Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural extension agents

  1. A STUDY OF NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE ROLE OF FERTILIZER DEALERS IN EXTENSION PROGRAMMING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOODARD, BRUCE H.

    A QUESTIONNAIRE MAILED TO 98 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA WITH PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY IN AGRONOMY IN THEIR COUNTIES WAS USED TO COLLECT DATA ON THE AGENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF PERFORMANCE BY DEALERS IN SOIL FERTILITY PROGRAMS, AGENTS' FEELINGS ABOUT DEALER PARTICIPATION, AND THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AGENTS'…

  2. An Evaluation of Successful Collaboration among Agricultural Science Teachers and Extension Agents in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Harlin, Julie F.; Rayfield, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate collaboration between agricultural science teachers and Extension agents in Texas from the perspective of successful collaboration. Programs, leaders, and participants in both agricultural education and Extension can be impacted positively through collaboration. However, successful collaboration…

  3. Agricultural Research Needs and Priorities as Perceived by West Virginia Vocational Agriculture Teachers and County Extension Agents. Miscellaneous Publication 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalamira, Lucas R.; Lawrence, Layle D.

    Data were obtained in 1982 from 196 vocational agriculture teachers and 48 county agricultural extension agents identifying specific problems in West Virginia's agriculture that were most in need of research solutions. Multiflora rose eradication, coping with high production costs and interest rates, and improving state level funding for extension…

  4. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  5. Perspectives of Extension Agents and Farmers toward Multifunctional Agriculture in the United States Corn Belt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doudna, John W.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Tyndall, John C.; Helmers, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed the perspectives of farmers, crop professionals, and Extension agents and found that they have positive perspectives concerning multifunctional agriculture, including a positive effect of a nearby prairie to cropland productivity. The survey was conducted in central Iowa and included individuals predominantly from Iowa involved in…

  6. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

    2008-01-01

    The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

  7. An Analysis of "In-Depth" Schools Conducted by Area Extension Agents in the Agricultural Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Clarence J.

    The Ohio Extension Service conducted "in-depth" schools on Dairy Genetics and Reproduction, Beef Cattle, Capital Management, and Fertilizer and Lime at area centers in Wooster, Defiance and Fremont, Washington Court House, and McConnellsville. Two thirds of the instructional staff were area agents; others were specialists, resident…

  8. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  9. Investigating Leadership Characteristics and Attitudes toward Creativity According to Agency Context for Agriculture Extension Agents in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravina, Maria Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward creativity and leadership characteristics according to the agency context for extension agents in Uruguay. Extension agents come from the three different agency contexts in Uruguay of the University, government, and private institutions. Leadership characteristics are those that combine…

  10. Agricultural Extension Agents' Perceptions of Effective Teaching Strategies for Adult Learners in the Master Beef Producer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Robert; Harder, Amy; Carter, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to explore and describe how Extension agents selected teaching strategies for adult audiences. Andragogy is hypotheses concerning the attributes of adult learners (Knowles, Swanson, & Holton III, 2005). Extension agents responsible for teaching the Master Beef Producer (MBP) program were purposively…

  11. Effect of the Relationship between Agricultural Extension Agents and Wheat Farmers in Medina Region, Saudi Arabia, on the Adoption of Appropriate Wheat Production Practices. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 91-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakri, Mohammad Saleh

    The relationship between agricultural extension agents and wheat farmers in the Medina region, Saudi Arabia, was analyzed, based on each group's perception of the relationship. Participants were 73 randomly selected wheat farmers and 31 of 34 agricultural extension agents working in the region during spring 1990. Farmers were interviewed, and…

  12. Exploring Community Partnerships in Agricultural and Extension Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Stair, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The descriptive study reported here sought to discover how Extension and agricultural education programs develop and use community partnerships to enhance educational programming. The population was a census of all New Mexico Extension agents and agricultural education teachers. Agents partnered with 57 different agencies/organization and teachers…

  13. Field Agentry in Teacher Centers. (The concept of the agricultural extension agent applied to teacher centering in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Bedford D., Ed.; Kingsford, Steve, Ed.

    The directors of 12 teacher centers describe their experiences as field agents, in multifaceted roles such as catalysts, solution-givers, facilitators, resource linkers, coordinators, or trainers. Ways that the teacher centers have offered help to schools and to teachers are outlined. The directors believe that change is made first on an…

  14. What Influences Agents to Pursue a Career in Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Shannon; Place, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here explored why agricultural agents pursue an Extension career. A purposive sample was used to select twelve Florida agricultural agents. Interviews investigated positive and negative influences that affected agents' employment decisions. Grounded theory was used as the primary data analysis method (Strauss &…

  15. Evaluating Internet for Extension in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelb, E. M.; Bonati, G.

    1998-01-01

    Participants in an international agriculture extension workshop rated the following as critical subjects to study regarding farmers' use of the Internet: technical problems, user benefits, drawbacks, and accessibility. Ways to improve effective use in agriculture were identified. (SK)

  16. Measuring Florida Extension Faculty's Agricultural Paradigmatic Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laura A.; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Lawver, David E.; Baker, Matt; Lindner, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The demand for sustainable agriculture has increased, and many institutions, including the University of Florida, have adopted agricultural sustainability as a major goal. Extension has been identified as a critical information source, important in disseminating sustainable agricultural growing techniques. However, research has demonstrated that…

  17. Extending the Agricultural Extension Model. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.; And Others

    The purposes of this report are: to describe the main elements of the U.S. agricultural extension model and its effects on the agricultural revolution; to analyze attempts to extend this model to non-agricultural technology and/or to less developed countries; and to draw general conclusions about the diffusion of technological innovations, with…

  18. Campaigns in Agricultural Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaven, John W.

    A booklet designed to aid those who use agricultural campaigns in their educational and advisory programs is presented. It is pointed out that a good campaign works as a chain reaction, inciting enthusiasm among workers and planners. The five steps in a well-organized campaign are: (1) planning, (2) preparing people for their jobs, (3) producing…

  19. Using Visuals in Agricultural Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    One of a series of booklets designed to answer questions about agricultural communications is presented. This booklet illustrates how visual teaching speeds learning and effects faster agricultural progress. Chapter titles include: (1) Visuals and Learning, (2) Visuals in Extension Teaching; (3) Presentation Visuals; (4) Drama and Music; (5)…

  20. Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

  1. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit…

  2. Tennessee Extension Agents' Perceptions of Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Joseph L.; French, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Performance appraisal is necessary for summative decisions about employees, such as merit pay and promotion. The research reported here describes Extension agent perceptions of their performance appraisal system. The population studied consisted of all Tennessee Extension agents (N = 312). Surveys were completed by 218 respondents, for a completed…

  3. Rural Child Labour: Views of Extension Agents in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Una

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Whilst children working in agriculture and domestic work is an inherent part of growing up and essential for survival, if boys and girls lose out on education they are less equipped to respond to inevitable environmental shocks and to negotiate agri-food value chains. This article investigates views of extension agents on children…

  4. Factors Associated with Farmer's Perception of Agricultural Extension in Antioquia, Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Fabio A.

    Farmers' perceptions of Extension services and Extension agents representing agricultural organizations in Antioquia, Columbia, were studied. A total of 370 interviews were made with clients of three Extension Services. A positive correlation was found between the client's perception of the agent and years of schooling, economic status, practices…

  5. Developing Effective Extension Agents: Experience Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddu, Roland

    This paper is a description of the requirements placed on persons selected to fill the role of extension agents for the purpose of penetrating an educational environment, installing change in an educational organization, and completing tasks as a resource outside of the education establishment. These experience concerns are summarized by…

  6. Agricultural Extension. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Michael J.; Schroeder, Richard

    This manual, developed for training Peace Corps volunteers for service in developing countries, explains the process of agricultural extension and provides practical guidance on carrying out an agricultural extension program. The manual is organized into six chapters. The first chapter explains what agricultural extension is and how it is used in…

  7. A Comparison of Agricultural Extension in Five States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    The nature of the Cooperative Extension Service in agriculture was examined to identify aspects that could be applied to the design of an educational extension service. To learn about the organization, programs, and priorities of Cooperative Extension, employees of the state extension services in California, Colorado, New Mexico, New York, and…

  8. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  9. Agricultural Extension: Farm Extension Services in Australia, Britain and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Donald B.

    By analyzing the scope and structure of agricultural extension services in Australia, Great Britain, and the United States, this work attempts to set guidelines for measuring progress and guiding extension efforts. Extension training, agricultural policy, and activities of national, international, state, and provincial bodies are examined. The…

  10. A New Extension Model: The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center is a new model for Extension. The center applies the Cooperative Extension Service System philosophy and mission to developing public education-based programs. Programming primarily serves middle school students and teachers through agricultural and natural resource science…

  11. Agricultural Education and Cooperative Extension: The Early Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillison, John

    1996-01-01

    A review of the history of competition and collaboration between agricultural education and cooperative extension identified the controversies and concerns of leaders after the passage of the Smith-Lever and Smith-Hughes Acts. Agricultural and cooperative extension leaders must look at the historical memoranda of understanding to find…

  12. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  13. An Integrated Approach to Agricultural Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, G. A.

    The underlying theme of this paper is the relevance of the "package program" approach for the development of peasant agriculture in Southern Africa, particularly where there are livestock and population pressures with a declining soil fertility situation. In Rhodesia, full-time short literacy courses were held in June and July 1970, as a…

  14. Acting as a Change Agent in Supporting Sustainable Agriculture: How to Cope with New Professional Situations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerf, M.; Guillot, M. N.; Olry, P.

    2011-01-01

    How do change agents deal with the diversity of farmers' attitudes towards the future of agriculture? How do they themselves cope with change and understand their role as change agents? We chose a comprehensive, action-training approach to answer such questions and worked with agents belonging to two different extension networks. The agents…

  15. Role Perceptions and Job Attitudes of West Virginia County Extension Agents in a Merged Extension System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Howard Arnette

    This study was to discover the effect of the merger of various extension units at West Virginia University into the Appalachian Center. Data were collected by a questionnaire. The 131 respondents consisted of 50 county agents, 46 4-H agents, and 35 home agents, and comprised 96% of the state extension agents. Regression analysis, consisting of…

  16. The Relationship between Dogmatism Scores of County Extension Agents and Measures of their Job Performance, Job Satisfaction and Job Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Charles Dennis

    To determine the relationship of dogmatism to job performance and other aspects of a county Extension agent's situation, a study was made of 486 agricultural extension agents and 23 Extension supervisors in five states. Supervisors provided performance ratings, and both groups responded to mailed questionnaires. Personal information (age, tenure,…

  17. EXTENSION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES, A MANUAL FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HOME EXTENSION WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAVILE, A.H.

    A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…

  18. Agricultural Extension Workers' Roles in Canada and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshewalul, Ayele; Griffith, William S.

    1984-01-01

    This research examined the effects of government and the university organizational models and of performing regulatory functions on American and Canadian agricultural extension workers' role perception and role performance. (Author/SSH)

  19. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Professionals' Attitudes toward Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minarovic, Rosanne E.; Mueller, J. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 369 of 500 extension professionals reflected a shared vision for sustainable agriculture and recognition of a need for environmentally sound farming practices. There was less unanimity about endorsing the social aspects of sustainable agriculture, though they agreed on the need for more systems research. (SK)

  20. Industry and Extension Partnership to Enhance STEM and Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian T.; Wilkinson, Carol A.; Shepherd, Pamela J.; Gray, Paula

    2015-01-01

    STEM education has become essential in the United States, and agriculture allows for a great opportunity to teach STEM education in a fun, hands-on manner. The Virginia Southern Piedmont Agriculture Research and Extension Center (SPAREC), in partnership with King Arthur Flour, has created a program that reinforces what is taught in the classroom…

  1. Stimulating the Imaginative Capacities of Agricultural Extension Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Chaoyun; Chang, Wen-Shan; Yao, Shu-Nung; King, Jung-Tai; Chen, Shi-An

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To address the dynamic challenges associated with developing a globally sustainable society, numerous scholars have stressed the need to cultivate the imagination of agricultural students. This study aimed to explore how pictorial representations stimulate the imaginative capacities of agricultural extension students.…

  2. Characteristics, Views Held of Agricultural Extension Activities, and Communication Behavior of Hsien Extension Supervisors in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Pi-Feng

    Government agencies in Taiwan have carried out agricultural extension programs since 1910, with the assistance of Farmers' Associations. Programs have been expanded since 1953, and now include both general extension (subsidy programs) and educational extension. Comparison of personal characteristics of hsien (county) Farmers' Association…

  3. Barriers to Participatory Extension in Egypt: Agricultural Workers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…

  4. Women's Access to Agricultural Extension Services in Botswana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettles, F. M.

    Extension services to women in rural Botswana, particularly emphasized since the women's extension program began in 1975, must take into account constraints faced by female farmers, as past development processes have concentrated on male perceptions of concern (the beef industry, modernizing the economy). In Botswana, agriculture has traditionally…

  5. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  6. Information-Seeking Practices of County Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Nikki; Hill, Alexandra; Arnold, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to examine the educational resources used by Montana State University Extension county agents. An online survey was administered to evaluate agents' informational needs. Agents reported client questions (93.8%) and program/workshop planning and presentations (91.7%) as the main reasons for seeking…

  7. Enzymes and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Polysaccharides and proteins are secreted to the inner surface of the growing cell wall, where they assemble into a network that is mechanically strong, yet remains extensible until the cells cease growth. This review focuses on the agents that directly or indirectly enhance the extensibility properties of growing walls. The properties of expansins, endoglucanases, and xyloglucan transglycosylases are reviewed and their postulated roles in modulating wall extensibility are evaluated. A summary model for wall extension is presented, in which expansin is a primary agent of wall extension, whereas endoglucanases, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, and other enzymes that alter wall structure act secondarily to modulate expansin action.

