the tensile residual stress increased with the heat input of the electron beam. Most of the residual stresses were relieved by the PWHT at 530 °C for 2 h followed by furnace cooling to 50 °C. The strength of the welds decreased slightly, and the elongation of the welds increased after PWHT.

  19. Theme: Teaching Physical Science Applications in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Edward W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "Preparing Teachers to Teach Agriscience" (Osborne); "Physical Sciences and Agriculture" (Buriak); "Using Experiments to Teach Agriculture" (Miller); "Oooh-Ahhh: So That's How It Works!" (Loschen); "Keeping Agriculture in Agriscience" (Moss); "Sharpening Twist Drills" (McHargue, Hood); and "Safety in the Agriscience Laboratory"…

  20. Readership Study of an Agricultural Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ted

    Since the fall of 1957, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station has published a semi-scientific quarterly magazine, "Louisiana Agriculture," to present information on the station's research to Louisiana citizens, particularly public officials, members of the agribusiness sector, science-oriented farmers, agriculture and science teachers, and…

  1. Overview of the SAE G-11 RMSL (Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability, and Logistics) Division Activities and Technical Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Surendra N.

    2003-01-01

    The SAE G-11 RMSL (Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability, and Logistics) Division activities include identification and fulfillment of joint industry, government, and academia needs for development and implementation of RMSL technologies. Four Projects in the Probabilistic Methods area and two in the area of RMSL have been identified. These are: (1) Evaluation of Probabilistic Technology - progress has been made toward the selection of probabilistic application cases. Future effort will focus on assessment of multiple probabilistic softwares in solving selected engineering problems using probabilistic methods. Relevance to Industry & Government - Case studies of typical problems encountering uncertainties, results of solutions to these problems run by different codes, and recommendations on which code is applicable for what problems; (2) Probabilistic Input Preparation - progress has been made in identifying problem cases such as those with no data, little data and sufficient data. Future effort will focus on developing guidelines for preparing input for probabilistic analysis, especially with no or little data. Relevance to Industry & Government - Too often, we get bogged down thinking we need a lot of data before we can quantify uncertainties. Not True. There are ways to do credible probabilistic analysis with little data; (3) Probabilistic Reliability - probabilistic reliability literature search has been completed along with what differentiates it from statistical reliability. Work on computation of reliability based on quantification of uncertainties in primitive variables is in progress. Relevance to Industry & Government - Correct reliability computations both at the component and system level are needed so one can design an item based on its expected usage and life span; (4) Real World Applications of Probabilistic Methods (PM) - A draft of volume 1 comprising aerospace applications has been released. Volume 2, a compilation of real world

  2. Coincident Resection at Both Ends of Random, γ–Induced Double-Strand Breaks Requires MRX (MRN), Sae2 (Ctp1), and Mre11-Nuclease

    PubMed Central

    Westmoreland, James W.; Resnick, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Resection is an early step in homology-directed recombinational repair (HDRR) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Resection enables strand invasion as well as reannealing following DNA synthesis across a DSB to assure efficient HDRR. While resection of only one end could result in genome instability, it has not been feasible to address events at both ends of a DSB, or to distinguish 1- versus 2-end resections at random, radiation-induced “dirty” DSBs or even enzyme-induced “clean” DSBs. Previously, we quantitatively addressed resection and the role of Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 complex (MRX) at random DSBs in circular chromosomes within budding yeast based on reduced pulsed-field gel electrophoretic mobility (“PFGE-shift”). Here, we extend PFGE analysis to a second dimension and demonstrate unique patterns associated with 0-, 1-, and 2-end resections at DSBs, providing opportunities to examine coincidence of resection. In G2-arrested WT, Δrad51 and Δrad52 cells deficient in late stages of HDRR, resection occurs at both ends of γ-DSBs. However, for radiation-induced and I-SceI-induced DSBs, 1-end resections predominate in MRX (MRN) null mutants with or without Ku70. Surprisingly, Sae2 (Ctp1/CtIP) and Mre11 nuclease-deficient mutants have similar responses, although there is less impact on repair. Thus, we provide direct molecular characterization of coincident resection at random, radiation-induced DSBs and show that rapid and coincident initiation of resection at γ-DSBs requires MRX, Sae2 protein, and Mre11 nuclease. Structural features of MRX complex are consistent with coincident resection being due to an ability to interact with both DSB ends to directly coordinate resection. Interestingly, coincident resection at clean I-SceI-induced breaks is much less dependent on Mre11 nuclease or Sae2, contrary to a strong dependence on MRX complex, suggesting different roles for these functions at “dirty” and clean DSB ends. These approaches apply to resection at

  3. The Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Alavanja, M C; Sandler, D P; McMaster, S B; Zahm, S H; McDonnell, C J; Lynch, C F; Pennybacker, M; Rothman, N; Dosemeci, M; Bond, A E; Blair, A

    1996-01-01

    The Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort study has been initiated in North Carolina and Iowa. The objectives of this study are to: 1) identify and quantify cancer risks among men, women, whites, and minorities associated with direct exposure to pesticides and other agricultural agents; 2) evaluate noncancer health risks including neurotoxicity reproductive effects, immunologic effects, nonmalignant respiratory disease, kidney disease, and growth and development among children; 3) evaluate disease risks among spouses and children of farmers that may arise from direct contact with pesticides and agricultural chemicals used in the home lawns and gardens, and from indirect contact, such as spray drift, laundering work clothes, or contaminated food or water; 4) assess current and past occupational and nonoccupational agricultural exposures using periodic interviews and environmental and biologic monitoring; 5) study the relationship between agricultural exposures, biomarkers of exposure, biologic effect, and genetic susceptibility factors relevant to carcinogenesis; and 6) identify and quantify cancer and other disease risks associated with lifestyle factors such as diet, cooking practices, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and hair dye use. In the first year of a 3-year enrollment period, 26,235 people have been enrolled in the study, including 19,776 registered pesticide applicators and 6,459 spouses of registered farmer applicators. It is estimated that when the total cohort is assembled in 1997 it will include approximately 75,000 adult study subjects. Farmers, the largest group of registered pesticide applicators comprise 77% of the target population enrolled in the study. This experience compares favorably with enrollment rates of previous prospective studies. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8732939

  4. Overview of Future of Probabilistic Methods and RMSL Technology and the Probabilistic Methods Education Initiative for the US Army at the SAE G-11 Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Surendra N.

    2003-01-01

    The SAE G-11 RMSL Division and Probabilistic Methods Committee meeting sponsored by the Picatinny Arsenal during March 1-3, 2004 at Westin Morristown, will report progress on projects for probabilistic assessment of Army system and launch an initiative for probabilistic education. The meeting features several Army and industry Senior executives and Ivy League Professor to provide an industry/government/academia forum to review RMSL technology; reliability and probabilistic technology; reliability-based design methods; software reliability; and maintainability standards. With over 100 members including members with national/international standing, the mission of the G-11s Probabilistic Methods Committee is to enable/facilitate rapid deployment of probabilistic technology to enhance the competitiveness of our industries by better, faster, greener, smarter, affordable and reliable product development.

  5. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  6. Secondary Agriculture Student Awareness of International Agriculture and Factors Influencing Student Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbstreit, Steven R.; Welton, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses from 1,008 of 1,398 secondary agricultural students in Kansas found (1) limited awareness of international agricultural products and policy, geography, and other cultures; and (2) awareness increased among students with higher grades, longer time in agricultural programs, or involvement in supervised occupational experience. (SK)

  7. Continuous monitoring of surface CO2 flux and soil gas concentrations in an agricultural soil under the snow cover manipulation experiment in Hokkaido, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, S.; Yanai, Y.; Nagata, O.; Iwata, Y.; Hirota, T.

    2010-12-01

    In the eastern part of Hokkaido, northern Japan, a timing of snow fall has been getting earlier and soil-frost depth has been decreasing in agricultural land year by year since late 1980. It is reported that the significant decrease in frost depths was due to the early development of snow cover that insulates ground from cold. Agricultural land is usually managed by human operations and so there is a possibility of controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is therefore important how snow and soil frost influence the dynamics of GHGs. CO2 is one of the main GHGs. We continuously and automatically observed CO2 flux above soil or snow surface and CO2 concentration in soil at 10 cm depth, using automatically controlled chambers and CO2 sensors over agricultural land at Sapporo site (141°25’E, 43°05’N) in northern Japan. Observations were conducted from 25 September 2009 to 31 May 2010, with occasional manual observations. We prepared two experimental plots, an untreated control and a snow cover removal plot, to evaluate the influence of soil-frost and snow depth on CO2 dynamics. Acquired automatic data in CO2 flux and soil gas CO2 concentration generally have diurnal variations which had a positive peak in the daytime as affected by soil temperature, except winter period. Rainfall increased CO2 flux and soil gas CO2 concentration. During soil freezing and snow covered period, few CO2 flux was observed. Soil gas CO2 concentration had been increasing during soil freezing period. After soil thawing, CO2 flux had increased and CO2 concentration had decreased temporarily. These phenomena being seen regardless of soil temperature, supportred that snow and soil-frost layer prevent gas diffusion to the air. The gas diffusion coefficient calculated from CO2 flux and soil gas CO2 concentration during soil gas CO2 concentration had been increasing during soil freezing period, was less than about one order of magnitudes of those in other periods. Temperature response

  8. Phosphorus dynamics in Swedish agricultural soils as influenced by fertilization and mineralogical properties: Insights gained from batch experiments and XANES spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ann Kristin; Hesterberg, Dean; Klysubun, Wantana; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2016-10-01

    The soil chemistry of phosphorus (P) is important for understanding the processes governing plant availability as well as the risk of environmental losses of P. The objective of this research was to investigate both the speciation and the pH-dependent solubility patterns of P in clayey agricultural soils in relation to soil mineralogy and fertilization history. The study focused on soil samples from six fields that were subjected to different P fertilization regimes for periods of 45 to 57years. Soil P speciation was analyzed by P K-edge XANES spectroscopy and chemical fractionation, sorption isotherms were constructed, and dissolved P was measured as a function of pH. The XANES fitting results showed that organic P and P adsorbed to Fe and Al (hydr)oxides were common P constituents in all soils. Calcium phosphates were identified in five of six soil samples. The XANES results also indicated an increase in P adsorbed to Al and to a lesser extent Fe (hydr)oxides as a result of fertilization. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity from the P K-edge XANES analysis was most strongly correlated with HCl-digestible P (r=0.81***). Consistent with the XANES analysis, laboratory sorption isotherm models showed that the Freundlich sorption coefficient (KF) was most closely related to oxalate-extractable Al. Greater proportions of Ca phosphate in two of the heavily fertilized soils in combination with enhanced PO4 solubilization upon sample acidification indicated neoformation of Ca-phosphate precipitates. The results for the unfertilized soil samples generally showed a minimum in dissolved PO4 between pH6.5 and 7.5, with increases particularly at lower pH. This behavior can be explained either by the dissolution of Al-hydroxide-type sorbents or Ca phosphates at lower pH. In fertilized soils, there was no consistent trend in pH-dependent solubilization of P, with a complex relationship to solid-phase speciation. To conclude, inorganic P species changed most dynamically in

  9. Revising the Depreciation and Investment Credit Lessons for Farm Management and Supervised Occupational Experience for Use in Missouri Programs of Vocational Agriculture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbach, Norman; And Others

    This project developed four lessons that reflect the 1981 tax laws as they relate to the use of investment credit and depreciation in farm accounting systems. Project staff reviewed tax laws and related materials and identified four lessons in farm management and supervised occupational experience that needed revision. Materials were then…

  10. Teaching Practice Experience for Undergraduate Student Teachers: A Case Study of the Department of Education at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msangya, Benedicto William; Mkoma, Stelyus L.; Yihuan, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Education is the key to development; however, it is impossible to think the quality of education without having academically qualified and professional responsible teachers. The main objective of this study was to examine the perspectives of undergraduate student teachers toward teaching practice experience as a tool of learning to teach. A…

  11. Agricultural Record Keeping. Instructor Key and Supplementary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Donna

    This teaching manual is designed to help students with special needs learn and apply recordkeeping skills in agriculture. The material applies specifically to recordkeeping for a supervised agricultural experience program. The units presented here supplement the curriculum guide, "Developing Programs of Supervised Agricultural Experience." The…

  12. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  13. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  14. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

  15. Agricultural Education Curriculum Guide. Agricultural Production and Management I. Course No. 6811. Agricultural Production and Management II. Course No. 6812.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This document is designed for use by teachers of Agricultural Production and Management courses in North Carolina. It updates the competencies and content outlines from the previous guide. It lists core and optional competencies for two courses in seven areas as follows: leadership; supervised agricultural experience programs; animal science;…

