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Sample records for agricultural experimental station

  1. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  2. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them.

  3. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them. PMID:25311906

  4. Agricultural Experiment Stations and Branch Stations in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Calvin H.; Atucha, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    In 1887, Congress passed the Hatch Act, which formally established and provided a funding mechanism for agricultural experiment stations in each state and territory in the United States. The main purpose of agricultural experiment stations is to conduct agricultural research to meet the needs of the citizens of the United States. The objective of…

  5. Wind, rain and soil erosion rates on bare and plant covered agriculture plots at the experimental station of El Teularet -Sierra de Enguera, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Azorin-Molina, C.; Iserloh, Th.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion is being scientifically researched for more tan one century, but there is some knowledge lacks that should be researched. Within the factors of the soil erosion wind and rain were studied, but little is know about the impact of the combination of both. Soil erosion by wind was mainly studied on drylands and agriculture land (Sterk and Spaan, 1997; Bielders et al., 2002; Rajot et al., 2003; Zobeck et al., 2003). Soil erosion by water was studied in many ecosystems but it is especially active on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009) and under Mediterranean climatic conditions (Cerdà et al., 2010). The importance of wind on soil erosion is base in the fact that rainstorms occurs with wind, adding a driving component to the falling raindrops. The influence of wind on raindrops is clear, but there is not measurements and there is no information of this influence under field conditions with natural rainfall events.This paper aims to determine the interaction between wind and rain as factors of the soil losses under Mediterranean climatic conditions and different agriculture managements and land uses. Since 2003, the El Teularet-Serra de Enguera Soil Erosion Experimental Station located in Eastern Spain is measuring the soil losses in plots under different land uses and land managements. The station is devoted to study the soil water erosion processes under rain-fed agriculture fields and the rangelands by means of simulated rainfall experiments and plots of different sizes. The soil erosion measure ments are done by means of 13 plots, each of them composed of 5 subplots of 1, 2, 4, 16 and 48 m2 under different land uses and managements. Two plots are covered by two different types of shrubs: Quercus coccifera and Ulex parviflorus, respectively. Three plots reproduce the use of herbicides, one is ploughed, and three plots follow conservation practices (oats and beans with no-tillage, with tillage, and with a vege- tation cover of weeds). Other plots are

  6. Agricultural Market News Programming of Wisconsin Radio and Television Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroupa, Eugene A.; And Others

    This study was designed to determine what Wisconsin's 92 AM and 107 FM radio and 18 television stations were providing as agricultural market information programming. Data were collected via a two-phase survey. It was found that the number of stations giving farm and market news were 79% of AM, 56% of FM, and 1% of television stations based on a…

  7. The white SR spectrum experimental station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancharov, A. I.; Evdokov, O. V.; Tolochko, B. P.; Sukhorukov, A. V.; Baru, S. E.; Savinov, G. A.; Kosov, A. V.; Sheromov, M. A.; Sikka, S. K.; Momin, S. N.

    2000-06-01

    A new experimental station for working with white synchrotron radiation is described. Radiation from the bending magnet of the VEPP-4 storage ring is used. The station is destined for study of structures at high pressure by energy-dispersive and Laue diffraction methods.

  8. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  9. Changing Horses: Shifting Agricultural Experiment Station Publications from Paper to Electronic Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodenbaugh, Eric; Holcombe, Gloria; Hartman, Amy

    2003-01-01

    The Agricultural Experimental Station at Kansas State University switched from paper publication to compact discs. The change resulted in savings of more than $20,000 in 1 year and allowed for a searchable, comprehensive package of information rather than a single publication. (Contains 10 references.) (JOW)

  10. Nitrogen and phosphorus trend analysis in Latvia agricultural monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimanta, Z.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Lauva, D.; Ambramenko, K.; Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality depends on human activity. Intensive agriculture is one of the main sources, that cause water quality pollution and eutrophication. The use of fertilizers not only improves soil fertility, crop yield and quality, but also causes water pollution. Human activities, including the use of fertilizer, promote nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations in water. Compared to the 90th agricultural production in Latvia has progressed. Vulnerable zones have been specified in the country. It is situated in the region of Zemgale's south site, within the border Lithuania. There are defined requirements for water and soil protection from agricultural activity that cause nitrate pollution. The EU Nitrates Directive aim is to protect water from nitrate pollution. In Latvia defined nitrate values are: 50 mg/l NO3 or 11.2 mg/l N/NO3 and Ptot - 0.2 mg/l. As agriculture has became intensive and the use of fertilizers has grown, results indicate that the leaching potential and values of N and P has increased. Nutrients leaching in agricultural areas have observed all year in vulnerable zones, but it's values changes depending on season. The highest nutrient concentrations observe in winter and spring periods, particularly in snow and ice melting periods. The lowest values are in summer. Nutrient leaching potencial depends on precipitation, plant vegetation, season, fertilization type and soil cultivation process. N and P leaching can decrease, taking consideration the use time of fertilizers and good agricultural practices. Research objects are monitoring stations Bērze and Mellupīte with tree research scales: drainage fields, small catchments and observation wells. The research analyses N and P concentrations in groundwater (2006-2010) and drain field and small catchment runoff (1995-2010). The aim of the research is to analyze nitrate and phosphorus concentration fluctuations in a time period. To determine nutrient concentrations, water samples were collected

  11. 47 CFR 74.101 - Experimental broadcast station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Experimental broadcast station. 74.101 Section 74.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES...

  12. An Experimental Undergraduate Laboratory Plasma Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jerry; Zwicker, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Plasma physics is an intimidating field to study and can be even a more daunting exercise to teach. At the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory we have created an all-inclusive undergraduate lab setup that encompasses three of the major experiments commonly seen in introductory graduate level plasma labs to improve upon the existing teaching tools available in the community and to expose undergraduates to the field. These experiments include Langmuir probe studies (single and double), spectroscopy, and Paschen curve analysis. The apparatus used to conduct the experiments is built upon a mobile station of a minimal footprint and maintenance requirements. The goal of the project was to create an easy to implement design that can be replicated by fledging undergraduate programs, community colleges, small liberal arts school or even established programs looking to streamline or build upon current curriculum.

  13. An experimental low-cost ground station for the small satellite project bird.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayal, Hakan

    2000-03-01

    An experimental ground station (EGS) for the earth observing small satellite project BIRD of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is developed. The German Space Operations Center (GSOC) has the main responsibility for BIRD operations, while data reception is done by the receiving station in Neustrelitz. The objective of the EGS is to investigate and demonstrate direct user reception of regional data from earth observing satellites with a "low-cost" ground station as well as to analyze autonomous activity capabilities and experimental tests for mission operations. For this purpose, a small ground station with data reception and commanding capabilities is built. The station is located in Berlin on the top of the institute building. Many local authorities, such as agriculture or fire combat departments for example, needs only regional limited data to do a more efficient work in their region. The basic idea of the EGS is therefore, to analyze the capabilities and limits of a low-cost ground station, which gives the end-user, only the data which is needed by the local end-user. The antenna size of such a Station can be small, which is one of the important cost drivers. This paper shows the characteristics of such a station, which is developed for the BIRD satellite. Although the development work is still ongoing, it can be seen, that using a smaller coverage and COTS (Commercial of the Shelf) components (such as standard PC's), it is possible to develop a lowcost ground station, which meets the requirements for the described objectives.

  14. 47 CFR 74.102 - Uses of experimental broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Uses of experimental broadcast stations. 74.102 Section 74.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES... and advancement of new broadcast technology, equipment, systems or services which are more...

  15. 47 CFR 74.102 - Uses of experimental broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Uses of experimental broadcast stations. 74.102 Section 74.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES... and advancement of new broadcast technology, equipment, systems or services which are more...

  16. 47 CFR 74.102 - Uses of experimental broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uses of experimental broadcast stations. 74.102 Section 74.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES... or require other modes of transmission than can be accomplished by using a licensed broadcast...

  17. Potential for remote sensing of agriculture from the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Khatib, Nader

    1999-01-01

    Today's spatial resolution of orbital sensing systems is too coarse to economically serve the yield-improvement/contamination-reduction needs of the small to mid-size farm enterprise. Remote sensing from aircraft is being pressed into service. However, satellite remote sensing constellations with greater resolution and more spectral bands, i.e., with resolutions of 1 m in the panchromatic, 4 m in the multi-spectral, and 8 m in the hyper-spectral are expected to be in orbit by the year 2000. Such systems coupled with Global Positioning System (GPS) capability will make ``precision agriculture,'' i.e., the identification of specific and timely fertilizer, irrigation, herbicide, and insecticide needs on an acre-by-acre basis and the ability to meet these needs with precision delivery systems at affordable costs, is what is needed and can be achieved. Current plans for remote sensing systems on the International Space Station (ISS) include externally attached payloads and a window observation platform. The planned orbit of the Space Station will result in overflight of a specific latitude and longitude at the same clock time every 3 months. However, a pass over a specific latitude and longitude during ``daylight hours'' could occur much more frequently. The ISS might thus be a space platform for experimental and developmental testing of future commercial space remote sensing precision agriculture systems. There is also a need for agricultural ``truth'' sites so that predictive crop yield and pollution models can be devised and corrective suggestions delivered to farmers at affordable costs. In Summer 1998, the University of Colorado at Boulder and the Center for the Study of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Atmospheres (CSTEA) at Howard University, under NASA Goddard Space Flight Center funding, established an agricultural ``truth'' site in eastern Colorado. The ``truth'' site was highly instrumented for measuring trace gas concentrations (NOx, SOx, CO2, O3, organics

  18. Potential for remote sensing of agriculture from the international space station

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Khatib, Nader

    1999-01-22

    Today's spatial resolution of orbital sensing systems is too coarse to economically serve the yield-improvement/contamination-reduction needs of the small to mid-size farm enterprise. Remote sensing from aircraft is being pressed into service. However, satellite remote sensing constellations with greater resolution and more spectral bands, i.e., with resolutions of 1 m in the panchromatic, 4 m in the multi-spectral, and 8 m in the hyper-spectral are expected to be in orbit by the year 2000. Such systems coupled with Global Positioning System (GPS) capability will make 'precision agriculture', i.e., the identification of specific and timely fertilizer, irrigation, herbicide, and insecticide needs on an acre-by-acre basis and the ability to meet these needs with precision delivery systems at affordable costs, is what is needed and can be achieved. Current plans for remote sensing systems on the International Space Station (ISS) include externally attached payloads and a window observation platform. The planned orbit of the Space Station will result in overflight of a specific latitude and longitude at the same clock time every 3 months. However, a pass over a specific latitude and longitude during 'daylight hours' could occur much more frequently. The ISS might thus be a space platform for experimental and developmental testing of future commercial space remote sensing precision agriculture systems. There is also a need for agricultural 'truth' sites so that predictive crop yield and pollution models can be devised and corrective suggestions delivered to farmers at affordable costs. In Summer 1998, the University of Colorado at Boulder and the Center for the Study of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Atmospheres (CSTEA) at Howard University, under NASA Goddard Space Flight Center funding, established an agricultural 'truth' site in eastern Colorado. The 'truth' site was highly instrumented for measuring trace gas concentrations (NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, O

  19. Agricultural Biology, Science (Experimental): 5314.09.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basnett, Fred D.

    This unit of instruction was designed as a laboratory study of soils, plants, crop improvements and pesticides, and gives consideration to fish farming, tropical fish, and careers in agriculture. The booklet lists the relevant state-adopted texts and states the performance objectives for the unit. It provides an outline of the course content and…

  20. 6. "EXPERIMENTAL ROCKET ENGINE TEST STATION AT AFFTC." A low ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. "EXPERIMENTAL ROCKET ENGINE TEST STATION AT AFFTC." A low oblique aerial view of Test Area 1-115, looking south, showing Test Stand 1-3 at left, Instrumentation and Control building 8668 at center, and Test Stand 15 at right. The test area is under construction; no evidence of railroad line in photo. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. The Search for Energy Alternatives: Responses Received by State Agricultural Experiment Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, William M.

    Directors of the 51 agricultural experiment stations in the United States (including Guam) were mailed questionnaires inquiring as to the extent of requests which had been received for information about wind, solar, and other energy alternatives such as wood and gasahol. There was a total response of 88% with three mailings. The returned…

  2. Counter-Geographies: The Campaign against Rationalisation of Agricultural Research Stations in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris; Dufty, Rae; Phillips, Samantha; Smith, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses an example of community action mounted in a rural region of New South Wales, Australia, in response to proposals by the State Government to rationalise agricultural research stations operated by the Department of Primary Industries. Informed by a Foucaultian understanding of power and the concept of governmentality,…

  3. Energy integrated farm system: North Dakota State University Agricultural Experiment Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    North Dakota State University Agricultural Experiment Station, a dairy farm with wheat, barley, sugar beet, and soybean crops, is designed to conserve energy through energy integrated concepts including wind break and solar energy for heating buildings, methane digestion, and energy conservation crop practices. The integrated energy concepts to be demonstrated are: generation of methane from manure; use of a milk-to-water heat exchanger and rock-bed heat storage in dairy operations; use of a solar collector energy system for space heat in the dairy barn (calf warming); efficient solid-liquid separation in manure collection system; use of digester effluent as bedding and fertilizer; and energy conservation by improved agriculture practices, such as conservation tillage, pest management, and soil testing for efficient use of fertilizer.

  4. An Experimental Curriculum in Vocational Agriculture, Janesville, Wisconsin. New Dimensions in Vocational Agriculture Report Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, James W.; Becker, William J.

    The purpose of the pilot program was to develop and test a new structure for vocational agriculture and thus meet the needs of a wider range of students. The curriculum was developed around 16 different agricultural subjects offered in alternate years on a semester basis. Agricultural engineering and agricultural survey were offered each semester…

  5. A brief background on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed 1857

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed research is critical for quantifying the unique characteristics of hydrologic processes worldwide and especially in semiarid regions. In 1953, the United States Department of Agriculture established the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) near Tombstone, Arizona, to conduct hydrolog...

  6. Experimental and analytical generic space station dynamic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. K.; Edighoffer, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    A dynamic model used for verification of analytical and experimental methods is documented. The model consists of five substructures to simulate the multibody, low frequency nature of large space structures. Design considerations which led to a fundamental vibration frequency of less than one Hz are described. Finite element analysis used to predict the vibration modes and frequencies of the experimental model is presented. In addition, modeling of cable suspension effects using prestressed vibration analysis is described. Details of the expermental and analytical models are included to permit replication of the study. Results of the modal vibration tests and analysis are presented in a separate document.

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Field Trips on Instruction in Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Norval L.

    To determine the effect of field trips on student achievement in each of four subject matter areas in vocational agriculture, 12 schools offering approved programs were randomly selected and divided into a treatment group and a control group. Uniform teaching outlines and reference materials were provided to each group. While no field trips were…

  8. Co-evolution of soils and vegetation in the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (Central Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano Muela, Maria Pilar; Nadal Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; María García Ruiz, José

    2013-04-01

    Soils and vegetation tend to evolve jointly in relation to climate evolution and the impacts of human activity. This study analyzes soil and vegetation characteristics under various plant covers, using information from the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (AVES), Spanish Pyrenees, from 1991 to 2010. The land uses considered were: dense shrub cover, grazing meadow, abandoned field, cereal (barley), abandoned shifting agriculture, active shifting agriculture, burnt1 and burnt2 plots, and in-fallow plot. All the plots were installed on a field abandoned 45 years ago. Some of the plots did not change in plant cover through the study period (e.g., the meadow, cereal and shifting agriculture plots), but others underwent changes in density and composition, such as: (i) The dense shrub cover plot represents the natural evolution of the abandoned field. When the AVES was equipped, this plot was completely dominated by Genista scorpius, with a few stands of Rosa gr. Canina. Twenty years later, Genista scorpius is affected of senescence and shows almost no regeneration capacity. (ii) The abandoned field had previously been cultivated with cereals until 1993. Once abandoned, the progression of plant colonization was very rapid. Firstly with grasses and, 10 years later, with Genista scorpius. At present, this latter occupies more than 50% of the plot. (iii) The evolution of plant colonization in the abandoned shifting agriculture plot was slower than that in the 'normal' abandoned field, mainly because of the differences in fertilization when they were cultivated. (iv) One of the burnt plots evolved from 0% to a coverage of almost 100% in a shot period, whereas the other plot remained with a shrub density of about 60% several years after the fire. Soil samples (superficial and depth) were analyzed to obtain physical and chemical properties: structure, texture, pH, CaCO3, Organic Matter and various anions and cations. The main purpose was to detect differences in the soil

  9. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values.

  10. An Evaluation of a Welding Fumes Exhaust System. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 284.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    A study evaluated the feasibility of introducing unheated outside air into the airstream of a cross-flow welding exhaust system to reduce heating energy costs of a school welding laboratory. The physical facility used was the agricultural mechanics laboratory at the University of Arizona, which is similar to facilities in which instruction in…

  11. Instructional Materials Available from Agricultural Education Teaching Materials Center, College Station, Texas. Price List No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Teaching Materials Center, College Station, TX.

    Price lists and order forms are provided for courses of study, lesson plans, and laboratory exercises for vocational agriculture cooperative education and preemployment laboratory training. Courses of study and required references are listed for training employees for: (1) milk, meat, and poultry processing, (2) poultry hatcheries, (3) dairy…

  12. The Tropical Fruit Research Program of the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical and subtropical fruit crops are of major importance in commercial and subsistence agriculture. The globalization of the economy and the increased demand for healthy and more diverse food products have opened a large market for many of these fruit crops. Despite this fact, increased produc...

  13. The ALBA spectroscopic LEEM-PEEM experimental station: layout and performance

    PubMed Central

    Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Pellegrin, Eric; Nicolas, Josep; Ferrer, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    The spectroscopic LEEM-PEEM experimental station at the CIRCE helical undulator beamline, which started user operation at the ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility in 2012, is presented. This station, based on an Elmitec LEEM III microscope with electron imaging energy analyzer, permits surfaces to be imaged with chemical, structural and magnetic sensitivity down to a lateral spatial resolution better than 20 nm with X-ray excited photoelectrons and 10 nm in LEEM and UV-PEEM modes. Rotation around the surface normal and application of electric and (weak) magnetic fields are possible in the microscope chamber. In situ surface preparation capabilities include ion sputtering, high-temperature flashing, exposure to gases, and metal evaporation with quick evaporator exchange. Results from experiments in a variety of fields and imaging modes will be presented in order to illustrate the ALBA XPEEM capabilities. PMID:25931092

  14. Water Quality Signal of Animal Agriculture at USGS Monitoring Stations is Related to Animal Confinement and/or Farm Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. A.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    US animal agriculture has undergone major structural changes over the past two decades, with the total number of livestock producers declining dramatically and the average size of the remaining operations increasing substantially. The result has been a pronounced trend towards greater spatial concentration and confinement of livestock. The change raises important questions about the water quality effects of animal agriculture in regions where livestock waste production has become more intensive but recovery, handling, and application of animal wastes to cropland more systematized. In previous research, we developed three separate national-level SPARROW models of surface water contaminants (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria). Based on USGS monitoring and ancillary data from more than 400 US stream and river basins, the models include point and nonpoint sources of contaminants, land-to-water transport factors, and in-stream loss processes; parameter estimation is by non-linear regression. In this study we report on a pattern in the statistical results for the three models: The source coefficients (quantity of contaminant delivered to streams per unit of contaminant input) for unconfined animals are consistently larger and more statistically significant than those for confined animals. The implicit meaning is that something associated with waste management on large farms and/or animal confinement (e.g. retention period, recovery of manure for application to crops and subsequent crop uptake, and/or better waste treatment) reduces the average water quality signal of this scale of animal agriculture (per unit of manure input) to barely detectable at downstream monitoring stations, while the water quality signal from unconfined animal agriculture is more clear. The county-level data for confined and unconfined manure inputs (defined primarily by farm size) are from the USDA, and are spatially distributed in the model GIS by 1-km land use data

  15. Study of industry requirements that can be fulfilled by combustion experimentation aboard space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priem, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the requirements of commercially motivated microgravity combustion experiments and the optimal way for space station to accommodate these requirements. Representatives of commercial organizations, universities and government agencies were contacted. Interest in and needs for microgravity combustion studies are identified for commercial/industrial groups involved in fire safety with terrestrial applications, fire safety with space applications, propulsion and power, industrial burners, or pollution control. From these interests and needs experiments involving: (1) no flow with solid or liquid fuels; (2) homogeneous mixtures of fuel and air; (3) low flow with solid or liquid fuels; (4) low flow with gaseous fuel; (5) high pressure combustion; and (6) special burner systems are described and space station resource requirements for each type of experiment provided. Critical technologies involving the creation of a laboratory environment and methods for combining experimental needs into one experiment in order to obtain effective use of space station are discussed. Diagnostic techniques for monitoring combustion process parameters are identified.

  16. Experimental analysis of CO₂ emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO₂ emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to 2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230-250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120-150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250-270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120-150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO₂ emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO₂ emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO₂ emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO₂ emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO₂ emissions from soils during the maize

  17. Experimental analysis of CO₂ emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO₂ emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to 2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230-250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120-150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250-270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120-150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO₂ emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO₂ emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO₂ emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO₂ emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO₂ emissions from soils during the maize

  18. An Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Audio-Tutorial Method in Teaching Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVey, Gary C.

    To determine the effectiveness of an audio-tutorial technique in vocational agriculture, six treatment schools and six control schools were randomly selected from 48 Iowa high schools qualifying for participation in the study. While each school was provided the same reference material and teaching outline for the 14-day experimental period, the…

  19. A neutron resonance capture analysis experimental station at the ISIS spallation source.

    PubMed

    Pietropaolo, Antonino; Gorini, Giuseppe; Festa, Giulia; Reali, Enzo; Grazzi, Francesco; Schooneveld, Erik M

    2010-09-01

    Neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) is a nuclear technique that is used to determine the elemental composition of materials and artifacts (e.g., bronze objects) of archaeological interest. NRCA experiments are mostly performed at the GELINA facility in Belgium, a pulsed neutron source operating with an electron linear accelerator. Very intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons are also provided by spallation neutron sources, such as the ISIS spallation neutron source in the United Kingdom. In the present study, the suitability of the Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) beam line for NRCA measurements is assessed using a compact (n, γ) resonance detector made of a Yttrium-Aluminum-Perovskite (YAP) scintillation crystal coupled with a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout. The measurements provided a qualitative recognition of the composition of the standard sample, a lower limit for the sensitivity for NRCA for almost-in-traces elements, and an estimation of the relative isotopic concentration in the sample.

  20. The resisted rise of randomisation in experimental design: British agricultural science, c.1910-1930.

    PubMed

    Berry, Dominic

    2015-09-01

    The most conspicuous form of agricultural experiment is the field trial, and within the history of such trials, the arrival of the randomised control trial (RCT) is considered revolutionary. Originating with R.A. Fisher within British agricultural science in the 1920s and 1930s, the RCT has since become one of the most prodigiously used experimental techniques throughout the natural and social sciences. Philosophers of science have already scrutinised the epistemological uniqueness of RCTs, undermining their status as the 'gold standard' in experimental design. The present paper introduces a historical case study from the origins of the RCT, uncovering the initially cool reception given to this method by agricultural scientists at the University of Cambridge and the (Cambridge based) National Institute of Agricultural Botany. Rather than giving further attention to the RCT, the paper focuses instead on a competitor method-the half-drill strip-which both predated the RCT and remained in wide use for at least a decade beyond the latter's arrival. In telling this history, John Pickstone's Ways of Knowing is adopted, as the most flexible and productive way to write the history of science, particularly when sciences and scientists have to work across a number of different kinds of place. It is shown that those who resisted the RCT did so in order to preserve epistemic and social goals that randomisation would have otherwise run a tractor through. PMID:26205200

  1. A brief background on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, K. G.; Nichols, M. H.; Woolhiser, D. A.; Osborn, H. B.

    2008-05-01

    Watershed research is critical for quantifying the unique characteristics of hydrologic processes worldwide and especially in semiarid regions. In 1953, the United States Department of Agriculture established the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) near Tombstone, Arizona, to conduct hydrologic and erosion research. This manuscript (1) provides a historical context summarizing the evolution of the Southwest Watershed Research Center research program, (2) describes significant contributions to instrumentation development and contributions to science, and (3) describes the current WGEW data collection program in the context of contemporary research questions. The development of specialized flumes for streamflow measurement and the establishment of the core monitoring networks are described. WGEW data have been used to quantify semiarid rainfall, runoff, infiltration, and transmission losses; to develop and validate simulation models; and to support broader, regional, basin-scale research. Currently, rainfall, runoff, sediment, meteorology, and flux data collection continue at the WGEW, but the monitoring network has been expanded, and data use has evolved to support several multiple government agencies, universities, and international research programs.