  8. Telelearning for Extension Agents: The Virginia Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, William F., Jr.

    The creation of the Virginia Tech Teleport Facility and the installation of a nine-meter (diameter) C-Band satellite uplink antenna provided the initial impetus for the Virginia Cooperative Extension Service (VCES) to explore the use of satellite technology for information and program delivery. The $600,000 uplink became operational in September…

  9. Extension Agents' Awareness of Climate Change in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual…

  10. Professional Competencies Needed by Extension Agents in the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. A Report of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeman, Carl E.; And Others

    A study was conducted to identify and verify the professional competencies needed by extension agents in Florida. Closed form opinionnaires were used to survey 254 extension agents and fifteen state staff members concerning 158 competencies. Among the findings was that state staff members rated all competency categories higher than did incumbent…

  11. Evaluating Extension-Based Adult Education for Agricultural Labor Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morera, Maria C.; Monaghan, Paul F.; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Tovar-Aguilar, J. Antonio; Roka, Fritz M.; Asuaje, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Educating farm labor supervisors about the regulations that govern agricultural operations and employment is critical to reducing unintentional violations of workplace safety and labor laws. Cooperative Extension can provide the training needed to professionalize this vital and diverse workforce. One challenge to providing adult education to a…

  12. Agricultural Extension in Africa. A World Bank Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nigel, Ed.

    The contributors to this document compare the main approaches to agricultural extension in sub-Saharan Africa; the cost-effectiveness in view of precarious national budgets; the weaknesses of the system for generating technology; the difficulties in forging productive partnerships between researchers, extensionists and farmers; the ineffective…

  13. An Extension Dynamic Model Based on BDI Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wang; Feng, Zhu; Hua, Geng; WangJing, Zhu

    this paper's researching is based on the model of BDI Agent. Firstly, This paper analyze the deficiencies of the traditional BDI Agent model, Then propose an extension dynamic model of BDI Agent based on the traditional ones. It can quickly achieve the internal interaction of the tradition model of BDI Agent, deal with complex issues under dynamic and open environment and achieve quick reaction of the model. The new model is a natural and reasonable model by verifying the origin of civilization using the model of monkeys to eat sweet potato based on the design of the extension dynamic model. It is verified to be feasible by comparing the extended dynamic BDI Agent model with the traditional BDI Agent Model uses the SWARM, it has important theoretical significance.

  14. Staff Leadership in the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearon, Ronald Wilson

    The purpose of this North Carolina study was to examine selected leadership correlates of variation in Cooperative Extension Chairmen's (CEC) conformity to an administrative professional leadership (APL) concept of their role. Two research instruments were developed--Survey I, used for collecting data from agents (419) and Survey II, for data from…

  15. 76 FR 62755 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, United States Department of Agriculture..., and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education,...

  16. 75 FR 61692 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, Room 3901 South Building, United States...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Notice of the National Agricultural Research,...

  17. 78 FR 32227 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  18. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation.

  19. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  20. Leadership Competencies of Tennessee Extension Agents: Implications for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John L.; Broyles, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The study's purpose was to determine Extension agents' (n= 111) perceived level of importance, knowledge, and training needs for leadership skills. Mean Weighted Discrepancy Scores were calculated to determine training needs. Participants' perceived responses were average to above average importance for all skills; however, the participants'…

  1. Extension Agents as Educators for Local Volunteer Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navaratnam, K. K.

    Increasing demands for human services and current government fiscal policies may make volunteerism the major way of improving the individual living conditions and society as a whole. Extension agents are in the front line of persons capable of developing volunteerism at the local level. They have a direct link with local citizens and are familiar…

  2. The South African Education Agenda: Identifying Markers for Rewriting Agricultural Extension Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in education and agriculture in South Africa indicate that agricultural extension practitioners should facilitate continuous learning among farmers. This requires that extension practitioners acquire new skills. To provide these skills requires a critical examination of agricultural extension curricula in the light of South Africa's…

  3. A Needs Assessment of Aquaculture Extension Agents, Specialists, and Program Administrators in Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Michael H.; Gibson, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here identified continuing education and training needs of aquaculture Extension agents, specialists, and program administrators in 10 competency areas relating to the need for continuing education or training. Fourteen resources on the AquaNIC Web site were also evaluated, as was the efficacy of the AQUA-EXT listserv. Data were…

  4. Transforming the Roles of a Public Extension Agency to Strengthen Innovation: Lessons from the National Agricultural Extension Project in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Ataharul Huq; Odame, Helen Hambly; Leeuwis, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The rapidly evolving nature of agricultural innovation processes in low-income countries requires agricultural extension agencies to transform the classical roles that previously supported linear information dissemination and adoption of innovation. In Bangladesh, strengthening agricultural innovation calls for facilitation of interactive…

  5. Building an Agricultural Extension Services System Supported by ICTs in Tanzania: Progress Made, Challenges Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanga, C.; Kalungwizi, V. J.; Msuya, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    The conventional agricultural extension service in Tanzania is mainly provided by extension officers visiting farmers to provide agricultural advisory service. This system of extension service provision faces a number of challenges including the few number of extension officers and limited resources. This article assesses the effectiveness of an…

  6. Constraints Affecting ICT Utilization by Agricultural Extension Officers in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpabio, I. A.; Okon, D. P.; Inyang, E. B.

    2007-01-01

    The study focused on constraints affecting the utilization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for agricultural extension activities by Agricultural Extension Officers in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region. Data were derived from 160 extension officers affiliated to both public and private extension organizations in four states of the…

  7. Agricultural Trainees' and Extension Personnel's Attitudes toward HIV/AIDS: Implications for Extension Service Delivery in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladebo, Olugbenga Jelil

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the public stereotypes of HIV-positive persons and the relationship with knowledge about the disease. 164 extension personnel and a convenience sample of 250 undergraduate students from an Agricultural Development Programme and an Agricultural University respectively, were interviewed for the study. Both institutions were…

  8. Incorporating Indigenous Knowledge Systems into Agricultural and Extension Education Programs: A Study of the Perceptions of Extension Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajasekaran, B.; Martin, Robert A.

    Dissemination of technologies to increase agricultural production using the conventional transfer of technology system has often failed to consider the natural environment, indigenous knowledge systems, and resource endowments around which resource-poor farmers normally operate. A sample of 96 agricultural extension professionals in 2 districts in…

  9. 78 FR 44092 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Solicitation for membership..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. The notice was published in the Federal Register on...

  10. Preferred Methods for Delivery of Technological Information by the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service: Opinions of Agricultural Producers Who Use Extension Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John G.; Mustian, R. David

    The findings of a questionnaire survey of 702 North Carolina agricultural producers indicated that communication methods historically used by the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service for information dissemination are accepted by state farmers and continue to be popular. Information delivery methods most frequently preferred are…

  11. 76 FR 25298 - Solicitation of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics... to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. The notice... regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, mental or physical handicap, marital...

  12. 76 FR 22667 - Solicitation of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics... to fill 8 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: Deadline for Advisory Board member nominations is July 12, 2011. ADDRESSES:...

  13. Integrating and Institutionalizing Lessons Learned: Reorganizing Agricultural Research and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…

  14. Public Sector Agricultural Extension System Reform and the Challenges Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is organized into two main sections. The first section examines extension as an engine for innovation and reviews the numerous priorities confronting extension systems. Section two highlights the current knowledge imperative and the critical connection of extension to post-secondary higher education and training, organizational…

  15. Competence Challenges of Demand-Led Agricultural Research and Extension in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibwika, P.; Wals, A. E. J.; Nassuna-Musoke, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Governments and development agencies in Sub-Saharan Africa are experimenting alternative approaches within the innovation systems paradigm to enhance relevance of agricultural research and extension to the poverty eradication agenda. Uganda, for example, has recently shifted from the supply driven to demand-led agricultural research and extension.…

  16. Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by Agricultural Science and Extension Teachers in Abuja, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi, Olugbenga Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by agricultural science and extension teachers in Abuja, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives are to: identify the background and demographic characteristics of agricultural science and extension teachers in the study area; examine the factors influencing adoption…

  17. Factors Affecting Performance of Agricultural Extension: Evidence from Democratic Republic of Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Ulimwengu, John; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Badibanga, Thaddee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: As part of the institutional reforms and agricultural restructuring in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this paper provides an assessment of the performance of the agricultural extension system as well as factors explaining it. Method: This paper involves key informants' interviews and surveys of 107 extension organizations and 162…

  18. From Agricultural Extension to Capacity Development: Exploring the Foundations of an Emergent Form of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Al

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that capacity development is a response to changes in the organization and practice of agricultural extension as these changes have excluded small resource farmers. In this essay I trace the changes in the organization of agricultural extension through to the emergence of the concept and practice of capacity development. The idea…

  19. Millennium III Challenges: A Major Role for Agricultural Research/Extension/Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) ad hoc Committee on Federal Support for Agricultural Research, Extension and Education suggests solutions to major challenges in agricultural research. Three new realities provide a powerful rationale for major new investment in agriculture: dramatic…

  20. Corn Clubs: Building the Foundation for Agricultural and Extension Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uricchio, Cassandra; Moore, Gary; Coley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Corn clubs played an important role in improving agriculture at the turn of the 20th century. Corn clubs were local organizations consisting of boys who cultivated corn on one acre of land under the supervision of a local club leader. The purpose of this historical research study was to document the organization, operation, and outcomes of corn…

  1. India - 103 Agricultural Extension. Madhya Pradesh Hindi Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papazian, Elaine; Ray, S. B.

    This guide is designed for Hindi language training of Peace Corps workers in agriculture in India and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of notes on Hindi phonology and pronunciation and a series of lessons on description, common phrases, and grammatical constructions. The 41 lessons are presented in four sections,…

  2. The Role of Agricultural Consultants in New Zealand in Environmental Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Neels; Coutts, Jeff; Roth, Hein

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the role that agricultural consultants in New Zealand were undertaking in the Research, Development and Extension (RD&E) system--and in particular in relation to environmental extension. New Zealand does not have a public extension service and hence there is a strong reliance on consultants and regional…

  3. LaTeX for Agricultural Extension Professionals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LaTeX is a free open source document preparation system for professional quality documents and presentation materials. Extension professionals, trying to reach their audience though various forms of printed and online resources, can benefit from the vast potential of LaTeX. Using LaTeX empowers the ...

  4. A Comparison of the Views of Extension Agents and Farmers regarding Extension Education Courses in Dezful, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zare, Mohsen Nazarzadeh; Dorrani, Kamal; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study examines the views of farmers and extension agents participating in extension education courses in Dezful, Iran, with regard to problems with these courses. It relies upon a descriptive methodology, using a survey as its instrument. Sample: The statistical population consisted of 5060 farmers and 50 extension…

  5. A Conceptual Framework for Determining Training Needs of Extension Agents Applied to Dairy Science. The Findings from Extension Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Satish

    A summary of an Extension Education dissertation on a study to develop a framework of curriculum and learning theory features, to determine needs of Extension agents, and to show its application to dairy science is presented. Tyler's rationale for deriving educational objectives (curriculum theory) and Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive behavior…

  6. Collaboration and Cooperation in a Global Community. Annual Meeting of the Association for International Agriculture and Extension Education (9th, Arlington, Virginia, March 18-20, 1993). Conference Proceedings, Volume IX, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, James E., Comp.

    This conference proceedings presents the following papers: "Some Thoughts on Agricultural Education and Training in a New South Africa" (Bembridge); "Do Zimbabweans Want Agricultural and Extension Education?" (Steele et al.); "Perceived Professional Competencies Needed by Extension Specialists and Agents in Khorasan State…

  7. Agricultural Extension, Collective Action and Innovation Systems: Lessons on Network Brokering from Peru and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellin, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: New approaches to extension service delivery are needed that stimulate increased agricultural production, contribute to collective action and which also foster the emergence of agricultural innovation systems. Research in Peru and Mexico explores some of these new approaches. Design/methodology/approach: In both countries, a qualitative…

  8. Agricultural Extension and Adult Education for Farmers--A Hand and Glove Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiwari, Ambika Prasad

    1975-01-01

    A major objective of agricultural extension programs is the education of the farmer through literacy training or functional literacy programs. Functional literacy, understood as a process in which adults learn to learn, would enable farmers to participate in the process of agricultural development. (EC)

  9. Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate Online Course: An Effective Tool for Creating Extension Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitefield, Elizabeth; Schmidt, David; Witt-Swanson, Lindsay; Smith, David; Pronto, Jennifer; Knox, Pam; Powers, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to create competency among Extension professionals on the topic of climate change adaptation and mitigation in animal agriculture. The Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate online course provides an easily accessible, user-friendly, free, and interactive experience for learning science-based information on a national and…

  10. A Conceptual Model of Intrapreneurship in the Iranian Agricultural Extension Organization: Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Asef; Malekmohamadi, Iraj; Daryani, Mahmoud Ahmadpour; Rezvanfar, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to build a conceptual model of agricultural extension intrapreneurship that discusses the concept and phenomenon of intrapreneurship as well as its prerequisites and outcomes. The proposed model is intended to depict the main factors that affect the phenomena of intrapreneurship within the agricultural extension…

  11. Mobile Learning Bridging the Gap in Agricultural Extension Service Delivery: Experiences from Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanga, Camilius; Mlozi, Malongo; Haug, Ruth; Tumbo, Siza

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous nature of mobile phones offers a noble environment where farmers can learn informally anywhere, anytime and at any location. This is an innovative way to address some of the weakness of conventional agricultural extension service. Few empirical studies have reported on the development of mobile phone application to support blended…

  12. Small Farmers' Habits of Reading Agricultural Extension Publications: The Case of Moshav Farmers in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham; Azencot, Moshe

    1989-01-01

    Interviews farmers in Moshavim, Israel, to examine the need for efficient written communication channels between agricultural extension services and small farmers. Identifies the main problems as a weak distribution system and the necessity for authors of extension pamphlets and brochures to consider the special needs of small farmers. (KEH)

  13. The State of Agricultural Extension: An Overview and New Caveats for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Amanda; Jafry, Tahseen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This review paper presents an overview of changes in agricultural extension on a global scale and helps to characterise on-going developments in extension practice. Design/methodology/approach: Through a critique and synthesis of literature the paper focuses on global political changes which have led to widespread changes from production-…

  14. Extension for Organic Agriculture: A Comparative Study between Baden-Württemberg, Germany and Crete, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Österle, Nina; Koutsouris, Alex; Livieratos, Yannis; Kabourakis, Emmanuil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the extension services offered in the field of organic agriculture (OA) in Baden-Württemberg (BW), Germany and Crete, Greece. Design/methodology approach: 16 in-depth interviews, 10 in BW and 6 in Crete, were carried out with representatives of OA extension providers; interviews were qualitatively…

  15. LOW INCOME FAMILY, TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS, HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION, EDUCATION 685.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANN, OPAL H.