  16. Factors Identified When Selecting a Major in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Malissia; Torres, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural education majors at New Mexico State University (n=115) rated prior agricultural experiences as the most influential factor in their selection of a major. Department/college environment, professional role models, and job prospects were also influential. (SK)

  17. Evolution of organic matter fractions after application of co-compost of sewage sludge with pruning waste to four Mediterranean agricultural soils. A soil microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lomas, A L; Delgado, G; Párraga, J; Delgado, R; Almendros, G; Aranda, V

    2010-10-01

    The effect of co-compost application from sewage sludge and pruning waste, on quality and quantity of soil organic carbon (SOC) in four Mediterranean agricultural soils (South Spain), was studied in soil microcosm conditions. Control soil samples (no co-compost addition) and soils treated with co-composts to a rate equivalent of 140 Mg ha(-1) were incubated for 90 days at two temperatures: 5 and 35 degrees C. The significances of incubation temperature and the addition of co-compost, on the evolution of the different fractions of SOC, were studied using a 2(3) factorial design. The co-compost amendment increased the amounts of humic fractions: humic acids (HA) (1.9 times), fulvic acids (FA) (3.3 times), humin (1.5 times), as well as the free organic matter (1.4 times) and free lipids (21.8 times). Incubation of the soils enhanced its biological activity mainly in the amended soils and at 35 degrees C, leading to progressive SOC mineralization and humification, concomitant to the preferential accumulation of HA. The incubation results show large differences depending on temperature and soil types. This fact allows us to select suitable organic amendment for the soil when a rapid increase in nutrients through mineralization is preferred, or in cases intending the stabilization and preservation of the SOC through a process of humification. In soils with HA of more than 5 E(4)/E(6) ratio, the incubation temperature increased rates of mineralization and humification, whereas lower temperatures limited the extent of both processes. In these soils the addition of co-compost in spring or summer is the most recommendable. In soils with HA of lower E(4)/E(6) ratio (<5), the higher temperature favoured mineralization but not humification, whereas the low temperature maintained the SOC levels and even increased the HA/FA ratio. In these soils the moment of addition of organic amendment should be decided depending on the effect intended. On the other hand, the lower the SOC

  18. Educating Children of Colorado's Agricultural Laborers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, George N.

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses potential remedies for three major issues that prevent seasonal agricultural workers from maintaining the kind of working and living conditions which lead to cohesive cumulative social experience: undocumented workers; worsening living and working environments; and societal attitudes regarding agricultural labor and its…

  19. Field and microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of agricultural Cu treatment on the density and genetic structure of microbial communities in two different soils.

    PubMed

    Ranjard, Lionel; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Nowak, Virginie; Lejon, David P H; Nouaïm, Rachida; Chaussod, Rémi

    2006-11-01

    The effects of Cu amendment on indigenous soil microorganisms were investigated in two soils, a calcareous silty clay (Ep) and a sandy soil (Au), by means of a 1-year field experiment and a two-month microcosm incubation. Cu was added as 'Bordeaux mixture' [CuSO(4), Ca(OH)(2)] at the standard rate used in viticulture (B1=16 kg Cu kg(-1) soil) and at a higher level of contamination (B3=48 kg Cu ha(-1) soil). More extractable Cu was observed in sandy soil (Au) than in silty soil (Ep). Furthermore, total Cu and Cu-EDTA declined with time in Au soil, whereas they remained stable in Ep soil. Quantitative modifications of the microflora were assessed by C-biomass measurements and qualitative modifications were assessed by the characterization of the genetic structure of bacterial and fungal communities from DNA directly extracted from the soil, using B- and F-ARISA (bacterial and fungal automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis). In the field study, no significant modifications were observed in C-biomass whereas microcosm incubation showed a decrease in B3 contamination only. ARISA fingerprinting showed slight but significant modifications of bacterial and fungal communities in field and microcosm incubation. These modifications were transient in all cases, suggesting a short-term effect of Cu stress. Microcosm experiments detected the microbial community modifications with greater precision in the short-term, while field experiments showed that the biological effects of Cu contamination may be overcome or hidden by pedo-climatic variations. PMID:17064271

  20. Error Propagation Analysis in the SAE Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) and the EDICT Tool Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaValley, Brian W.; Little, Phillip D.; Walter, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the capabilities of the EDICT tools for error modeling and error propagation analysis when operating with models defined in the Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL). We discuss our experience using the EDICT error analysis capabilities on a model of the Scalable Processor-Independent Design for Enhanced Reliability (SPIDER) architecture that uses the Reliable Optical Bus (ROBUS). Based on these experiences we draw some initial conclusions about model based design techniques for error modeling and analysis of highly reliable computing architectures.

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 24: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SAE mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

  2. The cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviour of the low carbon steel SAE 1045 in the temperature regime of dynamic strain aging

    SciTech Connect

    Weisse, M.; Wamukwamba, C.K.; Christ, H.J.; Mughrabi, H. . Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaften)

    1993-07-01

    The cyclic deformation behaviour of normalized SAE 1045 steel (german steel grade Ck 45) had been investigated over a range of temperatures between 20 and 375C. Special attention has been paid to the effects of dynamic strain aging, which are most pronounced around 300C. Different types of deformation tests (tension tests, incremental step tests, and constant amplitude cyclic deformation tests under stress control with a stress amplitude of 400 MPa as well as under plastic strain control with a plastic strain amplitude of 0.5%) were carried out to observe the influence of temperature on the macroscopic mechanical behaviour. These tests were followed by TEM studies on microstructural features. In the temperature range of maximum dynamic strain aging, the material was found to show maximum strength in unidirectional as well as in cyclic deformation tests. While the fatigue life is maximum at the temperature of maximum dynamic strain aging in stress-controlled tests, it is minimum in plastic strain controlled tests. At the temperature of maximum dynamic strain aging around 300C, the dislocations are arranged in dense dislocation tangles and parallel dislocation walls, whereas at room and at higher temperatures (375C) mainly dislocation cell structures are observed.

  3. Electrochemical evaluation of the corrosion behaviour for structural steel SAE 1005 exposed to two different atmospheres (urban and industrial) and comparison with atmospheric corrosion gravimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Y.; Guerrero, L.; Castiblanco, H.; Torres, C.; Palacios, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Atmospheric corrosion is a phenomenon we see every day in our environment that arises due to environmental pollution we generate, there is currently very little information on atmospheric corrosion in the department of Boyacá and in general, in Colombia. The aim of this paper is to analyse which of these two environments is more aggressive and wherein the steel corrodes faster. To analyse these phenomenon specimens made in steel SAE 105 exposed for five months to the atmosphere in the municipalities of Tunja and Nobsa (an urban atmosphere and other industrial atmosphere) were installed, a control was carried to verify the amount of time that will be exposed each of these samples to the atmosphere, of Thus it may determine the lifetime of a structural steel. For the analysis of these samples electrochemical tests were carried out to calculate the rate of corrosion and resistance to polarization, also the gravimetric method be conducted to compare what was the amount of mass lost during the time of exposure to each of the samples.

  4. Sustainable agriculture and nitrogen reduction: an open field experiment using natural zeolitites in silty-clay reclaimed soil at Codigoro (Po River Delta, Ferrara, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccini, Barbara; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Mastrocicco, Micòl; Coltorti, Massimo; Colombani, Nicolò; Ferretti, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    Following the guidelines of Nitrate and Water Framework Directives (91/676/CEE, 200/60/CE) an innovative integrated zeolitite cycle is being tested on a reclaimed clayey-silt soil in the Po Delta area (Ferrara Province, Italy), in the framework of the EU-funded ZeoLIFE project (LIFE+10 ENV/IT/000321). Natural zeolitites are pyroclastic rocks containing more than 50% of zeolites, a kind of hydrous minerals with peculiar physical and chemical properties, like high and selective cation exchange capacity (CEC), molecular adsorption and reversible dehydration. Zeolitites can trap NH4+ from solutions and release it gradually to the plant roots once they have been mixed in agricultural soils, allowing both fertilization and irrigation reduction and improvement of the yield. The fertilization reduction can result in a decrease of the nitrate content in groundwater and surface waters, ultimately leading to a mitigation of nutrient excess in the environment. Similarly, reduction of irrigation water means a minor exploitation of the water resource. The selected material used in the project is a chabazite zeolitite coming from a quarry near Sorano in Central Italy (Bolsena volcanic district). The open-field experimentation foresees two year of cultivation. A surface of about 6 ha has been divided into six parcels: three control parcels are cultivated and irrigated in traditional way; two parcels have been added with coarse-grained (ø = 3- 6 mm) natural zeolitite at different zeolitite/soil ratios (5 kg/m2 and 15 kg/m2) and one has been mixed with fine-grained (ø < 3 mm) NH4+-charged zeolitite at 10 kg/m2. Zeolitite/soil ratios have been determined upon a series of greenhouse tests, and the ammonium enriched material is obtained by cation exchange with swine manure in a specifically conceived prototype. The environmental quality of soil and water in each parcel is monitored by periodic soil, groundwater and porewater analyses. Soil EC, temperature and volumetric water content

  5. Agricultural Aircraft for Site-Specific Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a convenient platform to aid in precision agriculture, in which pesticide, fertilizer or other field inputs are applied only where they are needed. This saves on chemical and farm resources, and reduces environmental loading. Remote sensing is used to spot areas of the ...

  6. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  7. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  8. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

  9. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    capable of feeding a growing population safeguard both soil fertility and the soil itself? Although the experiences of past societies provide ample historical basis for concern about the long-term prospects for soil conservation, data compiled from recent studies indicate that no-till farming could reduce erosion to levels close to soil production rates. Consequently, agricultural production need not necessarily come at the expense of either soil fertility or the soil itself, even if recent proposals to rely on conventionally grown corn for biofuels exemplify how short-term social and economic trade-offs can de-prioritize soil conservation. Like the issues of climate change and loss of biodiversity, the ongoing global degradation and loss of soil presents a fundamental social challenge in which the slow pace of environmental change counter-intuitively makes solutions all the more difficult to adopt.

  10. Biotechnology Enters Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Points out that the agriculture industry is changing and that vocational agriculture students must learn more science than before to be prepared. Iowa formed groups of educators and business representatives to advise on which curricula should be funded. (JOW)

  11. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  12. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  13. GUIDELINES FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    AREAS OF TRAINING WHICH ARE OFFERED IN THE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENTS OF MARYLAND ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. AGRICULTURE TEACHERS AND ADVISORY GROUPS MAY SELECT AREAS OF TRAINING FROM THE TOPICAL OUTLINE OR ADD NEW AREAS AS NEEDED IN THE LOCAL INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM. PHILOSOPHY, SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES, GROUPS SERVED, AGRICULTURAL TRENDS…

  14. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  15. Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.

    Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…

  16. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  17. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  18. Dutch Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hauge.

    Agricultural Education in the Netherlands is categorized as Scientific, Higher Secondary, Middle Secondary, and Lower Secondary. Scientific education is given at the agricultural university which has a 6- or 7-year curriculum. Higher secondary education is given at agricultural and horticultural colleges with a 3- to 4-year curriculum. Middle…

  19. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  20. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  1. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  2. Water Depletion Threatens Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B. D.; Postel, S.; Floerke, M.; Malsy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the human activity that has by far the largest impact on water, constituting 85% of global water consumption and 67% of global water withdrawals. Much of this water use occurs in places where water depletion, the ratio of water consumption to water availability, exceeds 75% for at least one month of the year. Although only 17% of global watershed area experiences depletion at this level or more, nearly 30% of total cropland and 60% of irrigated cropland are found in these depleted watersheds. Staple crops are particularly at risk, with 75% of global irrigated wheat production and 65% of irrigated maize production found in watersheds that are at least seasonally depleted. Of importance to textile production, 75% of cotton production occurs in the same watersheds. For crop production in depleted watersheds, we find that one half to two-thirds of production occurs in watersheds that have not just seasonal but annual water shortages, suggesting that re-distributing water supply over the course of the year cannot be an effective solution to shortage. We explore the degree to which irrigated production in depleted watersheds reflects limitations in supply, a byproduct of the need for irrigation in perennially or seasonally dry landscapes, and identify heavy irrigation consumption that leads to watershed depletion in more humid climates. For watersheds that are not depleted, we evaluate the potential impact of an increase in irrigated production. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of irrigated agriculture in depleted and non-depleted watersheds, quantifying the fraction of irrigated production going to food production, animal feed, and biofuels.