  2. Analytical and Experimental Studies of Leak Location and Environment Characterization for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Abel, Joshua; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Glenn, Jodie; Hawk, Doug; Ma, Jonathan; Mohammed, Jelila; Montt de Garcia, Kristina; Perry, Radford; Rossetti, Dino; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations ("directionality"). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb-mass/yr. to about 1 lb-mass/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  3. Analytical and Experimental Studies of Leak Location and Environment Characterization for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael S.; Abel, Joshua C.; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Glenn, Jodie; Hawk, Doug; Ma, Jonathan; Mohammed, Jelila; de Garcia, Kristina Montt; Perry, Radford; Rossetti, Dino; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system.An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations (directionality).The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lbmyr. to about 1 lbmday. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ramwake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  4. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    SciTech Connect

    Woronowicz, Michael; Blackmon, Rebecca; Brown, Martin; Abel, Joshua; Hawk, Doug; Autrey, David; Glenn, Jodie; Bond, Tim; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; Ma, Jonathan; Rossetti, Dino; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Mohammed, Jelila; Montt de Garcia, Kristina; Perry, Radford; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH{sub 3} coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations (“directionality”). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb{sub m/}/yr. to about 1 lb{sub m}/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  5. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Abel, Joshua; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Glenn, Jodie; Hawk, Doug; Ma, Jonathan; Mohammed, Jelila; de Garcia, Kristina Montt; Perry, Radford; Rossetti, Dino; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations ("directionality"). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lbm//yr. to about 1 lbm/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  6. Meteorological profiles comparison from global models and experimental radiosoundings at the Antarctica station of Belgrano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, J. A.; Yela, M.; Parrondo, M. C.; Ochoa, H.; Gil, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ozonesoundings are launched from Antarctic Belgrano station (77.87S, 34.62W) since 1999 in the framework of an extensive stratospheric trace-gas measurement program. In the frame of VIOLIN (Extended Vertical Investigation of the Ozone Layer In ANtarctica) project and as a previous step in the application of meteorological models, a comparison-validation exercise has been carried out using simulations and experimental profiles. The aim is to assess the reliability of the meteorological files obtained from global models which could be used as input data in models of higher spatial resolution. Meteorological profiles (potential temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction) have been obtained from ECMWF and NCEP-GDAS models with a spatial resolution of 1°x1° and 14 vertical levels from 950 to 500 mb. The simulated profiles have been compared with in situ soundings at Belgrano. A total of 83 soundings covering the period from 2009 to 2010 have been used. Data have been grouped in three period's: diurnal, nocturnal and transition diurnal-nocturnal or vice versa. The comparison has been performed with the statistical root mean square deviation (RMSD) and BIAS for the four meteorological variables. Results show that potential temperature using both models and wind speed with NCEP-GDAS are underestimated while the rest of parameters are overestimated. The RMSD of the potential temperature ranges between 1.7 and 3.2 °C with a BIAS of -0.18 to -0.74 °C. No differences were found according to the time of the year. The relative humidity analysis shows a RMSD between 21.4 and 30.2 % while the BIAS was ranging from 9.9 to 14.8 %. Best results have been obtained in the transition period. For the wind speed the RMSD oscillate between 2.9 and 4.9 m/s with a BIAS from -0.35 to 0.31 m/s. The wind direction is the parameter with the highest differences, RMSD between 68 and 104°, with a BIAS from 34 to 62°. The highest differences have been found for the diurnal period

  7. Experimental station for laser-based picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dorchies, F. Fedorov, N.; Lecherbourg, L.

    2015-07-15

    We present an experimental station designed for time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). It is based on ultrashort laser-plasma x-ray pulses generated from a table-top 100 mJ-class laser at 10 Hz repetition rate. A high transmission (10%–20%) x-ray beam line transport using polycapillary optics allows us to set the sample in an independent vacuum chamber, providing high flexibility over a wide spectral range from 0.5 up to 4 keV. Some XANES spectra are presented, demonstrating 1% noise level in only ∼1 mn and ∼100 cumulated laser shots. Time-resolved measurements are reported, indicating that the time resolution of the entire experimental station is 3.3 ± 0.6 ps rms.

  8. Experimental station for laser-based picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dorchies, F; Fedorov, N; Lecherbourg, L

    2015-07-01

    We present an experimental station designed for time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). It is based on ultrashort laser-plasma x-ray pulses generated from a table-top 100 mJ-class laser at 10 Hz repetition rate. A high transmission (10%-20%) x-ray beam line transport using polycapillary optics allows us to set the sample in an independent vacuum chamber, providing high flexibility over a wide spectral range from 0.5 up to 4 keV. Some XANES spectra are presented, demonstrating 1% noise level in only ∼1 mn and ∼100 cumulated laser shots. Time-resolved measurements are reported, indicating that the time resolution of the entire experimental station is 3.3 ± 0.6 ps rms.

  9. Multipurpose modular experimental station for the DiProI beamline of Fermi@Elettra free electron laser.

    PubMed

    Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Cocco, Daniele; Zangrando, Marco; Kaulich, Burkhard; Menk, Ralf H; Locatelli, Andrea; Mentes, Tevfik O; Spezzani, Carlo; Sandrin, Gilio; Bacescu, Daniel M; Kiskinova, Maya; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Chapman, Henry N; Nelson, A J; Frank, Matthias; Pivovaroff, Michael J; Woods, Bruce W; Bogan, Michael J; Hajdu, Janos

    2011-04-01

    We present a compact modular apparatus with a flexible design that will be operated at the DiProI beamline of the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser (FEL) for performing static and time-resolved coherent diffraction imaging experiments, taking advantage of the full coherence and variable polarization of the short seeded FEL pulses. The apparatus has been assembled and the potential of the experimental setup is demonstrated by commissioning tests with coherent synchrotron radiation. This multipurpose experimental station will be open to general users after installation at the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser in 2011.

  10. Multipurpose modular experimental station for the DiProI beamline of Fermi@Elettra free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Cocco, Daniele; Zangrando, Marco; Kaulich, Burkhard; Menk, Ralf H.; Locatelli, Andrea; Mentes, Tevfik O.; Spezzani, Carlo; Sandrin, Gilio; Bacescu, Daniel M.; Kiskinova, Maya; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Chapman, Henry N.; Nelson, A. J.; Frank, Matthias; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Woods, Bruce W.; Bogan, Michael J.; Hajdu, Janos

    2011-04-01

    We present a compact modular apparatus with a flexible design that will be operated at the DiProI beamline of the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser (FEL) for performing static and time-resolved coherent diffraction imaging experiments, taking advantage of the full coherence and variable polarization of the short seeded FEL pulses. The apparatus has been assembled and the potential of the experimental setup is demonstrated by commissioning tests with coherent synchrotron radiation. This multipurpose experimental station will be open to general users after installation at the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser in 2011.

  11. Multipurpose modular experimental station for the DiProI beamline of Fermi@Elettra free electron laser.

    PubMed

    Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Cocco, Daniele; Zangrando, Marco; Kaulich, Burkhard; Menk, Ralf H; Locatelli, Andrea; Mentes, Tevfik O; Spezzani, Carlo; Sandrin, Gilio; Bacescu, Daniel M; Kiskinova, Maya; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Chapman, Henry N; Nelson, A J; Frank, Matthias; Pivovaroff, Michael J; Woods, Bruce W; Bogan, Michael J; Hajdu, Janos

    2011-04-01

    We present a compact modular apparatus with a flexible design that will be operated at the DiProI beamline of the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser (FEL) for performing static and time-resolved coherent diffraction imaging experiments, taking advantage of the full coherence and variable polarization of the short seeded FEL pulses. The apparatus has been assembled and the potential of the experimental setup is demonstrated by commissioning tests with coherent synchrotron radiation. This multipurpose experimental station will be open to general users after installation at the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser in 2011. PMID:21529017

  12. The shallow water equations as a hybrid flow model for the numerical and experimental analysis of hydro power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

    2015-03-10

    The numerical analysis of hydro power stations is an important method of the hydraulic design and is used for the development and optimisation of hydro power stations in addition to the experiments with the physical submodel of a full model in the hydraulic laboratory. For the numerical analysis, 2D and 3D models are appropriate and commonly used.The 2D models refer mainly to the shallow water equations (SWE), since for this flow model a large experience on a wide field of applications for the flow analysis of numerous problems in hydraulic engineering already exists. Often, the flow model is verified by in situ measurements. In order to consider 3D flow phenomena close to singularities like weirs, hydro power stations etc. the development of a hybrid fluid model is advantageous to improve the quality and significance of the global model. Here, an extended hybrid flow model based on the principle of the SWE is presented. The hybrid flow model directly links the numerical model with the experimental data, which may originate from physical full models, physical submodels and in-situ measurements. Hence a wide field of application of the hybrid model emerges including the improvement of numerical models and the strong coupling of numerical and experimental analysis.

  13. Set-up and calibration of an outdoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator for soil erosion studies at the Masse experimental station (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergni, Lorenzo; Todisco, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    This contribution describes the technical characteristics and the preliminary calibration of a rainfall simulator recently installed by the Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences (Perugia University) at the Masse experimental station located 20 km south of Perugia, in the region of Umbria (central Italy). The site includes some USLE plots of different length λ = 11 and 22 m and width w = 2, 4 and 8 m, oriented parallel to a 16 % slope and kept free of vegetation by frequent ploughing. Since 2008, the station enabled to collect data from more than 80 erosive events, that were mainly used to investigate the relationship between rainfall characteristics and soil loss. The relevant soil loss variability that characterizes erosive storm events with similar overall characteristics (duration and/or depth) can be explained by the different rainfall profile of erosive storms and by the different antecedent soil aggregate stability. To analyse in more detail these aspects, recently, the Masse experimental station has been equipped with a semi-portable rainfall simulator placed over two micro-plots of 1x1 m each, having the same topographic and pedologic conditions of the adjacent USLE plots. The rainfall simulator consists of four full-cone spray nozzles for each micro-plot, placed at the angles of a 0.18-m square, centred over the plot at a height of 2.7 m above the ground. The operating pressure is regulated by pressure regulating valves and checked by pressure gauges mounted in correspondence of each nozzle. An electronic control unit regulates the start and stop of the inlet solenoid valves. A range of rainfall intensities can be achieved, by activating different combinations of nozzles (15 different intensities) also during the same simulation trial. The particular design of the plots allows to collect separately the runoff volume deriving from the plots and the water volume fallen outside of the plot. In this way it is possible to derive, by

  14. Experimental investigations of overvoltages in 6kV station service cable networks of thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vukelja, P.I.; Naumov, R.M.; Drobnjak, G.V.; Mrvic, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of overvoltages on 6kV isolated neutral station service cable networks of thermal power plants. The overvoltages were recorded with capacitive voltage measurement systems made at the Nikola Tesla Institute. Wideband capacitive voltage measurement systems recorded a flat response from below power frequencies to 10MHz. Investigations of overvoltages were performed for appearance and interruption of metal earth faults, intermittent earth faults, switching operation of HV motors switchgear, switching operation of transformers switchgear, and transfer of the network supply from one transformer to another. On the basis of these investigations, certain measures are proposed for limiting overvoltages and for the reliability of station service of thermal power plants.

  15. Experimental learning projects address contemporary issues related to energy, environment, and sustainable agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “Bio-Fuel, sustainability, and geospatial information technologies to enhance experiential learning paradigm for precision agriculture project”, recently funded by USDA extends the environmental stewardship archetype of the preceding project titled “Environmentally conscious precision agricultur...

  16. [Progress in development and application of experimental facilities for life sciences on onboard the International Space Station].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuang-sheng; Fu, Lan; Ai, Wei-dang

    2003-12-01

    The construction of the International Space Station (ISS) will be completed soon, and life sciences studies are important tasks to be carried out onboard. Therefore, various related facilities for life science flight experiments are being developed aimed at diverse objectives, and some of them were completed and passed ground-based simulation experiment or airplane parabolic flight tests, and to be arranged for implementation of spaceflight experiments. This article reviews comprehensively the recent progress in the development of various types of related experimental facilities and the onboard experiments, in the hope that it will provide reference for related fields of research.

  17. Experimental manipulation of melanism demonstrates the plasticity of preferred temperature in an agricultural pest (Phaulacridium vittatum).

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a key trait of successful pest species, and may increase the ability to cope with higher, more variable temperatures under climate change. We investigate the plasticity of preferred temperature in a widespread agricultural pest, the wingless grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum). Preferred temperature is a measure of thermoregulatory behaviour through habitat selection. It is influenced by melanism, which affects body temperature by determining the amount of radiation absorbed by the body. First we demonstrate that body temperature and preferred temperature in P. vittatum is influenced by melanism, by comparing the preferred temperature of the colour morphs in laboratory thermal gradients and field body temperatures in natural populations. We then test whether preferred temperature changes in response to changes in body temperature, by determining preferred temperature before and after manipulation of melanism by painting. When melanism was manipulated experimentally in live grasshoppers, preferred temperature changed to reflect the thermal qualities of the new colour. The preferred temperature of light grasshoppers increased after they were painted black, and decreased after being painted white. Similarly, dark individuals that were painted white behaved like a light individual, maintaining a lower body temperature. Preferred temperature in P.vittatum is a plastic thermoregulatory response to ambient temperature, mediated by the influence of melanism on body temperature.

  18. Riparian forest effects on nitrogen export to an agricultural stream inferred from experimental data and a model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of riparian vegetation on the reduction of agricultural nitrogen export to streams have been well described experimentally, but a clear understanding of process-level hydrological and biogeochemical controls can be difficult to ascertain from data alone. We apply a ne...

  19. [Experimental research of oil vapor pollution control for gas station with membrane separation technology].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of membranes modules, vapor retained glassy membrane based on PEEK hollow fiber membrane modules and vapor permeated rubbery membrane system based on GMT plate-and-frame membrane modules, were used to control the oil vapor pollution during the course of receiving and transferring gasoline in oil station. The efficiencies of the membrane module and the membrane system of them were evaluated and compared respectively in the facilities which were developed by ourselves. It was found that both the two kinds of membranes modules had high efficiency for the separation of VOCs-air mixed gases, and the outlet vapor after treatment all can meet the national standard. When the vapor-enriched gas was returned to the oil tank to simulate the continuously cycle test, the concentration of VOCs in the outlet was also below 25 g x m(-3).

  20. [Experimental research of oil vapor pollution control for gas station with membrane separation technology].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of membranes modules, vapor retained glassy membrane based on PEEK hollow fiber membrane modules and vapor permeated rubbery membrane system based on GMT plate-and-frame membrane modules, were used to control the oil vapor pollution during the course of receiving and transferring gasoline in oil station. The efficiencies of the membrane module and the membrane system of them were evaluated and compared respectively in the facilities which were developed by ourselves. It was found that both the two kinds of membranes modules had high efficiency for the separation of VOCs-air mixed gases, and the outlet vapor after treatment all can meet the national standard. When the vapor-enriched gas was returned to the oil tank to simulate the continuously cycle test, the concentration of VOCs in the outlet was also below 25 g x m(-3). PMID:22468544

  1. Anthropogenic transformation of soils in the northern Ergeni Upland (studies at the first experimental plot of the Arshan'-Zelmen Research Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, A. F.; Konyushkova, M. V.

    2013-03-01

    The results of soil studies performed in 2005-2009 at the first experimental plot of the Arshan'-Zelmen Research Station of the Institute of Forest Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences are discussed. The post-reclamation state (about 55 years after reclamation) of the soils under forest shelterbelts and adjacent croplands in the rainfed agriculture was studied. The long-term efficiency of forest reclamation and crop-growing technologies developed in the 1950s by the Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute and the Institute of Forest to reclaim strongly saline solonetzic soils was proved. In 55 years, strongly saline sodic solonetzes with sulfate-chloride and chloride-sulfate composition of salts were replaced by agrogenic soils with new properties. Under forest shelterbelts, where deep (40-60 cm) plowing was performed, the soils were transformed into slightly saline solonetzic agrozems with slight soda salinization in the upper meter and with dealkalized plowed and turbated horizons (0-20(40) cm). Under the adjacent cropland subjected to the influence of the shelterbelts on the soil water regime, strongly saline solonetzes were transformed into solonchakous agrosolonetzes with slight soda salinization in the upper 50 cm. In the plow layer, the content of exchangeable sodium decreased to 4-12% of the sum of exchangeable cations. An increased alkalinity and the presence of soda were found in the middle-profile horizons of the anthropogenically transformed soils.

  2. Characterizing the ozone formation potential of agricultural sources in California's San Joaquin Valley: A computational and experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Cody Jerome

    The global pattern of expanding urban centers and increasing agricultural intensity is leading to more frequent interactions between air pollution emissions from urban and agricultural sources. The confluence of these emissions that traditionally have been separated by hundreds of kilometers is creating new air quality challenges in numerous regions across the United States. An area of particular interest is California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), which has an agricultural output higher than many countries, a rapidly expanding human population, and ozone concentrations that are already higher than many dense urban areas. New regulations in the SJV restrict emissions of reactive organic gases (ROG) from animal sources in an attempt to meet Federal and State ozone standards designed to protect human health. A transportable "smog" chamber was developed and tested to directly measure the ozone formation potential of a variety of agricultural emissions in representative urban and rural atmospheres. After validation of the experimental procedure, four animal types were examined: beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, and poultry, as well as six commonly used animal feeds: cereal silage (wheat grain and oat grain), alfalfa silage, corn silage, high moisture ground corn, almond shells, almond hulls, and total mixed ration. The emitted ROG composition was also measured so that the theoretical incremental reactivity could be calculated for a variety of atmospheres and directly compared with the measured ozone formation potential (OFP) under the experimental conditions. A computational model was created based on a modified form of the Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism and validated against experimental results. After validation, the computational model was used to predict OFP across a range of NOx and ROG concentrations. The ROG OFP measurements combined with adjusted agricultural ROG emissions inventory estimates were used to predict the actual ozone production in the SJV

  3. An Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Selected Techniques and Resources on Instruction in Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Alan A.

    The study was designed to test new instructional techniques in vocational agriculture, determine their effectiveness on student achievement, and compare individual and group instructional techniques. Forty-eight randomly selected Iowa high school vocational agriculture programs with enrollments of 35 students or more, were selected for testing the…

  4. Design studies and commissioning plans for plasma acceleration research station experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Mete, O.; Xia, G.; Hanahoe, K.; Dover, M.; Wigram, M.; Wright, J.; Zhang, J.; Smith, J.

    2015-10-15

    Plasma acceleration research station is an electron beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration test stand proposed for CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory. In this paper, the interaction between the electron beam and the plasma is numerically characterised via 2D numerical studies by using VSIM code. The wakefields induced by a single bunch travelling through the plasma were found to vary from 200 MV/m to 3 GV/m for a range of bunch length, bunch radius, and plasma densities. Energy gain for the particles populating the bunch tail through the wakefields driven by the head of the bunch was demonstrated. After determining the achievable field for various beams and plasma configurations, a reference setting was determined for further studies. Considering this reference setting, the beam quality studies were performed for a two-bunch acceleration case. The maximum energy gain as well as the energy spread mitigation by benefiting from the beam loading was investigated by positioning the witness and driver bunches with respect to each other. Emittance growth mechanisms were studied considering the beam-plasma and beam-wakefield interactions. Eventually, regarding the findings, the initial commissioning plans and the aims for the later stages were summarised.

  5. Experimental and code simulation of a station blackout scenario for APR1400 with test facility ATLAS and MARS code

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, X. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Choi, K. Y.; Park, H. S.; Cho, S.; Kang, K. H.; Choi, N. H.

    2012-07-01

    A SBO (station blackout) experiment named SBO-01 was performed at full-pressure IET (Integral Effect Test) facility ATLAS (Advanced Test Loop for Accident Simulation) which is scaled down from the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). In this study, the transient of SBO-01 is discussed and is subdivided into three phases: the SG fluid loss phase, the RCS fluid loss phase, and the core coolant depletion and core heatup phase. In addition, the typical phenomena in SBO-01 test - SG dryout, natural circulation, core coolant boiling, the PRZ full, core heat-up - are identified. Furthermore, the SBO-01 test is reproduced by the MARS code calculation with the ATLAS model which represents the ATLAS test facility. The experimental and calculated transients are then compared and discussed. The comparison reveals there was malfunction of equipments: the SG leakage through SG MSSV and the measurement error of loop flow meter. As the ATLAS model is validated against the experimental results, it can be further employed to investigate the other possible SBO scenarios and to study the scaling distortions in the ATLAS. (authors)

  6. The Black Lake (Quebec, Canada) mineral carbonation experimental station: CO2 capture in mine waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, G.; Constantin, M.; Duchesne, J.; Dupuis, C.; Entrazi, A.; Gras, A.; Huot, F.; Fortier, R.; Hebert, R.; Larachi, F.; Lechat, K.; Lemieux, J. M.; Molson, J. W. H.; Maldague, X.; Therrien, R.; Assima, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    Passive mineral carbonation of chrysotile mining and milling waste was discovered at the Black Lake mine, southern Québec, 10 years ago. Indurated crusts were found at the surface and within waste piles where mineral and rock fragments are cemented by hydrated magnesium carbonates. A long-term research program has yielded significant insight into the process of CO2 capture from the atmosphere, and how it can be implemented during mining operations. Laboratory experiments show that the waste mineralogy is crucial, brucite being more reactive than serpentine. Partial water saturation, circa 40%, is also critical to dissolve magnesium from minerals, and transport aqueous CO2 to precipitation sites. Grain armoring by iron oxidation induced by dissolved oxygen prevents further reaction. Two experimental cells constructed with milling waste and fitted with various monitoring probes (T, H2O content, leachate) and gas sampling ports, have been monitored for more than 3 years, along with environmental conditions. The interstitial gas in the cells remains depleted in CO2 indicating continuous capture of ambient atmospheric CO2 at rates faster than advection to reaction sites. The energy released by the exothermic mineral carbonation reactions has been observed both in laboratory experiments (up to 4 °C) and in the field. Warm air, depleted to 10 ppmv CO2, vents at the surface of the waste piles, indicating reaction with atmospheric CO2 deep inside the piles. A thermal anomaly, detected by airborne infrared and coincident with a known venting area, was selected for locating a 100 m deep borehole fitted with sensor arrays to monitor active mineral carbonation within the pile. The borehole has intersected areas where mineral carbonation has indurated the milling waste. The borehole will be monitored for the next 3 years to better understand the mineral carbonation process, and its potential to yield recoverable geothermal energy in mining environments.

  7. Little River Experimental Watershed, Georgia: National Institute of Food and Agriculture - Conservation Effects Assessment Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2007, USDA’s Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), now the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) jointly funded two integrated research and outreach grants to conduct a synthesis of resul...

  8. Model based multivariable controller for large scale compression stations. Design and experimental validation on the LHC 18KW cryorefrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bonne, François; Bonnay, Patrick; Bradu, Benjamin

    2014-01-29

    In this paper, a multivariable model-based non-linear controller for Warm Compression Stations (WCS) is proposed. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to have precise control of every pressure in normal operation or to stabilize and control the cryoplant under high variation of thermal loads (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors such as those expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details how to set the WCS model up to synthesize the Linear Quadratic Optimal feedback gain and how to use it. After preliminary tuning at CEA-Grenoble on the 400W@1.8K helium test facility, the controller has been implemented on a Schneider PLC and fully tested first on the CERN's real-time simulator. Then, it was experimentally validated on a real CERN cryoplant. The efficiency of the solution is experimentally assessed using a reasonable operating scenario of start and stop of compressors and cryogenic turbines. This work is partially supported through the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) Goal Oriented Training Program, task agreement WP10-GOT-GIRO.

  9. Model based multivariable controller for large scale compression stations. Design and experimental validation on the LHC 18KW cryorefrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, François; Alamir, Mazen; Bonnay, Patrick; Bradu, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a multivariable model-based non-linear controller for Warm Compression Stations (WCS) is proposed. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to have precise control of every pressure in normal operation or to stabilize and control the cryoplant under high variation of thermal loads (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors such as those expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details how to set the WCS model up to synthesize the Linear Quadratic Optimal feedback gain and how to use it. After preliminary tuning at CEA-Grenoble on the 400W@1.8K helium test facility, the controller has been implemented on a Schneider PLC and fully tested first on the CERN's real-time simulator. Then, it was experimentally validated on a real CERN cryoplant. The efficiency of the solution is experimentally assessed using a reasonable operating scenario of start and stop of compressors and cryogenic turbines. This work is partially supported through the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) Goal Oriented Training Program, task agreement WP10-GOT-GIRO.

  10. An experimental and theoretical investigation of deposition patterns from an agricultural airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, D. J.; Croom, C. C.; Vandam, C. P.; Holmes, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    A flight test program has been conducted with a representative agricultural airplane to provide data for validating a computer program model which predicts aerially applied particle deposition. Test procedures and the data from this test are presented and discussed. The computer program features are summarized, and comparisons of predicted and measured particle deposition are presented. Applications of the computer program for spray pattern improvement are illustrated.

  11. Agricultural wetlands as potential hotspots for mercury bioaccumulation: Experimental evidence using caged fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands provide numerous ecosystem services, but also can be sources of methylmercury (MeHg) production and export. Rice agricultural wetlands in particular may be important sites for MeHg bioaccumulation due to their worldwide ubiquity, periodic flooding schedules, and high use by wildlife. We assessed MeHg bioaccumulation within agricultural and perennial wetlands common to California's Central Valley during summer, when the majority of wetland habitats are shallowly flooded rice fields. We introduced caged western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) within white rice (Oryza sativa), wild rice (Zizania palustris), and permanent wetlands at water inlets, centers, and outlets. Total mercury (THg) concentrations and body burdens in caged mosquitofish increased rapidly, exceeding baseline values at introduction by 135% to 1197% and 29% to 1566% among sites, respectively, after only 60 days. Mercury bioaccumulation in caged mosquitofish was greater in rice fields than in permanent wetlands, with THg concentrations at wetland outlets increasing by 12.1, 5.8, and 2.9 times over initial concentrations in white rice, wild rice, and permanent wetlands, respectively. In fact, mosquitofish caged at white rice outlets accumulated 721 ng Hg/fish in just 60 days. Mercury in wild mosquito fish and Mississippi silversides (Menidia audens) concurrently sampled at wetland outlets also were greater in white rice and wild rice than permanent wetlands. Within wetlands, THg concentrations and body burdens of both caged and wild fish increased from water inlets to outlets in white rice fields, and tended to not vary among sites in permanent wetlands. Fish THg concentrations in agricultural wetlands were high, exceeding 0.2 ??g/g ww in 82% of caged fish and 59% of wild fish. Our results indicate that shallowly flooded rice fields are potential hotspots for MeHg bioaccumulation and, due to their global prevalence, suggest that agricultural wetlands may be important contributors to Me

  12. Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station – Past and Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, or NCRPIS, is a joint venture among USDA-ARS, the Agricultural Experimental Stations of the 12 North Central States, and Iowa State University (ISU). As a component of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), NCRPIS is dedicated to the conse...