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE NEED FOR EXTENSION WORK WITH LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN EASTERN KENTUCKY (APPALACHIA) AND OF THE PROBLEMS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS WHO WORK WITH THESE FAMILIES. THE AGENTS FELT THEY HAD A RESPONSIBILITY TO HELP LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN BUDGETING TIME, EFFORT, AND RESOURCES TO MEET MINIMUM…

  16. Necessary Pre-Entry Competencies as Perceived by Florida Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benge, Matt; Harder, Amy; Carter, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    It is important to focus attention on the pre-entry competencies of new organization members and to identify the competencies needed by Extension agents to determine adequate education curricula and training, and to improve retention. Current professional development models disregard the competencies needed by agents entering Extension. This…

  17. Correlates of Administrative Professional Leadership in the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearon, Ronald W.

    This study analyzed variance in county extension chairmen's (CEC) conformity to an administrative performance leadership (APL) concept of their role. Relationships between APL and agent morale and performance, CEC attributes, and CEC relationships with agents, were assessed. Results were reexamined after adjusting for effects of sex, level of…

  18. Extension for Russian Agricultural Industrial Complexes: Lessons from a Dairy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, A. O.; Kerr, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    A Canadian extension program in Russia revealed two major problems facing Western extension agents: failure of Russian farms to treat dairy farming as a holistic, interdependent system, and a low level of human resource management skills due to the past history of direction by command. (SK)

  19. Extensive burns caused by the abusive use of photosensitizing agents.

    PubMed

    Braye, F; Latarjet, J; Foyatier, J L; Comparin, J P; Tranchand, P; Boucaud, C

    1997-01-01

    Psoralens are photosensitizing agents used in dermatology as reinforcements in psoralen ultraviolet A-range therapy. We report observations of 14 young women hospitalized for severe burns caused by abusive use of psoralens. The burns were of superficial and deep second-degree depth and covered more than 76% of the body surface on average. All patients needed fluid resuscitation. Hospital stay was 11 days on average. Healing was obtained without skin grafting in all cases. Among the six patients who responded to the mailed questionnaire, negative effects are now present in all patients as inflammatory peaks. Two patients have esthetic sequelae such as dyschromia and scars. The misuse of photosensitizing agents poses many problems. These accidents are very expensive. The largeness of the burned surface can involve a fatal prognosis. And finally, one can suspect that a much larger portion of the population regularly uses these products without any serious accident. In this case carcinogenesis can be expected.

  20. Information and Communication Technologies as Agricultural Extension Tools: A Survey among Farmers in West Macedonia, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasios, Michailidis; Koutsouris, Alex; Konstadinos, Mattas

    2010-01-01

    This article critically assesses the potential of information and communication technologies (ICTs) as agricultural extension tools. Specifically, the purpose of the current piece of work is to identify the extent of the use of ICTs on farms, look into farmers' characteristics as related to ICTs' adoption and explore farmers' preferred extension…

  1. Crossing Ethnic Barriers in the Southwest: Women's Agricultural Extension Education, 1914-1940. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Joan M.

    From its inception in 1914 until 1940, the New Mexico Agricultural Extension Service was quite successful in delivering educational programs to non-English speaking, Hispanic women in Santa Fe County and almost totally unsuccessful in Dona Ana County. Criteria for success were involvement of ethnic women in the program, ability to adapt national…

  2. Rural Housing Site Planning in North Carolina. Agricultural Extension Publication 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Randolph T., Jr.; And Others

    Addressing the problems of rural housing site selection and development in North Carolina, this guide is designed for cooperative and coordinated use by: technical assistance personnel employed by the Farmers Home Administration; local lending institutions; Health Departments; the Agricultural Extension Service; the Soil Conservation Service; and…

  3. Thailand's Department of Agricultural Extension and Agrochemical Dependency: Perspectives on Contributing Factors and Mitigation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelles, Wayne; Visetnoi, Supawan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses theoretical, policy and practical issues concerning the problem of "agrochemical dependency" in Thailand, including roles that public extension services play in advocacy or mitigation of agrochemical use. Methodology/Approach: Our research aimed to better understand department of agricultural extension…

  4. Relationship between Assessment Center Performance and Psychological Types of Cooperative Extension Agents in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishaya, Joseph B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory was completed by 135 cooperative extension agents who attended an assessment center. The majority were extroverts with sensing, thinking, and judging preferences. Those in administration or community/natural resources or with more experience had higher assessment center scores. Perceiving-oriented agents had lower…

  5. MEASURES OF LEADER BEHAVIOR AND THEIR RELATION TO PERFORMANCE LEVELS OF COUNTY EXTENSION AGENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CUNNINGHAM, CLARENCE J.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO (1) DEVELOP AN INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE LEADER BEHAVIOR DIMENSIONS OF CONSIDERATION AND INITIATING STRUCTURES AS APPLIED TO COUNTY EXTENSION AGENTS, AND (2) DETERMINE WHETHER THE DIMENSIONS WERE SUFFICIENTLY RELATED TO PERFORMANCE TO PERMIT THE INSTRUMENT'S USE FOR SELECTING AND PLACING AGENTS. A LEADER DESCRIPTION…

  6. Conducting a Statewide Dual-Purpose Program for Pesticide Applicators and County Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Liu, Guodong David

    2014-01-01

    The University of Florida Cooperative Extension conducted a statewide program with a dual role during 2013 and 2014 to enhance efficiency. The program provided in-service training to county Extension agents and provided continuing education to meet requirements needed by licensed pesticide applicators. Using Polycom distance technology, the event…

  7. Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Morgan, Emily H; Cyriac, Shruthi; Margolies, Amy; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutrition-specific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women's self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages. A range of methods was used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with project staff, frontline health workers, and self-help group members and their families; structured observations of mediated video dissemination sessions; nutrition knowledge tests with project staff and self-help group members; and a social network questionnaire to assess diffusion of promoted nutrition messages. We found the nutrition intervention to be well-received by rural communities and viewed as complementary to existing frontline health services. However, compared to agriculture, nutrition content required more time, creativity, and technical support to develop and deliver. Experimentation with promoted nutrition behaviours was high, but sharing of information from the videos with non-viewers was limited. Key lessons learned include the benefits of and need for collaboration with existing health services; continued technical support for implementing partners; engagement with local cultural norms and beliefs; empowerment of women's group members to champion nutrition

  8. Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Morgan, Emily H.; Cyriac, Shruthi; Margolies, Amy; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutrition-specific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women’s self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages. A range of methods was used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with project staff, frontline health workers, and self-help group members and their families; structured observations of mediated video dissemination sessions; nutrition knowledge tests with project staff and self-help group members; and a social network questionnaire to assess diffusion of promoted nutrition messages. We found the nutrition intervention to be well-received by rural communities and viewed as complementary to existing frontline health services. However, compared to agriculture, nutrition content required more time, creativity, and technical support to develop and deliver. Experimentation with promoted nutrition behaviours was high, but sharing of information from the videos with non-viewers was limited. Key lessons learned include the benefits of and need for collaboration with existing health services; continued technical support for implementing partners; engagement with local cultural norms and beliefs; empowerment of women’s group members to champion

  9. An Assessment of Readiness and Barriers towards ICT Programme Implementation: Perceptions of Agricultural Extension Officers in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnomo, Sutrisno Hadi; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates agricultural extension officers' perception of readiness and barriers towards implementation of ICT programme. Data were gathered from 312 extension officers affiliated with public organisations of the Ministry of Agriculture in four regencies of Indonesia. Descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor…

  10. Secondary Agricultural Education Teachers as Agents of Change in Oklahoma and the Adoption of Precision Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickeson, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that precision agricultural education (PAE) in Oklahoma affects environmental quality, water conservation, and crop yields. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the nature and perceived effectiveness of PAE in Oklahoma secondary agricultural education classes. The study was framed by the diffusion of…

  11. Examining a stress-coping model of burnout and depression in extension agents.

    PubMed

    Sears, S F; Urizar, G G; Evans, G D

    2000-01-01

    Occupational stressors, coping strategies, and burnout and depression were examined in extension agents. Results indicated that a significant proportion of extension agents (range = 9.8%-51%) reported burnout symptoms above established cut-off scores for the burnout subscales, but fewer than 3% of the sample reported significant symptoms on all 3 dimensions of burnout. Depressive symptoms based on established cut-off scores were noted in approximately 26% of the sample. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that extension agents who used an emotion-oriented coping strategy were more likely to (a) display high levels of depression, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization and (b) exhibit low levels of personal accomplishment. Furthermore, task-oriented coping strategies were found to be negatively associated with the 3 dimensions of burnout. Implications for interventional programming to reduce the symptoms of burnout are discussed.

  12. Roles of Extension Officers to Promote Social Capital in Japanese Agricultural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills. PMID:24642575

  13. Roles of extension officers to promote social capital in Japanese agricultural communities.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills.

  14. Coorientation in Agricultural Development: The Interrelationship between Farmers, Change Agents and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groot, Hans C.

    The role of the agricultural extension worker as intermediary between farmer and scientist is studied using the Chaffee and McLeod coorientation model. It is found that the extension workers' cognitions fall between those of farmers and scientists in terms of agreement, understanding, congruency, and accuracy, as predicted. The subjects in the…

  15. Evaluation of Agricultural Professionals' Perceptions and Knowledge on Sustainable Agriculture: A Useful Step in the Development of an Online Extension Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menalled, Fabian D.; Grimberg, Bruna I.; Jones, Clain A.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed needs, knowledge, and interests of agricultural professionals who were likely to enroll in an online extension course in sustainable agriculture. The objectives of the study were: to (1) describe their demographic characteristics, (2) identify their concerns and interests related to farming, (3) evaluate participants' knowledge…

  16. Extension Agent Knowledge and Programming Behaviors Regarding Healthy Lifestyles Education in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Dana R.; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Duncan, Dennis W.; Hanula, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyles education (HLE) is defined as nutrition and physical activity education aimed at controlling or preventing serious health issues. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine knowledge and behaviors of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences (FACS) and 4-H agents concerning HLE. Eighty-five and 86% of FACS and 4-H…

  17. Competencies in Entomology Needed by Agribusiness Teachers and Extension Agents in Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William H.; Walker, Leon

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of the data from an 84.2 percent questionnaire response by Indiana extension agents and agribusiness teachers provides 12 conclusions regarding their competency needs and five recommendations regarding inservice teacher training and courses needed in the areas of entomology. (BP)

  18. 76 FR 30092 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Select Agent Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Collection; Select Agent Registration AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... information regarding the select agent registration process associated with the possession, use, or transfer..., Agriculture Select Agent Program, RIPPS, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road, Unit 2, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301)...

  19. What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

  20. 75 FR 12171 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, Room 3901, South Building, United States Department of... United States Department of Agriculture announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Notice of the National Agricultural Research,...

  1. Characterizing and modeling of extensive atrazine elution tailing for stable manure-amended agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Nihat Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Non-ideal sorption and extensive elution tailing behavior of atrazine was evaluated for an agricultural soil with and without stable manure amendment (10% by weight). A series of laboratory experiments showed that the sorption of atrazine was described by rate-limited, nonlinear reversible processes (Freundlich isotherm) for both non-amended and amended soil. Non-ideal transport of atrazine exhibited extensive low concentration elution tailing due to the most likely organic carbon fraction in the soil. This tailing behavior was more pronounced and extensive for soil with 10% stable-manure amendment. Two-site transport modeling analyses including non-linear sorption and rate-limited sorption-desorption provided a reasonably good match to the atrazine breakthrough curves but were unable to match the long-term concentration tailing, even for non-amended soil. A mathematical model incorporating nonlinear, rate-limited sorption/desorption described by a continuous-distribution function was used to successfully simulate atrazine transport early-time breakthrough and long-term concentration tailing for both non-amended and amended soil conditions.

  2. Nontherapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in animal agriculture: implications for pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M

    2004-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is widespread. Overuse or misuse of antimicrobial agents in veterinary and human medicine is responsible for increasing the crisis of resistance to antimicrobial agents. The American Academy of Pediatrics, in conjunction with the US Public Health Service, has begun to address this problem by disseminating policies on the judicious use of antimicrobial agents in humans. Between 40% and 80% of the antimicrobial agents used in the United States each year are used in food animals; many are identical or very similar to drugs used in humans. Most of this use involves the addition of low doses of antimicrobial agents to the feed of healthy animals over prolonged periods to promote growth and increase feed efficiency or at a range of doses to prevent disease. These nontherapeutic uses contribute to resistance and create health dangers for humans. This report will describe how antimicrobial agents are used in animal agriculture and review the mechanisms by which such uses contribute to resistance in human pathogens. Although therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in agriculture clearly contributes to the development of resistance, this report will concentrate on nontherapeutic uses in healthy animals.

  3. 78 FR 25691 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research..., United States Department of Agriculture, STOP 0321, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20250...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural...

  4. 76 FR 13124 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research..., United States Department of Agriculture, STOP 0321, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20250...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Notice of the National Agricultural Research,...