  3. A Model for Agricultural Education in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Matthew; Barrick, R. Kirby

    1993-01-01

    A model for public school agricultural education is based on changes in the agriculture industry, student population, society, education, and the workplace. Its three components are classroom/lab instruction, application (supervised agricultural experience and Future Farmers of America), and employment/additional education and career (including…

  4. Two Year Core Curriculum for Agricultural Education in Montana. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This core curriculum consists of materials for use in conducting a two-year secondary level agricultural education course. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: leadership; agricultural career planning; supervised occupational experience programs (SOEPs); agricultural mechanics (shop management and safety,…

  5. An Investigation into the Prestige Structure of Agricultural Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Lianne Melody

    Using a mailed questionnaire, 2,392 undergraduate agriculture majors in 14 Southern universities were surveyed to determine how they would rate a set of agricultural and agriculturally-related occupations and whether their sex and past farming experience were responsible for divergent responses. Questionnaire items and scaling techniques closely…

  6. Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

  7. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  8. Making agriculture greener.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta

    2015-01-01

    The application of sewage sludge has been a worldwide agricultural practice for many years. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sewage sludge (Ss) has on the physiological parameters of maize (Zea mays L cvs. PR37NO1). 2 g dm(-3) and 4 g dm(-3) of sewage sludge were examined in hydroponic experiment. Some metal contents (Al, Cr, Mn, Na, Zn) in the shoots and roots of maize were taken. Living bacteria containing fertilizers (LBCF) were examined on how the treatments modify heavy metal uptakes. Dry matter accumulations in shoots and roots, length of shoots and roots of maize were measured. Chlorophyll contents were determined by using spectrophotometer methods. The dry matter accumulation and length of shoots decreased, the dry matter of roots increased in all of the treatments compared to the nutrient solution without treatment (control). Increased chlorophyll a, b and carotene contents were observed at 4 g dm(-3) Ss and 4 g dm(-3) Ss + bio fertilizer treatments. PMID:26591878

  9. Vocational Agriculture Education: Agricultural Livestock Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Greg

    Ten units of instruction are provided in this curriculum guide on agricultural livestock skills. Unit topics are as follow: (1) restraining, (2) vaccination, (3) livestock castration, (4) dehorning, (5) docking, (6) growth stimulants, (7) identification, (8) shearing, (9) hoof trimming, and (10) birth assistance. Each instructional unit generally…

  10. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  11. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE RECORD BOOK FOR PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    FORMS ARE PROVIDED FOR RECORDING FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT SUPERVISED FARM PROGRAM ENTERPRISES BY INDIVIDUAL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS. THE BOOK IS DESIGNED ON AN ENTERPRISE BASIS AND PROVIDES SPACE FOR AGREEMENTS, INVENTORIES, EXPENSES, INCOME, SUMMARIES, AND ANALYSES. ASSISTANCE FOR TEACHERS USING THIS RECORD BOOK IS AVAILABLE IN "GUIDE…

  12. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  13. 42 CFR 73.13 - Restricted experiments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Restricted experiments: (1) Experiments utilizing recombinant DNA that involve the deliberate transfer of a... agriculture. (2) Experiments involving the deliberate formation of recombinant DNA containing genes for...

  14. 42 CFR 73.13 - Restricted experiments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Restricted experiments: (1) Experiments utilizing recombinant DNA that involve the deliberate transfer of a... agriculture. (2) Experiments involving the deliberate formation of recombinant DNA containing genes for...

  15. 42 CFR 73.13 - Restricted experiments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Restricted experiments: (1) Experiments utilizing recombinant DNA that involve the deliberate transfer of a... agriculture. (2) Experiments involving the deliberate formation of recombinant DNA containing genes for...

  16. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...

  17. Personal Achievement Reading: Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozeboom, Deborah A.

    Exercises are provided in a set of five workbooks designed to aid students in agricultural programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from terminology of agriculture to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on the ability to determine word…

  18. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  19. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  20. Agriculture in the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...

  1. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  2. Vocational Agriculture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

    These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

  3. Ecological Models: Agricultural Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural research community is faced with a wide array of complex problems to solve. Continued population increases in developing countries require increased agricultural production, while agroecosystems are being stressed and negatively impacted by greater use of water and agrochemicals. F...

  4. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  5. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  6. Agricultural lung disease.

    PubMed

    Spurzem, John R; Romberger, Debra J; Von Essen, Susanna G

    2002-12-01

    Agricultural work is associated with high rates of injury, disability, and illness. Agricultural workers are at increased risk for a variety of illnesses including respiratory disorders, dermatologic conditions, and cancer. The recognition of ODTS led to increased understanding of acute illness in farmers and grain workers. Previously, many cases of acute illness were probably erroneously called farmer's lung. The same agents that are responsible for ODTS are responsible for the high prevalence of bronchitis in certain agricultural workers. The recent description of the innate immune system is very exciting because it will lead to increased understanding of the pathogenesis of organic dust induced disorders. PMID:12512166

  7. An Urban Agricultural Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Parker V.

    1974-01-01

    A program of Agricultural Education (primarily horticulture) was started in the San Diego, California school district in 1967. The philosophy behind the program, the growth in terms of students involved, and the structural framework of the program are outlined. (KP)

  8. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  9. Agricultural chemistry and bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in converting biomass to biofuels such as ethanol, other forms of bioenergy, and bioenergy byproducts or coproducts of commercial value opens opportunities for chemists, including agricultural chemists and related disciplines. Applications include feedstock characterization and quan...

  10. Department of Agriculture

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel and Recreation USDA for Kids Programs and ... and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency News Releases ...

  11. Agricultural Research Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quality Review Office of Technology Transfer National Program Research Areas Animal Production and Protection Crop Production and Protection Natural Resources and Sustainable Agricultural Systems Nutrition, Food Safety, and Quality Overseas ...

  12. The Agriculture Grants Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogmann, David W.; Key, Joe

    1981-01-01

    Reviews historical background surrounding the origins of the Competitive Research Grants Office, established in 1978 to support basic research related to agriculture. Describes current controversy within the legislature which threatens its existence. (CS)

  13. GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

  14. Toward a Sustainable Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Future trends in population growth, energy use, climate change, and globalization will challenge agriculturists to develop innovative production systems that are highly productive and environmentally sound. Furthermore, future agricultural production systems must possess an inherent capacity to adap...

  15. Teacher Characteristics Explaining the Extent of Agricultural Awareness Activities Integrated into the Elementary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Neil A.; Martin, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    With usable responses from 281 of 689 Iowa elementary teachers, a multiple linear regression model identified four teacher characteristics (perception of agriculture integration, grade level, agriculture classes, agriculture experience) that accounted for 20% of variance in the number of agriculture awareness activities they conducted. Positive…

  16. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  17. Lunar agriculture in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, S.

    Through the moon' s role in choosing the proper time for planting, harvesting and woodcutting is widely attested in ethnographic reports, the cultural logic and structure of actions by which this celestial body is perceived and used has not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of this paper is to offer such an explanatory framework within which the role of the moon in the agricultural cycle may be explained. My examples of the beliefs about lunar agriculture derive from the Mesoamerican cultural tradition.

  18. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality. PMID:27561384

  19. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics. PMID:23280539

  20. Post-Secondary Education in Agricultural Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Paul E.; Henebry, William J.

    1970-01-01

    Paul Curtis is Lead Instructor in Agriculture and William Henebry is Instructor in Agri-Marketing at Parkland College, Champaign, Illinois. Dr. Curtis holds a Ph.D. in agronomy from the University of Illinois where he conducted research and taught plant breeding and plant physiology. Mr. Henebry, with 23 years of experience as a grain elevator…

  1. Animal Enterprise Record Book. Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This record book is intended for use by agricultural education students who have ownership arrangements in animal enterprise experience programs. A major purpose of this book is to aid in separating out or allocating the costs and returns to a specific enterprise. The financial, labor, and management aspects of each enterprise can then be studied…

  2. Facilities for Agricultural Education Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Agricultural Education Section.

    Expansion of the vocational agriculture program to include education for off-farm agricultural occupations has placed increasing demands on existing facilities for agricultural programs. The facility requirements of the new curriculums are often not met by the existing facilities. Vocational agriculture teachers, state supervisory staff members,…

  3. 76 FR 49291 - Agricultural Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Commission recently promulgated a final rule defining the term ``agricultural commodity.'' See 76 FR 41048... Agricultural Swaps, 76 FR 6095, February 3, 2011. \\8\\ See Agricultural Swaps, 75 FR 59666, Sept. 28, 2010. C... specifically addressing the costs and benefits of the proposed agricultural swaps rules. \\10\\ See NPRM, 76...

  4. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  5. Theme: Changes in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Changes in Agricultural Education in Tennessee" (Byerley, Todd); "Evolving Focus for Agricultural Education Graduates?" (Schlink); "Researching Adult Organizations in Agricultural Education" (Seevers, Dormody); "Past 25 Years" (Klein, Luft); "Agricultural Education" (Sibiga, Mannebach); "Don't Look Back" (Butcher); "Changes in…

  6. Proceedings: Agricultural Technology Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report is a compilation of field trip overviews, presentations and committee reports from the EPRI-ATA meeting held in Boise, Idaho, May 28-30, 1997. The field trips consisted of an Agriculture and Aquaculture Tour, a tour of Idaho as America's Seed Supplier, and a Production of Milk, Cheese and Electricity tour. Presentations and committee reports include the following: (1) Idaho Seed Industry; (2) Controlled Environment Agriculture; (3) Irrigation in the North West: An Overview; (4) Drip Irrigation; (5) Sprinkler Irrigation; (6) Current Status of the ATA; (7) ATA Office Report; (8) Committee Reports; (9) Steering Committee Minutes.

  7. Goryachkin's agricultural mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinenova, Vera

    2016-03-01

    The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868-1935) who was an apprentice of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

  8. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  9. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  10. Agriculture Issues. Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This report is one of a series by the General Accounting Office that summarizes major policy, management, and program issues facing agency heads in the Bush administration. Many concerns have been identified, some new, others long-standing. This report on the Department of Agriculture describes concerns about the following six issues: (1)…

  11. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  12. Vocational Agriculture II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Keith; Steward, Jim

    This curriculum guide was developed for second-year courses in vocational agriculture in Oklahoma. The curriculum contains 5 sections organized in 16 instructional units. The units follow a standard format established in 1970 for development of instructional materials for all Oklahoma vocational teachers. This format includes eight basic…

  13. Agriculture Education. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in ornamental horticulture. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) horticulture and job opportunities, (2) preparing soil mixtures, (3) control, (4) plant propagation, (5) plant…

  14. AGRICULTURAL SIMULATION MODEL (AGSIM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AGSIM is a large-scale econometric simulation model of regional crop and national livestock production in the United States. The model was initially developed to analyze the aggregate economic impacts of a wide variety issues facing agriculture, such as technological change, pest...

  15. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  16. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  17. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  18. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  19. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  20. Metrics for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of agricultural mechanics students, this instructional package is one of four for the agribusiness and natural resources occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  1. [Vibration on agricultural tractors].

    PubMed

    Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed. PMID:24303716

  2. COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL employees at the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, are sharing in a unique community agriculture program that supports EPA environmental goals?off the job as well as on. Every Wednesday afternoon, bags of farm-fresh org...

  3. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  4. Curriculum Guide for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem. Div. of Community Colleges and Career Education.

    Developed through a cooperative effort by industry and education, this curriculum guide outlines the basic knowledge and skills necessary for entry-level competencies in the broad field of agriculture, or for entrance into a post-high school program. This guide is one of several developed for Oregon's new approach to secondary education called…

  5. Teaching Traditional Tropical Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that the teaching of traditional tropical agriculture through the presentation of large numbers of categories or types tends to overemphasize superficial differences at the expense of comprehending the inner essence of life as it exists for the majority of the world's farmers. Offers an alternative approach which claims to foster greater…

  6. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  7. Microcomputer Applications in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenberg, Gene; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist persons teaching a course in microcomputer applications in agriculture. (These applications are designed to be used on Apple IIe or TRS-80 microcomputers.) Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: microcomputer operating procedures; procedures for evaluating and…

  8. Urban conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables are important sources of vitamins and nutrients for human nutrition. United States Department of Agriculture recommends filling half of the food plates with vegetables in every meal. While it is important in promoting good health, access to fresh vegetables is limited especially in urban ...