  13. Preface to special section on Fifty Years of Research and Data Collection: U.S. Department of Agriculture Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed 1930

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Special Section of Water Resources Research and the associated web site (http://www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/dap/) describe 50 years of data collection and the most recent research results at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Walnut Gulch Experimental Waters...

  14. Identifying green infrastructure BMPs for reducing nitrogen export to a Chesapeake Bay agricultural stream: model synthesis and extension of experimental data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods The effectiveness of riparian forest buffers and other green infrastructure for reducing nitrogen export to agricultural streams has been well described experimentally, but a clear understanding of process-level hydrological and biogeochemical control...

  15. 47 CFR 1.544 - Application for broadcast station to conduct field strength measurements and for experimental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for broadcast station to conduct... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Broadcast Applications and Proceedings General Filing Requirements § 1.544 Application for broadcast station to conduct field...

  16. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination: field and experimental assessment of detoxification capabilities.

    PubMed

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara; Wiegand, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g(-1) dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica modified their responses to pesticides. In the field, activities of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus(®), 0.1 μg active ingredient epoxiconazole g(-1) dry soil, RoundUp Flash(®), 2.5 μg active ingredient glyphosate g(-1) dry soil, and their mixture), revealed that environmental pre-exposure accelerated activation of the detoxification enzyme sGST towards epoxiconazole. PMID:24874794

  17. Experimental evaluation of agricultural biomass flow sensing behaviour using capacitive technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khateeb, Khalid A. S. Al; Tasnim Anika, Rumana; Khan, Sheroz; Mohamud, Musse; Arshad, Atika; Hasan, Khalid; Samnam Haider, Syed; Shobaki, Mohammed M.

    2013-12-01

    To enhance industry control quality level as well as uphold enterprise economic benefit precise sensing and measurement of biomass flow is a major concern among researchers worldwide. Keeping in mind the shortcomings of existing sensing technologies this paper has developed a capacitive sensing method by making use of aop amp based bridge circuit along with particularly designed sensing electrodes. The objective of this work is fulfilled via experimental validation through a prototype hardware implementation of a flow sensing set up. The experimental results have specified the measurement system which is able to sense flow variation as a change of dielectric permittivity of different biomass materials under room condition. Moreover, the obtained results have revealed distinctive features clearly signifying the shapes and physical characteristics of electrodes, locations of the mounted electrodes on test pipe wall, dielectric permittivity and characteristics of test biomass materials.

  18. An Experimental Evaluation of Approaches to Preparing High School Students for Agricultural Occupations Other Than Farming and (Principles Versus Traditional Approach to Teaching Vocational Agriculture). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, James T.; And Others

    To evaluate the effects of selected treatment and classification factors on the preparation of high school students for initial entry into agricultural occupations other than farming, and to compare the effectiveness of structuring agricultural subject matter based on the principles approach with the traditional approach, 24 Nebraska schools were…

  19. Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    El-Maghraby, Somia; Nawwar, Galal A; Bakr, Reda FA; Helmy, Nadia; Kamel, Omnia MHM

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24% in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide. PMID:23569971

  20. Seasonal fluctuations of bacterial community diversity in agricultural soil and experimental validation by laboratory disturbance experiments.

    PubMed

    Meier, Christoph; Wehrli, Bernhard; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2008-08-01

    Natural fluctuations in soil microbial communities are poorly documented because of the inherent difficulty to perform a simultaneous analysis of the relative abundances of multiple populations over a long time period. Yet, it is important to understand the magnitudes of community composition variability as a function of natural influences (e.g., temperature, plant growth, or rainfall) because this forms the reference or baseline against which external disturbances (e.g., anthropogenic emissions) can be judged. Second, definition of baseline fluctuations in complex microbial communities may help to understand at which point the systems become unbalanced and cannot return to their original composition. In this paper, we examined the seasonal fluctuations in the bacterial community of an agricultural soil used for regular plant crop production by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling (T-RFLP) of the amplified 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene diversity. Cluster and statistical analysis of T-RFLP data showed that soil bacterial communities fluctuated very little during the seasons (similarity indices between 0.835 and 0.997) with insignificant variations in 16S rRNA gene richness and diversity indices. Despite overall insignificant fluctuations, between 8 and 30% of all terminal restriction fragments changed their relative intensity in a significant manner among consecutive time samples. To determine the magnitude of community variations induced by external factors, soil samples were subjected to either inoculation with a pure bacterial culture, addition of the herbicide mecoprop, or addition of nutrients. All treatments resulted in statistically measurable changes of T-RFLP profiles of the communities. Addition of nutrients or bacteria plus mecoprop resulted in bacteria composition, which did not return to the original profile within 14 days. We propose that at less than 70% similarity in T-RFLP, the bacterial communities risk to

  1. Modelling soil carbon in agricultural systems: a way to widen the experimental space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Garry; Li Liu, De; Nuttall, James; Rajin Anwar, Muhuddin; Robertson, Fiona

    2015-07-01

    Mechanistic and explanatory simulation models provide robust and objective methods to extrapolate likely responses of crops and soils to climate change over different landscapes and time periods. Central to such simulation models are the supply of mineralised nutrients, in particular nitrogen, to crops through linked crop and nutrient sub-models that is achieved through modelling soil carbon dynamics. Attention to soil processes is therefore an essential part of building robust and sustainable production systems and understanding the potential impacts of climate change. To the farmer, focus must be on the productive capacity of the land and its rejuvenation to sustain production. In the broader context of reducing atmospheric CO2 concentration through soil C sequestration, understanding soil processes and the immediate environment likewise require attention to productivity issues. This is because without maintaining productivity a better understanding of soil organic carbon (SOC) processes is unlikely to lead to increased SOC sequestration in Australia's farming land. Some gaps in knowledge of how to manage SOC are being addressed in a national research effort, including the scant measured data against which models can be tested. Nevertheless, continuing to apply models to push the boundaries well beyond what can be achieved in practice widens the experimental space, allowing new ideas to be tested where physical experiments are not possible. This raises optimism that new ways may be discovered to explain change in SOC and increase SOC where it is possible in a beneficial way.

  2. Space station, 1959 to . .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  3. Assessment of proposed agricultural outleasing - Naval Air Station, Lemoore, California, on the endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, and blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Crotaphytus (=Gambelia) silus

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Sauls, M.L.

    1982-11-01

    The United States Navy proposes to outlease lands adjacent to the runways of Naval Air Station, Lemoore, California, for agricultural purposes. These lands are currently undeveloped annual grasslands that have been modified by past land management practices. The proposed site is thought to provide habitat for the endangered San Joaquin kit fox. It has also been speculated that another endangered species, the blunt-nosed leopard lizard, may occur on the station. The objectives of this study were to determine whether kit fox and leopard lizards occurred on NAS, Lemoore, and to assess the possible impacts of the agricultural outlease program on these species and their essential habitats. Between 24 to 28 May 1982, ground transects studies, a helicopter overflight, night spotlight surveys, and live-trapping for kit fox were conducted on approximately 2700 acres to determine presence of the species. No evidence of either kit fox or blunt-nosed leopard lizards was found. It is unlikely that the Navy's proposed outlease program will negatively affect either species or jeopardize their continued existence.

  4. Six-circle diffractometer with atmosphere- and temperature-controlled sample stage and area and line detectors for use in the G2 experimental station at CHESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, D. E.; Blasini, D. R.; Vodnick, A. M.; Blank, B.; Tate, M. W.; Deyhim, A.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Abruna, H.; Gruner, S. M.; Baker, S. P.

    2006-11-15

    A new diffractometer system was designed and built for the G2 experimental station at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). A six-circle {kappa} goniometer, which provides better access to reciprocal space compared to Eulerian cradles, was chosen primarily to perform large angle Bragg diffraction on samples with preferred crystallographic orientations, and can access both horizontal and vertical diffraction planes. A new atmosphere- and temperature-controlled sample stage was designed for thin film thermomechanical experiments. The stage can be operated in ultrahigh vacuum and uses a Be dome x-ray window to provide access to all scattering vectors above a sample's horizon. A novel design minimizes sample displacements during thermal cycling to less than 160 {mu}m over 900 deg. C and the stage is motorized for easy height adjustments, which can be used to compensate for displacements from thermal expansion. A new area detector was built and a new line detector was purchased. Both detectors cover a large region in reciprocal space, providing the ability to measure time-resolved phenomena. A detailed description of the design and technical characteristics is given. Some capabilities of the diffractometer system are illustrated by a strain analysis on a thin metal film and characterization of organic thin films with grazing incidence diffraction. The G2 experimental station, as part of CHESS, is a national user facility and is available to external users by application.

  5. Sustained stimulation of soil respiration and CO2 release from an agricultural soil after 10 years of experimental warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, Jean Charles; Graf, Wolfgang; Reichenstein, Markus; Reth, Sascha

    2010-05-01

    A number of forest and grassland studies indicated that stimulation of the soil respiration by soil warming ceases after a couple of years (Luo et al 2001). A long-term soil warming lysimeter experiment (soil monolythes from an agricultural field, 1m2 x 2 Meter depth, temperature = ambient + 3°C; with a regionally usual crop rotation with 5 crops) was conducted in southern Germany. It results in a sustained stimulation of soil respiration after 10 years. Moreover, both warmed and control treatments exhibited a similar temperature response of soil respiration indicating that adaptation in terms of temperature sensitivity was absent. Carbon dioxide concentration measurements within the profiles are supporting these findings. The increased soil respiration occurred although vegetation productivity in the warmed treatment was not higher than in the control plots. These findings strongly contrast current soil carbon modeling concepts, where carbon pools decay according to first-order kinetics, and thus a depletion of labile soil carbon pools leads to an apparent down-regulation of microbial respiration (Knorr et al 2005). Consequently, the potential for positive carbon-climate cycle feedback may be larger than represented in current models of soil carbon turnover and in general assessments. Literatur Knorr W, Prentice I C, House J I and Holland A 2005 Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon turnover to warming Nature 433 298-301 Luo Y, Wan S, Hui D and Wallace L L 2001 Acclimatization of soil respiration to warming in a tall grass prairie Nature 413 622 - 5 Reth S. Graf W, Reichenstein M, Munch J.C. 2009 Sustained stimulation of soil respiration after 10 years of experimental warming Environmental Research Letters 4(2) 024005

  6. Experimental and CFD analysis for prediction of vortex and swirl angle in the pump sump station model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C. G.; Kim, B. H.; Bang, B. H.; Lee, Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Sump model testing is mainly used to check flow conditions around the intake structure. In present paper, numerical simulation with SST turbulence model for a scaled sump model was carried out with air entrainment and two phases for prediction of locations of vortex generation. The sump model used for the CFD and experimental analysis was scaled down by a ratio of 1:10. The experiment was performed in Korea Maritime and Ocean University (KMOU) and the flow conditions around pump's intake structure were investigated. In this study, uniformity of flow distribution in the pump intake channel was examined to find out the specific causes of vortex occurrence. Furthermore, the effectiveness of an Anti Vortex Device (AVD) to suppress the vortex occurrence in a single intake pump sump model was examined. CFD and experimental analysis carried out with and without AVDs produced very similar results. Without the AVDs, the maximum swirl angle obtained for experimental and CFD analysis were 10.9 and 11.3 degree respectively. Similarly, with AVDs, the maximum swirl angle obtained for experimental and CFD analysis was 2.7 and 0.2 degree respectively. So, with reference to the ANSI/HI 98 standard that permits a maximum swirl angle of 5 degree, the use of AVDs in experimental and CFD analysis produced very desirable results which is well within the limit.

  7. Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP): Past Micro-Gravity Experiments and Future Experimental Plan on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, F.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of an insoluble particle with a growing solid-liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the four decades. For a metallurgist or a material scientist understanding the fundamental physics of such an interaction is relevant for applications that include distribution of reinforcement particles in metal matrix composites, inclusion management in castings, and distribution of Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (211) precipitates (flux pinning sites) in Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (123) superconducting crystals. The same physics is also applicable to other areas including geological applications (frost heaving in soils) and preservation of biological cells. Experimentally this interaction can be quantified in terms of a critical growth velocity, Vcr, of the SLI below which particles are pushed ahead of the advancing interface, and above which the particles are engulfed. Past experimental evidence suggests that this Vcr is an inverse function of the particle radius, R. In order to isolate the fundamental physics that governs such a relationship it is necessary to minimize natural convection at the SLI that is inherent in ground based experiments. Hence for the purpose of producing benchmark data (Vcr vs. R) PEP is a natural candidate for micro-gravity experimentation. Accordingly, experiments with pure Al containing a dispersion of ZrO2 particles and an organic analogue, succinonitrile (SCN) containing polystyrene particles have been performed on the LMS and USMP-4 mission respectively. In this paper we will summarize the experimental data that was obtained during these two micro-gravity missions and show that the results differ compared to terrestrial experiments. We will also discuss the basic elements of our analytical and numerical model and present a comparison of the predictions of these models against micro-gravity experimental data. Finally. we will discuss our future experimental plan that includes the ISS glovebox and MSRRl.

  8. Microbe-I: fungal biota analyses of the Japanese experimental module KIBO of the International Space Station before launch and after being in orbit for about 460 days.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kazuo; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Sugita, Takashi; Tsukii, Yuuji; Takatori, Kosuke; Benno, Yoshimi; Makimura, Koichi

    2011-12-01

    In addition to the crew, microbes also find their way aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, microbial monitoring is necessary for the health and safety of the crew and for general maintenance of the facilities of this station. Samples were collected from three sites in the Japanese experimental module KIBO on the ISS (air diffuser, handrail, and surfaces) for analysis of fungal biota approximately 1 year after this module had docked with the ISS. Samples taken from KIBO before launch and from our laboratory were used as controls. In the case of KIBO, both microbe detection sheet (MDS) and swab culture tests of orbital samples were negative. The MDS were also examined by field emission-scanning electron microscopy; no microbial structures were detected. However, fungal DNAs were detected by real-time PCR and analyzed by the clone library method; Alternaria sp. and Malassezia spp. were the dominant species before launch and in space, respectively. The dominant species found in specimens from the air conditioner diffuser, lab bench, door push panel, and facility surfaces on our laboratory (ground controls) were Inonotus sp., Cladosporium sp., Malassezia spp., and Pezicula sp., respectively. The fungi in the KIBO were probably derived from contamination due to humans, while those in our laboratory came from the environment (e.g., the soil). In conclusion, the cleanliness in KIBO was equivalent to that in a clean room environment on the ground. PMID:21950271

  9. DSS-13 - Using an OSI process control standard for monitor and control. [Deep Space Network experimental station applying Open System interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heuser, W. R.; Chen, Richard L.; Stockett, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    The flexibility and robustness of a monitor and control (M&C) system are a direct result of the underlying inter-processor communications architecture. A new architecture for M&C at the Deep Space Communications Complexes has been developed based on the manufacturing message specification (MMS) process control standard of the open system interconnection (OSI) suite of protocols. This architecture has been tested both in a laboratory environment and under operational conditions at the Deep Space Network experimental station (DSS-13). The DSS-13 experience in the application of OSI standards to support M&C has been extremely successful. MMS meets the functional needs of the station and provides a level of flexibility and responsiveness previously unknown in that environment. The architecture is robust enough to meet current operational needs and flexible enough to provide a migration path for new subsystems. This paper describes the architecture of the DSS-13 M&C system, discuss how MMS was used and the requirements this imposed on other parts of the system, and provides results from systems and operational testing at DSS-13.

  10. Microbe-I: fungal biota analyses of the Japanese experimental module KIBO of the International Space Station before launch and after being in orbit for about 460 days.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kazuo; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Sugita, Takashi; Tsukii, Yuuji; Takatori, Kosuke; Benno, Yoshimi; Makimura, Koichi

    2011-12-01

    In addition to the crew, microbes also find their way aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, microbial monitoring is necessary for the health and safety of the crew and for general maintenance of the facilities of this station. Samples were collected from three sites in the Japanese experimental module KIBO on the ISS (air diffuser, handrail, and surfaces) for analysis of fungal biota approximately 1 year after this module had docked with the ISS. Samples taken from KIBO before launch and from our laboratory were used as controls. In the case of KIBO, both microbe detection sheet (MDS) and swab culture tests of orbital samples were negative. The MDS were also examined by field emission-scanning electron microscopy; no microbial structures were detected. However, fungal DNAs were detected by real-time PCR and analyzed by the clone library method; Alternaria sp. and Malassezia spp. were the dominant species before launch and in space, respectively. The dominant species found in specimens from the air conditioner diffuser, lab bench, door push panel, and facility surfaces on our laboratory (ground controls) were Inonotus sp., Cladosporium sp., Malassezia spp., and Pezicula sp., respectively. The fungi in the KIBO were probably derived from contamination due to humans, while those in our laboratory came from the environment (e.g., the soil). In conclusion, the cleanliness in KIBO was equivalent to that in a clean room environment on the ground.

  11. Experimental study and modelling of overheating of electrical catenary-pantograph interface for trains supplied with power in station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bausseron, Thomas; Baucour, Philippe; Glises, Raynal; Verschelde, Sylvain; Chamagne, Didier

    2015-06-01

    For railroads and trains, there have been many incidents involving catenary overheating at the contact with the pantograph when a train is supplied with power while standing still. The overheating of the catenary-pantograph interface can sometimes cause the contact wire to break. In order to anticipate the occurrence of such costly problems, the FEMTO-ST Institute has carried out theoretical and experimental studies in collaboration with the French National Railway Company (SNCF) to better understand this phenomenon. First, a 2D transient electrical model was developed for the contact wire. This allows the current distribution in the wire to be estimated to obtain an accurate measure of the internal heat generation. The heat produced by the interface was considered and split between the catenary and pantograph with an analytical model. Finally, the heat transfer equation for the wire under particular boundary conditions was solved for the entire finite difference network based on Euler's implicit method. The transient modelling results of the wire heating were compared with earlier experimental values, and a parametric study was performed.

  12. The illuminating role of laser scanning digital elevation models in precision agriculture experimental designs - an agro-ecology perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser scanning data streams, when linked with multi-spectral, hyperspectral, apparent soil electro-conductivity (ECa), or other kinds of geo-referenced data streams, aid in the creation of maps that allow useful applications in agricultural systems. These combinations of georeferenced information p...

  13. Readership Study of an Agricultural Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ted

    Since the fall of 1957, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station has published a semi-scientific quarterly magazine, "Louisiana Agriculture," to present information on the station's research to Louisiana citizens, particularly public officials, members of the agribusiness sector, science-oriented farmers, agriculture and science teachers, and…

  14. Strategies for "minimal growth maintenance" of cell cultures: a perspective on management for extended duration experimentation in the microgravity environment of a Space station.

    PubMed

    Krikorian, A D

    1996-01-01

    How cells manage without gravity and how they change in the absence of gravity are basic questions that only prolonged life on a Space station will enable us to answer. We know from investigations carried out on various kinds of Space vehicles and stations that profound physiological effects can and often to occur. We need to know more of the basic biochemistry and biophysics both of cells and of whole organisms in conditions of reduced gravity. The unique environment of Space affords plant scientists an unusual opportunity to carry out experiments in microgravity, but some major challenges must be faced before this can be done with confidence. Various laboratory activities that are routine on Earth take on special significance and offer problems that need imaginative resolution before even a relatively simple experiment can be reliably executed on a Space station. For example, scientists might wish to investigate whether adaptive or other changes that have occurred in the environment of Space are retained after return to Earth-normal conditions. Investigators seeking to carry out experiments in the low-gravity environment of Space using cultured cells will need to solve the problem of keeping cultures quiescent for protracted periods before an experiment is initiated, after periodic sampling is carried out, and after the experiment is completed. This review gives an evaluation of a range of strategies that can enable one to manipulate cell physiology and curtail growth dramatically toward this end. These strategies include cryopreservation, chilling, reduced oxygen, gel entrapment strategies, osmotic adjustment, nutrient starvation, pH manipulation, and the use of mitotic inhibitors and growth-retarding chemicals. Cells not only need to be rendered quiescent for protracted periods but they also must be recoverable and further grown if it is so desired. Elaboration of satisfactory procedures for management of cells and tissues at "near zero or minimal growth" will

  15. Strategies for "minimal growth maintenance" of cell cultures: a perspective on management for extended duration experimentation in the microgravity environment of a Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    How cells manage without gravity and how they change in the absence of gravity are basic questions that only prolonged life on a Space station will enable us to answer. We know from investigations carried out on various kinds of Space vehicles and stations that profound physiological effects can and often to occur. We need to know more of the basic biochemistry and biophysics both of cells and of whole organisms in conditions of reduced gravity. The unique environment of Space affords plant scientists an unusual opportunity to carry out experiments in microgravity, but some major challenges must be faced before this can be done with confidence. Various laboratory activities that are routine on Earth take on special significance and offer problems that need imaginative resolution before even a relatively simple experiment can be reliably executed on a Space station. For example, scientists might wish to investigate whether adaptive or other changes that have occurred in the environment of Space are retained after return to Earth-normal conditions. Investigators seeking to carry out experiments in the low-gravity environment of Space using cultured cells will need to solve the problem of keeping cultures quiescent for protracted periods before an experiment is initiated, after periodic sampling is carried out, and after the experiment is completed. This review gives an evaluation of a range of strategies that can enable one to manipulate cell physiology and curtail growth dramatically toward this end. These strategies include cryopreservation, chilling, reduced oxygen, gel entrapment strategies, osmotic adjustment, nutrient starvation, pH manipulation, and the use of mitotic inhibitors and growth-retarding chemicals. Cells not only need to be rendered quiescent for protracted periods but they also must be recoverable and further grown if it is so desired. Elaboration of satisfactory procedures for management of cells and tissues at "near zero or minimal growth" will

  16. Science on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Plans for space science activities on the International Space Station are reviewed from a NASA perspective. The present Station reference configuration is based on a dual-keel core unit (one habitation module and three laboratory modules supplied by NASA, ESA, and Japan) and provides for five attached systems (with up to four payloads each to be exposed to space) and several free-flying platforms (both polar orbiters and coorbiters). Particular attention is given to the space science aspects of the primary Station objectives defined by NASA (servicing and repair, platforms, pressurized modules, and attached payloads). Also discussed are the work of the Task Force on Scientific Uses of Space Station, the need for operational flexibility, the value of a continuous manned presence for experimental science, and the skills needed from the Station crew.

  17. Monitoring and Modelling of the Long-term Effect of Changing Agriculture on Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater and Streams in Small Experimental subsurface dominant watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovet, Ophelie; Hrachowitz, Markus; Ruiz, Laurent; Faucheux, Mikael; Aquilina, Luc; Molenat, Jerome; Durand, Patrick; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2013-04-01

    Management and prediction of water quality in watersheds is critical especially in agricultural regions. Water quality in watersheds varies in a very broad range of temporal scales, from storm events or diurnal cycles, seasonal cycles, to pluriannual trends. It varies also spatially, with contrasted dynamics of solutes in the soil, the recharge, the groundwater and the streams. This is challenging both in term of monitoring and of modelling. Agricultural watershed are interesting to discriminate short term from long term mechanisms, as most of them experienced drastic changes in agricultural inputs in the past 50 years. Recently, the analysis of long-term stream water quality data sets has allowed improving significantly our understanding of solute residence time in watersheds [1]. However, as historical agricultural practices are usually poorly documented, large assumptions are needed to achieve such exercises. Despite the large amount of research in the past 30 years dedicated to understand and model the dynamics of agricultural-borne diffuse pollution at the watershed level, there is no accepted perceptual model explaining the observed dynamics of water quality simultaneously at all the relevant spatial and temporal scales and a very little number of sites sufficiently documented to test it. We present results from a long-term comprehensive monitoring of agricultural inputs and chemistry of surface water (20 years) and groundwater (10 years) in small experimental watersheds (ORE AgrHys, http://www.inra.fr/ore_agrhys/). Results showed (i) a strong stability in the stream chemistry whereas agricultural inputs in these small watersheds were highly variable from year to year, (ii) a high spatial heterogeneity of the groundwater chemistry, both laterally along the hillslope and vertically and (iii) contrasted behavior of long-term trends in agricultural inputs and nitrate concentration in groundwater. A simple model was developed, based on linear reservoirs, and run

  18. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential

    SciTech Connect

    Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.; Antiohos, S.K.; Papadi, C.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of parameters characterising agricultural plastic waste (APW) quality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of samples to determine APW quality for recycling or energy recovery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Majority of APW samples from various countries have very good quality for recycling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upper limit of 50% w/w soil contamination in APW acceptable for energy recovery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chlorine and heavy metals content in APW below the lowest limit for energy recovery. - Abstract: A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a 'very good quality' for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  19. Multi-frequency and polarimetric radar backscatter signatures for discrimination between agricultural crops at the Flevoland experimental test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Villasenor, J.; Klein, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the calibration and analysis of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar backscatter signatures over an agriculture test site in the Netherlands. The calibration procedure involved two stages: in the first stage, polarimetric and radiometric calibrations (ignoring noise) were carried out using square-base trihedral corner reflector signatures and some properties of the clutter background. In the second stage, a novel algorithm was used to estimate the noise level in the polarimetric data channels by using the measured signature of an idealized rough surface with Bragg scattering (the ocean in this case). This estimated noise level was then used to correct the measured backscatter signatures from the agriculture fields. We examine the significance of several key parameters extracted from the calibrated and noise-corrected backscatter signatures. The significance is assessed in terms of the ability to uniquely separate among classes from 13 different backscatter types selected from the test site data, including eleven different crops, one forest and one ocean area. Using the parameters with the highest separation for a given class, we use a hierarchical algorithm to classify the entire image. We find that many classes, including ocean, forest, potato, and beet, can be identified with high reliability, while the classes for which no single parameter exhibits sufficient separation have higher rates of misclassification. We expect that modified decision criteria involving simultaneous consideration of several parameters increase performance for these classes.