  5. Nontherapeutic Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Animal Agriculture: Implications for Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Jerome A; Zaoutis, Theoklis E

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious threats to public health globally and threatens our ability to treat infectious diseases. Antimicrobial-resistant infections are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Infants and children are affected by transmission of susceptible and resistant food zoonotic pathogens through the food supply, direct contact with animals, and environmental pathways. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents in veterinary and human medicine is, in large part, responsible for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Approximately 80% of the overall tonnage of antimicrobial agents sold in the United States in 2012 was for animal use, and approximately 60% of those agents are considered important for human medicine. Most of the use involves the addition of low doses of antimicrobial agents to the feed of healthy animals over prolonged periods to promote growth and increase feed efficiency or at a range of doses to prevent disease. These nontherapeutic uses contribute to resistance and create new health dangers for humans. This report describes how antimicrobial agents are used in animal agriculture, reviews the mechanisms of how such use contributes to development of resistance, and discusses US and global initiatives to curb the use of antimicrobial agents in agriculture.

  6. 75 FR 68598 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, Tennessee State University; Category P. ``American Colleges of Veterinary... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... United States Department of Agriculture announces the appointments made by the Secretary of...

  7. 78 FR 14071 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Department of Agriculture announces the appointments made by the Secretary of Agriculture... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA....

  8. 76 FR 78225 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Notice of Appointment of Members to the National... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, the United States Department of Agriculture announces the appointments made by the Secretary of Agriculture to the 8 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research,...

  9. Extensive survey of molecules related to wood formation and gravity for space agriculture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohashi, Kyohei; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Furukawa, Jun; Sato, Seigo; Suzuki, Toshisada; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Japanese Space Tree Working Group

    Most, if not all, terrestrial subjects are under the influence of gravity. Since the gravitational force is proportional to the mass of subject, gravity is dominant for larger masses. The response of a plant against gravity is not an exception in this respect even it shows rather complicated features. For the angiosperm tree, its shape is determined by the forming tension wood, which induces more tensile stress in the xylem than in the normal wood. The mechanism of tension wood formation and its relevance to gravity have been extensively studied. Gibberellin is known to be responsible for this phenomenon in angiosperm tree, for example, the Japanese cherry tree, Prunus jamasakura. However, full understanding of the mechanisms has not yet been clarified. For an extensive survey of molecules related to tension wood formation, we induced an artificial tension wood formation and examined the tension wood formation by microscopic observations with double-staining. This enables the screening of really functional molecules in the space environment for future space agriculture. We demonstrated that Prunus incise is suitable for this research as a test material based on several reasons. We focused our attention in the region of the branch, i.e., the CosmoTree in CosmoBon, and established an experimental system to analyze the real functional factors of the tension wood. This study might ensure wood formation in a space environment and use woody plants as a material for space development. ("CosmoBon" is the Bonsai small tree for our space experiments. "CosmoTree" is a small branch/tree.)

  10. Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.

    SciTech Connect

    Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

    2005-10-01

    Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented

  11. Linkage of Higher Education with Agricultural Research, Extension and Development in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belay, Kassa

    2008-01-01

    High-level agricultural manpower training in Ethiopian institutions of higher education (AIHE)specializing in agriculture and related fields was studied. The study reveals that high-level agricultural manpower training began in the early 1950s and that, at present, the country has seven institutions of higher learning, which train students in…

  12. 75 FR 67662 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB61 Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H- 2B Program; Extension of the Comment Period AGENCIES: Employment and...

  13. Public-Private Policy Change and Its Influence on the Linkage of Agricultural Research, Extension and Farmers in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to show the linkage of Iranian agricultural research centres with extension and farmers, using three case studies in 1999, 2005 and 2010. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected through document analyses, structured and semi-structured interviews and observations. Findings: The 1999 and 2005 cases were…

  14. The Role of Agricultural Education and Extension in Influencing Best Practice for Managing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, E. J.; Hennessy, T.; Cullinan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of agricultural education and extension in influencing the adoption of best practice with regard to herd-level mastitis management. Design/Methodology/Approach: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of herd health with regard to mastitis and is negatively related to productivity and profitability. Panel data…

  15. Biodegradable chelating agents for industrial, domestic, and agricultural applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Isabel S S; Neto, Isabel F F; Soares, Helena M V M

    2014-10-01

    Aminopolycarboxylates, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), are chelating agents widely used in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. However, the fact that they are not biodegradable leads to the presence of considerable amounts in aquatic systems, with serious environmental consequences. The replacement of these compounds by biodegradable alternatives has been the object of study in the last three decades. This paper reviews the most relevant studies towards the use of environmentally friendly chelating agents in a large number of applications: oxidative bleaching, detergents and cleaning compositions, scale prevention and reduction, remediation of soils, agriculture, electroplating, waste treatment, and biocides. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), and iminodisuccinic acid (IDS) are the most commonly suggested to replace the nonbiodegradable chelating agents. Depending on the application, the requirements for metal complexation might differ. Metal chelation ability of the most promising compounds [NTA, EDDS, IDS, methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), L-glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA), ethylenediamine-N,N'-diglutaric acid (EDDG), ethylenediamine-N,N'-dimalonic acid (EDDM), 3-hydroxy-2,2-iminodisuccinic acid (HIDS), 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HEIDA), pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDA)] with Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ca, and Mg was simulated by computer calculations. The advantages or disadvantages of each compound for the most important applications were discussed.

  16. Diabetes on the Navajo nation: what role can gardening and agriculture extension play to reduce it?

    PubMed

    Lombard, Kevin A; Forster-Cox, Susan; Smeal, Dan; O'Neill, Mick K

    2006-01-01

    Navajo nation involving public health officials, nutritionists, and horticultural extension agents that could also be applied internationally in similar multicultural, semi-arid climates.

  17. The Virtual Research and Extension Communication Network (VRECN): An Interactive Learning and Communication Network for Research and Extension Personnel. Concept Paper for the Food & Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Don

    A Virtual Research and Extension Communication Network (VRECN) is a set of networked electronic tools facilitating improvement in communication processes and information sharing among stakeholders involved in agricultural development. In developing countries, research and extension personnel within a ministry of agriculture, in consultation and…

  18. Agricultural Extension Services and Market Regulation: Learning from a Comparison of Six EU Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Catherine; Cerf, Marianne; Labarthe, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    If farmers are to meet the new challenges facing agriculture (environment, rural development, etc.), appropriate knowledge has to be produced. But observations in six EU countries (France, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK) show that unexpected problems arise when technical support for agriculture is linked to market regulation,…

  19. Crop Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Agricultural Extension Services in Bangladesh: Cases of Selected Villages in Two Important Agro-Ecological Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uddin, Ektear MD.; Gao, Qijie; Mamun-Ur-Rashid, MD.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Globally, many extension professionals and policy-makers are advocating fee based services, in addressing the fund shortage and sustainable provision of agricultural advisory services. Hence, the article attempts to expose the farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) as agricultural extension in Bangladesh is experiencing chronic fund crisis.…

  20. 77 FR 64794 - Cancellation of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board scheduled for October 23-25, 2012 has been cancelled. The..., and Economics Advisory Board; telephone: (202) 720-3684; fax: (202) 720-6199; or email:...

  1. Standardization of doctoral study in agricultural and extension education: is the field of study mature enough for achievement of the optimum degree of order?

    PubMed

    Briers, G E; Lindner, J R; Shinn, G C; Wingenbach, G W; Baker, M T

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and extension education--or some derivative name--is a field of study leading to the doctoral degree in universities around the world. Is there are body of knowledge or a taxonomy of the knowledge--e.g., a knowledge domain--that one should possess with a doctorate in agricultural and extension education? The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the work of researchers who attempted to define the field of study, with a taxonomy comprising the knowledge domains (standards) and knowledge objects--structured interrelated sets of data, knowledge, and wisdom--of the field of study. Doctoral study in agricultural and extension education needs a document that provides for rules and guidelines--rules and guidelines that in turn provide for common and repeated use--all leading to achievement of an optimum degree of order in the context of academic, scholarly, and professional practice in agricultural and extension education. Thus, one would know in broad categories the knowledge, skills, and abilities possessed by one who holds a doctoral degree in agricultural and extension education. That is, there would exist a standard for doctoral degrees in agricultural and extension education. A content analysis of three previous attempts to categorize knowledge in agricultural and extension education served as the primary technique to create a new taxonomy--or to confirm an existing taxonomy--for doctoral study in agricultural and extension education. The following coalesced as nine essential knowledge domains for a doctorate in agricultural and extension education: (1) history, philosophy, ethics, and policy; (2) agricultural/rural development; (3) organizational development and change management; (4) planning, needs assessment, and evaluation; (5) learning theory; (6) curriculum development and instructional design; (7) teaching methods and delivery strategies; (8) research methods and tools; and, (9) scholarship and communications.

  2. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  3. Compilation of Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Questions for Discussion. 104th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This volume compiles and reprints the responses of 37 organizations to a series of questions issued by the House Committee on Agriculture in anticipation of debates concerning the Research Title of the 1995 Farm Bill due for updating and revision. The questions address some of the following topics: the role of the federal government in…

  4. 77 FR 27013 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... ranching, food production and processing, forestry research, crop and animal science, land-grant institutions, non-land grant college or university with a historic commitment to research in the food and agricultural sciences, food retailing and marketing, rural economic development, and natural resource...

  5. 78 FR 25691 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ..., each member has represented a specific category related to farming or ranching, food production and... university with a historic commitment to research in the food and agricultural sciences, food retailing and marketing, rural economic development, and natural resource and consumer interest groups, among many...

  6. Globalizing the Undergraduate Experience in Agricultural Leadership, Education, Extension, and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinert, Seth B.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2016-01-01

    University graduates are entering a workforce where global competencies are important; yet, a vast majority graduate with limited international educational experience. The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to describe themes of international educational experiences currently being offered to students of agricultural leadership,…

  7. 77 FR 11064 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Advisory Board Office, Room 3901 South Building, United States Department of Agriculture, STOP 0321, 1400.... SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App 2, the United States... advising the Department on subjects relevant to Research, Education, and Economics. An evening...

  8. Partnerships for Natural Resource Education: Differing Program Needs and Perspectives of Extension Agents and State Agency Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Jacobson, Susan K.; Bowers, Alison

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 45 extension agents and 59 state forestry agency staff 1 year after inservice training on developing public education programs on wildland fire received 71 responses. Three primary barriers to program implementation were identified: educational, logistical, and attitudinal. Providing a toolkit of materials and resources reduced…

  9. Factors Related to the Motivation of Extension Agents in Kenya's Rift Valley Province. Summary of Research 76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwangi, John G.; McCaslin, N. L.

    Job satisfaction factors related to motivation of a random sample of 325 agents in Kenya's extension service in the Rift Valley Province were identified. Data were collected using a group-administered, closed-ended, forced-choice questionnaire with 105 job satisfaction, 10 motivational, and 10 personal characteristics items between January and…

  10. Influence of Selected Personal Characteristics and County Situational Factors on Time Allocated to Dairy Subjects by Extension Agents in Selected Tennessee Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcutt, Sherwin Dean; And Others

    The study deals with various predictors of time spent on dairy subjects by Extension agents and predictors of contacts made by agents with dairy clientele. Purposes were to determine the relationships, if any, between various independent variables and groups of independent variables (agents' background and training, county dairy situation, agents'…

  11. 77 FR 58978 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ...: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App 2, the United States Department..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, Room 3901 South Building, United States... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 78 FR 52496 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, Room 3901 South Building, United States.... SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App 2, the United States... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. Farmer Perceptions of Soil and Water Conservation Issues: Implications to Agricultural and Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas; Martin, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 731 Iowa farmers received 432 responses indicating that (1) groundwater and water quality were of greater concern than soil conservation; (2) field demonstrations and county meetings were useful information sources on these issues; and (3) government agencies such as cooperative extension and state universities were useful sources of…

  14. An Evaluation of the Beginning Teacher Supervision Program Conducted by the Department of Agricultural and Extension Education at the Pennsylvania State University. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Randol G.

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a beginning teacher supervision program conducted by the Department of Agricultural and Extension Education at Pennsylvania State University. Specifically, it analyzed differences between a group of 23 vocational agriculture teachers who participated in the beginning teacher supervision program that used…

  15. Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education 1994 Conference Papers. Annual Conference (10th, Arlington, Virginia, March 24-26, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Roger E., Comp.

    Selected papers are as follows: "Member Perceptions of the Association for International Agricultural & Extension Education" (Eaton et al.); "Historical Review of U.S. Involvement in International Agricultural Education between World War II and Enactment of Title XII" (Thuemmel, Meaders); "Educational Needs of…

  16. Identifying the Factors Influencing Professional Volunteer Leadership in the National Association of Extension 4-H Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Alexa; Nistler, Debbie; Stedman, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Many Extension professional associations have had trouble getting members to participate in national leadership opportunities. The study reported here examined the perception of members of a national Extension professional organization (NAE4-HA) regarding specific leadership actions. It found the single act of taking on a leadership position…

  17. A primer on the requirements for select agents and toxins used in biomedical and agricultural research applications.

    PubMed

    Johnston, T P

    2006-05-01

    A basic overview of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture List of Regulated Select Agents and Toxins used in biomedical and agricultural research, as controlled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is presented. The objective of the primer is to introduce to the health physics community a brief history, discuss basic terminology, review current legislation, and describe rules and regulations for the possession, use, and transfer of select agents and toxins. As with many institutions facing staff and budget restrictions, there is increased frequency of health physics professionals being designated the Responsible Official. This summary is necessary since radiolabeled select agents and toxins are being utilized in research applications and require oversight by the health physicist.