  9. Agriculture: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 3-year program in agriculture. The guide consists of a course description; general course objectives;…

  10. Women Entering Agriculture: A Study of College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Orville E.; And Others

    A study examined the educational and labor market experiences of female graduates of agricultural programs. During the study, researchers interviewed 95 female and 84 male graduates of agricultural programs at 3 community colleges and 6 universities in California between the years 1977 and 1979. Survey participants were asked to supply various…

  11. Competency-Based Instructional Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberson, Max L.

    1980-01-01

    Agricultural educators will be expected to come closer to identifying specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, and experiences that students develop as a result of teachers' efforts. Making animal agriculture courses competency-based would be a first step towards this end. (LRA)

  12. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  13. How Do Early Career Agriculture Teachers Talk about Their Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Misty D.; Henry, Anna L.; Tummons, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study of early career agriculture teachers sought to determine the meaning early career agriculture teachers ascribe to their time. Seven teachers with a range of experience from mid-first year to beginning of sixth year were chosen. Interviews were used to make meaning of their time. Five themes were found in the…

  14. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    This secondary vocational agricultural curriculum guide is one of a set of four designated as the basic core of instruction for vocational agriculture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in six sections: (1) Orientation and Careers, (2) Leadership, (3) Supervised Experience Programs, (4) Animal Science, (5) Plant and Soil…

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING ACQUISITION AND RETENTION OF LEARNING IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHRISTENSEN, VIRGIL EARL

    A PRETEST, POST-TEST, AND RETENTION TEST OF 481 SOPHOMORE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN 33 WISCONSIN HIGH SCHOOLS OFFERING VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE WERE CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL, HOME-FARM SITUATION, AND STUDENT SUPERVISED FARMING EXPERIENCE DIFFERENCES UPON ACQUIRING AND RETAINING LEARNING IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASSROOMS. EACH…

  16. Agricultural Science Fairs: Are Students Truly Learning from This Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boleman, C. T.; Burrell, F., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A pretest/posttest administered to 480 fourth-graders revealed an increase in correct responses for 9 of 10 questions following participation in an agricultural science fair. Significant increases were related to knowledge of how agriculture affects everyday life. A teacher survey (n=89) indicated that it was a positive learning experience but…

  17. How optics and photonics is simply applied in agriculture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2013-06-01

    This paper highlights based on author's experience how optics and photonics is applied in Thai agriculture. These include spectral imaging based systems and mobile applications that have been implemented in the last 5 years for rice, fishery, and sericulture. Brief review of optics and photonics in agriculture will also be introduced.

  18. Profiling Female Teachers of Agricultural Education at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Billye

    2003-01-01

    Of 1,694 female middle and secondary school agriculture teachers surveyed, 962 responded. Results indicated that women comprise 15% of the agriculture teacher population; a high percentage have fewer than 10 years experience; most have families and work 51.8 hours per week; 81% are very satisfied but 61.7% experienced some gender-related barriers.…

  19. Core IV Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul; And Others

    This core curriculum guide consists of materials for use in presenting a 13-unit vocational agriculture course geared toward high school students living in metropolitan areas. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: employment in agricultural occupations, supervised occupational experience, leadership in…

  20. Climatic Fluctuations and the Diffusion of Agriculture*

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Quamrul; Michalopoulos, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the climatic origins of the diffusion of Neolithic agriculture across countries and archaeological sites. The theory suggests that a foraging society’s history of climatic shocks shaped the timing of its adoption of farming. Specifically, as long as climatic disturbances did not lead to a collapse of the underlying resource base, the rate at which hunter-gatherers were climatically propelled to experiment with their habitats determined the accumulation of tacit knowledge complementary to farming. Consistent with the proposed hypothesis, the empirical investigation demonstrates that, conditional on biogeographic endowments, climatic volatility has a hump-shaped effect on the timing of the adoption of agriculture. PMID:27019534

  1. In-Service Development of Vocational Teachers for Competencies in Non-Farm Agricultural Occupations. Vocational Agriculture Special Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Obed L.; McMinn, J. H.

    In order to help vocational agriculture teachers develop competencies needed in giving instruction in off-farm agricultural occupations, 10 teachers were selected from Mississippi schools to help develop training programs, to conduct a home community survey, and to engage in a work experience program. After completion of their training, each…

  2. Ice nucleation properties of agricultural soil dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, Isabelle; Funk, Roger; Busse, Jacqueline; Iturri, Antonela; Kirchen, Silke; Leue, Martin; Möhler, Ottmar; Schwartz, Thomas; Sierau, Berko; Toprak, Emre; Ulrich, Andreas; Hoose, Corinna; Leisner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil dust particles emitted from agricultural areas contain large amounts of organic material such as fungi, bacteria and plant debris. Being carrier for potentially highly ice-active biological particles, agricultural soil dusts are candidates for being very ice-active as well. In this work, we present ice nucleation experiments conducted in the AIDA cloud chamber. We investigated the ice nucleation efficiency of four types of soil dust from different regions of the world. Results are presented for the immersion freezing and the deposition nucleation mode: all soil dusts show higher ice nucleation efficiencies than desert dusts, especially at temperatures above 254 K. For one soil dust sample, the effect of heat treatments was investigated. Heat treatments did not affect the ice nucleation efficiency which presumably excludes primary biological particles as the only source of the increased ice nucleation efficiency. Therefore, organo-mineral complexes or organic compounds may contribute substantially to the high ice nucleation activity of agricultural soil dusts.

  3. Agriculture and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-07-03

    How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

  4. Effective monitoring of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Likens, Gene E

    2011-06-01

    An opinion piece published in Nature proposed a global network for agricultural monitoring [J. Sachs, R. Remans, S. Smukler, L. Winowiecki, S. J. Andelman, K. G. Cassman, D. Castle, R. DeFries, G. Denning, J. Fanzo, L. E. Jackson, R. Leemans, J. Leemans, J. C. Milder, S. Naeem, G. Nziguheba, C. A. Palm, J. P. Reganold, D. D. Richter, S. J. Scherr, J. Sircely, C. Sullivan, T. P. Tomich and P. A. Sanchez, Nature, 2010, 466, 558-560.]. Whilst we agree with Sachs et al. that monitoring of agricultural systems is a critically important activity of global significance, especially given increasing problems with global food security and the potential impacts of agriculture on the environment [J. Cribb, The Coming Famine. The Global Food Crisis and What We Can Do to Avoid It, CSIRO Publishing and University of California Press, Melbourne and Oakland, 2010.], we argue in this paper that their generic, mandated monitoring framework has a high probability of failure or at best will be highly inefficient. We base this conclusion on our recently published examination of the factors influencing the success or failure of monitoring programs worldwide [D. B. Lindenmayer and G. E. Likens, Effective Ecological Monitoring, CSIRO Publishing and Earthscan, Melbourne and London, 2010.]. We briefly outline what we believe are three serious flaws in the monitoring framework proposed by Sachs et al. We then suggest an alternative approach that we argue would be more effective, more efficient, and have a greater chance of successfully addressing key issues in sustainable agriculture. PMID:21479312

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. PMID:27094336

  6. Agricultural and urban pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  7. Teachers' Use of Agricultural Laboratories in Secondary Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    Trends in the agriculture industry require students to have the ability to solve problems associated with scientific content. Agricultural laboratories are considered a main component of secondary agricultural education, and are well suited to provide students with opportunities to develop problem-solving skills through experiential learning. This…

  8. Agricultural Awareness Days: Integrating Agricultural Partnerships and STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian T.; Wilkinson, Carol A.; Shepherd, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States there is a need to educate young children in science, technology, and agriculture. Through collaboration with many agricultural groups, the Southern Piedmont Agricultural Research and Education Center has set up a program that works with 3rd grade students and teachers to reinforce the science that has been taught in the…

  9. Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

  10. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  11. [Theme: Computers in Agricultural Education.].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leising, James G.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This theme issue on computer applications in agriculture covers uses of computers in farm management and vocational agriculture instruction; strategies for evaluating and purchasing hardware and software; and ideas for improving the computer literacy of teachers and students. (SK)

  12. AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION (AGNPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) model addresses concerns related to the potential impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on surface and groundwater quality (Young et al., 1989). It was designed to quantit...

  13. The Historiography of American Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, R. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Provides secondary school U.S. history teachers with a beginning bibliography for incorporating agricultural history into their classes. Annotates books covering the social, economic, and political aspects of agricultural history. Identifies works dealing with topical matters such as land settlement, slavery, agricultural policy, and the Dust…

  14. Institutional Discrimination in Agricultural Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines history of discrimination within U.S. agricultural programs, specifically in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Compares USDA employment and grant allocations for Blacks and Whites since Civil Rights Act of 1964. Cites other examples of institutional discrimination in federal agriculture programs. Calls for development of policy…

  15. Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald M.; Schumacher, Leon G.

    A study was conducted to determine the laboratory management competencies needed by secondary agriculture instructors. Information was gathered through an initial mailing to all postsecondary, college, and university agricultural mechanics specialists serving on the National Future Farmers of America Agricultural Mechanics Contest Committee,…

  16. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  17. Strategies To Promote Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    The purpose of the agricultural literacy effort has been to produce informed citizens able to participate more fully in the establishment of policies that support a highly competitive agricultural industry in this country and abroad. In their article titled, "Position Statement on Agricultural Literacy," Russell, McCracken, and Miller (1990)…

  18. Reading the Farm-Training Agricultural Professionals in Whole Farm Analysis for Sustainable Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallory, Ellen; White, Charles; Morris, Thomas; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Reading the Farm is a 2- to 3-day professional development program that brings together agricultural service providers from a range of agencies, with various expertise and levels of experience, to explore whole-farm systems and sustainability through in-depth study of two case-study farms. Over 90% of past participants reported that the program…

  19. Separating agricultural and non-agricultural fire seasonality at regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magi, B. I.; Rabin, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Pacala, S.

    2012-08-01

    The timing and length of burning seasons in different parts of the world depend on climate, land-cover characteristics, and human activities. In this study, global burned area estimates are used in conjunction with global gridded distributions of agricultural land-cover types (defined as the sum of cropland and pasture area) to separate the seasonality of agricultural burning practices from that of non-agricultural fire. The results presented in this study show that agricultural and non-agricultural land experience broadly different fire seasonality patterns that are not always linked to climate conditions. We highlight these differences on a regional basis, examining variations in both agricultural land cover and associated cultural practices to help explain our results. While we discuss two land-cover categories, the methods can be generalized to derive seasonality for any number of land uses or cover types. This will be useful as global fire models evolve to be fully interactive with land-use and land-cover change in the next generation of Earth system models.

  20. Separating agricultural and non-agricultural fire seasonality at regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magi, B. I.; Rabin, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Pacala, S.

    2012-05-01

    The timing and length of burning seasons in different parts of the world depend on climate, land cover characteristics, and human activities. In this study, global fire data from satellite-based instruments are used in conjunction with global gridded distributions of agricultural land cover types (defined as the sum of cropland and pasture area) to separate the seasonality of agricultural burning practices from that of non-agricultural fire. The results presented in this study show that agricultural and non-agricultural land experience broadly different fire seasonality patterns that are not always linked to climate conditions. We highlight these differences on a regional basis, examining variations in both agricultural land cover and associated cultural practices to help explain our results. While we discuss two land cover categories, the methods can be generalized to derive seasonality for any number of land uses or cover types. This will be useful as global fire models evolve to be fully interactive with land use and land cover change in the next generation of Earth system models.

  1. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  2. Detecting transition in agricultural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, P. J.; Coiner, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural phenomena has been largely concentrated on analysis of agriculture at the field level. Concern has been to identify crop status, crop condition, and crop distribution, all of which are spatially analyzed on a field-by-field basis. A more general level of abstraction is the agricultural system, or the complex of crops and other land cover that differentiate various agricultural economies. The paper reports on a methodology to assist in the analysis of the landscape elements of agricultural systems with Landsat digital data. The methodology involves tracing periods of photosynthetic activity for a fixed area. Change from one agricultural system to another is detected through shifts in the intensity and periodicity of photosynthetic activity as recorded in the radiometric return to Landsat. The Landsat-derived radiometric indicator of photosynthetic activity appears to provide the ability to differentiate agricultural systems from each other as well as from conterminous natural vegetation.

  3. Beyond conservation agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  4. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  5. Positions Held by Teachers, Teacher Educators, and State Supervisors about Selected National Issues in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutphin, H. Dean; Newcomb, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    Opinions about nine issues were examined: agricultural education's purpose, desired clientele, content, supervised occupational experience (SOE) requirements, types of SOE for production and nonproduction agriculture, Future Farmers of America membership, class instruction in FFA, and title for agricultural programs. The extent of consensus on a…

  6. Determining the Critical Skills Beginning Agriculture Teachers Need to Successfully Teach Welding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Michael L.; Warnick, Brian K.; Meyers, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Using the Delphi technique, agriculture teachers with significant experience teaching welding were asked to help determine the critical skills beginning agriculture teachers need to successfully teach welding. The study's objectives sought to (1) identify the knowledge and technical skill competencies that beginning agriculture teachers need to…

  7. A Mass Media Profile of Agricultural Scientists at Texas A&M University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedrick, William E.