  20. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, Benjamin; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295–728 million annually. PMID:27441108

  1. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Waterhouse, Benjamin; Boyer, Stephane; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295-728 million annually.

  2. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential.

    PubMed

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E; Antiohos, S K; Papadi, C

    2012-06-01

    A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a "very good quality" for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  3. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Waterhouse, Benjamin; Boyer, Stephane; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295-728 million annually. PMID:27441108

  4. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  5. Experimental monitoring and numerical study of pesticide (carbofuran) transfer in an agricultural soil at a field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmimou, Abderrahim; Maslouhi, Abdellatif; Tamoh, Karim; Candela, Lucila

    2014-09-01

    We studied the transport of a pesticide at field scale, namely carbofuran molecule, which is known for its high mobility, especially in sandy soils with high hydraulic conductivity and low organic matter. To add to our knowledge of the future of this high-mobility molecule in this type of soils, we developed a mechanistic numerical model allowing the simulation of hydric and solute transfers (bromide and carbofuran) in the soil. We carried out this study in an agricultural plot in the region of Mnasra in Morocco. Confrontation of the measured and simulated values allowed the calibration of the parameters of hydric transfer and carbofuran. The developed model accurately reproduces the measured values. Despite a weak irrigation and precipitation regime, carbofuran was practically leached beyond the root zone. Prospective simulations show that under a more important irrigation regime, carbofuran reaches a 100-cm depth, whereas it does not exceed 60 cm under a deficit regime.

  6. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Land cover data sets (1974-2007) for two southwestern Oklahoma agricultural watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A retrospective land cover analysis covering the time period from the early 1970s to early 1990s was conducted to gain a sense of the dynamics of land cover changes on the Little Washita River and Fort Cobb Reservoir experimental watersheds (LWREW, FCREW), located in southwestern Oklahoma. This stu...

  7. Interrelation of experimental exposure and ambient air-quality data for comparison of ozone-exposure indices and estimating agricultural losses

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.H.; Tingey, D.T.; Hogsett, W.E.

    1989-06-01

    This report evaluates ambient air quality indicators for ozone (O{sub 3}) and estimates the exposure levels associated with agricultural losses. In support of the U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards review and evaluation of a secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, the Terrestrial Branch within the Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory investigated alternative exposure indices for characterizing the adverse effects of ozone on agriculture, using experimental data from the National Crop Loss Assessment Network program. Scientific and technical information on ozone and its effects on vegetation, natural ecosystems, natural and artificial materials, and human welfare necessitates a secondary standard that adequately describes the temporal variations of exposure and their effects on plant production and correlates well with short- and long-term exposures. The identification of an appropriate ozone standard that protects against crop-yield losses proceeds along two lines: regression analysis of plant response data against various exposure indices to determine indices that best depict biological response, and ambient air quality analysis of ambient O{sub 3} data to identify indices that correlate well with various exposure patterns.

  8. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  9. Space Station Final Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  10. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Mock-up of Manned Space Laboratory. 'Two Langley engineers test an experimental air lock between an arriving spacecraft and a space station portal in January 1964.' : Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 299.

  11. Chitin amendment increases soil suppressiveness toward plant pathogens and modulates the actinobacterial and oxalobacteraceal communities in an experimental agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Korthals, Gerard W; Visser, Johnny H M; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-09-01

    A long-term experiment on the effect of chitin addition to soil on the suppression of soilborne pathogens was set up and monitored for 8 years in an experimental field, Vredepeel, The Netherlands. Chitinous matter obtained from shrimps was added to soil top layers on two different occasions, and the suppressiveness of soil toward Verticillium dahliae, as well as plant-pathogenic nematodes, was assessed, in addition to analyses of the abundances and community structures of members of the soil microbiota. The data revealed that chitin amendment had raised the suppressiveness of soil, in particular toward Verticillium dahliae, 9 months after the (second) treatment, extending to 2 years following treatment. Moreover, major effects of the added chitin on the soil microbial communities were detected. First, shifts in both the abundances and structures of the chitin-treated soil microbial communities, both of total soil bacteria and fungi, were found. In addition, the abundances and structures of soil actinobacteria and the Oxalobacteraceae were affected by chitin. At the functional gene level, the abundance of specific (family-18 glycoside hydrolase) chitinase genes carried by the soil bacteria also revealed upshifts as a result of the added chitin. The effects of chitin noted for the Oxalobacteraceae were specifically related to significant upshifts in the abundances of the species Duganella violaceinigra and Massilia plicata. These effects of chitin persisted over the time of the experiment.

  12. Impact of runoff water from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec® 18EC (abamectin) on the survival, growth and gill morphology of zebrafish juveniles.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Andréa; Vieira, Bruna Horvath; Braun, Andréa Simone; Mendes, Lucas Bueno; Daam, Michiel Adriaan; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2016-02-01

    Edge-of-field waterbodies in tropical agroecosystems have been reported to be especially prone to pesticide contamination through runoff resulting from intensive irrigation practices and tropical rainfall. In the present study, the effects of runoff from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec(®) 18EC (active ingredient: abamectin) on zebrafish were evaluated. To this end, the experimental field was applied with the Vertimec(®) 18EC dose recommended for strawberry crop in Brazil, whereas another field was treated with water only to serve as control. No effects of runoff water from either plot were recorded on survival. Water from the treated field led to increased growth and gill alterations. In general, these alterations were of the first and second degree, including proliferation of cells between the secondary lamellae, dilation at the lamellar apex, detachment of the respiratory epithelium and aneurism. These results confirm the high toxic potential of Vertimec(®) 18EC and provide evidence that environmental risks are likely to occur in areas subject to runoff containing this pesticide. PMID:26492427

  13. 47 CFR 74.709 - Land mobile station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.709 Land mobile station protection. (a) Stations in the Land Mobile... caused by low power TV or TV translator stations, and low power TV and TV translator stations must...

  14. 47 CFR 74.709 - Land mobile station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.709 Land mobile station protection. (a) Stations in the Land Mobile... caused by low power TV or TV translator stations, and low power TV and TV translator stations must...

  15. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  16. Space agriculture in micro- and hypo-gravity: A comparative study of soil hydraulics and biogeochemistry in a cropping unit on Earth, Mars, the Moon and the space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Federico; Pallud, Céline

    2010-12-01

    Increasing interest is developing towards soil-based agriculture as a long-term bioregenerative life support during space and planetary explorations. Contrary to hydroponics and aeroponics, soil-based cropping would offer an effective approach to sustain food and oxygen production, decompose organic wastes, sequester carbon dioxide, and filter water. However, the hydraulics and biogeochemical functioning of soil systems exposed to gravities lower than the Earth's are still unknown. Since gravity is crucial in driving water flow, hypogravity will affect nutrient and oxygen transport in the liquid and gaseous phases, and could lead to suffocation of microorganisms and roots, and emissions of toxic gases. A highly mechanistic model coupling soil hydraulics and nutrient biogeochemistry previously tested on soils on Earth ( g=9.806 m s -2) is used to highlight the effects of gravity on the functioning of cropping units on Mars (0.38 g), the Moon (0.16 g), and in the international space station (ISS, nearly 0 g). For each scenario, we have compared the net leaching of water, the leaching of NH 3, NH 4+, NO 2- and NO 3- solutes, the emissions of NH 3, CO 2, N 2O, NO and N 2 gases, the concentrations profiles of O 2, CO 2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil, the pH, and the dynamics of various microbial functional groups within the root zone against the same control variables in the soil under terrestrial gravity. The response of the soil ecodynamics was relatively linear; gravitational accelerations lower than the Earth's resulted in 90-100% lower water leaching rates, 95-100% lower nutrient leaching rates, and lower emissions of NH 3 and NO gases (80-95% and 30-40%, respectively). Lower N loss through leaching resulted in 60-100% higher concentration of the microbial biomass, but did not alter the vertical stratification of the microbial functional groups with respect to the stratification on Earth. However, the higher biomass concentration produced higher

  17. 47 CFR 74.1283 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station identification. 74.1283 Section 74.1283 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations...

  18. 7 CFR 29.42 - Receiving station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.42 Receiving station. Points at which producer tobacco is offered for marketing (other than sale at auction on a designated market), including tobacco auction warehouses,...

  19. Promoting Pollinating Insects in Intensive Agricultural Matrices: Field-Scale Experimental Manipulation of Hay-Meadow Mowing Regimes and Its Effects on Bees

    PubMed Central

    Buri, Pierrick; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES). We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1) first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES); 2) first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3) first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing). Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year) and cumulative (from one year to the following) positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services. PMID:24416434

  20. Promoting pollinating insects in intensive agricultural matrices: field-scale experimental manipulation of hay-meadow mowing regimes and its effects on bees.

    PubMed

    Buri, Pierrick; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES). We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1) first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES); 2) first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3) first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing). Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year) and cumulative (from one year to the following) positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services.

  1. Promoting pollinating insects in intensive agricultural matrices: field-scale experimental manipulation of hay-meadow mowing regimes and its effects on bees.

    PubMed

    Buri, Pierrick; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES). We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1) first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES); 2) first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3) first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing). Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year) and cumulative (from one year to the following) positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services. PMID:24416434

  2. Farming for Ecosystem Services: An Ecological Approach to Production Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Philip Robertson, G.; Gross, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Landis, Douglas A.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Swinton, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    A balanced assessment of ecosystem services provided by agriculture requires a systems-level socioecological understanding of related management practices at local to landscape scales. The results from 25 years of observation and experimentation at the Kellogg Biological Station long-term ecological research site reveal services that could be provided by intensive row-crop ecosystems. In addition to high yields, farms could be readily managed to contribute clean water, biocontrol and other biodiversity benefits, climate stabilization, and long-term soil fertility, thereby helping meet society's need for agriculture that is economically and environmentally sustainable. Midwest farmers—especially those with large farms—appear willing to adopt practices that deliver these services in exchange for payments scaled to management complexity and farmstead benefit. Surveyed citizens appear willing to pay farmers for the delivery of specific services, such as cleaner lakes. A new farming for services paradigm in US agriculture seems feasible and could be environmentally significant. PMID:26955069

  3. Mercury methylation, export and bioaccumulation in rice agriculture - model results from comparative and experimental studies in 3 regions of the California Delta, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.; Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Seasonally flooded wetland ecosystems are often poised for mercury (Hg) methylation, thus becoming sources of methylmercury (MeHg) to in situ and downstream biota. The seasonal flooding associated with cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) also generates MeHg, which may be stored in sediment or plants, bioaccumulated into fauna, degraded or exported, depending on hydrologic and seasonal conditions. While many U.S. waters are regulated for total Hg concentrations based on fish targets, California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) will soon implement the first MeHg total maximum daily load (TMDL) control program. Since 2007, a conceptual model (DRERIP-MCM) and several ecosystem-level studies have been advanced to better understand the mechanisms behind Hg methylation, export and bioaccumulation within Delta wetlands, including rice agriculture. Three Delta rice-growing regions (Yolo Bypass, Cosumnes River, Central Delta) of varied soil characteristics, mining influences and hydrology, were monitored over full crop years to evaluate annual MeHg dynamics. In addition to fish tissue Hg accumulation, a broad suite of biogeochemical and hydrologic indices were assessed and compared between wetland types, seasons, and regions. In general, Delta rice fields were found to export MeHg during the post-harvest winter season, and promote MeHg uptake in fish and rice grain during the summer growing season. As described in a companion presentation (Eagles-Smith et al., this session), the experimental Cosumnes River study suggests that rice-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fuels MeHg production and uptake into aquatic foodwebs. Explicit DRERIP-MCM linkages for the role of rice-DOC in MeHg production, export and bioaccumulation were verified across two summers (2011, 2012): rice biomass and root productivity influenced porewater DOC availability and microbial processes, which drove sediment MeHg production and flux to surface water, promoting MeHg bioaccumulation in fish

  4. Does a Curriculum Integration Intervention to Improve the Mathematics Achievement of Students Diminish Their Acquisition of Technical Competence? An Experimental Study in Agricultural Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Brian A.; Edwards, M. Craig; Leising, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically test the hypothesis that students who participated in a contextualized, mathematics-enhanced high school agricultural power and technology curriculum and aligned instructional approach would not experience significant diminishment in acquisition of technical skills related to agricultural power and…

  5. Internationalization of the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  6. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  7. Capillary Channel Flow (CCF) EU2-02 on the International Space Station (ISS): An Experimental Investigation of Passive Bubble Separations in an Open Capillary Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, Mark M.; Wollman, Andrew P.; Jenson, Ryan M.; Geile, John T.; Tucker, John F.; Wiles, Brentley M.; Trattner, Andy L.; DeVoe, Claire; Sharp, Lauren M.; Canfield, Peter J.; Klatte, Joerg; Dreyer, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    It would be signicantly easier to design fluid systems for spacecraft if the fluid phases behaved similarly to those on earth. In this research an open 15:8 degree wedge-sectioned channel is employed to separate bubbles from a two-phase flow in a microgravity environment. The bubbles appear to rise in the channel and coalesce with the free surface in much the same way as would bubbles in a terrestrial environment, only the combined effects of surface tension, wetting, and conduit geometry replace the role of buoyancy. The host liquid is drawn along the channel by a pump and noncondensible gas bubbles are injected into it near the channel vertex at the channel inlet. Control parameters include bubble volume, bubble frequency, liquid volumetric flow rate, and channel length. The asymmetrically confined bubbles are driven in the cross-flow direction by capillary forces until they at least become inscribed within the section or until they come in contact with the free surface, whereupon they usually coalesce and leave the flow. The merging of bubbles enhances, but does not guarantee, the latter. The experiments are performed aboard the International Space Station as a subset of the Capillary Channel Flow experiments. The flight hardware is commanded remotely and continuously from ground stations during the tests and an extensive array of experiments is conducted identifying numerous bubble flow regimes and regime transitions depending on the ratio and magnitude of the gas and liquid volumetric flow rates. The breadth of the publicly available experiments is conveyed herein primarily by narrative and by regime maps, where transitions are approximated by simple expressions immediately useful for the purposes of design and deeper analysis.

  8. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  9. Center Pivot Irrigated Agriculture, Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A view of the Faregh Agricultural Station in the Great Calanscio Sand Sea, Libya (26.5N, 22.0E) about 300 miles southeast of Benghazi. A pattern of water wells have been drilled several miles apart to support a quarter mile center-pivot-swing-arm agricultural irrigation system. The crop grown is alfalfa which is eaten on location by flocks of sheep following the swing arm as it rotates. At maturity, the sheep are flown to market throughout Libya.

  10. Space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: gaseous H/O rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These two thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the space station, utilizing waste fluids as their source of propellant. The H/O rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use waste gases collected from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. The results are presented of experimental efforts with H/O and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability, as well as results of studies to determine the availability of water and waste gases.

  11. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  12. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  13. 78 FR 42928 - Draft Environmental Assessment for the Cotton Quality Research Station Land Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Draft Environmental Assessment for the Cotton Quality... Environmental Assessment for the Cotton Quality Research Station Land Transfer. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... facilities at the Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) from the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS)...

  14. Use of Scented Sugar Bait Stations to Track Mosquito-Borne Arbovirus Transmission in California

    PubMed Central

    LOTHROP, HUGH D.; WHEELER, SARAH S.; FANG, YING; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory and field research was conducted to determine if Culex tarsalis Coquillett expectorated West Nile virus (WNV) during sugar feeding and if a lure or bait station could be developed to exploit this behavior for WNV surveillance. Experimentally infected Cx. tarsalis repeatedly expectorated WNV onto filter paper strips and into vials with wicks containing sucrose that was readily detectable by a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. Few females (33%, n = 27) became infected by imbibing sugar solutions spiked with high concentrations (107 plaque forming units/ml) of WNV, indicating sugar feeding stations probably would not be a source of WNV infection. In nature, sugar bait stations scented with the floral attractant phenyl acetaldehyde tracked WNV transmission activity in desert but not urban or agricultural landscapes in California. When deployed in areas of the Coachella Valley with WNV activity during the summer of 2011, 27 of 400 weekly sugar samples (6.8%) tested positive for WNV RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence of positives varied spatially, but positive sugar stations were detected before concurrent surveillance measures of infection (mosquito pools) or transmission (sentinel chicken seroconversions). In contrast, sugar bait stations deployed in urban settings in Los Angeles or agricultural habits near Bakersfield in Kern County supporting WNV activity produced 1 of 90 and 0 of 60 positive weekly sugar samples, respectively. These results with sugar bait stations will require additional research to enhance bait attractancy and to understand the relationship between positive sugar stations and standard metrics of arbovirus surveillance. PMID:23270177

  15. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  16. Selected Effects of a Curriculum Integration Intervention on the Mathematics Performance of Secondary Students Enrolled in an Agricultural Power and Technology Course: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Brian; Edwards, M. Craig; Leising, James G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically test the posit that students who participated in a contextualized, mathematics-enhanced high school agricultural power and technology (APT) curriculum and aligned instructional approach would develop a deeper and more sustained understanding of selected mathematics concepts than those students who…

  17. Does a Math-Enhanced Curriculum and Instructional Approach Diminish Students' Attainment of Technical Skills? A Year-Long Experimental Study in Agricultural Power and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, R. Brent; Edwards, M. Craig; Leising, James G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically test the posit that students who participated in a contextualized, mathematics-enhanced high school agricultural power and technology (APT) curriculum and aligned instructional approach would not differ significantly (p less than 0.05) in their technical competence from students who participated in the…

  18. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  20. Italy's Intelligent Educational Training Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Educational Training Station has been developed in Italy to meet emerging school building needs. The project, for schools from the primary to upper secondary level, proposes flexible architecture for an "intelligent school" network, and was developed by CISEM, the Centre for Educational Innovation and Experimentation of Milan.

  1. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  2. Space station propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Meng, Phillip R.; Schneider, Steven J.; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: O/H rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the station. Both thrusters will utilize waste fluids as their source of propellant. The O/H rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use stored waste gases from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. This paper presents the results of experimental efforts with O/H and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability.

  3. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  4. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  5. 47 CFR 74.882 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transmission or intermittent transmissions pertaining to a single event. (b) Each wireless video assist device... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power Auxiliary Stations §...

  6. 47 CFR 74.882 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transmission or intermittent transmissions pertaining to a single event. (b) Each wireless video assist device... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power Auxiliary Stations §...

  7. 47 CFR 74.882 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transmission or intermittent transmissions pertaining to a single event. (b) Each wireless video assist device... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power Auxiliary Stations §...

  8. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  9. 47 CFR 73.1510 - Experimental authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the degree required for the particular type of station. (3) The experimental operations may be... for the class and type of station must be met. AM stations also may conduct experimental operations... experimental transmissions. (d) The FCC may request a report of the research, experimentation and results...

  10. Agricultural Decision Making Using North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, F.; Mullins, B.; Morlock, D.; Carcoana, R.

    2010-09-01

    The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) consists of 72 automated weather stations spread across agricultural locations of North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and border regions of surrounding states. The NDAWN Center is a part of the Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University. The NDAWN stations measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, pressure (31 stations), atmospheric moisture and soil temperatures under bare and turf at 10 cm (4 inch) depth. The center provides daily summaries consisting of maximums and minimums as well as time of occurrence, and various totals or averages for all variables in English or metric units. Measured and calculated variables along with complete descriptions are available. The NDAWN Center web site: http://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/ allows direct access to NDAWN data in various special and temporal scales. The voice modem accommodates those who do not have internet access. The NDAWN Center has assisted many North Dakotans in making weather critical decisions concerning their crops, livestock, and livelihood. The stations provide weather data, which was instrumental in developing various agricultural models including but not limited to the late blight model, degree day and growth stage models for barley, corn, canola, potato, sugarbeet, sunflower, wheat and other small grains, irrigation scheduling, crop water use, sugarbeet root maggot, and insect development models. Late blight model, for example, predicts when leaf disease can occur in potato plants. Late blight doesn't occur in North Dakota every year and is prevalent during cool and moist periods of weather. In 1993-94, this model predicted that late blight would occur and growers were able to use fungicide applications to prevent the disease. Another direct benefit of NDAWN data is that it provides universities and the National Weather Service with an additional database for research and forecasting applications

  11. Changes in the salinity of solonetzic soil complexes of the Ergeni Upland under long-term anthropogenic impact (soil studies at the Arshan'-Zel'men Experimental Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, A. F.; Gabchenko, M. V.; Bespalov, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Unique experiments performed since the 1950s at the Arshan’-Zel’men Experimental Station have formed the basis for afforestation in the dry steppe and semidesert zone without irrigation on the salt-affected soils of solonetzic soil complexes of the Ergeni Upland. Ameliorative measures favored the accumulation of productive moisture in the upper 2-m-thick soil layer, which ensured the growth of trees and the partial leaching of soluble salts to a depth of 1-1.4 m. However, no complete desalinization of the soil profiles took place. The degree of removal of exchangeable sodium from the exchange complex (soil dealkalization) was smaller. The monitoring of changes in the salt status of the soils upon agroforest reclamation was performed until the early 1980s. Our investigations of 2005-2006 showed that the soil amelioration is still in progress: the salt maximum in the profile of the solonetzes descended to a depth of 2.2 m, and the exchangeable sodium was lost from the plow layer (0-40 cm). Plowed soils between forest shelterbelts were also subjected to desalinization and dealkalization of their soil profile, though less intensely than those under the shelterbelts.

  12. Demonstration of superconducting sub-millimeter-wave limb emission sounder (SMILES) for observing trace gases in the middle atmosphere using the exposed facility of the Japanese experimental module (JEM) of the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuko, Harunobu; Manabe, Takeshi; Seta, Masumichi; Kasai, Yasuko; Ochiai, Satoshi; Irimajiri, Yoshihisa; Inatani, Junji; Ikeda, Naomi; Nishibori, Toshiyuki; Iida, Yukiei; Fujii, Yasunori

    1999-01-01

    The sub-millimeter wavelength region is advantageous for high-precision observations of trace species in the stratosphere. A Superconducting Sub-Millimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) is scheduled to demonstrate the measurements of extremely faint sub-millimeter-wave emissions of the atmospheric trace gases on the Exposed Facility (EF) of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station in 2003. The applications of superconductivity and mechanical 4K-refrigerator in space will be demonstrated in the experiment. JEM/SMILES obtains the diurnal and seasonal variability in the global three-dimensional distributions of the stratospheric trace gases for quantitative understanding of the stratospheric ozone depletion and its effect on the climate change with respect to the relationships among chemical reaction processes and their relationships with atmospheric dynamics. JEM/SMILES utilizes the 640GHz band to measure the vertical profiles of trace gases involved in the stratospheric ozone depletion such as chlorine monoxide (CLO), bromine monoxide (BrO), etc., along with atmospheric temperature. JEM/SMILES employs Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixers to improve measurement precision and spatial resolution, thereby enabling us to quantitatively understand the interactive processes between chemistry and dynamics.

  13. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  14. 47 CFR 5.123 - Inspection of stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection of stations. 5.123 Section 5.123 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE (OTHER THAN BROADCAST) Technical Standards and Operating Requirements § 5.123 Inspection of stations. All stations and records...

  15. 47 CFR 74.705 - TV broadcast analog station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false TV broadcast analog station protection. 74.705... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.705 TV broadcast analog station protection. (a) The TV...

  16. 47 CFR 74.705 - TV broadcast analog station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false TV broadcast analog station protection. 74.705... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.705 TV broadcast analog station protection. (a) The TV...

  17. 47 CFR 74.706 - Digital TV (DTV) station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital TV (DTV) station protection. 74.706... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.706 Digital TV (DTV) station protection. (a) For purposes of...

  18. 47 CFR 74.706 - Digital TV (DTV) station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital TV (DTV) station protection. 74.706... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.706 Digital TV (DTV) station protection. (a) For purposes of...

  19. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  20. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEVENS, GLENN Z.

    FEDERAL LEGISLATION HAS PROVIDED FOR PUBLIC PROGRAMS OF OCCUPATIONAL AGRICULTURE EDUCATION IN LAND GRANT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS, AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE TO DEVELOP KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS, PROVIDE OCCUPATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENT, AND DEVELOP ABILITIES IN HUMAN RELATIONS AND…

  1. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  2. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Baraona, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that space station planning at NASA began when NASA was created in 1958. However, the initiation of the program for a lunar landing delayed the implementation of plans for a space station. The utility of a space station was finally demonstrated with Skylab, which was launched in 1972. In May 1982, the Space Station Task Force was established to provide focus and direction for space station planning activities. The present paper provides a description of the planning activities, giving particular attention to the power system. The initial space station will be required to supply 75 kW of continuous electrical power, 60 kW for the customer and 15 kW for space station needs. Possible alternative energy sources for the space station include solar planar or concentrator arrays of either silicon or gallium arsenide.