  18. Biorational agents--mechanism and importance in IPM and IRM programs for controlling agricultural pests.

    PubMed

    Ishaaya, I; Kontsedalov, S; Mazirov, D; Horowitz, A R

    2001-01-01

    Among the new approaches for controlling agricultural pests is the development of novel compounds affecting specific processes in insects such as chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone mimics and ecdysone agonists. In addition, efforts have been made to develop compounds acting selectively on groups of insects by inhibiting or enhancing biochemical sites such as respiration (diafenthiuron), the nicotinyl acetylcholine receptors (imidacloprid and acetamiprid), the GABA receptors (avermectins), the salivary glands of sucking pests (pymetrozine) and others. Among the most recent novel insecticides with selective properties are novaluron, thiamethoxam, emamectin and spinosad. Novaluron (Rimon) is a novel chitin synthesis inhibitor that acts by both ingestion and contact. It is a powerful suppressor of lepidopteran larvae such as Spodoptera littoralis and Helicoverpa armigera (by ingestion) and of whiteflies such as Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (by contact). Thiamethoxam (Actarn), a novel neonicotinoid acts specifically on aphids and whiteflies. Emamectin (Proclaim), an avermectin derivative acts on GABA receptor affecting diversity of insects such as mites, lepidopterans and thrips. Spinosad (Tracer) seems to act on both acetylcholine and GABA receptors affecting diversity of insect species and is considered an important agent for controlling the western flower thrips.

  19. Semantic Extension of Agent-Based Control: The Packing Cell Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Pavel; Radakovič, Miloslav; Obitko, Marek; Mařík, Vladimír

    The paper reports on the latest R&D activities in the field of agent-based manufacturing control systems. It is documented that this area becomes strongly influenced by the advancements of semantic technologies like the Web Ontology Language. The application of ontologies provides the agents with much more effective means for handling, exchanging and reasoning about the knowledge. The ontology dedicated for semantic description of orders, production processes and material handling tasks in discrete manufacturing domain has been developed. In addition, the framework for integration of this ontology in distributed, agent-based control solutions is given. The Manufacturing Agent Simulation Tool (MAST) is used as a base for pilot implementation of the ontology-powered multiagent control system; the packing cell environment is selected as a case study.

  20. Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture.

    PubMed

    Chiarello

    2000-05-01

    A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations.

  1. An extensible simulation environment and movement metrics for testing walking behavior in agent-based models

    SciTech Connect

    Paul M. Torrens; Atsushi Nara; Xun Li; Haojie Zhu; William A. Griffin; Scott B. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Human movement is a significant ingredient of many social, environmental, and technical systems, yet the importance of movement is often discounted in considering systems complexity. Movement is commonly abstracted in agent-based modeling (which is perhaps the methodological vehicle for modeling complex systems), despite the influence of movement upon information exchange and adaptation in a system. In particular, agent-based models of urban pedestrians often treat movement in proxy form at the expense of faithfully treating movement behavior with realistic agency. There exists little consensus about which method is appropriate for representing movement in agent-based schemes. In this paper, we examine popularly-used methods to drive movement in agent-based models, first by introducing a methodology that can flexibly handle many representations of movement at many different scales and second, introducing a suite of tools to benchmark agent movement between models and against real-world trajectory data. We find that most popular movement schemes do a relatively poor job of representing movement, but that some schemes may well be 'good enough' for some applications. We also discuss potential avenues for improving the representation of movement in agent-based frameworks.

  2. Tennessee's Extension Food and Nutrition Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Agricultural Extension Service.

    The Extension Food and Nutrition Education program was set up by the University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service to assist low-income families in improving their diets. Carrying out the program on a one-to-one basis are 365 assistants who are taught the basics of nutrition by trained home economics extension agents. These assistants…

  3. Information Technologies as a Tool for Agricultural Extension and Farmer-to-Farmer Exchange: Mobile-Phone Video Use in Mali and Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Fernando; Nicolay, Gian; Home, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are widespread in the rural areas of Mali and Burkina Faso, but their potential as a tool for knowledge transfer by extension services in the region remains largely unexplored. The aim of this contribution is to evaluate the potential of video on mobile phones as a tool for farmer-to-farmer exchange and agricultural extension in…

  4. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  5. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Vandevelde, Senne; Walukano, Wilberforce; Van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers' knowledge of recommended practices on (i) potato seed selection and (ii) seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers' knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context.

  6. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Vandevelde, Senne; Walukano, Wilberforce; Van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers’ knowledge of recommended practices on (i) potato seed selection and (ii) seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers’ knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context. PMID:28122005

  7. A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brian H.; Burden, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Insects modify their responses to stimuli through experience of associating those stimuli with events important for survival (e.g., food, mates, threats). There are several behavioral mechanisms through which an insect learns salient associations and relates them to these events. It is important to understand this behavioral plasticity for programs aimed toward assisting insects that are beneficial for agriculture. This understanding can also be used for discovering solutions to biomedical and agricultural problems created by insects that act as disease vectors and pests. The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol was developed for honey bees (Apis mellifera) over 50 years ago to study how they perceive and learn about floral odors, which signal the nectar and pollen resources a colony needs for survival. The PER procedure provides a robust and easy-to-employ framework for studying several different ecologically relevant mechanisms of behavioral plasticity. It is easily adaptable for use with several other insect species and other behavioral reflexes. These protocols can be readily employed in conjunction with various means for monitoring neural activity in the CNS via electrophysiology or bioimaging, or for manipulating targeted neuromodulatory pathways. It is a robust assay for rapidly detecting sub-lethal effects on behavior caused by environmental stressors, toxins or pesticides. We show how the PER protocol is straightforward to implement using two procedures. One is suitable as a laboratory exercise for students or for quick assays of the effect of an experimental treatment. The other provides more thorough control of variables, which is important for studies of behavioral conditioning. We show how several measures for the behavioral response ranging from binary yes/no to more continuous variable like latency and duration of proboscis extension can be used to test hypotheses. And, we discuss some pitfalls that researchers commonly encounter

  8. Measuring Agricultural Paradigmatic Preferences: The Redevelopment of an Instrument to Determine Individual and Collective Preferences--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagorski, Laura; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Lawver, David E.; Baker, Matt; Lindner. James R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is an area that is gaining momentum. Extension agents are expected to teach production methods that include sustainable agriculture, yet little is known regarding how Extension agents feel about this agricultural paradigm. The research reported here sought to further develop an instrument that could quantitatively measure…

  9. Funding priorities in animal reproduction at the United States Department of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.

    PubMed

    Mirando, Mark A; Hamernik, Debora L

    2006-03-01

    The National Research Initiative (NRI) Competitive Grants Program is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's major competitive grants program and is administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). Since its inception in 1991, the NRI has funded competitive grants in the discipline of animal reproduction. Previously, this program provided funding for a broad range of projects encompassing almost every subdiscipline in reproductive biology of farm animals, including aquatic species important to the aquaculture industry. During fiscal year 2004, the NRI Animal Reproduction Program narrowed the focus of funding priorities to the topics of infertility, basic mechanisms regulating fertility, cryopreservation of gametes, reducing the postpartum interval to conception, and sterilization methods or development of monosex populations. In response to a directive to further narrow the focus of funding priorities for fiscal year 2005 and beyond, CSREES conducted a Stakeholder Workshop on Funding Priorities in Animal Reproduction at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction in Vancouver, Canada. More than 75 stakeholder scientists from a cross section of federal, public, and private institutions from across the United States participated in the workshop and provided recommendations to CSREES for future NRI-funding priorities in Animal Reproduction. The recommendations provided by stakeholders included continuing efforts to focus funding priorities into fewer high-impact areas relevant to animal agriculture and aquaculture. Recommendations also included movement back toward subdisciplines of animal reproduction that cut across all applicable species. The three funding priorities that consistently emerged as recommendations from the workshop participants were 1) gonadal function and production of gametes, 2) pituitary-hypothalamic function, and 3) embryo and conceptus development, including interaction between the

  10. Irrigated Agriculture in Morocco: An Agent-Based Model of Adaptation and Decision Making Amid Increasingly Frequent Drought Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past 100 years, Morocco has undertaken a heavy investment in developing water infrastructure that has led to a dramatic expansion of irrigated agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the primary user of water in many arid countries, often accounting for 80-90% of total water usage. Irrigation is adopted by farmers not only because it leads to increased production, but also because it improves resilience to an uncertain climate. However, the Mediterranean region as a whole has also seen an increase in the frequency and severity of drought events. These droughts have had a dramatic impact on farmer livelihoods and have led to a number of coping strategies, including the adoption or disadoption of irrigation. In this study, we use a record of the annual extent of irrigated agriculture in Morocco to model the effect of drought on the extent of irrigated agriculture. Using an agent-based socioeconomic model, we seek to answer the following questions: 1) Do farmers expand irrigated agriculture in response to droughts? 2) Do drought events entail the removal of perennial crops like orchards? 3) Can we detect the retreat of irrigated agriculture in the more fragile watersheds of Morocco? Understanding the determinants of irrigated crop expansion and contractions will help us understand how agro-ecological systems transition from 20th century paradigms of expansion of water supply to a 21st century paradigm of water use efficiency. The answers will become important as countries learn how to manage water in new climate regimes characterized by less reliable and available precipitation.

  11. The Potential of Interpersonal Relationships among Subject Matter Specialists for the Performance of the Integration Function on Behalf of Clients: Missouri Agricultural Extension as a Case in Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lionberger, Herbert F.; Cheng, Wei-Yaun

    Responses of 127 agricultural specialists concerning their information seeking and interactive contacts within the Missouri Extension Service revealed an interpersonal communicative network among subject matter specialists with a potential for performing the integration (putting together) function on behalf of farmers. This occurred in an…

  12. Evidence-Based Programming: What Is a Process an Extension Agent Can Use to Evaluate a Program's Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetsch, Robert J.; MacPhee, David; Boyer, Luann K.

    2012-01-01

    Extension agents and specialists have experienced increased pressure for greater program effectiveness and accountability and especially for evidence-based programs. This article builds on previously published evidence-based programming articles. It provides ideas that address three problems that Extension staff face with EBPs and that Extension…

  13. Laboratory Testing of Foundry Sands as Bulking Agents for Porous Media Filters Used to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Foundry sands are industrial byproducts that may have potential application as bulking agents that when mixed with small amounts of more chemically reactive materials (i.e. sulfur modified iron, fly ash, etc.) can be used to produce porous media filters capable of removing contaminants from agricultural drainage waters. Foundry sand bulking agents are attractive primarily as a low cost means to maintain the hydraulic efficiency of a filter. Secondarily, the foundry sands themselves may have some capacity for removal of agricultural nutrients and pesticides from water. Consequently, a laboratory study was initiated to quantify hydraulic efficiency and agricultural contaminant removal abilities of six foundry sands. Of the six foundry sands tested, all were obtained in central Ohio, three from iron casting foundries, two from steel casting foundries, and one from an aluminum casting foundry. Hydraulic efficiencies of the foundry sands were assessed by measuring hydraulic conductivity with twice replicated falling-head permeability tests. Batch tests were employed to evaluate foundry sand potential to treat water containing nitrate and phosphate nutrients, along with the pesticide, atrazine. Five of the six foundry sand samples had measured hydraulic conductivity values from 7.6 x 10-3 cm/s to 3.8 x 10-2 cm/s, which is in the range of hydraulic conductivity values found for clean sand. The one foundry sand that was an exception had much lower measured hydraulic conductivity values of 2.75 x 10-5 cm/s and 5.76 x 10-5 cm/s. For the batch tests conducted, none of the nitrate was removed by any of the six foundry sands; however, conversely, almost all of the phosphate was removed by each foundry sand. Batch test atrazine removal results were much more varied. Compared with baseline batch tests, one foundry sand removed two thirds of the atrazine, one foundry sand removed about one half of the atrazine, three foundry sands removed about a third of the atrazine, and one

  14. Boys, Be Ambitious: William Smith Clark and the Westernisation of Japanese Agricultural Extension in the Meiji Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, Garrett; Friedensen, Rachel; Kimball, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the historiography related to the 1876 founding of Sapporo Agricultural College, the first institution of its kind in Japan. Focusing specifically on the involvement of William Smith Clark, who previously served as the president of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, it argues that the nascent imperial ambitions harboured…

  15. Listenership of Radio Agricultural Broadcasts in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmanuel, Adekoya Adegbenga; Olabode, Badiru Idris

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural broadcasts on radio play a major role in agricultural extension and rural development in Nigeria due to the low ratio of extension agents in relation to the farming population. The broadcasts have been on air for some time and therefore there is a need to investigate their acceptance among the rural dwellers in Southwestern Nigeria.…

  16. Long-Term Farm Policy to Succeed the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 (Research, Extension, and Teaching). Part 5. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Departmental Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (June 6, 7, 12, and 13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This congressional hearing is the fifth of five volumes examining various aspects of agricultural research, extension, and teaching as a prelude to determining what changes are to be made in Title XIV of the farm bill. Focuses are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) biotechnology program plans and regulatory concerns and the public benefits…

  17. Small genome of the fungus Escovopsis weberi, a specialized disease agent of ant agriculture.

    PubMed

    de Man, Tom J B; Stajich, Jason E; Kubicek, Christian P; Teiling, Clotilde; Chenthamara, Komal; Atanasova, Lea; Druzhinina, Irina S; Levenkova, Natasha; Birnbaum, Stephanie S L; Barribeau, Seth M; Bozick, Brooke A; Suen, Garret; Currie, Cameron R; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2016-03-29

    Many microorganisms with specialized lifestyles have reduced genomes. This is best understood in beneficial bacterial symbioses, where partner fidelity facilitates loss of genes necessary for living independently. Specialized microbial pathogens may also exhibit gene loss relative to generalists. Here, we demonstrate that Escovopsis weberi, a fungal parasite of the crops of fungus-growing ants, has a reduced genome in terms of both size and gene content relative to closely related but less specialized fungi. Although primary metabolism genes have been retained, the E. weberi genome is depleted in carbohydrate active enzymes, which is consistent with reliance on a host with these functions. E. weberi has also lost genes considered necessary for sexual reproduction. Contrasting these losses, the genome encodes unique secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters, some of which include genes that exhibit up-regulated expression during host attack. Thus, the specialized nature of the interaction between Escovopsis and ant agriculture is reflected in the parasite's genome.