    The way in which agricultural scientists of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station research staff pereive aspects of the uses and importance of the mass media in communicating their research work was surveyed. The profile developed from the 65 responses to the survey shows that agricultural scientists place only moderate importance on mass…

  8. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops. PMID:26785813

  9. 78 FR 23885 - Agricultural Research Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service..., Agricultural Research Service, intends to grant to Headwall Photonics, Inc. of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, an... published Notice, the Agricultural Research Service receives written evidence and argument which...

  10. 75 FR 67345 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural... the United States Trade Representative (USTR), intends to reestablish the Agricultural Policy Advisory... of these committees is to advise the Secretary and USTR concerning agricultural trade policy....

  11. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Papke, Brian L.; Luo, Huimin; West, Brian H.; Qu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standard Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.

  12. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Papke, Brian L.; Luo, Huimin; West, Brian H.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-29

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standardmore » Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.« less

  13. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Papke, Brian L.; Luo, Huimin; West, Brian H.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-29

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standard Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.

  14. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  15. Is rangeland agriculture sustainable?

    PubMed

    Heitschmidt, R K; Vermeire, L T; Grings, E E

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the sustainability of rangeland agriculture (i.e., managed grazing) on a world-wide basis, with a focus on North America. Sustainability is addressed on three fronts: 1) ecological, 2) economic, and 3) social acceptance. Based on previous and on-going research, we suggest that employment of science-based rangeland grazing management strategies and tactics can ensure ecological sustainability. The formidable challenge in employing such technology centers around the need to balance efficiency of solar energy capture and subsequent harvest efficiencies across an array of highly spatially and temporally variable vegetation growing conditions using animals that graze selectively. Failure to meet this fundamental challenge often accelerates rangeland desertification processes, and in some instances, enhances rate and extent of the invasion of noxious weeds. We also suggest that the fundamental reason that ecologically sound grazing management technologies are often not employed in the management of grazed ecological systems is because social values drive management decisions more so than ecological science issues. This is true in both well-developed societies with substantial economic resources and in less-developed societies with few economic resources. However, the social issues driving management are often entirely different, ranging from multiple-use issues in developed countries to human day-to-day survival issues in poorly developed countries. We conclude that the long-term sustainability of rangeland agriculture in 1) developed societies depends on the ability of rangeland agriculturalists to continually respond in a dynamic, positive, proactive manner to ever-changing social values and 2) less-developed societies on their ability to address the ecological and social consequences arising from unsustainable human populations before the adoption of science-based sustainable rangeland management technologies. PMID:15471792

  16. Comparison of Online Agricultural Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; Patterson, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Outlines major online agricultural information services--agricultural databases, databases with agricultural services, educational databases in agriculture--noting services provided, access to the database, and costs. Benefits of online agricultural database sources (availability of agricultural marketing, weather, commodity prices, management…

  17. Nastran's Application in Agricultural Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwicklen, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Finite element analysis has been recognized as a valuable solution method by agricultural engineers. NASTRAN has been obtained by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Georgia. The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer has been used in the teaching program for an undergraduate course in heat transfer and will be used for a new graduate course in finite element analysis. The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer has also been applied to several research problems in the Agricultural Engineering Department.

  18. Food and Agriculture Organization: A Clearinghouse for Agricultural Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joling, Carole

    1989-01-01

    Describes the functions of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which is an international clearinghouse for agricultural information. The discussion focuses on the information formats provided by the agency and the dissemination channels used for FAO information. Lists of finding aids for FAO materials and libraries…

  19. Agricultural Production. An Administrative Guide for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This basic instructional guide for an agricultural production program is one in a series of such guides for agricultural education. It is useful in developing and selecting instructional material and implementing competency-based education for a program directed toward helping students to become proficient in animal, plant, and soil sciences and…

  20. Herbicide and cover crop residue integration for amaranth control in conservation agriculture cotton and implications for resistance management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture practices are threatened by glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Integrated practices including PRE herbicides and high-residue conservation agriculture systems may decrease Amaranth emergence. Field experiments were conducted from autumn 2006 through cash crop harvest in...

  1. Teaching international animal agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lukefahr, S D

    1999-11-01

    Students who major in animal science at U.S. institutions are generally exposed to a curriculum that emphasizes commercial, large-scale production of the few traditional food animals: cattle, poultry, sheep, and swine. Globally, most farmers live in lesser-developed countries under limited-resource conditions of land, feed supplies, equipment, and capital. The promotion of commercial animal production enterprises may not be appropriate for such farms because it can subject farmers to considerable economic risk. Rather, use of limited numbers of large livestock, locally adapted breeds, or smaller livestock (e.g., ducks, goats, guinea pigs, and rabbits) may be more appropriate under subsistence, integrated farming systems. In this global context, a course in international animal agriculture has been taught for 15 yr to undergraduate and graduate students. The course consists of a review of traditional and potential livestock species well suited for impoverished families on small farms and methods to implement sustainable livestock projects, including feasibility, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation stages. To enhance student understanding, global food issues and challenges are illustrated with case studies. A term paper is also assigned for which students choose three suitable livestock species or local breeds that would be complementary on a small crop farm (< 5 ha). Daily dietary requirements of protein and energy per family member are calculated. Itemized enterprise budgets and production tables are prepared. Early in the course, the general consensus of students was that people who are malnourished and live in poverty have low personal ambition and motivation, and that their problems should be amenable to solution by application of American technology and expertise. The course modifies such attitudes and enhances a student's critical thinking and problem-solving abilities and communication skills. Course evaluations indicated that students believed

  2. Agricultural Aircraft Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Farmers are increasingly turning to aerial applications of pesticides, fertilizers and other materials. Sometimes uneven distribution of the chemicals is caused by worn nozzles, improper alignment of spray nozzles or system leaks. If this happens, job must be redone with added expense to both the pilot and customer. Traditional pattern analysis techniques take days or weeks. Utilizing NASA's wind tunnel and computer validation technology, Dr. Roth, Oklahoma State University (OSU), developed a system for providing answers within minutes. Called the Rapid Distribution Pattern Evaluation System, the OSU system consists of a 100-foot measurement frame tied in to computerized analysis and readout equipment. System is mobile, delivered by trailer to airfields in agricultural areas where OSU conducts educational "fly-ins." A fly-in typically draws 50 to 100 aerial applicators, researchers, chemical suppliers and regulatory officials. An applicator can have his spray pattern checked. A computerized readout, available in five to 12 minutes, provides information for correcting shortcomings in the distribution pattern.

  3. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  4. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  5. Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

  6. Job Prospects for Agricultural Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the career outlook for agricultural engineers. Explains that the number of bachelor degrees awarded yearly continues to drop, and that the traditional industries that hire agricultural engineers are employing fewer each year. Suggests that future opportunities exist in the areas of information technology, biotechnology, and research. (TW)

  7. Shifting Patterns of Agricultural Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although monocultural cropping systems can provide the greatest yield efficiency in the short term, more diverse agricultural landscapes may contribute multiple ecosystem benefits. The USDA's Cropland Data Layer provides a yearly map of the agricultural lands of the continental United States broken ...

  8. Biotechnology in Agriculture. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Dennis R.; Rehberger, Thomas

    This curriculum guide is designed to help teachers to present a course that emphasizes the interrelationship of science and technology and the impact of this technology on agriculture and agricultural products. The guide contains six units that each contain some or all of the following basic components of a unit of instruction: objective sheet,…

  9. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

  10. MARYLAND AGRICULTURE AND YOUR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory



    Using primarily 1995 State of Maryland agricultural statistics data, a new methodology was demonstrated with which State natural resource managers can analyze the areal extent of agricultural lands and production data on a watershed basis. The report organized major crop ...

  11. Agriculture and land use issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale biofuels development as a source of renewable energy will shift current dynamics in the agricultural sector that deliver food, feed, and fiber. This chapter examines the potential for modern agriculture to support a biofuels industry without comprimising its critical role for delivering ...

  12. The Future of Agricultural Pollination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes how agricultural production and bees are inter-dependent. Honey bees are the most commonly used agricultural pollinators in the world, but are threatened by an increasing number of hive pests. In addition, not all crops are well pollinated by honey bees (e.g., tomatoes, alfal...

  13. Oregon Agriculture I Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum package was developed to be used as a guide for high school vocational agriculture teachers in Oregon preparing a curriculum to meet local community/regional needs. A second goal of this curriculum is to eliminate sex-bias or sex-role stereotyping in vocational agriculture classes. The curriculum contains 20 units. Topics covered…

  14. Carbon dynamics in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil carbon (C) pool constitutes the largest reservoir of C in terrestrial ecosystems. Full accounting of C emissions and sequestration to obtain net C flux budgets for agriculture indicate that agricultural land can function as a net source or sink of C, depending on land use and management. Ad...

  15. Alternative energy sources for agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, D.

    1981-05-01

    The following energy systems are discussed as alternative sources of energy for agriculture and potential demonstration projects in vocational agriculture programs: solar water heating, solar greenhouse heating, solar crop drying, gasification of wood or crop residues, and methane generation from livestock wastes. 13 references.

  16. Oregon Agriculture II Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Developed as a guide for use by vocational agricultural teachers in preparing curriculum to meet local community/regional needs, this package provides materials for a course on production agriculture and agribusiness occupations. The purpose of the course is to provide 10th grade students with fundamental concepts and skills necessary to explore…

  17. Creative Drama and Agricultural Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the interaction of culture and creative drama. Examines agricultural societies under three conditions: historically, from neolithic times; contemporary American Southwest Indian and Polynesian; and modern farming subcultures of European industrial societies. Asks how far agricultural life influences creative drama in agrarian societies.…

  18. Women and Minorities in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2005-01-01

    There are those who lament a situation that they feel needs changing, and there are those who set out to change it. The late Sam Combs Jr. was one who chose the path of action. In 1994, Combs, a retired soil conservationist and former agriculture education instructor, along with four other retired agriculture educators--W.G. Parker, James R.…

  19. Young Agricultural Workers in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Michele Gonzalez; Kurre, Laura

    This report examines the extent to which young people work in California agriculture and describes work-related hazards and injuries among young agricultural workers. Data were gathered through a literature review; discussion groups with parents, community groups, and English-as-a-second-language students in the San Joaquin Valley; surveys of 295…

  20. Pilot Programs in Agricultural Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Harold

    The joint supervisory and teacher education staffs developed criteria and surveyed needed agricultural competencies as a basis for course building. Teacher educators developed unit outlines for pilot programs in off-farm agricultural occupations conducted in Lafayette, Shelby County, Daviess County, and Reidland high schools. A quasi-experimental…

  1. Education and Research Related to Organic Waste Management at Agricultural Engineering Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliva, Montserrat; Bernat, Carles; Gil, Emilio; Martinez, Xavier; Pujol, Miquel; Sabate, Josep; Valero, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of the Agriculture Engineering School of Barcelona (ESAB), where undergraduate students were involved in field research experiments on organic waste use in agricultural systems. Design/methodology/approach: The paper outlines how the formation of professionals oriented to work for…

  2. Agricultural Resources Materials for Agricultural Education Programs. Core Agricultural Education Curriculum, Central Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education.

    This curriculum guide contains four units with relevant problem areas and is intended as a source unit for agricultural education. These problem areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. Each problem area includes some or all of the…

  3. Agricultural Business and Management Materials for Agricultural Education Programs. Core Agricultural Education Curriculum, Central Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education.

    This curriculum guide contains 5 teaching units for 44 agricultural business and management cluster problem areas. These problem areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. The five units are as follows: (1) agribusiness operation and…

  4. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. PMID:17827109

  5. Agricultural aviation user requirement priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, R. L.; Meeland, T.; Peterson, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are given of a research project pertaining to the development of agricultural aviation user requirement priorities. The raw data utilized in the project was obtained from the National Agricultural Aviation Association. A specially configured poll, developed by the Actuarial Research Corporation was used to solicit responses from NAAA members and others. The primary product of the poll is the specification of seriousness as determined by the respondents for some selected agricultural aviation problem areas identified and defined during the course of an intensive analysis by the Actuarial Research Corporation.

  6. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  7. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  8. Agricultural policy and sustainable livestock development.