  3. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  4. Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

  5. Space Station attached payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Lenwood G.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is being designed and developed with user requirements being used to shape the configuration. Plans include accommodation provisions for a wide variety of attached payloads including the Earth sciences research activities which are the focus of this conference. The station program is even beginning some preliminary payload manifesting which involves planning for accommodation of payload during the station's assembly flights. Potential payload organizations should be aware of the station's plans for payload accommodations so as to guide their own payload activities for future space station use.

  6. The work of the Animal Research Station, Cambridge.

    PubMed

    Polge, Chris

    2007-06-01

    This paper traces the history of the Animal Research Station, Cambridge from its establishment in 1932 to its closure in 1986. The author worked there for forty years and was Director from 1979. Originally set up as a field station for Cambridge University's School of Agriculture, the Station was expanded after World War II as the Agricultural Research Council's Unit of Animal Reproduction. Beginning with semen and artificial insemination, research at the Station soon embraced superovulation and embryo transfer in farm animals. Many other technologies were also developed here, including IVF in pigs, cloning by nuclear transplantation of early embryonic cells, and the first genetically modified farm animals in Britain. This account recalls the Directors of the Station and their research teams together with details of their pioneering contribution to reproductive biology. PMID:17543843

  7. 7 CFR 29.75c - Display of tobacco at receiving stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Display of tobacco at receiving stations. 29.75c... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75c Display of tobacco at receiving stations. Each lot of tobacco delivered for sale at receiving stations and transferred to...

  8. 7 CFR 29.75c - Display of tobacco at receiving stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Display of tobacco at receiving stations. 29.75c... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75c Display of tobacco at receiving stations. Each lot of tobacco delivered for sale at receiving stations and transferred to...

  9. 7 CFR 29.75c - Display of tobacco at receiving stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Display of tobacco at receiving stations. 29.75c... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75c Display of tobacco at receiving stations. Each lot of tobacco delivered for sale at receiving stations and transferred to...

  10. 7 CFR 29.75c - Display of tobacco at receiving stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display of tobacco at receiving stations. 29.75c... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75c Display of tobacco at receiving stations. Each lot of tobacco delivered for sale at receiving stations and transferred to...

  11. 7 CFR 29.75c - Display of tobacco at receiving stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Display of tobacco at receiving stations. 29.75c... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75c Display of tobacco at receiving stations. Each lot of tobacco delivered for sale at receiving stations and transferred to...

  12. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands of California: experimental evidence of vegetation-driven changes in sediment biogeochemistry and methylmercury production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Stricker, Craig A.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Kieu, Le H.; Kakouros, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    The role of live vegetation in sediment methylmercury (MeHg) production and associated biogeochemistry was examined in three types of agricultural wetlands (domesticated or white rice, wild rice, and fallow fields) and adjacent managed natural wetlands (cattail- and bulrush or tule-dominated) in the Yolo Bypass region of California's Central Valley, USA. During the active growing season for each wetland, a vegetated:de-vegetated paired plot experiment demonstrated that the presence of live plants enhanced microbial rates of mercury methylation by 20 to 669% (median = 280%) compared to de-vegetated plots. Labile carbon exudation by roots appeared to be the primary mechanism by which microbial methylation was enhanced in the presence of vegetation. Pore-water acetate (pw[Ac]) decreased significantly with de-vegetation (63 to 99%) among all wetland types, and within cropped fields, pw[Ac] was correlated with both root density (r = 0.92) and microbial Hg(II) methylation (kmeth. r = 0.65). Sediment biogeochemical responses to de-vegetation were inconsistent between treatments for “reactive Hg” (Hg(II)R), as were reduced sulfur and sulfate reduction rates. Sediment MeHg concentrations in vegetated plots were double those of de-vegetated plots (median = 205%), due in part to enhanced microbial MeHg production in the rhizosphere, and in part to rhizoconcentration via transpiration-driven pore-water transport. Pore-water concentrations of chloride, a conservative tracer, were elevated (median = 22%) in vegetated plots, suggesting that the higher concentrations of other constituents around roots may also be a function of rhizoconcentration rather than microbial activity alone. Elevated pools of amorphous iron (Fe) in vegetated plots indicate that downward redistribution of oxic surface waters through transpiration acts as a stimulant to Fe(III)-reduction through oxidation of Fe(II)pools. These data suggest that vegetation significantly affected rhizosphere

  13. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands of California, USA: experimental evidence of vegetation-driven changes in sediment biogeochemistry and methylmercury production.

    PubMed

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; A Stricker, Craig; Agee, Jennifer L; H Kieu, Le; Kakouros, Evangelos

    2014-06-15

    The role of live vegetation in sediment methylmercury (MeHg) production and associated biogeochemistry was examined in three types of agricultural wetlands (domesticated or white rice, wild rice, and fallow fields) and adjacent managed natural wetlands (cattail- and bulrush or tule-dominated) in the Yolo Bypass region of California's Central Valley, USA. During the active growing season for each wetland, a vegetated:de-vegetated paired plot experiment demonstrated that the presence of live plants enhanced microbial rates of mercury methylation by 20 to 669% (median=280%) compared to de-vegetated plots. Labile carbon exudation by roots appeared to be the primary mechanism by which microbial methylation was enhanced in the presence of vegetation. Pore-water acetate (pw[Ac]) decreased significantly with de-vegetation (63 to 99%) among all wetland types, and within cropped fields, pw[Ac] was correlated with both root density (r=0.92) and microbial Hg(II) methylation (kmeth. r=0.65). Sediment biogeochemical responses to de-vegetation were inconsistent between treatments for "reactive Hg" (Hg(II)R), as were reduced sulfur and sulfate reduction rates. Sediment MeHg concentrations in vegetated plots were double those of de-vegetated plots (median=205%), due in part to enhanced microbial MeHg production in the rhizosphere, and in part to rhizoconcentration via transpiration-driven pore-water transport. Pore-water concentrations of chloride, a conservative tracer, were elevated (median=22%) in vegetated plots, suggesting that the higher concentrations of other constituents around roots may also be a function of rhizoconcentration rather than microbial activity alone. Elevated pools of amorphous iron (Fe) in vegetated plots indicate that downward redistribution of oxic surface waters through transpiration acts as a stimulant to Fe(III)-reduction through oxidation of Fe(II)pools. These data suggest that vegetation significantly affected rhizosphere biogeochemistry through

  14. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  15. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  16. Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  17. Station Crew Celebrates Christmas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the orbiting International Space Station, Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford, Russian Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy, Evgeny Tarelkin and Roman Romanenko, NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn...

  18. A.C. Hildreth: Initiating USDA agricultural research in Cheyenne

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight months after the October, 1929 Stock Market crash, 36-year-old Aubrey Claire Hildreth resigned his position at the University of Maine Agricultural Station and left the blueberries and cranberries of Orono, Maine, to travel with his family to Cheyenne to assume the duties of Station Superinten...

  19. Workload characterization for the space station data communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevcik, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    NASA plans to launch a permanent manned space station in the early 1990's. The station will be used to support a wide variety of activities involving Earth and space observation, satellite maintenance, scientific experimentation, and commercial manufacturing. The control and monitoring of many of these activities will require extensive computer and communications system support. In order to identify an appropriate computer and communication system for supporting the space station, an attempt to characterize the space station's data communications subsystem workload is currently underway. Some of the special aspects of the workload characterization problem are discussed in connection with the space station, and some possible approaches are presented.

  20. Space station dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berka, Reg

    1990-01-01

    Structural dynamic characteristics and responses of the Space Station due to the natural and induced environment are discussed. Problems that are peculiar to the Space Station are also discussed. These factors lead to an overall acceleration environment that users may expect. This acceleration environment can be considered as a loading, as well as a disturbance environment.

  1. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  2. Space station executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An executive summary of the modular space station study is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) design characteristics, (2) experiment program, (3) operations, (4) program description, and (5) research implications. The modular space station is considered a candidate payload for the low cost shuttle transportation system.

  3. Satellite laser station Helwan status 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cech, M.; Hamal, Karel; Jelinkova, Helena; Novotny, Antonin; Prochazka, Ivan; Baghos, B. B.; Helali, Y.; Tawadros, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Satellite Laser Station Helwan has been operated jointly by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in Helwan, Egypt and the Czech Technical University in Prague, Czechslovakia. The station components have been carefully tuned to increase the systems overall stability and reliability critical for the remote location. The mount correction model based on the Gaussian smoothing has been implemented to simplify the blind satellite acquisition and tracking. The on-site normal points generation algorithm has been implemented, the station has been connected to the international information network. The ERS-1 satellite has been included into the tracking schedule. The station range capability has been verified by experimental Etalon 1 ranging by April 1992. The ranging precision of 2-3 centimeters is obtained when ranging to ERS-1, Starlette, and Lageos satellites.

  4. 4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ON RIGHT. NOTE TUNNEL IN BACKGROUND. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Harpers Ferry Station, Potomac Street, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  5. Agricultural biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Waage, J K; Mumford, J D

    2008-02-27

    The prevention and control of new pest and disease introductions is an agricultural challenge which is attracting growing public interest. This interest is in part driven by an impression that the threat is increasing, but there has been little analysis of the changing rates of biosecurity threat, and existing evidence is equivocal. Traditional biosecurity systems for animals and plants differ substantially but are beginning to converge. Bio-economic modelling of risk will be a valuable tool in guiding the allocation of limited resources for biosecurity. The future of prevention and management systems will be strongly influenced by new technology and the growing role of the private sector. Overall, today's biosecurity systems are challenged by changing national priorities regarding trade, by new concerns about environmental effects of biological invasions and by the question 'who pays?'. Tomorrow's systems may need to be quite different to be effective. We suggest three changes: an integration of plant and animal biosecurity around a common, proactive, risk-based approach; a greater focus on international cooperation to deal with threats at source; and a commitment to refocus biosecurity on building resilience to invasion into agroecosystems rather than building walls around them.

  6. Wisconsin Radio and Television Agricultural Market News Programming. Wisconsin Agricultural Extension Service Research Report No. R2615, April 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroupa, Eugene A.; Walker, Douglas K.

    The study determined what Wisconsin's 102 AM, 107 FM, and 21 television stations were providing as agricultural market information programming and documented the amount, timing, frequency, and completeness of broadcast agricultural market news reports. Data were collected on the sources of market price information, types of commodity and price…

  7. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  8. Madrid space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  9. Space station operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  10. The space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

  11. Remote sensing in Virginia agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Newhouse, M. E.; Dunton, E. M., Jr.; Scott, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation, designed to develop and evaluate multispectral sensing techniques used in sensing agricultural crops, is described. Initial studies were designed to detect plant species and associated diseases, soil variations, and cultural practices under natural environment conditions. In addition, crop varieties, age, spacing, plant height, percentage of ground cover, and plant vigor are determined.

  12. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  13. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  14. The Space Station Chronicles

    NASA Video Gallery

    As early as the nineteenth century, writers and artists and scientists around the world began to publish their visions of a crewed outpost in space. Learn about the history of space stations, from ...

  15. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  16. Space Station Live! Tour

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

  17. Enabler operator station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Kietzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). The LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an Earth-bound model. The operator station is designed to be dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which include life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as to provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of rigid members, semi-rigid members, and woven fabrics.

  18. Station Commander Praises AMS

    NASA Video Gallery

    When asked what's the most important International Space Station experiment, Commander Chris Hadfield names the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-2, a state-of-the-art particle physics detector that coul...

  19. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  20. Space station data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

  1. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  2. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Display model of space station concept--Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory in Saturn S-IVB Orbit configuration. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  3. Overview of space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, Claude C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Space Station program for workshop participants is given. Covered here are overall program guidelines, international involvement, the present baseline configuration, and development plans for the coming year.

  4. Destination Station Atlanta

    NASA Video Gallery

    Destination Station was recently in Atlanta from April 15 through April 21. During the week, NASA visited schools, hospitals, museums, and the city’s well known Atlanta Science Tavern Meet Up gro...

  5. Space Station galley design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  6. Space station proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In his State of the Union address on January 25, President Ronald Reagan announced that he was directing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to “develop a permanently manned space station, and to do it within a decade.”Included in the NASA budget proposal sent to Congress the following week was $150 million for the station. This is the first request of many; expected costs will total roughly $8 billion by the early 1990's.

  7. 47 CFR 74.183 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 74.183 Section 74.183 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... make aural or visual announcements of its call letters and location at the beginning and end of...

  8. Space station task force perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, C.

    1984-01-01

    Space station planning quidelines; architecture; functions; preliminary mission data base; scope for international and commercial participation; schedules; servicing capability; technology development; and space station program interfaces are discussed.

  9. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  10. Space station mobile transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshall, James; Marks, Geoff W.; Young, Grant L.

    1988-01-01

    The first quarter of the next century will see an operational space station that will provide a permanently manned base for satellite servicing, multiple strategic scientific and commercial payload deployment, and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle/Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OMV/OTV) retrieval replenishment and deployment. The space station, as conceived, is constructed in orbit and will be maintained in orbit. The construction, servicing, maintenance and deployment tasks, when coupled with the size of the station, dictate that some form of transportation and manipulation device be conceived. The Transporter described will work in conjunction with the Orbiter and an Assembly Work Platform (AWP) to construct the Work Station. The Transporter will also work in conjunction with the Mobile Remote Servicer to service and install payloads, retrieve, service and deploy satellites, and service and maintain the station itself. The Transporter involved in station construction when mounted on the AWP and later supporting a maintenance or inspection task with the Mobile Remote Servicer and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer is shown.

  11. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  12. 47 CFR 74.564 - Posting of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Posting of station license. 74.564 Section 74.564 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Aural Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.564 Posting of...

  13. 47 CFR 5.119 - Posting station licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting station licenses. 5.119 Section 5.119 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE (OTHER THAN BROADCAST) Technical Standards and Operating Requirements § 5.119 Posting station licenses. The current...

  14. Shoring pumping station excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

  15. Network for measuring runoff and water erosion in small agricultural cathments in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguas, E. V.; Gómez, J. A.; Boulal, H.; Gómez, H.; Vanwalleghem, T.; Pérez-Alcántara, R.; Peña, A.; Ayuso-Muñoz, J. L.; Giráldez, J. V.; Mateos, L.

    2010-05-01

    Water erosion is one of the major environmental threats to sustainability of agricultural production in Souther Spain. In Mediterranean climates, innapropriate soil management in steep or hilly landscapes causes intensive and extensive on-site and off-site damage. However, limited experimental information is available for fully understand the relationship between soil management practices and erosion at varying scales. This communication describes a network of five experimental catchments equipped with runoff and erosion monitoring devices established in the last five years in agricultural areas of Southern Spain. Three of the catchments are of small size (2 to 6.7 ha) and are covered by olive trees, a fourth one, of 20 ha, is cultivated with irrigated field crops, and the fifth catchment is located in an irrigation district where irrigated annual and tree crops coexist covering an area of 316 ha. Monitoring stations consist of a long-throated flume equipped with a untrasonic sensor to measure water depth, an ISCO water sampler, a rain gauge and a datalogger. This communication will present a preliminary comparison of runoff and sediment generated in the catchments during recent years, and it will discuss some of the main problems encountered in the establishment of the network and the future plans for upgrading the monitoring stations and analysing of results.

  16. UMTS Network Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  17. 75 FR 68598 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... with a historic commitment to research in the food and agricultural sciences, food retailing and.... ``National Food Animal Science Society,'' Nancy M. Cox, Director, Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station... Agriculture to a specific category on the Board, including farming or ranching, food production and...

  18. The Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharples, R.; Hieatt, J.

    1984-11-01

    The configuration of the Space Station under design studies by NASA is limited only by the capabilities of the Shuttle and the purposes to which it is applied. Once the standard interlocks, launch vibration modes, and pallet designs are fixed, all other assembly of modular components, testing, and trim will be performed in space. The Station will serve for long-term experiments, as a base for planetary missions asembly, launch, and retrieval, and for loading and launching multiple satellites on an orbital transfer vehicle. Materials processing research will be carried out in the Station, as will various scientific and commercial remote sensing activities. The first operational version (1990) will require four Shuttle launches to reach an assembled mass of 70,000 kg drawing 30 kWe from solar panels and housing a crew of five. By the year 2000 the station will support 10-12 crew members in five habitat modules, will be 31 m long, will have cost $18-20 billion, and will be returning $2 billion per year. The station will be periodically reboosted to higher orbits that decay suficiently for orbiter rendezvous for supplies and assignments.

  19. Space power demonstration stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    NASA major planning decisions from 1955 to date are summarized and new concepts connected with the advent of the Space Transportation Systems (STS) are set forth. The future Shuttle utilizations are considered, from 'manned booster' function for space transportation to such operations as deployment of modules and stations and assembly of large structures in space. The permanent occupancy of space will be a major goal of the space systems development in the 1980's with the following main phases: (1) achievement of easy access to earth orbit by means of the Shuttle and Spacelab; (2) achievement of permanent occupancy (Space Stations); (3) self-sufficiency of man in space. New techniques of space operation will become possible, using much larger, complicated satellites and simplified ground stations. Orbital assembly of large stations, using a permanent base in orbit, will enable practical utilization of space systems for everyday needs. Particular attention is given to the space solar power concept, involving the location in space of large satellite systems. Results of the studies on Manned Orbital Systems Concept (MOSC) and some future possibilities of Space Stations are analyzed.

  20. ILRS Station Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

  1. Space station communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccia, C. L.

    1983-10-01

    A concise history of the various types of communications that have been used in low-earth-orbit vehicles and form the basis of the various types of communications and communication requirements that can be realized in space-station developments over the next decade is presented. The Space Shuttle can be assumed to be a prototype space station in the tradition of Apollo and Spacelab. Shuttle operations require earth-to-ground support communications, EVA communications, internal communications, and communications to and from other spacecraft (TDRS) and free-flying vehicles for experiments (SPAS-01). These basic communication requirements will expand to the point where the man-computer alliance in the space station will transform the station into a space communications and computer center capable of providing data processing and storage in association with ground-based distributed processing along the growing terrestrial ISDN global digital highway. The space station will also provide unique means to obtain data and information from one part of the earth or space and transport them to another point on earth.

  2. Liquid measurement station design

    SciTech Connect

    Duplantis, S.

    1995-12-01

    A liquid measurement station is a designed and engineered package of valves, pipe, instrumentation, flow meters and wiring, configured to produce accurate measurement data in the delivery of a product in a process unit or in a custody transfer between a buyer and seller. A liquid measurement station could be as simple as a manually operated single meter run or as complex as a multi-meter run tanker loading facility with a multi-tasking control/computer system. Liquid measurement stations are found in all areas of the hydrocarbon industry from the oil well to the refinery. Typical areas where, measurement stations are implemented are pump stations feeding pipelines, pipeline distribution terminals, loading terminals for storage facilities and loading terminals for tanker transports. The importance of good measurement system design is quite obvious since the measurement of the product is normally major factor in the proper operation and control of a process or is needed for the accurate accounting and selling of a product. In both cases, the accuracy of the measurement will directly affect the income and revenues of a company.

  3. Surface interactions relevant to space station contamination problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    The physical and chemical processes at solid surfaces which can contribute to Space Station contamination problems are reviewed. Suggested areas for experimental studies to provide data to improve contamination modeling efforts are presented.

  4. 47 CFR 74.564 - Posting of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Aural Broadcast... operated by remote control pursuant to § 74.533, the station license shall be posted at the...

  5. 47 CFR 74.564 - Posting of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Aural Broadcast... operated by remote control pursuant to § 74.533, the station license shall be posted at the...

  6. 47 CFR 74.564 - Posting of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Aural Broadcast... operated by remote control pursuant to § 74.533, the station license shall be posted at the...

  7. 47 CFR 5.81 - Discontinuance of station operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discontinuance of station operation. 5.81 Section 5.81 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE (OTHER... Commission's Office of Engineering and Technology for cancellation....

  8. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service (RUS) and the Western Area Power Administration (Western) have issued... potential environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin...

  9. NCERA-101 Station Report from Kennedy Space Center, FL, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    This is our annual report to the North Central Extension Research Activity, which is affiliated with the USDA and Land Grant University Agricultural Experiment Stations. I have been a member of this committee for 25 years. The presentation will be given by Dr. Gioia Massa, Kennedy Space Center

  10. Telerobot for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1987-01-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS), a multiple arm dexterous manipulation system, will aid in the assembly, maintenance, and servicing of the space station. Fundamental ideas and basic conceptual designs for a shuttle-based telerobot system have been produced. Recent space station studies provide additional concepts that should aid in the accomplishment of mission requirements. Currently, the FTS is in contractual source selection for a Phase B preliminary design. At the same time, design requirements are being developed through a series of robotic assessment tasks being performed at NASA and commercial installations. A number of the requirements for remote operation on the space station, necessary to supplement extravehicular activity (EVA), will be met by the FTS. Finally, technology developed for telerobotics will advance the state of the art of remote operating systems, enhance operator productivity, and prove instrumental in the evolution of an adaptive, intelligent autonomous robot.

  11. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  12. Space station structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teller, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of three interrelated tasks focusing on deployable Space Station truss structures is discussed. Task 1, the development of an alternate deployment system for linear truss, resulted in the preliminary design of an in-space reloadable linear motor deployer. Task 2, advanced composites deployable truss development, resulted in the testing and evaluation of composite materials for struts used in a deployable linear truss. Task 3, assembly of structures in space/erectable structures, resulted in the preliminary design of Space Station pressurized module support structures. An independent, redundant support system was developed for the common United States modules.

  13. Space Station Habitability Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  14. Space Station habitability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Y. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Cente is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  15. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  16. Space station operating system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  17. Charting the history of agricultural experiments.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural experimentation is a world in constant evolution, spanning multiple scientific domains and affecting society at large. Even though the questions underpinning agricultural experiments remain largely the same, the instruments and practices for answering them have changed constantly during the twentieth century with the advent of new disciplines like molecular biology, genomics, statistics, and computing. Charting this evolving reality requires a mapping of the affinities and antinomies at work within the realm of agricultural research, and a consideration of the practices, tools and social and political structures in which agricultural experiments are grounded. Three main questions will be addressed to provide an overview of the complex world of agricultural research investigated by the special issue: What is an agricultural experiment? Who is an experimenter in agriculture? Where do agricultural experiments take place? It will become apparent that agricultural experiments have a wide relevance for human development as they touch upon concerns related to human health and nutrition, contribute to policy discussions, and can affect the social and political structures in which farming is embedded. PMID:26205202

  18. Artist's Concept of International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) with solar panels fully deployed. In addition to the use of solar energy, the ISS will employ at least three types of propulsive support systems for its operation. The first type is to reboost the Station to correct orbital altitude to offset the effects of atmospheric and other drag forces. The second function is to maneuver the ISS to avoid collision with oribting bodies (space junk). The third is for attitude control to position the Station in the proper attitude for various experiments, temperature control, reboost, etc. The ISS, a gateway to permanent human presence in space, is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation by cooperation of sixteen countries.

  19. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.

    1975-01-01

    The remote sensing studies of (a) cultivated peanut areas in Southeastern Virginia; (b) studies at the Virginia Truck and Ornamentals Research Station near Painter, Virginia, the Eastern Virginia Research Station near Warsaw, Virginia, the Tidewater Research and Continuing Education Center near Suffolk, Virginia, and the Southern Piedmont Research and Continuing Education Center Blackstone, Virginia; and (c) land use classification studies at Virginia Beach, Virginia are presented. The practical feasibility of using false color infrared imagery to detect and determine the areal extent of peanut disease infestation of Cylindrocladium black rot and Sclerotinia blight is demonstrated. These diseases pose a severe hazard to this major agricultural food commodity. The value of remote sensing technology in terrain analyses and land use classification of diverse land areas is also investigated. Continued refinement of spectral signatures of major agronomic crops and documentation of pertinent environmental variables have provided a data base for the generation of an agricultural-environmental prediction model.

  20. Experiments in Planetary and Related Sciences and the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald (Editor); Williams, Richard J. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Numerous workshops were held to provide a forum for discussing the full range of possible experiments, their science rationale, and the requirements on the Space Station, should such experiments eventually be flown. During the workshops, subgroups met to discuss areas of common interest. Summaries of each group and abstracts of contributed papers as they developed from a workshop on September 15 to 16, 1986, are included. Topics addressed include: planetary impact experimentation; physics of windblown particles; particle formation and interaction; experimental cosmochemistry in the space station; and an overview of the program to place advanced automation and robotics on the space station.

  1. Dragon Departs the Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 31 crew used the Canadarm2 robotic arm to demate the SpaceX Dragon cargo vehicle from the Earth-facing port of the station’s Harmony node at 4:07 a.m. EDT on Thursday. It was relea...

  2. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  3. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Power Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kuljian Corporation provides design engineering and construction management services for power generating plants in more than 20 countries. They used WASP (Calculating Water and Steam Properties), a COSMIC program to optimize power station design. This enabled the company to substantially reduce lead time and software cost in a recent design project.

  5. Space Station Energy Sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A general schematic for a space station power system is described. The major items of interest in the power system are the solar array, transfer devices, energy storage, and conversion equipment. Each item will have losses associated with it and must be utilized in any sizing study, and can be used as a checklist for itemizing the various system components.