  18. Small genome of the fungus Escovopsis weberi, a specialized disease agent of ant agriculture

    PubMed Central

    de Man, Tom J. B.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Teiling, Clotilde; Chenthamara, Komal; Atanasova, Lea; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Levenkova, Natasha; Birnbaum, Stephanie S. L.; Barribeau, Seth M.; Bozick, Brooke A.; Suen, Garret; Currie, Cameron R.; Gerardo, Nicole M.

    2016-01-01

    Many microorganisms with specialized lifestyles have reduced genomes. This is best understood in beneficial bacterial symbioses, where partner fidelity facilitates loss of genes necessary for living independently. Specialized microbial pathogens may also exhibit gene loss relative to generalists. Here, we demonstrate that Escovopsis weberi, a fungal parasite of the crops of fungus-growing ants, has a reduced genome in terms of both size and gene content relative to closely related but less specialized fungi. Although primary metabolism genes have been retained, the E. weberi genome is depleted in carbohydrate active enzymes, which is consistent with reliance on a host with these functions. E. weberi has also lost genes considered necessary for sexual reproduction. Contrasting these losses, the genome encodes unique secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters, some of which include genes that exhibit up-regulated expression during host attack. Thus, the specialized nature of the interaction between Escovopsis and ant agriculture is reflected in the parasite’s genome. PMID:26976598

  19. Reclamation of DPK hydrocarbon polluted agricultural soil using a selected bulking agent.

    PubMed

    Nwankwegu, Amechi S; Onwosi, Chukwudi O; Orji, Michael U; Anaukwu, Chika G; Okafor, Uchenna C; Azi, Fidelis; Martins, Paul E

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, laboratory scale bioremediation of dual purpose kerosene (DPK) hydrocarbon polluted soil using bulking agent (saw dust) was carried out. The effect of different parameters such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), dehydrogenase activity (DHase) and pH on bioremediation performance were evaluated. Studied parameters such as microbial dynamics, percentage degradation (95.20%), DHase (8.20 ± 0.43) were found to be higher in saw dust amended system and significantly differed with control at p < 0.05. Experimental data adequately fitted the first order kinetic thus, generated r(2) values (0.966), first order degradation constant (0.659 d(-1)), and degradation half-life t1/2 = ln2/k (1.05 d). Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus sp., Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus sp. were isolated from the study. The use of saw dust as bulking agent greatly increased biodegradation rate and resulted in effective DPK hydrocarbon clean up. Therefore, saw dust could serve as an effective biostimulant towards improved bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted environment.

  20. Improving an Agent-Based Model by Using Interdisciplinary Approaches for Analyzing Structural Change in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Franziska; Ostermeyer, Arlette; Balmann, Alfons; Larsen, Karin

    Structural change in the German dairy sector seems to be lagged behind. Heterogeneous farm structures, a low efficiency and profitability are persistent although farms operate under similar market and policy conditions. This raises the questions whether these structures are path dependent and how they can eventually be overcome. To answer these questions we use the agent-based model AgriPoliS. The aim of our project is to improve assumptions in AgriPoliS by using it as an experimental laboratory. In a second part AgriPoliS will be used in stakeholder workshops to define scenarios for the dairy sector and communicate and discuss results to practitioners and decision makers.

  1. Review of assessments of the human health risk associated with the use of antimicrobial agents in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bailar, John C; Travers, Karin

    2002-06-01

    To our knowledge, no comprehensive risk assessment of agricultural uses of antimicrobial agents has been published. The published risk assessments of antimicrobial use in farm settings are all subject to multiple, serious limitations in scope, including (1) limitation to one species of microorganism; (2) limitation to one or a very few related antimicrobial agents; (3) limitation to a single outcome (death, hospital days, number of illnesses, etc.); (4) limitation to one species of farm animal (e.g., chicken or swine); and (5) limitation to therapeutic use, despite reason for concern about misstated, off-label, or illegal use. In addition, all of the risk assessments reviewed overlooked important issues by accepting 2 further limitations: (6) limiting the scope of the analysis to what has already happened and ignoring the effects of continuing the practices of recent years; and (7) examining only the effects on the species of microorganism that was initially affected and ignoring the cross-species spread of resistance by plasmid transfer. After our review of the risk assessments now available, we propose a comprehensive scheme for organizing existing knowledge and dealing with critical gaps.

  2. Marine isolates of Trichoderma spp. as potential halotolerant agents of biological control for arid-zone agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-08-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents.

  3. Marine Isolates of Trichoderma spp. as Potential Halotolerant Agents of Biological Control for Arid-Zone Agriculture ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-01-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

  4. Methanolic Extract of Plumbago Zeylanica - A Remarkable Antibacterial Agent Against Many Human and Agricultural Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ajit; Sawarkar, Hemant; Gupta, Anshita; Gidwani, Bina; Dhongade, Hemant; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The current investigation was carried out to determine the cytotoxic and the antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Plumbago zeylanica. Methods: The stems, leaves, and whole plants were air dried and extracted with methanol by using a Soxhlet extractor for 72 hours at 55 - 60°C. The antimicrobial activities were determined from the zones of inhibition, which were measured by using the agar well diffusion method, and the cytotoxicity assays were performed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method. Results: The methanolic extracts of the stem and the leaves of Plumbago zeylanica were tested against six bacterial species and nine fungal species, and both extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a dose-dependent manner. The leaf extract of Plumbago zeylanica showed maximum antimicrobial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus sub sp aureus and Fusarium oxysporum. The stem extract was found to be more antimicrobial against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Penicillium expansum species. MTT assays were used to test the cytotoxicity of the whole plant extract in the HCT-116 and the K-562 cell lines, and that extract was shown to have weak cytotoxicity in both cell lines. Conclusion: In the present study, the methanolic stem extracts of Plumbago zeylanica were found to possess remarkable antibacterial activities against many human and agricultural pathogens. The extracts were also found to possess significant antifungal activities, but the antifungal activities were less than the antibacterial activities. Finally, the extracts were found to have weak cytotoxicities in the HCT-116 and the K-562 cell lines. PMID:28392958

  5. Project EFFECT. Energy for the Future: Education, Conservation, Training. Curriculum Guides for the Training of Energy Extension Agents. A Working Paper, Section II: Technical Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., South Bend. Center for Energy Conservation.

    This second of four sections in a curriculum guide for training energy extension agents contains general introductory materials, an overview of the total curriculum, and eight modules: Alternative Energy Sources (Solar and Wood), Basic Graphics and Blueprint Reading, Building Materials, Electricity, Introduction to Cooling Systems, Introduction to…

  6. Project EFFECT. Energy for the Future: Education, Conservation, Training. Curriculum Guide for the Training of Energy Extension Agents. A Working Paper, Volume ii: Supplemental Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., South Bend. Center for Energy Conservation.

    Intended to be used in conjunction with the Project EFFECT (Energy for the Future--Education, Conservation, Training) Curriculum Guide for Training Energy Extension Agents (available in ERIC as CE 025 100-103), this volume contains supplementary materials and full references to all outside resources used in teaching the modules. Samples of…

  7. Project EFFECT. Energy for the Future: Education, Conservation, Training. Curriculum Guide for the Training of Energy Extension Agents. A Working Paper, Section III: Energy Audit Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., South Bend. Center for Energy Conservation.

    This third of four sections in a curriculum guide for training energy extension agents contains general introductory materials, an overview of the total curriculum, and four modules: Energy Cost Calculations, Energy Use Survey: Procedure and Techniques, Field Observations (Practicum), and Energy Use Surveys (Practicum). The curriculum is designed…

  8. Project EFFECT. Energy for the Future: Education, Conservation, Training. Curriculum Guide for the Training of Energy Extension Agents. A Working Paper, Section 1: General Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., South Bend. Center for Energy Conservation.

    This first of four sections in a curriculum guide for training energy extension agents contains general introductory materials, an overview of the total curriculum, and four modules: Orientation, Mathematics Review, Basic Writing, and Energy Overview. The curriculum is designed for adults with at least eighth grade reading and math skills but…

  9. Project EFFECT. Energy for the Future: Education, Conservation, Training. Curriculum Guide for the Training of Energy Extension Agents. A Working Paper, Section IV: Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., South Bend. Center for Energy Conservation.

    This fourth of four sections in a curriculum guide for training energy extension agents contains general introductory materials, an overview of the total curriculum, and five modules: Regional Demography, State and Local Government, Community Education, Neighborhood Workshops (Practicum), and Miscellaneous Activities (Practicum)--Placement,…

  10. An Assessment of Agriculture and Natural Resource Extension Program Needs on American Indian Reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Hill, George

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a needs assessment involving American Indians and outreach professionals on reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. The survey featured 36 questions about agricultural and natural resource issues that may pose challenges on reservation lands. A comparison between reservation residents and…

  11. Extension Specialist Roles in Communities of Interest and Place: An Example from the Agriculture-Wildlife Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Eileen M.

    2010-01-01

    The role of land-grant university Extension specialist originates in a community of place, enters into communities of interest to leverage resources or partnership opportunities, and returns to the local level with more effective outcomes than possible by operating solely within the community of place. A case study describes synergistic specialist…

  12. Demand for Agricultural Extension Services among Small-Scale Maize Farmers: Micro-Level Evidence from Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gido, Eric O.; Sibiko, Kenneth W.; Ayuya, Oscar I.; Mwangi, Joseph K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine the level and determinants of demand for extension services among small-scale maize farmers in Kenya. Design/methodology/approach: Based on an exploratory research design, primary data were collected from a sample of 352 households through face-to-face interviews. Focus group discussions were…

  13. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  14. 2015 Review on the Extension of the AMedP-8(C) Methodology to New Agents, Materials, and Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Defense Planning & Response Project,” for the Joint Staff, Joint Requirements Office (JRO) for Chemical , Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN...Treaty Organization (NATO) planning guide documenting a methodology to estimate casualties from chemical , biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN...March 2011, included the parameters to estimate casualties caused by three chemical agents, five biological agents, seven radioisotopes, nuclear

  15. Comparison of Metals and Tetracycline as Selective Agents for Development of Tetracycline Resistant Bacterial Communities in Agricultural Soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianxiao; Rensing, Christopher; Holm, Peter E; Virta, Marko; Brandt, Kristian K

    2017-03-07

    Environmental selection of antibiotic resistance may be caused by either antibiotic residues or coselecting agents. Using a strictly controlled experimental design, we compared the ability of metals (Cu or Zn) and tetracycline to (co)select for tetracycline resistance in bacterial communities. Soil microcosms were established by amending agricultural soil with known levels of Cu, Zn, or tetracycline known to represent commonly used metals and antibiotics for pig farming. Soil bacterial growth dynamics and bacterial community-level tetracycline resistance were determined using the [(3)H]leucine incorporation technique, whereas soil Cu, Zn, and tetracycline exposure were quantified by a panel of whole-cell bacterial bioreporters. Tetracycline resistance increased significantly in soils containing environmentally relevant levels of Cu (≥365 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (≥264 mg kg(-1)) but not in soil spiked with unrealistically high levels of tetracycline (up to 100 mg kg(-1)). These observations were consistent with bioreporter data showing that metals remained bioavailable, whereas tetracycline was only transiently bioavailable. Community-level tetracycline resistance was correlated to the initial toxicant-induced inhibition of bacterial growth. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that toxic metals in some cases may exert a stronger selection pressure for environmental selection of resistance to an antibiotic than the specific antibiotic itself.

  16. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists.

  17. Applying an agent-based model of agricultural terraces coupled with a landscape evolution model to explore the impact of human decision-making on terraced terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaubius, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural terraces impact landscape evolution as a result of long-term human-landscape interactions, including decisions regarding terrace maintenance and abandonment. Modeling simulations are often employed to examine the sensitivity of landscapes to various factors, such as rainfall and land cover. Landscape evolution models, erosion models, and hydrological models have all previously been used to simulate the impact of agricultural terrace construction on terrain evolution, soil erosion, and hydrological connectivity. Human choices regarding individual terraces have not been included in these models to this point, despite recent recognition that maintenance and abandonment decisions alter transport and storage patterns of soil and water in terraced terrain. An agent-based model of human decisions related to agricultural terraces is implemented based on a conceptual model of agricultural terrace life cycle stages created from a literature review of terracing impacts. The agricultural terracing agent-based model is then coupled with a landscape evolution model to explore the role of human decisions in the evolution of terraced landscapes. To fully explore this type of co-evolved landscape, human decision-making and its feedbacks must be included in landscape evolution models. Project results may also have implications for management of terraced terrain based on how human choices in these environments affect soil loss and land degradation.

  18. 2010 Review on the Extension of the AMedP-8(C) Methodology to New Agents, Materials, and Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    pneumonic plague, smallpox, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE)). D. Human Response Injury Profile (HRIP) Parameters The HRIP methodology...would be a significantly different response due to the use of antibiotics (as chemoprophylaxis) or immunizations, and a separate set of prophylaxis...vaccination protocols or existing vaccination research programs and for bacterial agents that respond to antibiotics . E. The 2009 Report and

  19. Predictable and tunable half-life extension of therapeutic agents by controlled chemical release from macromolecular conjugates.