    PubMed

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1999-01-01

    Future agricultural and rural development is, to a large extent, influenced by the projected food needs of 2.5 billion people expected to swell the world population by 2020. This increase will require more food in general and, in view of recent experience in East Asia, more animal products. To achieve this increase will require judicious use of resources, and trade, especially in those countries where natural resources are insufficient to support food production. Achieving food sufficiency in a sustainable manner is a major challenge for farmers, agro-industries, researchers and governments. The latter play an important role as many of the farmers' choices are, to a large extent, directed by government or supra-government, often through macro- and micro-economic policy. In many countries the economic, environmental, trade and agricultural policies have not been conducive to an agricultural development that is risk-free with respect to the environment, animal welfare or public health. The recent decline of government support in agriculture forced farmers in Western countries to think about more risk adverse agricultural practices and more efficient production systems. On the other hand, many countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, as well as other developing countries, are still going through a painful process of adjustment to new market conditions. International banks and development agencies have a mandate to help developing countries, but are somewhat restricted both by needing to work directly with governments and by their perceived dogmatic approach to development. Changing policies do, now and in the future, also affect the development of animal disease control programmes, including the control of parasitic diseases. On the one hand there is an increasing interest in risk-free control practices, and on the other hand a demand for greater regulatory control over the production process. As parasitic diseases of animals are closely linked to the

  9. Molecular tools used in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A summary of molecular tools used for research in agriculture were presented. Examples of DNA sequencing, library preparation, use of fingerprinting for pathogens and plant crops, high throughput sequencing, whole-genome amplification, reporter genes, and other methods....

  10. Agricultural Colleges in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Tung

    1975-01-01

    This article describes the educational program developed by one agricultural college in a rural area of China to carry out the revolution in education. Educational theory and practice are linked by involving students in the running of three forms.

  11. Expediting Agriculture Through Science Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Fincher, Stephen Lee [R-TN-8

    2011-05-26

    06/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Decentralizing Agricultural Extension: Alternative Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines government strategies for decentralizing agricultural extension, concluding that such changes are largely determined by the country's constitutional status. Reviews decentralization guidelines for structural and fiscal reforms and participatory management systems. (SK)

  13. INTEGRATING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE, ECOLOGY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current agricultural practices are contributing to environmental degradation, which also threatens the sustainability of agricultural production. cology has the potential to contribute significantly to the development of a sustainable and environmentally sound agriculture. owever...

  14. The transition to agricultural sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Ruttan, Vernon W.

    1999-01-01

    The transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production during the 21st century will take place within the context of a transition to a stable population and a possible transition to a stable level of material consumption. If the world fails to successfully navigate a transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production, the failure will be due more to a failure in the area of institutional innovation than to resource and environmental constraints. PMID:10339524

  15. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    DOEpatents

    Siezak, Thomas R.; Gardner, Shea; Torres, Clinton; Vitalis, Elizabeth; Lenhoff, Raymond J.

    2013-01-15

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of agricultural pathogens in a sample. Genomic sequence information from agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay and/or an array assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  16. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    DOEpatents

    McBride, Mary Teresa; Slezak, Thomas Richard; Messenger, Sharon Lee

    2010-09-14

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  17. Center Pivot Irrigated Agriculture, Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A view of the Faregh Agricultural Station in the Great Calanscio Sand Sea, Libya (26.5N, 22.0E) about 300 miles southeast of Benghazi. A pattern of water wells have been drilled several miles apart to support a quarter mile center-pivot-swing-arm agricultural irrigation system. The crop grown is alfalfa which is eaten on location by flocks of sheep following the swing arm as it rotates. At maturity, the sheep are flown to market throughout Libya.

  18. Adding Value through Research in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (19th, St. Louis, Missouri, December 4, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundt, John P., Comp.

    Among 53 conference papers, are the following: "Perceptions of Administrators, Guidance Counselors, and Science Teachers Concerning Pilot Agriscience Courses" (Johnson, Newman); "Relationship of Supervised Agricultural Experience Program Participation and Student Achievement in Agricultural Education (AE)" (Cheek et al.); "Student Achievement,…

  19. Stronger management needed to protect agricultural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Shikui

    1983-01-01

    This article examines environmental issues and management in developed agricultural areas of China. Agricultural environmental management is defined as the adoption of countermeasures by applying the theories and methods of environmental science and management science and abiding by economic laws and ecological laws to prevent pollution of the agricultural environment and destruction of the agro-ecology by man; to coordinate the relationship between the development of agricultural production and the protection of the agricultural environment and to satisfy increasing demands for agricultural by-products. Topics considered include the basis for developing agricultural environmental management, the present condition of the agricultural environment in China, and several management proposals.

  20. Overcoming agricultural pollution of water: The challenge of integrating agricultural and environmental policies in the European union. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scheierling, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    In an effort to address the particular policy challenges posed by the agriculture/water quality dilemma, this study, focuses on the experience of the European Community (EC), where high levels of nitrate, phosphate, and pesticides in surface and groundwater are a source of increasing concern. Agricultural and water quality-related environmental policies at EC level, as well as national level, are examined, and new policy approaches that try to integrate agricultural and environmental considerations are discussed. This study thus provides insights into policy options for controlling agricultural water pollution, which might be useful in other parts of the world.

  1. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  2. RESPONSE OF SKINNER LAKE (INDIANA) TO AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    During 1976-1981, various land management practices were initiated on the agricultural watershed of Skinner Lake in Noble County, Indiana. Land treatment practices implemented on the watershed were chosen from the data and experience gained from the nonpoint source pollution stud...

  3. Lessons Learned from Evaluating African Agricultural Training Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephen P.

    Since all Agency for International Development (AID) projects require an evaluation component, AID's emphasis on assistance to agriculture and rural development projects ensures a continuing need for skilled and expert personnel to evaluate those projects. Intended for potential AID project evaluators, this guide uses experience gained from field…

  4. Ground to Grits. Scientific Concepts in Nutrition/Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Peggy W.; And Others

    This curriculum guide presents an activity-oriented program designed to give students experiences that will help them understand concepts concerning the relationship between science, agriculture, and nutritional needs. Covered in the six units of the guide are reasons for eating certain foods (taste and smell); the nature of food (the concept of…

  5. Agricultural Education at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croom, D. Barry

    2007-01-01

    This study identified events during the life of Booker Taliaferro Washington and during the early years of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial School that may have contributed to the development of agricultural and industrial education for African Americans. Washington's experiences as a former slave and his observations of life for African…

  6. MORTALITY AMONG PARTICIPANTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: This analysis of the Agricultural Health Study cohort assesses the mortality experience of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses.

    Methods: This report is based on 52,393 private applicators (who are mostly farmers) and 32,345 spouses of farmers in Iowa...

  7. Vocational Agriculture I. A Modified Curriculum for Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Industrial, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This curriculum guide has been developed to assist vocational and special education teachers in teaching handicapped and disadvantaged students in a beginning vocational agriculture course. The guide contains suggestions and experiences that are necessary to support the achievement of specific competencies. The guide is divided into units of…

  8. Motivating Agriculture Students to Participate in Career Development Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Carmen R.; Robinson, J. Shane; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research conducted in agricultural education has revealed a lack of participation among National FFA Organization members. However, of those FFA members who participated in FFA sponsored events; students were most satisfied with their experiences in Career Development Events (CDEs). The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe…

  9. Does North Appalachian Agriculture Contribute to Soil Carbon Sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural systems are important for world ecosystems. They can be managed to moderate CO2 emissions. World soils can be both a sink and source of atmospheric CO2, but it is a slow process. Data from long-term soil management experiments are needed to assess soil carbon (C) sink capacity through a...

  10. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices. PMID:27263015

  11. Sensor needs for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, H.; Neiers, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The peculiarities of agricultural remotely sensed data requirements evoke special sensor requirements. Vegetative species do not possess significantly different spectral signature at given phases of their development cycle. Hence, the key to their discriminability is the phasing of the phenologic cycle of the subject species. Significant improvements in classification can be obtained by consistently employing multi-temporal observations taken at specific times during the year. The present approach to agricultural data processing results in extracted data equal to approximately .05% of the acquired data. This paper discusses the derivation of agricultural peculiar requirements and the benefits to the end-to-end processing system by judicial utilization and placement of key editing functions such as sample segment extraction, cloudy image removal, sample registration and the elimination of redundant data.

  12. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  13. 75 FR 16719 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and... Agricultural Water Enhancement Program (AWEP) by amending section 1240I of the Food ] Security Act of 1985. The... technical assistance to agricultural producers to implement agricultural water enhancement activities...

  14. Modern Agriculture in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanegran, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the four sections of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course focusing on agriculture: (1) development and diffusion of agriculture; (2) major agricultural production regions; (3) rural land use and change; and (4) impacts of modern agricultural change. Includes references and a resource list. (CMK)

  15. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  16. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  17. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  18. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  19. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  20. Agriculture Cluster Brief. Vocational Education in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Gordon

    This guide sets forth minimum approval criteria for vocational agriculture cluster programs in Oregon. The agriculture cluster program includes instruction in six areas: animal science, soil science, plant science, agricultural economics, agriculture mechanics, and leadership development. The information in the guide is intended for use by…

  1. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘intensification’ is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. Scope and Conclusions This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural–environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and

  2. Fast Pyrolysis of Agricultural Wastes in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. H.; Chen, H. P.; Yang, H. P.; Dai, X. M.; Zhang, S. H.

    Solid biomass can be converted into liquid fuel through fast pyrolysis, which is convenient to be stored and transported with potential to be used as a fossil oil substitute. In China, agricultural wastes are the main biomass materials, whose pyrolysis process has not been researched adequately compared to forestry wastes. As the representative agricultural wastes in China, peanut shell and maize stalk were involved in this paper and pine wood sawdust was considered for comparing the different pyrolysis behaviors of agricultural wastes and forestry wastes. Fast pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor. The bio-oil yieldsof peanut shell and maize stalk were obviously lower than that ofpine sawdust. Compared with pine sawdust, the char yields of peanut shell and maize stalk were higher but the heating value of uncondensable gaswas lower. This means that the bio-oil cost will be higher for agricultural wastes if taking the conventional pyrolysis technique. And the characteristic and component analysis resultsof bio-oil revealed that the quality of bio-oil from agricultural wastes, especially maize stalk, was worse than that from pine wood. Therefore, it is important to take some methods to improve the quality of bio-oilfrom agricultural wastes, which should promote the exploitation of Chinese biomass resources through fast pyrolysis in afluidized bed reactor.

  3. The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Peter R; Sayre, Ken; Gupta, Raj

    2008-02-12

    The paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till, NT) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. Cultivation and tillage play an important role in agriculture. The benefits of tillage in agriculture are explored before introducing conservation tillage (CT), a practice that was borne out of the American dust bowl of the 1930s. The paper then describes the benefits of CA, a suggested improvement on CT, where NT, mulch and rotations significantly improve soil properties and other biotic factors. The paper concludes that CA is a more sustainable and environmentally friendly management system for cultivating crops. Case studies from the rice-wheat areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia and the irrigated maize-wheat systems of Northwest Mexico are used to describe how CA practices have been used in these two environments to raise production sustainably and profitably. Benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on global warming are also discussed. The paper concludes that agriculture in the next decade will have to sustainably produce more food from less land through more efficient use of natural resources and with minimal impact on the environment in order to meet growing population demands. Promoting and adopting CA management systems can help meet this goal. PMID:17720669

  4. Agricultural Machinery Service. A Curriculum Guide for Agricultural Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Agricultural Education Program.

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist teachers, administrators, and supervisors in organizing and conducting vocational programs which meet the needs of high school students who desire vocational training in the off-farm agribusiness of agricultural machinery service. The three-year course for grades 10, 11, and 12 involves operation,…

  5. Tax Reform: Its Impact on Agriculture. Agricultural Outlook. Special Reprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    While tax reforms proposed by Bradley-Gephart, Kemp-Kasten, and the Reagan Administration differ in specifics, all three would reduce marginal tax rates and broaden the income tax base by eliminating many of the special provisions that have crept into the system over the years--agriculture benefits from a variety of these special provisions. This…

  6. Crop Farm Employee. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agriculture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Chester; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Vocational Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 13 units for crop farm employees. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (opportunities in farming, farming as a science, and farming in the United States), farm records (keeping farm…

  7. Antibiotic resistance in agricultural and non-agricultural settings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of antibiotics in animal agriculture is an issue that has captured national attention, with the primary concern being the transfer of antibiotic resistance from animals to humans via food or water. It has also been proposed that antibiotic resistance genes themselves be considered an enviro...

  8. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Supplies and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 22 curriculum modules in this packet for instruction in agricultural supplies and services contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objectives, objectives by units, content outline, and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A…

  9. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  10. Agricultural and industrial process heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollard, J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of solar energy to agricultural and industrial process heat requirements is discussed. This energy end use sector has been the largest and it appears that solar energy can, when fully developed and commercialized, displace from three to eight or more quads of oil and natural gas in U.S. industry. This potential for fossil fuel displacement in the agricultural and industrial process heat area sector represents a possible savings of 1.4 to 3.8 million barrels of oil daily.