  6. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  7. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  8. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'William N. Gardner, head of the MORL Studies Office, explains the interior design of the space station at the 1964 NASA inspection.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 300.

  9. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'A Langley engineer takes a walk-in simulated zero gravity around a mock-up of a full-scale, 24-foot-diameter space station.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 282.

  10. Space Station structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, W.

    1985-04-01

    A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

  11. Space Station structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, W.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

  12. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  13. FARMS: The Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.

    1991-01-01

    A technology utilization project was established with the Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Georgia to develop an Earth-based, robotic end effector to process live plant (geranium) material which will improve productivity and efficiency in agricultural systems such as commercial nurseries and greenhouse systems. The aim is to apply this technology to NASA's presence in space, including permanently manned space stations and manned planetary communities requiring large scale food production needs.

  14. 47 CFR 74.436 - Special requirements for automatic relay stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL...) An automatic relay station must be designed, installed, and protected so that the transmitter...

  15. 47 CFR 74.436 - Special requirements for automatic relay stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL...) An automatic relay station must be designed, installed, and protected so that the transmitter...

  16. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  17. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 3, task 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The mission requirements of the space station program are investigated. Mission parameters are divided into user support from private industry, scientific experimentation, U.S. national security, and space operations away from the space station. These categories define the design and use of the space station. An analysis of cost estimates is included.

  18. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  19. Agricultural Aircraft for Site-Specific Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a convenient platform to aid in precision agriculture, in which pesticide, fertilizer or other field inputs are applied only where they are needed. This saves on chemical and farm resources, and reduces environmental loading. Remote sensing is used to spot areas of the ...

  20. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  1. From critical levels to critical loads for ozone: a discussion of a new experimental and modelling approach for establishing flux-response relationships for agricultural crops and native plant species.

    PubMed

    Grünhage, Ludger; Jäger, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Present critical levels for ozone (O3) for protecting vegetation against adverse effects are based on exposure-response relationships mainly derived from open-top chamber experiments and are expressed as an Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40). In that context with a revision of the UN (United Nations)-ECE (Economic Commission for Europe) Gothenburg protocol, AOT40 values should be replaced by flux-oriented quantities, i.e. in the end by critical loads. At present, the database for the derivation of critical loads for O3 is extremely inadequate. Furthermore, the currently available flux-response relationships are also derived from open-top chamber experiments. The use of a relationship for spring wheat in a risk assessment for an agricultural site in Hesse, Germany, demonstrates in principle, the applicability of the critical load concept for O3. Comparisons of diurnal variation of stomatal uptake and AOT40 showed that a major part of toxicologically effective stomatal uptake occurred before noon whereas the AOT40 values were dominated by the O3 concentrations during afternoon. In other words, the AOT40 exposure index do not adequately address the O3 burden during hours when plants are sensitive to O3 uptake. However, due to the differences in radiation, air temperature and humidity between the chamber and the ambient microclimates, a derivation of flux-response relationships from chamber experiments is likely to be questionable, especially for species rich ecosystems: Here, without any changes in the pollution climate, significant modifications of species composition as well as an earlier beginning of the growing season has been previously observed. To overcome the problems associated with chamber-derived flux-response relationships, a new experimental and modelling concept, was developed. The approach, briefly described in this paper, combines methods in air pollution toxicology and micrometeorology. As an analogy to the free-air fumigation

  2. Levels at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Operational procedures at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations include periodic leveling checks to ensure that gages are accurately set to the established gage datum. Differential leveling techniques are used to determine elevations for reference marks, reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The techniques presented in this manual provide guidance on instruments and methods that ensure gaging-station levels are run to both a high precision and accuracy. Levels are run at gaging stations whenever differences in gage readings are unresolved, stations may have been damaged, or according to a pre-determined frequency. Engineer's levels, both optical levels and electronic digital levels, are commonly used for gaging-station levels. Collimation tests should be run at least once a week for any week that levels are run, and the absolute value of the collimation error cannot exceed 0.003 foot/100 feet (ft). An acceptable set of gaging-station levels consists of a minimum of two foresights, each from a different instrument height, taken on at least two independent reference marks, all reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The initial instrument height is determined from another independent reference mark, known as the origin, or base reference mark. The absolute value of the closure error of a leveling circuit must be less than or equal to ft, where n is the total number of instrument setups, and may not exceed |0.015| ft regardless of the number of instrument setups. Closure error for a leveling circuit is distributed by instrument setup and adjusted elevations are determined. Side shots in a level circuit are assessed by examining the differences between the adjusted first and second elevations for each objective point in the circuit. The absolute value of these differences must be less than or equal to 0.005 ft. Final elevations for objective points are determined by averaging the valid adjusted first and second elevations. If final elevations

  3. Research from the Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia, to minimize contamination in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists with the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service and scientists with the University of Georgia located at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, Georgia have been conducting research on aflatoxin contamination of peanut since the early 1960's. Ear...

  4. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part IV. Television Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This fourth part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers television stations. Two sections are provided: one indexed alphabetically by country and city, and the other indexed by…

  5. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  6. Space Station Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (Editor); Mays, C. R. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the panel summaries presented in the following areas: systems/operations technology; crew and life support; EVA; crew and life support: ECLSS; attitude, control, and stabilization; human capabilities; auxillary propulsion; fluid management; communications; structures and mechanisms; data management; power; and thermal control. The objective of the workshop was to aid the Space Station Technology Steering Committee in defining and implementing a technology development program to support the establishment of a permanent human presence in space. This compilation will provide the participants and their organizations with the information presented at this workshop in a referenceable format. This information will establish a stepping stone for users of space station technology to develop new technology and plan future tasks.

  7. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  8. Station Crew Opens Dragon's Hatch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The hatch between the newly arrived SpaceX Dragon spacecraft and the Harmony module of the International Space Station was opened by NASA Astronaut Don Pettit at 5:53 am EDT as the station flew 253...

  9. Station Tour: Cupola and Leonardo

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams continues the tour of the International Space Station with a look at the station's observation deck, the cupola, as well as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Dev...

  10. Space Station - early

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    'North American selected this space station design in 1962 for final systems analysis. Incorporating all the advantages of a wheel configuration, it had rigid cylindrical modules arranged in a hexagonal shape with three rigid telescoping spokes. This configuration eliminated the need for exposed flexible fabric.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 284.

  11. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  12. Space station ventilation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

  13. Space station advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Donald

    1990-01-01

    In the development of a safe, productive and maintainable space station, Automation and Robotics (A and R) has been identified as an enabling technology which will allow efficient operation at a reasonable cost. The Space Station Freedom's (SSF) systems are very complex, and interdependent. The usage of Advanced Automation (AA) will help restructure, and integrate system status so that station and ground personnel can operate more efficiently. To use AA technology for the augmentation of system management functions requires a development model which consists of well defined phases of: evaluation, development, integration, and maintenance. The evaluation phase will consider system management functions against traditional solutions, implementation techniques and requirements; the end result of this phase should be a well developed concept along with a feasibility analysis. In the development phase the AA system will be developed in accordance with a traditional Life Cycle Model (LCM) modified for Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. A way by which both knowledge bases and reasoning techniques can be reused to control costs is explained. During the integration phase the KBS software must be integrated with conventional software, and verified and validated. The Verification and Validation (V and V) techniques applicable to these KBS are based on the ideas of consistency, minimal competency, and graph theory. The maintenance phase will be aided by having well designed and documented KBS software.

  14. Space Station fluid management logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  15. Social factors in space station interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranz, Galen; Eichold, Alice; Hottes, Klaus; Jones, Kevin; Weinstein, Linda

    1987-01-01

    Using the example of the chair, which is often written into space station planning but which serves no non-cultural function in zero gravity, difficulties in overcoming cultural assumptions are discussed. An experimental approach is called for which would allow designers to separate cultural assumptions from logistic, social and psychological necessities. Simulations, systematic doubt and monitored brainstorming are recommended as part of basic research so that the designer will approach the problems of space module design with a complete program.

  16. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kevin J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of new planning methodologies which will evolve to serve the Space Station Freedom program; these planning processes will focus on the complex task of effectively managing the resources provided by the Space Station Freedom and will be made available to the diverse international community of space station users in support of their ongoing investigative activities.

  17. Space Station commercial user development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

  18. Build Your Own Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  19. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  20. Theme: Delivering Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Warren D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Eight articles in this theme issue deal with the nationwide implementation of agricultural literacy programs--discovering how to do it. Discussed are experiences in planning and conducting agricultural literacy programs at state and local levels. (JOW)

  1. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  2. Vocational Agriculture in Ponape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayrit, Ruben S.

    1975-01-01

    The general objectives of agriculture education in both the elementary and secondary schools in Ponape District are to develop interest in agriculture among students and to provide practical and technical skills in growing crops and raising domestic animals. (Author)

  3. Urban Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbellini, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

  4. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  5. Validation of a station-prototype designed to integrate temporally soil N2O fluxes: IPNOA Station prototype.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laville, Patricia; Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Virgili, Giorgio; Neri, Simone; Continanza, Davide; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) flux measurements from agricultural soil surface still accounts for the scientific community as major challenge. The evaluations of integrated soil N2O fluxes are difficult because these emissions are lower than for the other greenhouse gases sources (CO2, CH4). They are also sporadic, because highly dependent on few environmental conditions acting as limiting factors. Within a LIFE project (IPNOA: LIFE11 ENV/IT/00032) a station prototype was developed to integrate annually N2O and CO2 emissions using automatically chamber technique. Main challenge was to develop a device enough durable to be able of measuring in continuous way CO2 and N2O fluxes with sufficient sensitivity to allow make reliable assessments of soil GHG measurements with minimal technical field interventions. The IPNOA station prototype was developed by West System SRL and was set up during 2 years (2014 -2015) in an experimental maize field in Tuscan. The prototype involved six automatic chambers; the complete measurement cycle was of 2 hours. Each chamber was closing during 20 min and biogas accumulations were monitoring in line with IR spectrometers. Auxiliary's measurements including soil temperatures and water contents as weather data were also monitoring. All data were managed remotely with the same acquisition software installed in the prototype control unit. The operation of the prototype during the two cropping years allowed testing its major features: its ability to evaluate the temporal variation of N2O soil fluxes during a long period with weather conditions and agricultural managements and to prove the interest to have continuous measurements of fluxes. The temporal distribution of N2O fluxes indicated that emissions can be very large and discontinuous over short periods less ten days and that during about 70% of the time N2O fluxes were around detection limit of the instrumentation, evaluated to 2 ng N ha-1 day-1. N2O emission factor assessments were 1.9% in 2014

  6. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  7. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  8. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  9. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  10. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  11. Dutch Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hauge.

    Agricultural Education in the Netherlands is categorized as Scientific, Higher Secondary, Middle Secondary, and Lower Secondary. Scientific education is given at the agricultural university which has a 6- or 7-year curriculum. Higher secondary education is given at agricultural and horticultural colleges with a 3- to 4-year curriculum. Middle…

  12. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  13. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  14. Space Station transition through Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, Harry G., Jr.; Wicks, Thomas G.

    1990-01-01

    It is appropriate that NASA's Office of Space Science and Application's science management structures and processes that have proven successful on Spacelab be applied and extrapolated to Space Station utilization, wherever practical. Spacelab has many similarities and complementary aspects to Space Station Freedom. An understanding of the similarities and differences between Spacelab and Space Station is necessary in order to understand how to transition from Spacelab to Space Station. These relationships are discussed herein as well as issues which must be dealt with and approaches for transition and evolution from Spacelab to Space Station.

  15. Space station: Cost and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Costs for developing, producing, operating, and supporting the initial space station, a 4 to 8 man space station, and a 4 to 24 man space station are estimated and compared. These costs include contractor hardware; space station assembly and logistics flight costs; and payload support elements. Transportation system options examined include orbiter modules; standard and extended duration STS fights; reusable spacebased perigee kick motor OTV; and upper stages. Space station service charges assessed include crew hours; energy requirements; payload support module storage; pressurized port usage; and OTV service facility. Graphs show costs for science missions, space processing research, small communication satellites; large GEO transportation; OVT launch costs; DOD payload costs, and user costs.

  16. Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: an African perspective.

    PubMed

    Abate, T; van Huis, A; Ampofo, J K

    2000-01-01

    African agriculture is largely traditional--characterized by a large number of smallholdings of no more than one ha per household. Crop production takes place under extremely variable agro-ecological conditions, with annual rainfall ranging from 250 to 750 mm in the Sahel in the northwest and in the semi-arid east and south, to 1500 to 4000 mm in the forest zones in the central west. Farmers often select well-adapted, stable crop varieties, and cropping systems are such that two or more crops are grown in the same field at the same time. These diverse traditional systems enhance natural enemy abundance and generally keep pest numbers at low levels. Pest management practice in traditional agriculture is a built-in process in the overall crop production system rather than a separate well-defined activity. Increased population pressure and the resulting demand for increased crop production in Africa have necessitated agricultural expansion with the concomitant decline in the overall biodiversity. Increases in plant material movement in turn facilitated the accidental introduction of foreign pests. At present about two dozen arthropod pests, both introduced and native, are recognized as one of the major constraints to agricultural production and productivity in Africa. Although yield losses of 0% to 100% have been observed on-station, the economic significance of the majority of pests under farmers' production conditions is not adequately understood. Economic and social constraints have kept pesticide use in Africa the lowest among all the world regions. The bulk of pesticides are applied mostly against pests of commercial crops such as cotton, vegetables, coffee, and cocoa, and to some extent for combating outbreaks of migratory pests such as the locusts. The majority of African farmers still rely on indigenous pest management approaches to manage pest problems, although many government extension programs encourage the use of pesticides. The current pest management

  17. AmeriFlux US-KFS Kansas Field Station

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsell, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KFS Kansas Field Station. Site Description - The study is an abandoned grassland at the Kansas Field Station and Ecological Reserves. The site is located within the tallgrass prairie-deciduous forest ecotonal area. The site was subjected to intensive agriculture from the 1940s through the late 1960s. In the mid-1970s, the site was planted with the cool-season grass Bromus inermis and used as a hay meadow until 1987. Then, mowing and burning approximately every five years maintained it as a grassland until 2007, when the eddy flux tower was installed.

  18. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  19. Designing Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An overview of preparations for the construction of Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. The video includes footage of astronauts testing materials for erectable structures in space both in the Shuttle bay while in orbit and in a neutral buoyancy tank at McDonald Douglas' Underwater Test Facility. Also shown are footage of robot systems that will assist the astronauts in building SSF, a computer simulation of an Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle, solar dynamic mirrors that will power SSF, and mockups of the living quarters of the SSF.

  20. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

  1. The space station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

  2. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... letters and station location. DTV stations, or DAB Stations, choosing to include the station's channel... in DAB hybrid mode or extended hybrid mode shall identify its digital signal, including any...

  3. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... letters and station location. DTV stations, or DAB Stations, choosing to include the station's channel... in DAB hybrid mode or extended hybrid mode shall identify its digital signal, including any...

  4. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... letters and station location. DTV stations, or DAB Stations, choosing to include the station's channel... in DAB hybrid mode or extended hybrid mode shall identify its digital signal, including any...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... letters and station location. DTV stations, or DAB Stations, choosing to include the station's channel... in DAB hybrid mode or extended hybrid mode shall identify its digital signal, including any...

  6. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... letters and station location. DTV stations, or DAB Stations, choosing to include the station's channel... in DAB hybrid mode or extended hybrid mode shall identify its digital signal, including any...

  7. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  8. The Capabilities of Space Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two years the U.S. space station program has evolved to a three-phased international program, with the first phase consisting of the use of the U.S. Space Shuttle and the upgrading and use of the Russian Mir Space Station, and the second and third phases consisting of the assembly and use of the new International Space Station. Projected capabilities for research, and plans for utilization, have also evolved and it has been difficult for those not directly involved in the design and engineering of these space stations to learn and understand their technical details. The Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council, with the concurrence of NASA, undertook to write this short report in order to provide concise and objective information on space stations and platforms -- with emphasis on the Mir Space Station and International Space Station -- and to supply a summary of the capabilities of previous, existing, and planned space stations. In keeping with the committee charter and with the task statement for this report, the committee has summarized the research capabilities of five major space platforms: the International Space Station, the Mir Space Station, the Space Shuttle (with a Spacelab or Spacehab module in its cargo bay), the Space Station Freedom (which was redesigned to become the International Space Station in 1993 and 1994), and Skylab. By providing the summary, together with brief descriptions of the platforms, the committee hopes to assist interested readers, including scientists and engineers, government officials, and the general public, in evaluating the utility of each system to meet perceived user needs.

  9. Assessing different agricultural managements with the use of soil quality indices in a Mediteranean calcareous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem in the Mediterranean region due to the arid conditions and torrential rainfalls, which contribute to the degradation of agricultural land. New strategies must be developed to reduce soil losses and recover or maintain soil functionality in order to achieve a sustainable agriculture. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different agricultural management on soil properties and soil quality. Ten different treatments (contact herbicide, systemic herbicide, ploughing, Oat mulch non-plough, Oats mulch plough, leguminous plant, straw rice mulch, chipped pruned branches, residual-herbicide and agro geo-textile, and three control plots including no tillage or control and long agricultural abandonment (shrub on marls and shrub on limestone) were established in 'El Teularet experimental station' located in the Sierra de Enguera (Valencia, Spain). The soil is a Typic Xerorthent developed over Cretaceous marls in an old agricultural terrace. The agricultural management can modify the soil equilibrium and affect its quality. In this work two soil quality indices (models) developed by Zornoza et al. (2007) are used to evaluate the effects of the different agricultural management along 4 years. The models were developed studying different soil properties in undisturbed forest soils in SE Spain, and the relationships between soil parameters were established using multiple linear regressions. Model 1, that explained 92% of the variance in soil organic carbon (SOC) showed that the SOC can be calculated by the linear combination of 6 physical, chemical and biochemical properties (acid phosphatase, water holding capacity (WHC), electrical conductivity (EC), available phosphorus (P), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and aggregate stability (AS). Model 2 explains 89% of the SOC variance, which can be calculated by means of 7 chemical and biochemical properties (urease, phosphatase, and ß-glucosidase activities, pH, EC, P and CEC). We use the

  10. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  11. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  12. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  13. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  14. A low cost micro-station to monitor soil water potential for irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannutelli, Edoardo; Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio; Renga, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    will be conducted on maize and peach orchard fields in the 2014 agricultural season, and the results will be published at the end of the year. In this work the micro-station prototype will be described in all its components, and the experimental field activities will be illustrated.

  15. Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

  16. Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

    The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

  17. Agriculture and water quality. Agriculture Information Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, B.M.; Ribaudo, M.O.; Young, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the Nation's water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural-chemical or land-use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface waterways in runoff; some leach through soil into ground water. Because surface-water systems and ground water systems are interrelated, farm-management practices need to focus on water quality in both systems. Modifying farm-management practices may raise production costs in some areas. Farmers can reduce runoff losses by reducing input use, implementing soil-conservation practices, and changing land use. Also at issue is who should pay for improving water quality.

  18. Exobiology experiments for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincenzi, D. L.; Griffiths, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    The benefits the Space Station could provide to the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life throughout the universe are described. Space Station experiments relevant to the cosmic evolution of biogenic elements and compounds, prebiotic chemical evolution, early evolution of life, and the evolution of advanced life forms are examined. The application of astronomical and astrometric observations to be obtained from the Space Station to the origin of life research is discussed.

  19. Space station furnace facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity environment of the International Space Station. The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks. The core system provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate experiment modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first instrument rack include a high temperature gradient furnace with quench, and a low temperature gradient furnace. A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  20. Local control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted.

  1. Green inspection station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Chen-Ko; Jacubasch, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    As an effect of globalization, product parts are manufactured more and more in different places. Due to the manufacturing processes, (sub-) products are being transported back and forth and rearranged until they can finally reach the consumer. Not only the environment is increasingly burdened, but also the natural resources are wasted increasingly thoughtless. One reason is certainly because for decades the industry has had only an inflexible concept for the inspection of (sub-) products, which cannot be easily adapted to changes in product layout, for example one robot with one sensor or one rigid structure with a fixed number of sensors for one specific inspection task. This rigid approach is unsuitable for the inspection of variant products. For these reasons, a new concept for 2D and 3D metric and logical quality monitoring with a more accurate, flexible, economical and efficient inspection station has been developed and tested in IOSB.

  2. Solar energy power station

    SciTech Connect

    Assaf, G.; Bronicki, L.Y.

    1983-03-22

    A solar power station has a heat source in the form of the heat storage layer of a solar pond, a heat sink in the form of the wind-mixed layer of the pond covering the halocline interposed between the heat storage layer and the wind-mixed layer, and a power plant associated therewith. The power plant includes a boiler responsive to water from the heat storage layer for vaporizing a working fluid, a prime mover for producing work by extracting heat from vaporized working fluid, and a condenser cooled by water from a cooling pond connected to the solar pond such that only water in the wind-mixed layer is exchanged with the cooling pond. The wind-mixed layer serves to dissipate heat from the condenser and the volume of water in the cooling pond increase the heat absorption capacity of the heat sink.

  3. Integrated microfluidic probe station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrault, C. M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Brastaviceanu, T.; Anderson, K.; Kabakibo, Y.; Juncker, D.

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution—thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet—and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  4. Space Station: The next iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Theresa M.

    1995-01-01

    NASA's international space station is nearing the completion stage of its troublesome 10-year design phase. With a revised design and new management team, NASA is tasked to deliver the station on time at a budget acceptable to both Congress and the White House. For the next three years, NASA is using tried-and-tested Russian hardware as the technical centerpiece of the station. The new station configuration consists of eight pressurized modules in which the crew can live and work; a long metal truss to connect the pieces; a robot arm for exterior jobs; a solar power system; and propelling the facility in space.

  5. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  6. Students Learn About Station Robotics

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Robotics Systems Flight Controller Jason Dyer participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at East Stroudsber...

  7. International Space Station Research Racks

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station has a variety of multidisciplinary laboratory facilities and equipment available for scientists to use. This video highlights the capabilities of select facilities. ...

  8. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  9. Cluster analysis of Southeastern U.S. climate stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stooksbury, D. E.; Michaels, P. J.

    1991-09-01

    A two-step cluster analysis of 449 Southeastern climate stations is used to objectively determine general climate clusters (groups of climate stations) for eight southeastern states. The purpose is objectively to define regions of climatic homogeneity that should perform more robustly in subsequent climatic impact models. This type of analysis has been successfully used in many related climate research problems including the determination of corn/climate districts in Iowa (Ortiz-Valdez, 1985) and the classification of synoptic climate types (Davis, 1988). These general climate clusters may be more appropriate for climate research than the standard climate divisions (CD) groupings of climate stations, which are modifications of the agro-economic United States Department of Agriculture crop reporting districts. Unlike the CD's, these objectively determined climate clusters are not restricted by state borders and thus have reduced multicollinearity which makes them more appropriate for the study of the impact of climate and climatic change.

  10. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  11. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE RECORD BOOK FOR PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    FORMS ARE PROVIDED FOR RECORDING FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT SUPERVISED FARM PROGRAM ENTERPRISES BY INDIVIDUAL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS. THE BOOK IS DESIGNED ON AN ENTERPRISE BASIS AND PROVIDES SPACE FOR AGREEMENTS, INVENTORIES, EXPENSES, INCOME, SUMMARIES, AND ANALYSES. ASSISTANCE FOR TEACHERS USING THIS RECORD BOOK IS AVAILABLE IN "GUIDE…

  12. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  13. An Intelligent Weather Station.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-12-10

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead.

  14. An Intelligent Weather Station

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M.; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead. PMID:26690433

  15. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  16. Vocational Agriculture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

    These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

  17. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  18. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  19. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  20. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  1. Personal Achievement Reading: Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozeboom, Deborah A.

    Exercises are provided in a set of five workbooks designed to aid students in agricultural programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from terminology of agriculture to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on the ability to determine word…

  2. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  3. Revisiting Supervised Agricultural Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; Clarke, Ariane; Fallon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 40 agricultural educators unanimously agreed that supervised agricultural experience should remain an integral component of the curriculum; a name change is not currently warranted. Categories recommended were agribusiness entrepreneurship, placement, production, research, directed school lab, communications, exploration, and…

  4. The space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for electrical power by the proposed Space Station Freedom are discussed. The options currently under consideration are examined. The three power options are photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and a hybrid system. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are tabulated. Drawings and artist concepts of the Space Station configuration are provided.

  5. Reusing Railroad Stations. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Railroad stations are a unique American resource that should continue to serve public and private interests even though their original purpose may have passed. Large stations should be considered as prominent civic structures whose redevelopment could offer significant opportunities to influence the future character, economy, and operation of…

  6. Space Station Quarterly, May 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This quarterly report discusses the First International Microgravity Laboratory, the building of space station truss structures at the Johnson Space Center, the building of the living and laboratory modules at the Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Lewis Research Center's work on power for the space station. The video includes a segment on the Japanese Experiment Module.

  7. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  8. Sighting the International Space Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  9. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  10. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  11. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... stations: § 73.1030Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL...

  12. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stations: § 73.1030Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL...

  13. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stations: § 73.1030Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL...

  14. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stations: § 73.1030Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL...

  15. Agricultural Irrigation Demand Response Estimation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    This program is used to model the energy demand of agricultural irrigation pumps, used to maintain soil moisture levels in irrigated fields. This modeling is accomplished using historical data from evapotranspirationmeasuring weather stations (from the California Irrigation Management Information System) as well as irrigation system characteristics for the field(s) to be modeled. The modelled energy demand is used to estimate the achievable demand response (DR) potential of the field(s), for use in assessing the value of the DR for the utility company. The program can accept input data with varying degrees of rigor, and estimate the uncertainty of the output accordingly.