    PubMed

    Santi, Daniel V; Schneider, Eric L; Reid, Ralph; Robinson, Louise; Ashley, Gary W

    2012-04-17

    Conjugation to macromolecular carriers is a proven strategy for improving the pharmacokinetics of drugs, with many stable polyethylene glycol conjugates having reached the market. Stable conjugates suffer several limitations: loss of drug potency due to conjugation, confining the drug to the extracellular space, and the requirement for a circulating conjugate. Current research is directed toward overcoming such limitations through releasable conjugates in which the drug is covalently linked to the carrier through a cleavable linker. Satisfactory linkers that provide predictable cleavage rates tunable over a wide time range that are useful for both circulating and noncirculating conjugates are not yet available. We describe such conjugation linkers on the basis of a nonenzymatic β-elimination reaction with preprogrammed, highly tunable cleavage rates. A set of modular linkers is described that bears a succinimidyl carbonate group for attachment to an amine-containing drug or prodrug, an azido group for conjugation to the carrier, and a tunable modulator that controls the rate of β-eliminative cleavage. The linkers provide predictable, tunable release rates of ligands from macromolecular conjugates both in vitro and in vivo, with half-lives spanning from a range of hours to >1 y at physiological pH. A circulating PEG conjugate achieved a 56-fold half-life extension of the 39-aa peptide exenatide in rats, and a noncirculating s.c. hydrogel conjugate achieved a 150-fold extension. Using slow-cleaving linkers, the latter may provide a generic format for once-a-month dosage forms of potent drugs. The releasable linkers provide additional benefits that include lowering C(max) and pharmacokinetic coordination of drug combinations.

  20. Estimates of pesticide concentrations and fluxes in two rivers of an extensive French multi-agricultural watershed: application of the passive sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Poulier, Gaëlle; Lissalde, Sophie; Charriau, Adeline; Buzier, Rémy; Cleries, Karine; Delmas, François; Mazzella, Nicolas; Guibaud, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the passive sampling strategy was evaluated for its ability to improve water quality monitoring in terms of concentrations and frequencies of quantification of pesticides, with a focus on flux calculation. Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were successively exposed and renewed at three sampling sites of an extensive French multi-agricultural watershed from January to September 2012. Grab water samples were recovered every 14 days during the same period and an automated sampler collected composite water samples from April to July 2012. Thirty-nine compounds (pesticides and metabolites) were analysed. DEA, diuron and atrazine (banned in France for many years) likely arrived via groundwater whereas dimethanamid, imidacloprid and acetochlor (all still in use) were probably transported via leaching. The comparison of the three sampling strategies showed that the POCIS offers lower detection limits, resulting in the quantification of trace levels of compounds (acetochlor, diuron and desethylatrazine (DEA)) that could not be measured in grab and composite water samples. As a consequence, the frequencies of occurrence were dramatically enhanced with the POCIS compared to spot sample data. Moreover, the integration of flood events led to a better temporal representation of the fluxes when calculated with the POCIS compared to the bimonthly grab sampling strategy. We conclude that the POCIS could be an advantageous alternative to spot sampling, offering better performance in terms of quantification limits and more representative data.

  1. Whole-Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas xanthomarina Strain UASWS0955, a Potential Biological Agent for Agricultural and Environmental Uses

    PubMed Central

    Crovadore, Julien; Cochard, Bastien; Calmin, Gautier; Chablais, Romain; Schulz, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    We report here the whole-genome shotgun sequence of the strain UASWS0955 of the species Pseudomonas xanthomarina, isolated from sewage sludge. This genome was obtained with an Illumina MiniSeq and is the second genome registered for this species, which is considered as a promising resource for agriculture and bioremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:27738044

  2. Contribution of biocontrol agents to sustainable agriculture: do insights from microbiome research and BCA “omics” pay off

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By the year 2050 there will be 9 to 11 billion people on earth to feed using the same amount or less land and water as is currently available for agricultural production. The United Nations estimated that global food production will need to increase by 70% by 2050. Currently, about one-third of all ...

  3. Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole-based agents active against tuberculosis (TB), multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Marco; Tipparaju, Suresh K; Lun, Shichun; Song, Yang; Sturm, A Willem; Bishai, William R; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2011-02-07

    The struggle against tuberculosis (TB) is still far from over. TB, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the deadliest infections worldwide. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) strains have further increased the burden for this disease. Herein, we report the discovery of 2-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-methyl-1-oxo-1H,5H-pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole-4-carbonitrile as an effective antitubercular agent and the structural modifications of this molecule that have led to analogues with improved potency and lower toxicity. A number of these derivatives were also active at sub-micromolar concentrations against resistant TB strains and devoid of apparent toxicity to Vero cells, thereby underscoring their value as novel scaffolds for the development of new anti-TB drugs.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis in Agent-Based Models of Socio-Ecological Systems: An Example in Agricultural Land Conservation for Lake Water Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligmann-Zielinska, A.; Kramer, D. B.; Spence Cheruvelil, K.; Soranno, P.

    2012-12-01

    Socio-ecological systems are dynamic and nonlinear. To account for this complexity, we employ agent-based models (ABMs) to study macro-scale phenomena resulting from micro-scale interactions among system components. Because ABMs typically have many parameters, it is challenging to identify which parameters contribute to the emerging macro-scale patterns. In this paper, we address the following question: What is the extent of participation in agricultural land conservation programs given heterogeneous landscape, economic, social, and individual decision making criteria in complex lakesheds? To answer this question, we: [1] built an ABM for our model system; [2] simulated land use change resulting from agent decision making, [3] estimated the uncertainty of the model output, decomposed it and apportioned it to each of the parameters in the model. Our model system is a freshwater socio-ecological system - that of farmland and lake water quality within a region containing a large number of lakes and high proportions of agricultural lands. Our study focuses on examining how agricultural land conversion from active to fallow reduces freshwater nutrient loading and improves water quality. Consequently, our ABM is composed of farmer agents who make decisions related to participation in a government-sponsored Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) managed by the Farm Service Agency (FSA). We also include an FSA agent, who selects enrollment offers made by farmers and announces the signup results leading to land use change. The model is executed in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to generate a distribution of maps of fallow lands that are used for calculating nutrient loading to lakes. What follows is a variance-based sensitivity analysis of the results. We compute sensitivity indices for individual parameters and their combinations, allowing for identification of the most influential as well as the insignificant inputs. In the case study, we observe that farmland

  5. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater and sediments and mineralogy of sediments and grain coatings underlying the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle; Boehlke, Adam R.; Fishman, Neil S.; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected from June through October 2007 from seven plots at the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, and analyzed for a suite of pesticides (including fungicides) and other physical and chemical parameters (including sediment mineralogy) by the U.S. Geological Survey. Plots were selected for inclusion in this study on the basis of the crops grown and the pesticides used. Forty-one pesticides were detected in 14 water samples; these include 5 fungicides, 13 herbicides, 1 insecticide, and 22 pesticide degradates. The following pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in 50 percent or more of the groundwater samples: 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil, alachlor sulfonic acid, metolachlor oxanilic acid, metolachlor sulfonic acid, metalaxyl, and simazine. Dissolved-pesticide concentrations ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 36 micrograms per liter (for metolachlor sulfonic acid, a degradate of the herbicide metolachlor). The total number of pesticides found in groundwater samples ranged from 0 to 29. Fourteen pesticides were detected in sediment samples from continuous cores collected within each of the seven sampled plots; these include 4 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 7 pesticide degradates. Pesticide concentrations in sediment samples ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 34.2 nanograms per gram (for azoxystrobin). The total number of pesticides found in sediment samples ranged from 0 to 8. Quantitative whole-rock and grain-coating mineralogy of sediment samples were determined by x-ray diffraction. Whole-rock analysis indicated that sediments were predominantly composed of quartz. The materials coating the quartz grains were removed to allow quantification of the trace mineral phases present.

  6. The Evaluation of Federal Programs in Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Resource Conservation, Research, and Forestry of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session (March 27, May 14, July 17, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    Three House of Representatives' subcommittee hearings were held in March, May, and July 1996 to evaluate the goals, priority setting, and advisory mechanisms of federal programs in agricultural research, education, and extension. To become competitive in global markets, farmers will need to rely on the research community to provide up-to-date…

  7. Citric acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as effective washing agents to treat sewage sludge for agricultural reuse.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianghao; Yan, Rui; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Kou, Ying-Ying; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S; Park, Yong-Jin; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the effects of different concentrations of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) when used as additive reagents for the treatment of sewage sludge for agricultural use. Herein, both the retention of nutrients and removal of metals from the sewage sludge are examined. The average removal rate for the metals after treatment by CA decreased in the order Cu>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn, while the rates after treatment by EDTA decreased in the order of Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Zn. After treatment with CA and EDTA, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the sludge decreased, while the content of available nitrogen and Olsen-P increased. In addition, a multi-criteria analysis model-fuzzy analytic network process method (with 3 main factors and 12 assessment sub-factors) was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment methods. The results showed that the optimal CA and EDTA concentrations for sewage sludge treatment were 0.60 and 0.125 mol/L, respectively.

  8. Production of L-asparaginase, an anticancer agent, from Aspergillus niger using agricultural waste in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abha

    2006-10-01

    This article reports the production of high levels of L-asparaginase from a new isolate of Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation (SSF) using agro-wastes from three leguminous crops (bran of Cajanus cajan, Phaseolus mungo, and Glycine max). When used as the sole source for growth in SSF, bran of G. max showed maximum enzyme production followed by that of P. mungo and C. cajan. A 96-h fermentation time under aerobic condition with moisture content of 70%, 30 min of cooking time and 1205-1405 micro range of particle size in SSF appeared optimal for enzyme production. Enzyme yield was maximum (40.9 +/- 3.35 U/g of dry substrate) at pH 6.5 and temperature 30 +/- 2 degrees C. The optimum temperature and pH for enzyme activity were 40 degrees C and 6.5, respectively. The study suggests that choosing an appropriate substrate when coupled with process level optimization improves enzyme production markedly. Developing an asparaginase production process based on bran of G. max as a substrate in SSF is economically attractive as it is a cheap and readily available raw material in agriculture-based countries.

  9. Identifying green infrastructure BMPs for reducing nitrogen export to a Chesapeake Bay agricultural stream: model synthesis and extension of experimental data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods The effectiveness of riparian forest buffers and other green infrastructure for reducing nitrogen export to agricultural streams has been well described experimentally, but a clear understanding of process-level hydrological and biogeochemical control...

  10. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  11. Lake Urmia (Iran): can future socio-ecologically motivated river basin management restore lake water levels in an arid region with extensive agricultural development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazel, Nasim; Berndtsson, Ronny; Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Klove, Bjorn; Madani, Kaveh

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest hyper saline lakes located in northwest of Iran, is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and Ramsar site, protected as a national park and, supports invaluable and unique biodiversity and related ecosystem services for the region's 6.5 million inhabitants. Due to increased development of the region's water resources for agriculture and industry and to a certain extent climate change, the lake has started to shrink dramatically since 1995 and now is holding less than 30 percent of its volume. Rapid development in agricultural sector and land-use changes has resulted in immense construction of dams and water diversions in almost all lake feeding rivers, intensifying lake shrinking, increasing salinity and degrading its ecosystem. Recently, lake's cultural and environmental importance and social pressure has raised concerns and brought government attention to the lake restoration plans. Along with poor management, low yield agriculture as the most water consuming activity in the region with, rapid, insufficient development is one of the most influential drivers in the lake desiccation. Part of the lake restoration plans in agricultural sector is to restrict the agricultural areas in the main feeding river basins flowing mostly in the southern part of the lake and decreasing the agricultural water use in this area. This study assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed plans and its influence on the lake level rise and its impacts on economy in the region using a system dynamics model developed for the Lake consist of hydrological and agro-economical sub-systems. The effect of decrease in agricultural area in the region on GDP and region economy was evaluated and compared with released water contribution in lake level rise for a five year simulation period.

  12. A Theoretical Model to Improve the Extension Education Outreach of the Ohio State University; Utilizing Marketing, Behavioral, Business, Management, and Systems Concepts. Research Series in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James R.; McCormick, Robert W.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical organization model to improve the total extension outreach of The Ohio State University. Using literature review, experience, observation, interview techniques and a systems analysis approach, micro models of rural, urban, and metro county offices and a macro model of the extension service…

  13. Getting Acquainted: An Induction Training Guide for First-Year Extension Agents. Suggestions for Completing Certain Learning Experiences Included in the Induction Training Guide; a Supplement to "Getting Acquainted."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collings, Mary Louise; Gassie, Edward W.

    An induction guide to help the extension agent get acquainted with his role and suggestions for completing learning experiences that are included in the guide comprise this two-part publication. The training guide learning experiences, a total of 25, are made up of: Objectives of the New Worker; When Completed; Learning Experiences; Person(s)…

  14. Appropriateness of Recommended Agricultural Water-Management Technologies as Perceived by the Personnel of Research and Extension System: A Study in the Eastern Region of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Souvik; Verma, H. N.; Chandra, Dinesh; Nanda, P.

    2005-01-01

    The key to agricultural development in the eastern region of India, where problems of excess water and water scarcity coexist, is the scientific management of water resources with the adoption of recommended water-management technologies. A vast networking of infrastructure for the development and dissemination of water-management technologies…

  15. Priorities for Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, J. A.

    Agricultural extension is one component in an array including research, training, education, marketing, international trade, etc. which develop together to bring about growth, and sustained growth determines the priorities for extension. These priorities depend inevitably on the stage of development of a country or region, and on the current…

  16. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  17. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  18. A Summary of Proceedings and Participant Recommendations from a National Workshop on Institutionalizing Progress in Agricultural Extension and Education in Taiwan (Taichung, Taiwan, April 22-24, 1991) = Cejin Wo Guo Nongye Tuiguang Jiaoyu Xin Tizhi Yantaohui Zhuanji. Zhonghua Minguao Bashi Nian Siyue 22 zhi 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Taipei (Taiwan).