  11. An online agricultural genetics course.

    PubMed

    Moses, Vivian

    2014-07-01

    In this age of rapidly developing online learning, the advent of a series of talks and supplementary material devoted to genetics in agriculture from Henry Stewart Talks ( http://hstalks.com/main/browse_talks.php?r=776&c=252 ) is welcome indeed. The series is designed for researchers and graduate students in the fields of genetics, plant science, animal science, agricultural science, food science, human nutrition and environmental science, advanced undergraduate students, policy makers and managers in public and private sectors, and continuing professional education/development. PMID:25437233

  12. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  13. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  14. Single Sheet Agricultural Mechanics Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Leon, Ed.

    This packet contains 25 single-page plans for agricultural mechanics projects. Each plan consists of a one-page set of drawings of the object to be made with a list of needed materials, a cut list, and step-by-step construction procedures on the back of the page. Plans for the following wood projects are included: bluebird house, lawn seat, dog…

  15. Global Review of Agricultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report describes how governments throughout the world manage their economies and interact with their people, with special emphasis on how the agricultural sector is affected by changing government goals, policies, and programs. Policies and programs are described using information as of July 1987. The large country policy statements include…

  16. Policing Mechanisms in Agricultural Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Steven; Hueth, Brent; Ligon, Ethan

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on mechanisms of coordination in agricultural contracts. Our approach is intended to advance understanding of social relations of production and distribution of power in agrofood systems. Through an analysis of contracts between farmers and intermediaries (e.g., processors, shippers, consignment agents) for California fruits…

  17. Agricultural Education--Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This compilation presents over 950 resumes of instructional materials in agricultural education, which have appeared quarterly in "Abstracts of Instructional Materials in Vocational and Technical Education" (AIM), Fall 1967 through Fall 1971. Resumes cover a broad range of fields and occupations, such as agribusiness, agronomy, animal and plant…

  18. Agriculture & Agronomy: A Dissertation Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    This bibliography presents a compilation of Agriculture and Agronomy doctoral research for the years 1973-1976. Each of the 3,386 doctoral dissertations cited herein has been accepted by accredited degree-granting universities in North America and published by University Microfilms International (UMI). Dissertations are arranged alphabetically in…

  19. Agricultural Runoff: New Research Trends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is public concern worldwide about the impact of agriculture on the environment and the migration of agrochemicals from their target to nearby terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and sometimes to the atmosphere and other times to the groundwater. To achieve the highest yields, farmers use many a...

  20. Agriculture & the Environment. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurry, Linda Maston

    This teacher's guide offers background information that teachers can use to incorporate topics related to agriculture and the environment into the curriculum. Classroom activities to bring these topics alive for students in grades 6-9 are suggested. Chapters include: (1) Pesticides and Integrated Pest Management; (2) Food Safety; (3) Water…

  1. A Landsat Agricultural Monitoring Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aaronson, A. C.; Buchman, P. E.; Wescott, T.; Fries, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the Landsat Agricultural Monitoring Program which was developed to identify, observe, and evaluate alarm conditions influencing Iowa corn production in 1976. Used in conjunction with climatic and field reports, studies were made of crop development, crop alarms (such as heavy rainfall, hail, tornadoes, and drought) and estimated crop yield.

  2. Remote sensing in Virginia agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Newhouse, M. E.; Dunton, E. M., Jr.; Scott, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation, designed to develop and evaluate multispectral sensing techniques used in sensing agricultural crops, is described. Initial studies were designed to detect plant species and associated diseases, soil variations, and cultural practices under natural environment conditions. In addition, crop varieties, age, spacing, plant height, percentage of ground cover, and plant vigor are determined.

  3. How "Rural" Is Agricultural Pluriactivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Jose; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Questions adequacy of agricultural pluriactivity studies, which often are only descriptive in nature. Argues explanatory approaches to pluriactivity must be informed by capitalist restructuring and social change. Analyzes changing modes of economic relations, examining labor force production and social practices. Concludes pluriactivity…

  4. Agricultural Science Protects Our Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    Included are a 49 frame filmstrip and a script for narrating a presentation. The presentation is aimed at the secondary school level with an emphasis on how agricultural scientists investigate problems in farmland erosion, stream pollution, road building erosion problems, air pollution, farm pollution, pesticides, and insect control by biological…

  5. Oregon Agriculture IV Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum package is designed to assist teachers in preparing fourth-year vocational agricultural curricula to meet local community or regional needs. Provided in the introductory section are instructions for using the guide, suggestions for designing curricula that are sex fair and that are suitable for use with disadvantaged and disabled…

  6. SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGING OF AGRICULTURAL MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement in the quality and thus added value for agricultural materials involves the understanding of their underlying chemical composition in relation to anatomical features or morphology. To this end the, so-called, chemical imaging techniques that provide both spatial and spectral information...

  7. Activated Carbons from Agricultural Residuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality and public health impacts of animal manure produced at large concentrated animal facilities prompted the need for viable solutions for their conversion and reuse. Our laboratory at the Southern Regional Research Center, as part of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Departme...

  8. AGRICULTURAL EXCHANGE RATE DATA SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ERS data set contains annual and monthly data for exchange rates important to U.S. agriculture. It includes both nominal and real exchange rates for 80 countries (plus the European Union) as well as real trade-weighted exchange rate indexes for many commodities and aggregatio...

  9. Workload Distribution among Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Robert M.; Ulmer, Jonathan D.; Aschenbrener, Mollie S.

    2008-01-01

    Teachers distribute their time in many ways. The study sought to determine how agriculture teachers distribute their time among 11 selected teacher activities (i.e., preparation for instruction; classroom/laboratory teaching; laboratory preparation and/or maintenance; grading/scoring students' work; administrative duties-program management;…

  10. Basic Electricity in Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This unit of instruction on electricity has been designed especially for teachers to use with freshmen and sophomore vocational agricultural students in Montana. It consists of an outline of the unit and eight lesson plans. The unit outline lists the following components: situation, aims and goals, lesson plans, student activities, teacher…

  11. Agricultural Polymers as Corrosion Inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural polymers were composed of extra-cellular polysaccharides secreted by Leuconostoc mesenteroides have been shown to inhibit corrosion on corrosion-sensitive metals. The substantially pure exopolysaccharide has a general structure consisting of alpha(1-6)-linked D-glucose backbone and appr...

  12. Sensor fusion for precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information-based management of crop production systems known as precision agriculture relies on different sensor technologies aimed at characterization of spatial heterogeneity of a cropping environment. Remote and proximal sensing systems have been deployed to obtain high-resolution data pertainin...

  13. Precision Agriculture and Nutrient Cycling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture (PA) refers to the practice of managing agronomic inputs according to specific needs across the landscape. The major impediment to implement the adoption of PA is the development of decision-support systems. One way to achieve this objective is to integrate crop simulation mode...

  14. Conservation Agriculture in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is a production paradigm that groups reduced tillage, mulching with crop residues or cover crops, and diversified crop rotations, especially those that incorporate leguminous crops. In North America, reduced tillage is the most widely-adopted practice that seeks the ide...

  15. Agricultural Extension: Who Uses It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Michael; Lasley, Paul

    1979-01-01

    A Missouri study conducted to determine agricultural extension usage patterns found that heavy users of extension publications tended to be younger farmers, those with a relatively large amount of land, and pork producers. Extension meetings were a less frequent source of information than either publications or county extension office visits. (LRA)

  16. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  17. Shakeup Ahead for Agricultural Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1982-01-01

    Reorganization of Agricultural Research Service is under way, triggered by charges that research hasn't kept pace with resource depletion and high cost of farming. A fight is predicted over the 1887 Hatch Act funds ($221 million appropriated by Congress in 1981). Comments on the situation by various individuals are included. (Author/JN)

  18. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. PMID:12293737

  19. Advances in agricultural research. [Review

    SciTech Connect

    Leepson, M.

    1981-05-22

    Several factors could have disastrous consequences for the world's food supply, namely: shrinking agricultural acreage; increasing population; decreasing productivity gains in most crops; heavy dependence on petroleum-based pesticides and fertilizers; and genetic vulnerability. Many feel that solutions to these potentially grave problems lie in expanding agricultural research, with particular focus on age-old plant-breeding techniques. The newest plant-breeding technology, genetic engineering (also called recombinant DNA technology), could some day allow biologists to design actually new genetic material rather than just manipulate genetic material already present in crops. Most scientists foresee imminent breakthroughs with recombinant DNA technology and plant breeding, but warn the practial applications may be decades away - perhaps 20 to 50 years. Many of the larger chemical companies are working in the following areas of agriculture R and D: nitrogen fixation; plant growth regulants; photosynthesis; recombinant DNA; plant genetics; and soybean hybrids. New progress in hydroponic technology is reported briefly. Germ plasm collection and storage is being pursued in the US, Soviet Union, and Mexico; US activities are summarized. In addition to the chemical-company efforts in R and D, there have been many acquisitions of seed companies by some of the nation's largest corporations in the last decade; a significant difference of opinion exists as to what this growing corporate involvement portends for agriculture. 49 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  20. Information Management in Agricultural Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaha, E. K.

    1985-01-01

    Main problems in dissemination of agricultural research results, provision of library and documentation services, development of person-to-person communication and communication of information to decision-makers, farmers, and other end-users are outlined and suggestions for improvements are offered. International information systems are described…

  1. MIGRATORY LABOR IN WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSE, A. THOMAS

    A SERIES OF CHARTS RELATED TO MIGRATORY WORKERS IN WISCONSIN IS PRESENTED. THE TABLES DEPICT THE SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PROCESSING EMPLOYMENT TIMETABLE OF MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES, UTILIZATION OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN SUCH ACTIVITIES, MIGRANT WORKERS REGISTERED BY DISTRICT OFFICES, STATE OF RESIDENCE, STATE OF LAST EMPLOYMENT, AND STATE OF NEXT…

  2. Nitrogen mineralization in production agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the effects of N management and how it relates to the N cycle in soil ecosystems is essential to determining N availability. This manuscript describes the importance of N mineralization to production agriculture and introduces a special issue on “N Mineralization in Production Agricult...

  3. Seasonal Agricultural Labor in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis.

    Requested by the governor of Oregon, this 1968 report focuses on seasonal agricultural labor in Oregon. The task force, appointed by the president of Oregon State University, reported on the following areas: (1) the problem in terms of potential unionization, population trends, existing state programs and agencies for the migrants; (2) regulations…

  4. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  5. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  6. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  7. Agricultural Machinery 01.0301 for Agribusiness, Natural Resources and Environmental Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, John; And Others

    The document presents unit plans which offer lists of experiences and competencies to be learned in the area of agricultural machinery for agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental occupations. The units include: (1) safety; (2) agricultural service center; (3) component parts--bearings, gears, pulleys, clutches, and others; (4) metal…

  8. Follow-Up of Pennsylvania Governor's School for the Agricultural Sciences Program Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Marianne L.

    A study investigated the effectiveness of the Pennsylvania Governor's School for the Agricultural Sciences (PGSAS) in stimulating high school students' interest in agriculture. It explored whether PGSAS provided participants with experiences and information that expanded their knowledge of educational and career opportunities related to the…

  9. Learning From China. A Report on Agriculture and the Chinese People's Communes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    A nine-member Study Mission was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and visited China in 1975 to study Chinese approaches to agricultural and rural development in depth; to analyze the commune experience as an example of integrated rural development; and to try to determine in what ways the Chinese development…

  10. Competence Challenges of Demand-Led Agricultural Research and Extension in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibwika, P.; Wals, A. E. J.; Nassuna-Musoke, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Governments and development agencies in Sub-Saharan Africa are experimenting alternative approaches within the innovation systems paradigm to enhance relevance of agricultural research and extension to the poverty eradication agenda. Uganda, for example, has recently shifted from the supply driven to demand-led agricultural research and extension.…

  11. Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate Online Course: An Effective Tool for Creating Extension Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitefield, Elizabeth; Schmidt, David; Witt-Swanson, Lindsay; Smith, David; Pronto, Jennifer; Knox, Pam; Powers, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to create competency among Extension professionals on the topic of climate change adaptation and mitigation in animal agriculture. The Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate online course provides an easily accessible, user-friendly, free, and interactive experience for learning science-based information on a national and…

  12. Agricultural Education at a Distance: Attitudes and Perceptions of Secondary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Greg

    1997-01-01

    Responses from 102 of 140 Iowa secondary agriculture teachers revealed attitudes toward the interactive communications network (ICN), a two-way fiber optic telecommunications system. Teachers were concerned about such obstacles as scheduling ICN use and managing laboratory and supervised agricultural experience activities. They were undecided…

  13. Where the Grass Grows Again: Knowledge Exchange in the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassanein, Neva; Kloppenburg, Jack R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Intensive rotational grazing by Wisconsin dairy farmers represents a local expression of the sustainable agriculture movement. Contrary to interpretations that view local knowledge in agriculture as idiosyncratic, these graziers use horizontal forms of organizing and information exchange to overcome the limits of personal experience and share…

  14. A Follow-up Study of Agricultural Education Program Graduates on Teaching Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormody, Thomas J.; Torres, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    New Mexico agriculture teacher education graduates currently teaching secondary agriculture (n=25) rated their at-graduation competencies as satisfactory. Their biggest improvement since graduation was in keeping students on task. Enthusiasm for all facets of the education program remained high. Work experience had the most influence on growth of…

  15. Test Item Construction and Validation: Developing a Statewide Assessment for Agricultural Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    The State of New York Agriculture Science Education secondary program is required to have a certification exam for students to assess their agriculture science education experience as a Regent's requirement towards graduation. This paper focuses on the procedure used to develop and validate two content sub-test questions within a…

  16. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  17. Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing EXperiment 2007 (BEAREX07)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Texas High Plains, every millimeter of irrigation water saved greatly affects profit margins. If available, high-resolution daily evapotranspiration (ET) maps would help producers plan their irrigation schedule effectively. The ET maps derived from satellite sensors with daily coverage such a...