  16. Current NASA space station planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    Design considerations, trials, and actions both taken and necessary in the future which lead to the establishment of a space station by NASA are reviewed. Human performance on board Skylab demonstrated the feasibility and benefits of continuous operation of a space station. The manned orbital systems concept (MOSC) program, keeping in close contact with potential users, resulted in station requirements which included support for 720 day missions, up to four specialists per payload, 8-10 kW power, a 230 x 200 n mi altitude orbit, orbit change capability of 28.5 deg, all attitude orientation, and stability to within 1,100,000 g. Although the concept will not be funded, it provides a guide for incremental growth of a manned station from previously unmanned science platforms. Initiation of hardware development is projected for 1984-85. The agencies, both domestic and international, and missions for which the station will be built, are discussed.

  17. Telescoping Space-Station Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

  18. Canada's role on space station.

    PubMed

    Doetsch, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the evolution of the Canadian Space Station Program between 1981 and 2003. Discussions with potential international partners, aimed at jointly developing the current International Space Station program, were initiated by NASA in 1982. Canada chose, through the further development of the technologies of Canadarm on the space shuttle, to provide and operate an advanced and comprehensive external robotics system for space station, and to use the space station for scientific and commercial purposes. The program was to become a corner-stone of the new Canadian Space Agency. The development phase of the Canadian Space Station Program has been completed and two of the three major elements are currently operational in space.

  19. Space Station lubrication considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Dufrane, Keith

    1987-01-01

    Future activities in space will require the use of large structures and high power availability in order to fully exploit opportunities in Earth and stellar observations, space manufacturing and the development of optimum space transportation vehicles. Although these large systems will have increased capabilities, the associated development costs will be high, and will dictate long life with minimum maintenance. The Space Station provides a concrete example of such a system; it is approximately one hundred meters in major dimensions and has a life requirement of thirty years. Numerous mechanical components will be associated with these systems, a portion of which will be exposed to the space environment. If the long life and low maintenance goals are to be satisfied, lubricants and lubrication concepts will have to be carefully selected. Current lubrication practices are reviewed with the intent of determining acceptability for the long life requirements. The effects of exposure of lubricants and lubricant binders to the space environment are generally discussed. Potential interaction of MoS2 with atomic oxygen, a component of the low Earth orbit environment, appears to be significant.

  20. Animal research on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, S. L.; Arno, R. D.; Corbin, S. D.

    1987-01-01

    The need for in-depth, long- and short-term animal experimentation in space to qualify man for long-duration space missions, and to study the effects of the absence and presence of Earth's gravity and of heavy particle radiation on the development and functioning of vertebrates is described. The major facilities required for these investigations and to be installed on the Space Station are: modular habitats for holding rodents and small primates in full bioisolation; a habitat holding facility; 1.8 and 4.0 m dia centrifuges; a multipurpose workbench; and a cage cleaner/disposal system. The design concepts, functions, and characteristics of these facilities are described.

  1. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  2. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.104 Department... transportation in passenger automobiles and station wagons and other vehicles used only for transportation...

  3. Space Station Freedom: Dynamic instrumentation for a large space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, John P.; Cooper, Paul A.; Johnson, James W.

    1990-01-01

    A proposed approach called Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) for obtaining on-orbit dynamic response measurements on Space Station Freedom, the first of a family of large, flexible space structures is discussed. The Phase 2 conceptual design study which provides a conceptual design of a proposed measurement system and an experimental protocol for inobstrusively collecting dynamic response data critical to characterizing important vibration modes of Space Station Freedom were recently concluded. The case for conducting such a measurement program is presented and the specific MIE objectives that were identified, are listed. The sequence of discrete Space Station Freedom assembly configurations is described, and the Phase 2 conceptual design of the experiment and instrumentation system are defined. In addition, a plan to utilize a space station hydrid scale model in laboratory simulations as part of the design process are discussed.

  4. 47 CFR 73.210 - Station classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station classes. 73.210 Section 73.210... Broadcast Stations § 73.210 Station classes. (a) The rules applicable to a particular station, including... depend upon the zone in which the station's transmitter is located, or proposed to be located. The...

  5. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  6. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  7. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  8. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  9. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  10. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  11. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  12. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  13. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  14. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  15. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  16. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  17. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  18. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  19. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  20. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  1. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  2. Innovative Programs in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Developmental programs resulting from the increased emphasis on off-farm agricultural occupations and considered innovative by state wupervisors of agricultural education are described: (1) 17 high school vocational agriculture programs in horticulture, agricultural mechanics, forestry and conservation, agriculture and distribution, cooperative…

  3. Nutrient mitigation efficiency in agricultural drainage ditches: An influence of landscape properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage systems are integral parts of the agricultural landscapes and have the ability to intercept nutrient loading from runoff to surface water. This study investigated nutrient removal efficiency within replicated experimental conventional and controlled (with weirs) agricultural drainage ditche...

  4. Micro Weather Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Improved in situ meteorological measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere are needed for studies of weather and climate, both as a primary data source and as validation for remote sensing instruments. Following the initial development and successful flight validation of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) hygrometer, the micro weather station program was directed toward the development of an integrated instrument, capable of accurate, in situ profiling of the troposphere, and small enough to fly on a radiosonde balloon for direct comparison with standard radiosondes. On April 23, 1998, working with Frank Schmidlin and Bob Olson of Wallops Island Flight Facility, we flew our instrument in a dual payload experiment, for validation and direct comparison with a Vaisala radiosonde. During that flight, the SAW dewpoint hygrometer measured frostpoint down to -76T at 44,000 feet. Using a laptop computer in radio contact with the balloon, we monitored data in real time, issued the cutdown command, and recovered the payload less than an hour after landing in White Sands Missile Range, 50 miles from the launch site in Hatch, New Mexico. Future flights will extend the intercomparison, and attempt to obtain in situ meteorological profiles from the surface through the tropopause. The SAW hygrometer was successfully deployed on the NASA DC8 as part of NASA's Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) during August and September, 1998. This field campaign was devoted to the study of hurricane tracking and intensification using NASA-funded aircraft. In situ humidity data from the SAW hygrometer are currently being analyzed and compared with data from other instruments on the DC8 and ER2 aircraft. Additional information is contained in the original.

  5. Space station propulsion analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, R. M.; Sovey, J. S.; Hannum, N. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the impacts on the weight, volume and power usage of a manned space station and its 90-day resupply for three integrated, auxiliary propulsion subsystems. The study was performed in coordination with activities of the Space Staton Concept Development Group (CDG). The study focused on three space station propulsion high-low thrust options that make use of fluids that will be available on the manned space station. Specific uses of carbon dioxide, water and cryogen boiloff were considered. For each of the options the increase in station hardware mass and volume to accommodate the dual thrust option is offset by the resupply savings, relative to the reference hydrazine system, after one to several resupplies. Over the life of the station the savings in cost of logistics could be substantial. The three options are examples of alternative technology paths that, because of the opportunity they provide for integration with the environmental control life support system (ECLSS) and OTV propellant storage systems, may reduce the scarring which is required on the early station to meet the increasing propulsion requirements of the growth station.

  6. Space station propulsion requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  7. March 20, 2012 Space Station Briefing: Station Configuration (Narrated)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation, presented by Expedition 32 Lead Flight Director Dina Contella during the March 20, 2012 ISS Program and Science Overview Briefing, shows the configuration of the space station durin...

  8. March 20, 2012 Space Station Briefing: Station Configuration

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation, presented by Expedition 32 Lead Flight Director Dina Contella during the March 20, 2012 ISS Program and Science Overview Briefing, shows the configuration of the space station durin...

  9. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Editor); Eichold, Alice (Editor); Heers, Susan (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements model study, space station group activities habitability module study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space stations, and social factors in space station interiors.

  10. Evolutionary space station fluids management strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results are summarized for an 11-month study to define fluid storage and handling strategies and requirements for various specific mission case studies and their associated design impacts on the Space Station. There are a variety of fluid users which require a variety of fluids and use rates. Also, the cryogenic propellants required for NASA's STV, Planetary, and Code Z missions are enormous. The storage methods must accommodate fluids ranging from a high pressure gas or supercritical state fluid to a sub-cooled liquid (and superfluid helium). These requirements begin in the year 1994, reach a maximum of nearly 1800 metric tons in the year 2004, and trail off to the year 2018, as currently planned. It is conceivable that the cryogenic propellant needs for the STV and/or Lunar mission models will be met by LTCSF LH2/LO2 tanksets attached to the SS truss structure. Concepts and corresponding transfer and delivery operations have been presented for STV propellant provisioning from the SS. A growth orbit maneuvering vehicle (OMV) and associated servicing capability will be required to move tanksets from delivery launch vehicles to the SS or co-orbiting platforms. Also, appropriate changes to the software used for OMV operation are necessary to allow for the combined operation of the growth OMV. To support fluid management activities at the Space Station for the experimental payloads and propellant provisioning, there must be truss structure space allocated for fluid carriers and propellant tanksets, and substantial beam strengthening may be required. The Station must have two Mobile Remote Manipulator Systems (MRMS) and the growth OMV propellant handling operations for the STV at the SS. Propellant needs for the Planetary Initiatives and Code Z mission models will most likely be provided by co-orbiting propellant platform(s). Space Station impacts for Code Z mission fluid management activities will be minimal.

  11. Weather Stations as Educational and Hazard-Forecasting Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Gierke, J. S.; Gochis, E. E.; Dominguez, R.; Mayer, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Small, relatively inexpensive (<$1000 USD) weather stations can be valuable tools for enhancing inquiry-based educational opportunities at all grade levels, while also facilitating compilation of climate data for longer term research. Weather stations and networks of stations have been installed both locally and abroad in mostly rural and resource-limited settings. The data are being used either in the classroom to engage students in place-based, scientific investigations and/or research to improve hydrometeorological hazard forecasting, including water scarcity. The San Vicente (El Salvador) Network of six stations monitors rainfall to aid warning and evacuations for landslide and flooding hazards. Other parameters are used in modeling the watershed hydrology. A station installed in Hermosillo, Mexico is used in both Geography and Ecology Classes. Trends in temperature and rainfall are graphed and compared to historic data gathered over the last 30 years by CONAGUA. These observations are linked to local water-related problems, including well salinization, diminished agriculture, depleted aquifers, and social conflict regarding access to water. Two weather stations were installed at the Hannahville Indian Community School (Nah Tah Wahsh) in Michigan for educational purposes of data collection, analysis, and presentation. Through inquiry-based explorations of local hydrological processes, students are introduced to how meteorological data are used in understanding watershed hydrology and the sustainable management of groundwater resources. Several Michigan Technological University Peace Corps Masters International students have deployed weather stations in and around the communities where they serve, and the data are used in research to help in understanding water resource availability and irrigation needs.

  12. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  13. Amplitude-dependent station magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzyner, Yael; Ben Horin, Yochai; Steinberg, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Magnitude, a concept first presented by Gutenberg and Richter, adjusts measurements of ground motion for epicentral distance and source depth. Following this principle, the IDC defines the j'th station body wave magnitude for event i as mb(stai,j) = log 10(Aj,i/Tj,i) + V C(Δj,i,hi) , where VC is the Veith-Clawson (VC) correction to compensate for the epicentral distance of the station and the depth of the source. The network magnitude is calculated as the average of station magnitudes. The IDC magnitude estimation is used for event characterization and discrimination and it should be as accurate as possible. Ideally, the network magnitude should be close in value to the station magnitudes. In reality, it is observed that the residuals range between -1 and 1 mu or ±25% of a given mb(neti) value. We show that the residual, mb(neti) -mb(staj,i), depends linearly on log 10(Aj,i/Tj,i), and we correct for this dependence using the following procedure: Calculate a "jackknifed" network magnitude, mbj,n(neti), i.e. an average over all participating stations except station n. Using all measurements at station n, calculate the parameters an, bn of the linear fit of the residual mbj,n(neti) - mb(stan,i to log 10(An,i/Tn,i). For each event i at station n calculate the new station magnitude mbnew(stan,i) = (an + 1)log(An,i/Tn,i) + V C(Δn,i,hi) + bn Calculate the new network magnitude: mbnew(neti) = 1N- ∑ n=1nmbnew(stan,i) The procedure was used on more than two million station-event pairs. Correcting for the station-specific dependence on log amplitude reduces the residuals by roughly a third. We have calculated the spread of the distributions, and compared the original values and those for the corrected magnitudes. The spread is the ratio between the variance of the network magnitudes, and the variance of the residual. Calculations show an increase in the ratio of the variance, meaning that the correction process presented in this document did not lead to loss of variance

  14. Space Station logistics system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    This task investigates logistics requirements and logistics system concepts for the evolutionary Space Station. Requirements for the basic station, crew, user equipment, and free-flying platforms, as requirements for manned exploration initiative elements and crews while at the Space Station. Data is provided which assesses the ability of the Space Freedom logistics carriers to accommodate the logistics loads per year. Also, advanced carrier concepts are defined and assessed against the logistics requirements. The implications on Earth-to-orbit vehicles of accommodating the logistics requirements, using various types of carriers, are assessed on a year by year basis.

  15. Space Station Freedom user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform prospective users of the accommodations and resources provided by the Space Station Freedom program. Using this information, they can determine if Space Station Freedom is an appropriate laboratory or facility for their research objectives. The steps that users must follow to fly a payload on Freedom are described. This guide covers the accommodations and resources available on the Space Station during the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) period, scheduled to begin the end of 1996, and a Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) beginning in late 1999.

  16. Space Station Freedom food management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  17. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Systems in the Rural Radiotelephone Service; (5) (6) Stations operating pursuant to paging geographic area... digital transmission to ascertain the call sign. Station identification comprises transmission of the call..., a call sign assigned to another station within the same system....

  18. Analytical expressions for position error in triangulation solution of point in space for several station configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, S. A. T.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical expressions are derived to first order for the rms position error in the triangulation solution of a point object in space for several ideal observation-station configurations. These expressions provide insights into the nature of the dependence of the rms position error on certain of the experimental parameters involved. The station geometries examined are: (1) the configuration of two arbitrarily located stations; (2) the symmetrical circular configuration of two or more stations with equal elevation angles; and (3) the circular configuration of more than two stations with equal elevation angles, when one of the stations is permitted to drift around the circle from its position of symmetry. The expressions for the rms position error are expressed as functions of the rms line-of-sight errors, the total number of stations of interest, and the elevation angles.

  19. Agricultural Research Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protection Crop Production and Protection Natural Resources and Sustainable Agricultural Systems Nutrition, Food Safety, and Quality Overseas ... LA, MS, NC, PR, SC) Footer Content ARS Home | USDA.gov | Site Map | Statements and Disclaimers | Plain ...

  20. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  1. Toward a Sustainable Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Future trends in population growth, energy use, climate change, and globalization will challenge agriculturists to develop innovative production systems that are highly productive and environmentally sound. Furthermore, future agricultural production systems must possess an inherent capacity to adap...

  2. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  3. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality. PMID:27561384

  4. Lunar agriculture in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, S.

    Through the moon' s role in choosing the proper time for planting, harvesting and woodcutting is widely attested in ethnographic reports, the cultural logic and structure of actions by which this celestial body is perceived and used has not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of this paper is to offer such an explanatory framework within which the role of the moon in the agricultural cycle may be explained. My examples of the beliefs about lunar agriculture derive from the Mesoamerican cultural tradition.

  5. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  6. REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS OF RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PHIPPS, LLOYD J.; WARMBROD, J. ROBERT

    OVER 400 STUDIES WERE CONSIDERED IN PREPARING THIS REPORT ON AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS, TRENDS, METHODOLOGY, AND NEEDS. THOUGH EMERGENCE OF CORRELATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IS EVIDENT, RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION HAS BEEN LARGELY DESCRIPTIVE. WEAKNESSES IN PROBABILITY SAMPLING AND SURVEY TECHNIQUES HAVE BEEN…

  7. An Evaluation of Georgia's Agriculture in the Classroom Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herren, Ray V.; Oakley, Pam

    1995-01-01

    In Georgia 16 classes of second graders and 12 of fourth graders were divided into 2 groups. The treatment group was taught the Agriculture in the Classroom curriculum. Compared to controls' test scores, the experimental group effectively learned agriculture concepts regardless of whether they were in rural or urban areas, grouped randomly or by…

  8. Evaluation of selected surface-water-quality stations in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, S.J.; DeLong, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture, has conducted a surface-water-quality program in Wyoming since 1965. The purpose has been to determine the chemical quality of the water in terms of the major dissolved constituents (salinity). Changing agricultural techniques and energy development have stimulated a need for an expanded program involving additional types of data. This report determines the adequacy of the data collected thus far to describe the chemical quality. The sampling program was evaluated by determining how well the data describe the dissolved-solids load of the streams. Monthly mean loads were estimated at 16 stations throughout the network where daily streamflow and daily specific conductance were available. Monthly loads were then compared with loads estimated from daily streamflow and data derived from analyses of samples collected on a monthly basis at these same stations. Agreement was good. Solute-load hydrographs were constructed for 37 stations and from some reaches where streamflow records were available. Because stations where no discharge records are available are not amenable to this type of analysis, data collected at these stations are of limited usefulness. This report covers analyses of data for all qualifying sites in Wyoming except those in the Green River Basin, which were analyzed in U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations 77-103. The salinity in most of the streams evaluated is adequately described by the data collected. Reduced sampling is feasible, and time and money can be diverted to collecting other data. (USGS)

  9. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  10. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  11. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  12. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  13. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service of private coast stations and marine... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  14. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-utility stations. 80.107 Section 80.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  15. Semi-remote handling of radioactive devices in the Fermilab target stations

    SciTech Connect

    Eartly, D.; Currier, R.; Lindberg, J.; Sobczynski, S.; Stredde, H.; Strickland, W.

    1984-01-01

    Six additional, isolated, and self-contained target stations are being built as part of the upgrade of the three Fermilab fixed target Experimental Areas. One new system of shielding and semi-remote component handling via a crane is being developed for all of these. The first of these stations is under test. The system is simple and flexible. It successfully provides semi-remote handling of components from within the shielding of the stations.

  16. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  17. Station Tour: Harmony, Tranquility, Unity

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams starts off her tour of the International Space Station with a look at its nodes -- Harmony, Tranquility and Unity -- which include the crew's sleeping quarters...

  18. Korea Geodetic VLBI Station, Sejong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donghyun, Baek; Sangoh, Yi; Hongjong, Oh; Sangchul, Han

    2013-01-01

    The Sejong VLBI station officially joined the IVS as a new Network Station in 2012. This report summarizes the activities of the Sejong station during 2012. The following are the activities at the station: 1) VLBI test observations were carried out with the Tsukuba 34-m antenna of the GSI in Japan. As a result, the Sejong antenna needs to improve its efficiency, which is currently in progress, 2) A survey to connect the VLBI reference point to GNSS and ground marks was conducted, and 3) To see the indirect effects of RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) at this place, we checked the omni-direction (AZ 0? to 360?, EL fixed at 7?) for RFI influence.

  19. Station Change of Command Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    The reins of the International Space Station were passed from Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum of NASA to his NASA colleague, newly arrived Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank in a ceremony on t...

  20. Space Station Live: Microbiome Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with Microbiome experiment Investigator Mark Ott to learn more about this research taking place aboard the International Space Station. The Microbiome e...

  1. Station Commander Sends Holiday Greetings

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank of NASA sends season's greetings to the world and shares his thoughts about being in orbit aboard the space-based laborat...

  2. Students Speak With Station Capcom

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, ISS capcom Hal Getzelman participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Colvin Run Elementary School in Vien...

  3. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  4. New Crewmates Welcomed Aboard Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Engineers Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin join their Expedition 33 crewmates after the hatches between the International Space Station and the Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft opened ...

  5. Space Station robotics planning tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Bridget Mintz

    1992-01-01

    The concepts are described for the set of advanced Space Station Freedom (SSF) robotics planning tools for use in the Space Station Control Center (SSCC). It is also shown how planning for SSF robotics operations is an international process, and baseline concepts are indicated for that process. Current SRMS methods provide the backdrop for this SSF theater of multiple robots, long operating time-space, advanced tools, and international cooperation.

  6. ANSS Backbone Station Quality Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeds, A.; McNamara, D.; Benz, H.; Gee, L.

    2006-12-01

    In this study we assess the ambient noise levels of the broadband seismic stations within the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) backbone network. The backbone consists of stations operated by the USGS as well as several regional network stations operated by universities. We also assess the improved detection capability of the network due to the installation of 13 additional backbone stations and the upgrade of 26 existing stations funded by the Earthscope initiative. This assessment makes use of probability density functions (PDF) of power spectral densities (PSD) (after McNamara and Buland, 2004) computed by a continuous noise monitoring system developed by the USGS- ANSS and the Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). We compute the median and mode of the PDF distribution and rank the stations relative to the Peterson Low noise model (LNM) (Peterson, 1993) for 11 different period bands. The power of the method lies in the fact that there is no need to screen the data for system transients, earthquakes or general data artifacts since they map into a background probability level. Previous studies have shown that most regional stations, instrumented with short period or extended short period instruments, have a higher noise level in all period bands while stations in the US network have lower noise levels at short periods (0.0625-8.0 seconds), high frequencies (8.0- 0.125Hz). The overall network is evaluated with respect to accomplishing the design goals set for the USArray/ANSS backbone project which were intended to increase broadband performance for the national monitoring network.

  7. Tsukuba 32-m VLBI Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawabata, Ryoji; Kurihara, Shinobu; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Jiro; Tanabe, Tadashi; Mukai, Yasuko; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The Tsukuba 32-m VLBI station is operated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. This report summarizes activities of the Tsukuba 32-m VLBI station in 2012. More than 200 sessions were observed with the Tsukuba 32-m and other GSI antennas in accordance with the IVS Master Schedule of 2012. We have started installing the observing facilities that will be fully compliant with VLBI2010 for the first time in Japan.

  8. Space Station reference configuration description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  9. International SpaceStation (ISS) Alpha with Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha deployed and operational. This figure also includes the docking procedures for the Space Shuttle (shown with cargo bay open). The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  10. 47 CFR 5.53 - Station authorization required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station authorization required. 5.53 Section 5.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE (OTHER THAN... Commission's Office of Engineering and Technology in writing that it plans to begin construction at its...

  11. 47 CFR 5.53 - Station authorization required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Commission's Office of Engineering and Technology in writing that it plans to begin construction at its own... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station authorization required. 5.53 Section 5.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE (OTHER...

  12. International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle: X-38. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide the world with an orbiting laboratory that will have long-duration micro-gravity experimentation capability. The crew size for this facility will depend upon the crew return capability. The first crews will consist of three astronauts from Russia and the United States. The crew is limited to three…

  13. STS-131: Discovery Does Backflip at Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Commander Alan Poindexter performs a Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver as Discovery approaches the International Space Station for docking, allowing the station crew to photograph the orbiter's heat shield...

  14. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  15. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  16. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  17. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  18. TOR station for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Y.; Arshinova, V. G.; Belan, Boris D.; Davydov, Denis K.; Kovalevskii, Valentin K.; Plotnikov, Aleksandr P.; Pokrovskii, Evgenii V.; Rasskazchikova, T. M.; Simonenkov, D. V.; Sklyadneva, Tatyana K.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.

    1997-05-01

    In December 1992 a station for atmospheric observations has been put into operation at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics within the frameworks of the program of ecological monitoring of Siberia. The station provides for acquiring data on gas and aerosol composition of the atmosphere, on meteorological quantities, and the background of gamma radiation. The station operates day and night and the whole year round. All the measurement procedures are fully automated. Readouts from the measuring devices are performed very hour 10 minutes averaged. In addition, synoptic information is also received at the station. Periodically gas chromatographic analysis is being done to determine concentrations of hydrocarbons from the methane row. Occasionally, chemical composition of suspended matter is determined relative to 39 ingredients. The station is located to the north-east of Tomsk, Akademgorodok. Therefore sometimes it measures air mass coming from Tomsk down town area and sometimes the air mass from rural areas. As a result information obtained at this station should be typical for recreation zones around Tomsk.

  19. Space station functional relationships analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra R.

    1988-01-01

    A systems engineering process is developed to assist Space Station designers to understand the underlying operational system of the facility so that it can be physically arranged and configured to support crew productivity. The study analyzes the operational system proposed for the Space Station in terms of mission functions, crew activities, and functional relationships in order to develop a quantitative model for evaluation of interior layouts, configuration, and traffic analysis for any Station configuration. Development of the model involved identification of crew functions, required support equipment, criteria of assessing functional relationships, and tools for analyzing functional relationship matrices, as well as analyses of crew transition frequency, sequential dependencies, support equipment requirements, potential for noise interference, need for privacy, and overall compatability of functions. The model can be used for analyzing crew functions for the Initial Operating Capability of the Station and for detecting relationships among these functions. Note: This process (FRA) was used during Phase B design studies to test optional layouts of the Space Station habitat module. The process is now being automated as a computer model for use in layout testing of the Space Station laboratory modules during Phase C.