  18. Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Richardson, W.B.; Reineke, D.M.; Gray, B.R.; Parmelee, J.R.; Weick, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In some agricultural regions, natural wetlands are scarce, and constructed agricultural ponds may represent important alternative breeding habitats for amphibians. Properly managed, these agricultural ponds may effectively increase the total amount of breeding habitat and help to sustain populations. We studied small, constructed agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota to assess their value as amphibian breeding sites. Our study examined habitat factors associated with amphibian reproduction at two spatial scales: the pond and the landscape surrounding the pond. We found that small agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota provided breeding habitat for at least 10 species of amphibians. Species richness and multispecies reproductive success were more closely associated with characteristics of the pond (water quality, vegetation, and predators) compared with characteristics of the surrounding landscape, but individual species were associated with both pond and landscape variables. Ponds surrounded by row crops had similar species richness and reproductive success compared with natural wetlands and ponds surrounded by nongrazed pasture. Ponds used for watering livestock had elevated concentrations of phosphorus, higher turbidity, and a trend toward reduced amphibian reproductive success. Species richness was highest in small ponds, ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) present, and lacking fish. Multispecies reproductive success was best in ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, less emergent vegetation, and lacking fish. Habitat factors associated with higher reproductive success varied among individual species. We conclude that small, constructed farm ponds, properly managed, may help sustain amphibian populations in landscapes where natural wetland habitat is rare. We recommend management actions such as limiting livestock access to the pond to improve water quality, reducing nitrogen input, and

  19. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  20. Agricultural Decision Making Using North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, F.; Mullins, B.; Morlock, D.; Carcoana, R.

    2010-09-01

    The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) consists of 72 automated weather stations spread across agricultural locations of North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and border regions of surrounding states. The NDAWN Center is a part of the Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University. The NDAWN stations measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, pressure (31 stations), atmospheric moisture and soil temperatures under bare and turf at 10 cm (4 inch) depth. The center provides daily summaries consisting of maximums and minimums as well as time of occurrence, and various totals or averages for all variables in English or metric units. Measured and calculated variables along with complete descriptions are available. The NDAWN Center web site: http://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/ allows direct access to NDAWN data in various special and temporal scales. The voice modem accommodates those who do not have internet access. The NDAWN Center has assisted many North Dakotans in making weather critical decisions concerning their crops, livestock, and livelihood. The stations provide weather data, which was instrumental in developing various agricultural models including but not limited to the late blight model, degree day and growth stage models for barley, corn, canola, potato, sugarbeet, sunflower, wheat and other small grains, irrigation scheduling, crop water use, sugarbeet root maggot, and insect development models. Late blight model, for example, predicts when leaf disease can occur in potato plants. Late blight doesn't occur in North Dakota every year and is prevalent during cool and moist periods of weather. In 1993-94, this model predicted that late blight would occur and growers were able to use fungicide applications to prevent the disease. Another direct benefit of NDAWN data is that it provides universities and the National Weather Service with an additional database for research and forecasting applications

  1. Manual for applying fluidized-bed-combustion residue to agricultural lands. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, W.L.; Hern, J.L.; Korcak, R.F.; Carlson, C.W.

    1988-08-01

    Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) is a process that reduces sulfur emissions from coal-fired electric-generating plants. The residue from the process is a mixture of alkaline oxides, calcium sulfate, and coal ash constituent. Since 1976, USDA/ARS has investigated the potential agriculture use of the residue. The investigations comprised an extensive series of laboratory, greenhouse, field plot, and animal-feeding experiments. The best and safest use of AFBC residue in agriculture was as a substitute for agricultural lime. The report contains guidelines for appling AFBC residue to agricultural lands.

  2. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-01

    water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.

  3. Experience of safety monitoring in the context of a prospective observational study of artemether-lumefantrine in rural Tanzania: lessons learned for pharmacovigilance reporting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify and implement strategies that help meet safety monitoring requirements in the context of an observational study for artemether-lumefantrine (AL) administered as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in rural Tanzania. Methods Pharmacovigilance procedures were developed through collaboration between the investigating bodies, the relevant regulatory authority and the manufacturer of AL. Training and refresher sessions on the pharmacovigilance system were provided for healthcare workers from local health facilities and field recorders of the Ifakara Health Demographic Surveillance System (IHDSS). Three distinct channels for identification of adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) were identified and implemented. Passive reporting took place through IHDSS and health care facilities, starting in October 2007. The third channel was through solicited reporting that was included in the context of a survey on AL as part of the ALIVE (Artemether-Lumefantrine In Vulnerable patients: Exploring health impact) study (conducted only in March-April 2008). Results Training was provided for 40 healthcare providers (with refresher training 18 months later) and for six field recorders. During the period 1st September 2007 to 31st March 2010, 67 AEs were reported including 52 under AL, five under sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, one under metakelfin, two after antibiotics; the remaining seven were due to anti-pyretic or anti-parasite medications. Twenty patients experienced SAEs; in 16 cases, a relation to AL was suspected. Six of the 20 cases were reported within 24 hours of occurrence. Discussion Safety monitoring and reporting is possible even in settings with weak health infrastructure. Reporting can be enhanced by regular and appropriate training of healthcare providers. SMS text alerts provide a practical solution to communication challenges. Conclusion Experience gained in this setting could help to improve spontaneous reporting of AEs

  4. Radiological Impact of Phosphogypsum Application in Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, Nivea M. P.; Caires, Eduardo F.; Pires, Luiz F.; Bacchi, Marcio A.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. N.

    2010-08-04

    Phosphogypsum (PG) contains radionuclides from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th decay series. Due to the presence of these radionuclides, many countries restricted the use of PG in agriculture, however there is not such restriction in Brazil. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of PG application on {sup 226}Ra ({sup 238}U) and {sup 228}Ra ({sup 232}Th) concentrations in soil. Gamma-spectrometry was carried out using HPGe detector. No increment of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra was observed for increasing PG doses. Average values found for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were respectively 37 Bq kg{sup -1} and 57 Bq kg{sup -1}. The results showed that the increasing PG doses in the specific conditions of the experiment did not cause a significant increment of radionuclides.

  5. Agricultural Application of Higher Plants for Their Antimicrobial Potentials in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes published research into Chinese medicinal and aromatic plants as sources of new crop protectants. Literature was reviewed based on our personal experience, reported antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, novel chemical structures, and potential for agricultural utiliz...

  6. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  7. Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan (14.5N, 33.5E) is very distinctive in both size and shape. The region contains thousands of these rectangular fields bounded by canals which carry water from both the White and Blue Nile Rivers. A crop rotation system is used so that some fields are in cotton, millit, sorghum or fallow to conserve moisture and control weeds and insects. See also STS049-96-003.

  8. Agriculture, Forestry and Rangeland Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery for providing information on agriculture, forestry, and rangeland resources is described. The use of the ERTS-1 system for stratification and sampling estimates of relatively small areas is discussed. Examples of maps to improve resource definition for land use planning, resource allocation, and resource development are provided. Inventories of various crops, as determined by photointerpretation of ERTS imagery are submitted in tabular form.

  9. Agricultural applications of dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stuart O

    2004-01-01

    A brief account of interest in dielectric properties of agricultural materials is presented, and some examples of dielectric spectroscopy applied to agricultural problems are discussed. Included are wide frequency range (250 Hz to 12 GHz) permittivity, or dielectric properties, measurements on adult rice weevils and hard red winter wheat, for the purpose of assessing selective dielectric heating of the insects, and broadband (200 MHz to 20 GHz) permittivity measurements on tissues of fresh fruits and vegetables. Similar measurements are shown for tree-ripened peaches, which were obtained to assess possibilities for a permittivity-based maturity index. Broadband (10 MHz to 1.8 GHz) permittivity measurements are shown for several fruits and vegetables as a function of temperature from 5 to 95 degrees C. Measurements over the same frequency range and similar temperature ranges are presented for two other food products, whey protein gel and apple juice. A few comments are offered on likely future dielectric spectroscopy applications in agriculture. PMID:15719907

  10. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  11. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-07-31

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural-urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:22826252

  12. Organic matter matters for ice nuclei of agricultural soil origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobo, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Swoboda-Colberg, N. G.; Franc, G. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is a~crucial process for forming ice-containing clouds and subsequent ice-induced precipitation. The importance for ice nucleation of airborne desert soil dusts composed predominantly of minerals is relatively well understood. On the other hand, the potential influence of agricultural soil dusts on ice nucleation has been poorly recognized, despite recent estimates that they may account for up to ∼25% of the global atmospheric dust load. We have conducted freezing experiments with various dusts, including agricultural soil dusts derived from the largest dust source region in North America. Here we show evidence for the significant role of soil organic matter (SOM) in particles acting as ice nuclei (IN) under mixed-phase cloud conditions. We find that the ice nucleating ability of the agricultural soil dusts is similar to that of desert soil dusts, but is reduced to almost the same level as that of clay minerals (e.g., kaolinite) after either H2O2 digestion or dry heating to 300 °C. In addition, based on chemical composition analysis, we show that organic-rich particles are more important than mineral particles for the ice nucleating ability of the agricultural soil dusts at temperatures warmer than about -36 °C. Finally, we suggest that such organic-rich particles of agricultural origin (namely, SOM particles) may contribute significantly to the ubiquity of organic-rich IN in the global atmosphere.

  13. Organic matter matters for ice nuclei of agricultural soil origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobo, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Swoboda-Colberg, N. G.; Franc, G. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is a crucial process for forming ice-containing clouds and subsequent ice-induced precipitation. The importance for ice nucleation by airborne desert soil dusts composed predominantly of minerals is widely acknowledged. However, the potential influence of agricultural soil dusts on ice nucleation has been poorly recognized, despite recent estimates that they may account for up to 20-25% of the global atmospheric dust load. We have conducted freezing experiments with various dusts, including agricultural soil dusts derived from the largest dust-source region in North America. Here we show evidence for the significant role of soil organic matter (SOM) in particles acting as ice nuclei (IN) under mixed-phase cloud conditions. We find that the ice-nucleating ability of the agricultural soil dusts is similar to that of desert soil dusts, but is clearly reduced after either H2O2 digestion or dry heating to 300 °C. In addition, based on chemical composition analysis, we demonstrate that organic-rich particles are more important than mineral particles for the ice-nucleating ability of the agricultural soil dusts at temperatures warmer than about -36 °C. Finally, we suggest that such organic-rich particles of agricultural origin (namely, SOM particles) may contribute significantly to the ubiquity of organic-rich IN in the global atmosphere.

  14. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural–urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:22826252

  15. 78 FR 41384 - Agricultural Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Agricultural Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTC) Agricultural...

  16. Agriculture--Industry of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-23

    This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies' Agriculture Industry of the Future, a partnership between the Department of Energy and the agriculture industry established to increase industrial energy and cost efficiency.

  17. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) was undertaken to ascertain the etiology of cancers observed to be elevated in agricultural populations. Methods: The AHS is a large prospective, cohort study of private applicators and commercial applicators licensed to apply restricted use ...

  18. Agricultural Science--Striving for Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budke, Wesley E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles examine several of the critical components of program and personnel development in agricultural science including linkages between agriscience and natural resources teachers and high school science teachers, science in agriculture, biological science applications, and hydroponics. (JOW)

  19. Strengthen the Ties of Schools with Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morozov, M. E.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that the combined effort of schools and farms to educate youth in agricultural methods must be intensified in order to keep pace with the sharp increase in agricultural mechanization provided for in the forthcoming five year plan. (JB)

  20. Embracing the Role of Science in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparace, Salvatore A.; Layfield, K. Dale

    2003-01-01

    The approach to agricultural production has come to rely on the application of modern science and technology for improvements and innovation. There has been a shift from traditional production careers to those involving science-driven agricultural development. (JOW)