  20. Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch

    This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  1. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  2. Assessing different agricultural managements with the use of soil quality indices in a Mediteranean calcareous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem in the Mediterranean region due to the arid conditions and torrential rainfalls, which contribute to the degradation of agricultural land. New strategies must be developed to reduce soil losses and recover or maintain soil functionality in order to achieve a sustainable agriculture. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different agricultural management on soil properties and soil quality. Ten different treatments (contact herbicide, systemic herbicide, ploughing, Oat mulch non-plough, Oats mulch plough, leguminous plant, straw rice mulch, chipped pruned branches, residual-herbicide and agro geo-textile, and three control plots including no tillage or control and long agricultural abandonment (shrub on marls and shrub on limestone) were established in 'El Teularet experimental station' located in the Sierra de Enguera (Valencia, Spain). The soil is a Typic Xerorthent developed over Cretaceous marls in an old agricultural terrace. The agricultural management can modify the soil equilibrium and affect its quality. In this work two soil quality indices (models) developed by Zornoza et al. (2007) are used to evaluate the effects of the different agricultural management along 4 years. The models were developed studying different soil properties in undisturbed forest soils in SE Spain, and the relationships between soil parameters were established using multiple linear regressions. Model 1, that explained 92% of the variance in soil organic carbon (SOC) showed that the SOC can be calculated by the linear combination of 6 physical, chemical and biochemical properties (acid phosphatase, water holding capacity (WHC), electrical conductivity (EC), available phosphorus (P), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and aggregate stability (AS). Model 2 explains 89% of the SOC variance, which can be calculated by means of 7 chemical and biochemical properties (urease, phosphatase, and ß-glucosidase activities, pH, EC, P and CEC). We use the

  3. 47 CFR 74.431 - Special rules applicable to remote pickup stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special rules applicable to remote pickup stations. 74.431 Section 74.431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Remote Pickup Broadcast Stations §...

  4. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast... TV translator, low power TV, and TV booster stations: Part 5—Experimental authorizations. Section 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual transmitters. Section 73.658—Affiliation agreements and...

  5. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast... TV translator, low power TV, and TV booster stations: Part 5—Experimental authorizations. Section 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual transmitters. Section 73.658—Affiliation agreements and...

  6. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  7. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts. PMID:25757330

  8. Space Station Freedom as an engineering experiment station: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. Frank

    1992-01-01

    In this presentation, the premise that Space Station Freedom has great utility as an engineering experiment station will be explored. There are several modes in which it can be used for this purpose. The most obvious are space qualification, process development, in space satellite repair, and materials engineering. The range of engineering experiments which can be done at Space Station Freedom run the gamut from small process oriented experiments to full exploratory development models. A sampling of typical engineering experiments are discussed in this session. First and foremost, Space Station Freedom is an elaborate experiment itself, which, if properly instrumented, will provide engineering guidelines for even larger structures which must surely be built if humankind is truly 'outward bound.' Secondly, there is the test, evaluation and space qualification of advanced electric thruster concepts, advanced power technology and protective coatings which must of necessity be tested in the vacuum of space. The current approach to testing these technologies is to do exhaustive laboratory simulation followed by shuttle or unmanned flights. Third, the advanced development models of life support systems intended for future space stations, manned mars missions, and lunar colonies can be tested for operation in a low gravity environment. Fourth, it will be necessary to develop new protective coatings, establish construction techniques, evaluate new materials to be used in the upgrading and repair of Space Station Freedom. Finally, the industrial sector, if it is ever to build facilities for the production of commercial products, must have all the engineering aspects of the process evaluated in space prior to a commitment to such a facility.

  9. Agriculture-related anaemias.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F

    1994-12-01

    Man evolved as a hunter-gatherer, and the invention and spread of agriculture was followed by changes in diet, the environment and population densities which have resulted in globally high prevalences of anaemias due to nutritional deficiencies of iron, folate and (locally) vitamin B12, to infestations by hookworm and schistosomes, to malaria, and to the natural selection for the genes for sickle-cell diseases, beta-thalassaemias, alpha-thalassaemias, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, ovalocytosis and possibly (locally) elliptocytosis. The present explosion of population is driving an expansion of agriculture, especially the cultivation of rice, and this has led often to disastrous increases of transmission of malaria, schistosomiasis and other diseases, to widespread chemical pollution, and to degradation of the environment. Anaemia, as the commonest manifestation of human disease, is a frequent consequence. The urgent need for increased food production is matched by the urgent need for assessment and control of the health impact of agricultural development.

  10. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  11. Theme: Changes in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Changes in Agricultural Education in Tennessee" (Byerley, Todd); "Evolving Focus for Agricultural Education Graduates?" (Schlink); "Researching Adult Organizations in Agricultural Education" (Seevers, Dormody); "Past 25 Years" (Klein, Luft); "Agricultural Education" (Sibiga, Mannebach); "Don't Look Back" (Butcher); "Changes in…

  12. 76 FR 49291 - Agricultural Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Commission recently promulgated a final rule defining the term ``agricultural commodity.'' See 76 FR 41048... Agricultural Swaps, 76 FR 6095, February 3, 2011. \\8\\ See Agricultural Swaps, 75 FR 59666, Sept. 28, 2010. C... specifically addressing the costs and benefits of the proposed agricultural swaps rules. \\10\\ See NPRM, 76...

  13. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  14. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohrs, Richard

    1992-01-01

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  15. Effects of different agricultural managements in soil microbial community structure in a semi-arid Mediterranean region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugan, Alicia; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Scow, Kate

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture has been practiced in semi-arid Mediterranean regions for 10.000 years and in many cases these practices have been unsuitable causing land degradation for millennium and an important loss of soil quality. The land management can provide solutions to find the best agricultural practices in order to maintain the soil quality and get a sustainable agriculture model. Microbiological properties are the most sensitive and rapid indicators of soil perturbations and land use managements. The study of microbial community and diversity has an important interest as indicators of changes in soil quality. The main objective of this work was to asses the effect of different agricultural management practices in soil microbial community (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Four different treatments were selected, based on the most commonly practices applied by farmers in the study area, "El Teularet Experimental Station", located at the Enguera Range in the southern part of the Valencia province (eastern Spain). These treatments were: a) ploughing, b) herbicides c) mulch, using the types applied by organic farmers to develop a sustainable agriculture, such as oat straw and d) control that was established as plot where the treatment was abandonment after farming. An adjacent area with the same type of soil, but with natural vegetation was used as a standard or reference high quality soil. Soil samples were taken to evaluate the changes in microbial soil structure, analysing the abundance of PLFA. The results showed a major content of total PLFA in soils treated with oats straw, being these results similar to the content of PLFA in the soil with natural vegetation, also these soils were similar in the distribution of abundance of different PLFA studied. However, the herbicide and tillage treatments showed great differences regarding the soil used as reference (soil under natural vegetation).

  16. The ACTS NASA Ground Station/Master Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, David N.

    1992-01-01

    Two of the major components of the ACTS Ground Segment are the NASA Ground Station (NGS) and the Master Control Station (MCS), colocated at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Essentially, the NGS provides the communications links by which the MCS performs its various network control and monitoring functions. The NGS also provides telecommunications links capable of transmission/reception of up to approximately 70 Mbit/s of digital telephonic traffic. Operating as a system, the entire complex of equipment is referred to as the NGS/MCS. This paper provides an 'as-built' description of the NGS/MCS as a system.

  17. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  18. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.783 Station identification. (a) Each low power TV and TV translator station not..., whose signal is being rebroadcast, to identify the translator station by transmitting an easily...

  19. 47 CFR 95.1005 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1005 Station identification. An LPRS station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1005 Section...

  20. 46 CFR 122.514 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station bill. 122.514 Section 122.514 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 122.514 Station bill. (a) A station bill must be posted by the master on a vessel of more than... regards to the content of a station bill, the duties of the crew, emergency signals, an emergency...

  1. 46 CFR 185.514 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station bill. 185.514 Section 185.514 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.514 Station bill. (a) A station bill must be posted by the... requiring more than four crew members at any one time, including the master. (b) The station bill...

  2. 46 CFR 185.514 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station bill. 185.514 Section 185.514 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.514 Station bill. (a) A station bill must be posted by the... requiring more than four crew members at any one time, including the master. (b) The station bill...

  3. 46 CFR 131.350 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station bill. 131.350 Section 131.350 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 131.350 Station bill. (a) The master of each vessel shall post a station bill if the vessel's Certificate of Inspection requires more than four crew members, including the master. (b) The station...

  4. 46 CFR 131.350 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station bill. 131.350 Section 131.350 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 131.350 Station bill. (a) The master of each vessel shall post a station bill if the vessel's Certificate of Inspection requires more than four crew members, including the master. (b) The station...

  5. 46 CFR 131.350 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station bill. 131.350 Section 131.350 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 131.350 Station bill. (a) The master of each vessel shall post a station bill if the vessel's Certificate of Inspection requires more than four crew members, including the master. (b) The station...

  6. 46 CFR 122.514 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station bill. 122.514 Section 122.514 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 122.514 Station bill. (a) A station bill must be posted by the master on a vessel of more than... regards to the content of a station bill, the duties of the crew, emergency signals, an emergency...

  7. 46 CFR 122.514 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station bill. 122.514 Section 122.514 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 122.514 Station bill. (a) A station bill must be posted by the master on a vessel of more than... regards to the content of a station bill, the duties of the crew, emergency signals, an emergency...

  8. 46 CFR 131.350 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station bill. 131.350 Section 131.350 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 131.350 Station bill. (a) The master of each vessel shall post a station bill if the vessel's Certificate of Inspection requires more than four crew members, including the master. (b) The station...

  9. 46 CFR 122.514 - Station bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station bill. 122.514 Section 122.514 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 122.514 Station bill. (a) A station bill must be posted by the master on a vessel of more than... regards to the content of a station bill, the duties of the crew, emergency signals, an emergency...

  10. 47 CFR 90.249 - Control stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control stations. 90.249 Section 90.249... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.249 Control stations. Control... following: (a) Frequencies for control stations. (1) Control stations may be authorized to operate...

  11. 47 CFR 90.249 - Control stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control stations. 90.249 Section 90.249... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.249 Control stations. Control... following: (a) Frequencies for control stations. (1) Control stations may be authorized to operate...

  12. 47 CFR 90.249 - Control stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control stations. 90.249 Section 90.249... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.249 Control stations. Control... following: (a) Frequencies for control stations. (1) Control stations may be authorized to operate...

  13. 47 CFR 90.249 - Control stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control stations. 90.249 Section 90.249... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.249 Control stations. Control... following: (a) Frequencies for control stations. (1) Control stations may be authorized to operate...

  14. 46 CFR 28.395 - Embarkation stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... least one designated survival craft embarkation station and any additional embarkation stations necessary so that an embarkation station is readily accessible from each accommodation space and work space. Each embarkation station must be arranged to allow the safe boarding of survival craft....

  15. 46 CFR 28.395 - Embarkation stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... least one designated survival craft embarkation station and any additional embarkation stations necessary so that an embarkation station is readily accessible from each accommodation space and work space. Each embarkation station must be arranged to allow the safe boarding of survival craft....

  16. 46 CFR 28.395 - Embarkation stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... least one designated survival craft embarkation station and any additional embarkation stations necessary so that an embarkation station is readily accessible from each accommodation space and work space. Each embarkation station must be arranged to allow the safe boarding of survival craft....

  17. 46 CFR 28.395 - Embarkation stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... least one designated survival craft embarkation station and any additional embarkation stations necessary so that an embarkation station is readily accessible from each accommodation space and work space. Each embarkation station must be arranged to allow the safe boarding of survival craft....

  18. 46 CFR 28.395 - Embarkation stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... least one designated survival craft embarkation station and any additional embarkation stations necessary so that an embarkation station is readily accessible from each accommodation space and work space. Each embarkation station must be arranged to allow the safe boarding of survival craft....

  19. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at...

  20. Proceedings: Agricultural Technology Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report is a compilation of field trip overviews, presentations and committee reports from the EPRI-ATA meeting held in Boise, Idaho, May 28-30, 1997. The field trips consisted of an Agriculture and Aquaculture Tour, a tour of Idaho as America's Seed Supplier, and a Production of Milk, Cheese and Electricity tour. Presentations and committee reports include the following: (1) Idaho Seed Industry; (2) Controlled Environment Agriculture; (3) Irrigation in the North West: An Overview; (4) Drip Irrigation; (5) Sprinkler Irrigation; (6) Current Status of the ATA; (7) ATA Office Report; (8) Committee Reports; (9) Steering Committee Minutes.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity influenced by different agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mar Alguacil, Maria; Torrecillas, Emma; Garcia-Orenes, Fuensanta; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldan, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study a field experiment was performed at the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera Experimental Station (eastern Spain) to assess the influence during a 6-yr period of different agricultural practices on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The management practices included residual herbicide use, ploughing, ploughing + oats, addition of oat straw mulch and a control (land abandonment). Adjacent soil under natural vegetation was used as a reference for local, high-quality soil and as a control for comparison with the agricultural soils under different management practices. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Thirty-six different phylotypes were identified, which were grouped in four families: Glomeraceae, Paraglomeraceae, Ambisporaceae and Claroideoglomeraceae. The first results showed significant differences in the distribution of the AMF phylotypes as consequence of the difference between agricultural management practices. Thus, the lowest diversity was observed for the plot that was treated with herbicide. The management practices including ploughing and ploughing + oats had similar AMF diversity. Oat straw mulching yielded the highest number of different AMF sequence types and showed the highest diversity index. Thus, this treatment could be more suitable in sustainable soil use and therefore protection of biodiversity.

  2. Artificial gravity studies and design considerations for Space Station centrifuges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, T. W.; Brown, A. H.; Fuller, C. A.; Oyama, J.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements to and capabilities of a Space Station biological facility centrifuge are discussed on the basis of an assessment of the objectives and subjects of future microgravity biological experiments. It is argued that the facility should be capable of both acute and extended chronic exposure of test subjects and biological materials to altered-g loading. In addition, the experimental approaches and equipment for microgravity studies on a Space Station are outlined. Finally, the engineering requirements of such a centrifuge are examined, with consideration of radial gravity gradients, size, and physical access to animals.

  3. Conceptual planning for Space Station life sciences human research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, Gary R.; Miller, Ladonna J.; Michaud, Roger B.

    1986-01-01

    The Life Sciences Research Facility dedicated laboratory is currently undergoing system definition within the NASA Space Station program. Attention is presently given to the Humam Research Project portion of the Facility, in view of representative experimentation requirement scenarios and with the intention of accommodating the Facility within the Initial Operational Capability configuration of the Space Station. Such basic engineering questions as orbital and ground logistics operations and hardware maintenance/servicing requirements are addressed. Biospherics, calcium homeostasis, endocrinology, exercise physiology, hematology, immunology, muscle physiology, neurosciences, radiation effects, and reproduction and development, are among the fields of inquiry encompassed by the Facility.

  4. [Development of Engineering Systems for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    From January, 1990 through September, 1995, Cleveland State University (CSU) and Lewis Research Center (LeRC) participated in a research cooperative agreement. Extensive study and experimentation were done by CSU on research technologies, methods, and techniques employed by the Space Station Freedom (SSF) project and, later, the Space Experiments Division (SED). In spite of many problems occasioned by the virtual cancellation of Space Station Freedom at LeRC, and organizational and financial problem at LeRC, CSU was able to do valuable work in the study and improvement of research operating methods there.

  5. The third generation SLR station Potsdam no. 7836

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, H.; Grunwaldt, Ludwig; Neubert, Reinhart

    1993-01-01

    The new satellite laser ranging (SLR) station Potsdam has been installed during the winter of 1991/1992 in an existing dome near the old ruby laser at Helmert Tower. It has been built around a one-meter-Coude telescope and is equipped by a 50 ps Nd:YAG laser and a SPAD receiver. The first successful Lageos passes were obtained in May 1992 demonstrating 2-3 cm rms at the single photon level. The new station will be used for experimental work and selected campaigns as well.

  6. Forecasts of Agricultural Drought in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the most frequent natural disaster in Sri Lanka, drought greatly affects crop production and livelihoods. Over half of all agricultural crop damage in Sri Lanka is currently due to drought; the frequency and severity of drought in the country is only expected to increase with the changing climate. Previous work indicates that the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are capable of capturing agricultural drought patterns (between 1881-2010) in the island nation. In this work, PDSI and SPI from 13 long-term meteorological stations will be projected into the future using a combination of artificial neural network and autoregressive integrated moving average models. The impacts of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (such as the Niño 3.4 index, a measure of sea surface temperature) and lead times on projection accuracy will also be explored. Model projections will be compared to weather data since 2010 to determine if the 2014 drought could have been forecasted using these methods. Since agricultural systems are strongly influenced by both natural and human systems, it is important to frame these physical findings within a social context. This work is part of an interdisciplinary project that assesses the perceptions of and adaptations to drought by rice farmers in Sri Lanka; disciplines represented in the group include hydrology, social psychology, ethnography, policy, and behavioral economics. Insights from the diverse research perspectives within the group will be drawn upon to highlight the social implications of the physical results.

  7. Changes in soil oribatid communities associated with conversion from conventional to organic agriculture.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed A; Al-Assiuty, Abdel-Naieem I M; van Straalen, Nico M; Al-Assiuty, Basma A

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of switching from conventional management to organic management on the abundance and community composition of soil-living oribatid mites in clover fields in an experimental agricultural station at Al-Fayoum, Egypt. The site had two adjacent fields with identical vegetation cover but different management. Fifteen random soil samples were collected monthly from each of three plots per field, from October to March. We characterized the soils with respect to various physicochemical variables as well as fungal community composition, and estimated mite densities through core sampling. Organic fields had a significantly more abundant oribatid community than did conventional fields. Also the abundance of soil fungi was greater in the organically managed field. Organic management promoted common oribatid mite species with a wide ecological amplitude that already had a high abundance where such common species are more responsive to changes in agricultural management. However, some species of mite responded indifferent or negative to the switch from conventional to organic management. Overall, the differences between the two ecological systems were mainly quantitative. Species diversities of both mite and fungal communities did not differ much between the two management systems. Diversity (H0) and equitability (E) of soil oribatid communities were higher in conventional plots than in the organic plots during the first 2 months but indistinguishable thereafter. Our study confirmed that organic management stimulates soilorganic matter build-up, with positive effects on both fungal and oribatid mite abundance and possible long-term effects on soil function.

  8. Estimation of Agricultural Water Consumption from Meteorological and Yield Data: A Case Study of Hebei, North China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zaijian; Shen, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Over-exploitation of groundwater resources for irrigated grain production in Hebei province threatens national grain food security. The objective of this study was to quantify agricultural water consumption (AWC) and irrigation water consumption in this region. A methodology to estimate AWC was developed based on Penman-Monteith method using meteorological station data (1984–2008) and existing actual ET (2002–2008) data which estimated from MODIS satellite data through a remote sensing ET model. The validation of the model using the experimental plots (50 m2) data observed from the Luancheng Agro-ecosystem Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, showed the average deviation of the model was −3.7% for non-rainfed plots. The total AWC and irrigation water (mainly groundwater) consumption for Hebei province from 1984–2008 were then estimated as 864 km3 and 139 km3, respectively. In addition, we found the AWC has significantly increased during the past 25 years except for a few counties located in mountainous regions. Estimations of net groundwater consumption for grain food production within the plain area of Hebei province in the past 25 years accounted for 113 km3 which could cause average groundwater decrease of 7.4 m over the plain. The integration of meteorological and satellite data allows us to extend estimation of actual ET beyond the record available from satellite data, and the approach could be applicable in other regions globally where similar data are available. PMID:23516537

  9. Integrated environmental quality monitoring around an underground methane storage station.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Linda; Vignudelli, Marco; Bartolucci, Fabrizio; Salvatorelli, Fiorenzo; Di Michele, Cesare; Tavano, Nicola; Rossi, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The study reports an integrated environmental quality monitoring of a 100 km2 area in central Italy mostly occupied by an underground station of methane storage, working since 1982. The nitrogen oxides, ozone and isoprene concentration detached with a network monitoring of passive filters were compared with the results of lichens biomonitoring. Data from the two monitorings were in accordance: there was an inversely correlation between lichen biodiversity index (IBL) and NOx (-0.96) and ozone (-0.80), and a positive correlation between IBL and isoprene (0.67). IBL indicated that the area ranged between medium naturalness and medium alteration status, values fully compatible with the medium-high level of eutrophication, caused by intensive agriculture. Only two areas were in high alteration status, due to their proximity to glass factories and to a quarries area. Despite almost thirty years of activity, the environment quality of the area around the station did not show signs of declining. PMID:25828802

  10. 9 CFR 89.2 - Two or more feedings at same station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Two or more feedings at same station. 89.2 Section 89.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  11. 9 CFR 89.2 - Two or more feedings at same station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Two or more feedings at same station. 89.2 Section 89.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  12. Micro Weather Stations for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David; Kaiser, William J.; VanZandt, Thomas R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Tillman, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A global network of weather stations will be needed to characterize the near-surface environment on Mars. Here, we review the scientific and measurement objectives of this network. We also show how these objectives can be met within the cost-constrained Mars Surveyor Program by augmenting the Mars Pathfinder-derived landers with large numbers of very small (less than 5 liter), low-mass (less than 5 kg), low-power, low-cost Mini-meteorological stations. Each station would include instruments for measuring atmospheric. pressures, temperatures, wind velocities, humidity, and airborne dust abundance. They would also include a data handling, telemetry, power, atmospheric entry, and deployment systems in a rugged package capable of direct entry and a high-impact landing. In this paper, we describe these systems and summarize the data-taking strategies and data volumes needed to achieve the surface meteorology objectives for Mars.

  13. Interpreting the International Space Station Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric M.; Humphreys, Brad

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the overpowering effects of gravity. A physical environment with very low-levels of acceleration and vibration has been accomplished by both the free fall associated with orbital flight and the design of the International Space Station. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requirement for a microgravity mode of operation. The Space Acceleration Measurement System has been in operation for nearly four years on the ISS measuring the microgravity environment in support of principal investigators and to characterize the ISS microgravity environment. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project functions as a detective to ascertain the source of disturbances seen in the ISS microgravity environment to allow correlation between that environment and experimental data. Payload developers need to predict the microgravity environment that will be imposed upon an experiment and ensure that the science and engineering requirements will be met. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project is developing n interactive tool to predict the microgravity environment at science payloads based on user defined operational scenarios. These operations (predictions and post-analyses) allow a researcher to examine the microgravity acceleration levels expected to exist when their experiment is operated and then receive an analysis of the environment which existed during their experiment operations. Presented in this paper will be descriptions of the environment predictive tool and an investigation into a previously unknown disturbance in the ISS microgravity environment.

  14. Fire safety experiments on MIR Orbital Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egorov, S. D.; Belayev, A. YU.; Klimin, L. P.; Voiteshonok, V. S.; Ivanov, A. V.; Semenov, A. V.; Zaitsev, E. N.; Balashov, E. V.; Andreeva, T. V.

    1995-01-01

    The process of heterogeneous combustion of most materials under zero-g without forced motion of air is practically impossible. However, ventilation is required to support astronauts' life and cool equipment. The presence of ventilation flows in station compartments at accidental ignition can cause a fire. An additional, but exceedingly important parameter of the fire risk of solid materials under zero-g is the minimum air gas velocity at which the extinction of materials occurs. Therefore, the conception of fire safety can be based on temporarily lowering the intensity of ventilation and even turning it off. The information on the limiting conditions of combustion under natural conditions is needed from both scientific and practical points of view. It will enable us to judge the reliability of results of ground-based investigations and develop a conception of fire safety of inhabited sealed compartments of space stations to by provided be means of nontraditional and highly-effective methods without both employing large quantities of fire-extinguishing compounds and hard restrictions on use of polymers. In this connection, an experimental installation was created to study the process of heterogeneous combustion of solid non-metals and to determine the conditions of its extinction under microgravity. This installation was delivered to the orbital station 'Mir' and the cosmonauts Viktorenko and Kondakova performed initial experiments on it in late 1994. The experimental installation consists of a combustion chamber with an electrical systems for ignition of samples, a device for cleaning air from combustion products, an air suction unit, air pipes and a control panel. The whole experiment is controlled by telemetry and recorded with two video cameras located at two different places. Besides the picture, parameters are recorded to determine the velocity of the air flow incoming to the samples, the time points of switching on/off the devices, etc. The combustion chamber

  15. Toward Future Photovoltaic-Based Agriculture in Sea.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-04-01

    To meet the challenges of climate change and water shortages, combining solar energy-based seawater desalination technologies with floating agriculture stations in one innovative hybrid system would be worthy of investigation for dry and sunny regions for seawater desalination and crop production within the same platform. Here, I discuss the feasibility of such a 'floating farm' or 'bluehouse' in the sea, by comparing it with the use of terrestrial greenhouses. I also debate the potential advantages and shortcomings of such a system.

  16. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences

  17. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences

  18. Space Station personal hygiene study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  19. Space Station ECLSS Integration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) contract with NASA MSFC covered the time frame from 9 May 1985 to 31 Dec. 1992. The contract roughly covered the period of Space Station Freedom (SSF) development from early Phase B through Phase C/D Critical Design Review (CDR). During this time, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-Huntsville (formerly McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company) performed an analytical support role to MSFC for the development of analytical math models and engineering trade studies related to the design of the ECLSS for the SSF.

  20. OSSA Space Station waste inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Bosley, John J.; Curran, George L.; Mains, Richard

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has compiled an inventory of the types and quantities of the wastes that will be generated by the Space Station's initial operational phase in 35 possible mission scenarios. The objective of this study was the definition of waste management requirements for both the Space Station and the Space Shuttles servicing it. All missions, when combined, will produce about 5350 kg of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes every 90 days. A characterization has been made of the wastes in terms of toxicity, corrosiveness, and biological activity.