    These proceedings contain four presentations from a workshop at which leaders in agriculture and education contributed suggestions for developing policies and plans for the new Agricultural Extension Education Graduate Institute (AEEGI) in Taiwan. Introductory materials include a list of members of the planning committee, workshop rationale,…

  19. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's Urban…

  20. Building an Extension Network in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poussard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural extension in Vietnam is in transition as the economy moves to a market orientation. The national extension service created in 1993 is constrained by lack of funding, staff, and access to current extension knowledge. (SK)

  1. Levels and patterns of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils in an area of extensive historical cotton cultivation in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Wu, Chunfa; Liu, Wuxing; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Guo, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have attracted widespread concern because of their environmental persistence and toxicity. The historical influence of different agricultural land use types on soil concentrations of OCP residues was investigated by collecting a total of 52 surface soil samples from long-term cotton fields and fields with other crops in Lvdian township, Henan province, eastern central China. The concentration, composition, and possible sources of 16 OCPs were determined and a health risk assessment of these soils was conducted. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, chlordane, and dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane plus its main metabolites (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs with concentrations of 2.9-56.4 ng g(-1), 4.3-14.0 ng g(-1), 18.0-1254.4 ng g(-1), and below detection limit (BDL) -206.1 ng g(-1), respectively. Analysis of variance of p,p-DDE shows significant (P < 0.05) differences while other OCPs show no significant differences between historical cotton fields and fields containing other crops. Compositional analysis suggests that the HCH is derived mainly from the use of lindane and that there are recent inputs. Analysis of variance and compositional analysis indicate that the p,p-DDE in surface soil from long-term cotton fields is derived mainly from the aerobic biodegradation of historical residues. The sum of carcinogenic risk values of OCPs for soil samples were found to be 1.58 × 10(-6), posing a low cancer risk to the inhabitants of the region studied.

  2. Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho® compared with other supposed causal factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxim, L.; van der Sluijs, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role played by the insecticide Gaucho®, compared with other supposed causal factors, in the substantial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) losses reported to have occurred in France between 1994 and 2004. The method makes use of expert elicitation of the perceived strength of evidence regarding each of Bradford Hill's causality criteria, as regards the link between each of eight possible causal factors identified in attempts to explain each of five signs observed in honeybee colonies. These judgments are elicited from stakeholders and experts involved in the debate, i.e., representatives of Bayer Cropscience, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the French Food Safety Authority, of beekeepers and of public scientists. We show that the intense controversy observed in confused and passionate public discourses is much less salient when the various arguments are structured using causation criteria. The contradictions between the different expert views have a triple origin: (1) the lack of shared definition and quantification of the signs observed in colonies; (2) the lack of specialist knowledge on honeybees; and (3) the strategic discursive practices associated with the lack of trust between experts representing stakeholders having diverging stakes in the case.

  3. Polysaccharide-thickened aqueous fluoride solutions for rapid destruction of the nerve agent VX. Introducing the opportunity for extensive decontamination scenarios.

    PubMed

    Elias, Shlomi; Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay; Zafrani, Yossi

    2014-01-01

    Among the chemical warfare agents, the extremely toxic nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is a target of high importance in the development of decontamination methods, due to its indefinite persistence on common environmental surfaces. Liquid decontaminants are mostly characterized by high corrosivity, usually offer poor coverage, and tend to flow and accumulate in low areas. Therefore, the development of a noncorrosive decontaminant, sufficiently viscous to resist dripping from the contaminated surface, is necessary. In the present paper we studied different polysaccharides-thickened fluoride aqueous solutions as noncorrosive decontaminants for rapid and efficient VX degradation to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid). Polysaccharides are environmentally benign, natural, and inexpensive. Other known decontaminants cannot be thickened by polysaccharides, due to the sensitivity of the latter toward basic or oxidizing agents. We found that the efficiency of VX degradation in these viscous solutions in terms of kinetics and product identity is similar to that of KF aqueous solutions. Guar gum (1.5 wt %) with 4 wt % KF was chosen for further evaluation. The benign nature, rheological properties, adhering capabilities to different surfaces, and decontamination from a porous matrix were examined. This formulation showed promising properties for implementation as a spray decontaminant for common and sensitive environmental surfaces.

  4. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  5. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  6. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  7. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  8. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  9. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  10. 7 CFR 916.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 916.68 Section 916.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 916.68 Agents. The Secretary may, by designation in...

  11. 7 CFR 915.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 915.68 Section 915.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.68 Agents. The Secretary may, by designation in...

  12. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  13. Extension through Partnerships: Research and Education Center Teams with County Extension to Deliver Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullahey, J. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Budget reductions have severely affected resources available to deliver agriculture and natural resource Extension programs in Florida. University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences delivers Extension programming through a unique partnership between research and education centers and county Extension. Science-based information…

  14. General University Extension. Bulletin, 1926, No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Thomas H.

    1926-01-01

    This report concerns itself with the growth and progress of "general" university extension for the biennial period 1922-1924. By general university extension is meant extension activities of universities and colleges in the fields not covered by agricultural and home economics extension under the Federal subsidy acts through the Federal land-grant…

  15. 7 CFR 929.73 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 929.73 Section 929.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF...

  16. 7 CFR 929.73 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 929.73 Section 929.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF...

  17. 7 CFR 929.73 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 929.73 Section 929.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF...

  18. 7 CFR 929.73 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 929.73 Section 929.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF...

  19. 7 CFR 929.73 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 929.73 Section 929.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF...

  20. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  1. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  2. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  3. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  4. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  5. 7 CFR 922.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 922.68 Section 922.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  6. 7 CFR 922.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 922.68 Section 922.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  7. 7 CFR 922.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 922.68 Section 922.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  8. 7 CFR 922.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 922.68 Section 922.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  9. 7 CFR 922.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 922.68 Section 922.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  10. 7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 983.86 Section 983.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA,...

  11. 7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 983.86 Section 983.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA,...

  12. 7 CFR 955.83 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 955.83 Section 955.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 955.83 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 955.83 Section 955.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 955.83 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 955.83 Section 955.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 955.83 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 955.83 Section 955.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 955.83 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 955.83 Section 955.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 983.86 Section 983.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA,...

  18. 7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 983.86 Section 983.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA,...

  19. 7 CFR 983.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 983.86 Section 983.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA,...

  20. 7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 932.72 Section 932.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  1. 7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 932.72 Section 932.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  2. 7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 932.72 Section 932.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  3. 7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 932.72 Section 932.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  4. 7 CFR 932.72 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 932.72 Section 932.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  5. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 984.88 Section 984.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  6. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 984.88 Section 984.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  7. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 984.88 Section 984.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  8. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 984.88 Section 984.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  9. 7 CFR 984.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 984.88 Section 984.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  10. 7 CFR 966.88 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 966.88 Section 966.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  11. 7 CFR 930.87 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 930.87 Section 930.87 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  12. 7 CFR 923.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 923.68 Section 923.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  13. 7 CFR 923.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 923.68 Section 923.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  14. 7 CFR 923.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 923.68 Section 923.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  15. 7 CFR 923.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 923.68 Section 923.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  16. 7 CFR 923.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 923.68 Section 923.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  17. 7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 920.67 Section 920.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  18. 7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 920.67 Section 920.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  19. 7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 920.67 Section 920.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  20. 7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 920.67 Section 920.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  1. 7 CFR 920.67 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 920.67 Section 920.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  2. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 982.85 Section 982.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  3. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 982.85 Section 982.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  4. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 982.85 Section 982.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  5. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 982.85 Section 982.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  6. 7 CFR 982.85 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 982.85 Section 982.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  7. 7 CFR 917.66 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 917.66 Section 917.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  8. 7 CFR 917.66 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 917.66 Section 917.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  9. 7 CFR 917.66 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 917.66 Section 917.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  10. 7 CFR 917.66 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 917.66 Section 917.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  11. 7 CFR 917.66 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 917.66 Section 917.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  12. 7 CFR 47.25 - Filing; extensions of time; effective date of filing; computations of time; official notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES RULES OF PRACTICE UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT Rules Applicable to Reparation Proceedings § 47.25 Filing; extensions of...

  13. Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerholz, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

  14. 75 FR 5940 - Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this notice announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  15. 75 FR 23217 - Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this notice announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  16. USSR Report, Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-04

    exists beyond the Urals. Extensive flooding is expected here on the Lower Tunguska . Spring upper levels will be surpassed on the rivers of...extraordinary event . Allow me to cite an example involving another oblast and another branch of agriculture. In 1982, 55 farms in Orel Oblast obtained

  17. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  18. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  19. 7 CFR 1.16 - Extension of administrative deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension of administrative deadlines. 1.16 Section 1.16 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.16 Extension of administrative deadlines. (a) In unusual circumstances as specified in this...

  20. 7 CFR 1.16 - Extension of administrative deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension of administrative deadlines. 1.16 Section 1.16 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.16 Extension of administrative deadlines. (a) In unusual circumstances as specified in this...

  1. University Land-Grant Extension and Resistance to Inclusive Epistemologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.; Mueller, M. Kalehua

    2016-01-01

    Public land-grant universities have historically engaged with the public through knowledge extension in the agricultural sciences, which later grew into other forms of outreach. Given the important mission of land-grant institutions to positively impact agricultural sciences, this inquiry focuses on the role of agricultural extension and the…

  2. 7 CFR 924.68 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 924.68 Section 924.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 924.68...

  3. Prospectus for a Cooperative Extension System in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews lessons learned from the agricultural extension model that may apply to the proposed cooperative extension service in education. The agricultural extension model is a user-oriented system linking knowledge producers with other knowledge users. In education, the adopters of innovations may be organizations as well as…

  4. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  5. 7 CFR 1735.45 - Extension of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension of payments. 1735.45 Section 1735.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of...

  6. 7 CFR 1735.45 - Extension of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension of payments. 1735.45 Section 1735.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of...

  7. 7 CFR 1735.45 - Extension of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension of payments. 1735.45 Section 1735.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of...

  8. 7 CFR 1735.45 - Extension of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension of payments. 1735.45 Section 1735.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of...

  9. Extension Agricola (Agricultral Extension). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual No. M-39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Michael J.; Schroeder, Richard

    This Spanish-language manual, developed for training Peace Corps volunteers for service in Spanish-speaking developing countries, explains the process of agricultural extension and provides practical guidance on carrying out an extension program. The first of six chapters explains what agricultural extension is and how it is used in the Peace…

  10. Programmable Calculators and Minicomputers in Agriculture. A Symposium Exploring Computerized Decision-Making Aids and Their Extension to the Farm Level. Proceedings of a Symposium (Hot Springs, Arkansas, February 6-7, 1980)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Ernest, Ed.

    Ten papers presented at a symposium discuss the array of computerized decision-making aids currently available to farmers and ways to speed up the rate of adoption of computers by agriculturalists. Topics presented include the development of software for agricultural decision-making; the role of programmable calculators and minicomputers in…

  11. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  13. 76 FR 25663 - Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision to a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision to a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this notice announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  14. 75 FR 43915 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service... of 1995, this notice announces the intention of the National Agricultural Statistics Service...

  15. 78 FR 56208 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, Department of Agriculture..., this notice announces the intention of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to...

  16. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  17. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  18. 78 FR 38913 - National Organic Program: Request for an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service National Organic Program: Request for an Extension of a Currently Approved... extension of the currently approved information collection National Organic Program (NOP) Reporting and... Toni Strother, Agricultural Marketing Specialist, National Organic Program, AMS/USDA, 1400...

  19. 7 CFR 205.665 - Noncompliance procedure for certifying agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noncompliance procedure for certifying agents. 205.665 Section 205.665 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. 7 CFR 205.665 - Noncompliance procedure for certifying agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noncompliance procedure for certifying agents. 205.665 Section 205.665 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. 7 CFR 205.665 - Noncompliance procedure for certifying agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noncompliance procedure for certifying agents. 205.665 Section 205.665 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. 7 CFR 205.665 - Noncompliance procedure for certifying agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noncompliance procedure for certifying agents. 205.665 Section 205.665 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 7 CFR 205.665 - Noncompliance procedure for certifying agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noncompliance procedure for certifying agents. 205.665 Section 205.665 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. Removing the Tension from Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Bardon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Job burnout and stress begin with day-to-day frustrations, roadblocks, and unmet expectations. These can transform job satisfaction and, ultimately, career choices, affecting the quality of programs, expense to universities, and relationships with the community. A series of innovative statewide workshops involving 97 agents and Extension directors…

  5. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  6. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  7. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  8. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  9. 78 FR 23737 - Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for Commodities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for Commodities Covered by the Livestock Mandatory Act of 1999 AGENCY: Agricultural...

  10. 76 FR 48796 - Plan for Estimating Daily Livestock Slaughter Under Federal Inspection; Request for Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plan for Estimating Daily Livestock Slaughter Under Federal Inspection; Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  11. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  12. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial markets..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs... or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service Debentures...

  13. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial markets..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs... or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service Debentures...

  14. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  15. 1890 Institutions' Extension Program and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adell, Jr.

    The extension role of Tuskegee Institute and the 16 black land grant colleges established by the Morrill Act of 1890 has been to diffuse among the non-university citizens of America useful and practical information on agriculture, home economics, and related areas. Tuskegee's extension efforts began in 1880 and flourished under the leadership of…

  16. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  17. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-08-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.

  18. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  19. Policing Mechanisms in Agricultural Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Steven; Hueth, Brent; Ligon, Ethan

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on mechanisms of coordination in agricultural contracts. Our approach is intended to advance understanding of social relations of production and distribution of power in agrofood systems. Through an analysis of contracts between farmers and intermediaries (e.g., processors, shippers, consignment agents) for California fruits…

  20. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides during service and have Parkinson’s disease? You may ...

  1. Agricultural Issues of Significance to Iowa Crop Producers and Their Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licht, Melea A. R.; Martin, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the agricultural information preferences of crop producers in Iowa and the implications for agricultural extension education. The objective was to identify agricultural information issues producers perceive as significant to their businesses. The results will help agricultural extension educators and…

  2. 7 CFR 400.405 - Agent and loss adjuster responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agent and loss adjuster responsibilities. 400.405 Section 400.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS General...

  3. 7 CFR 400.405 - Agent and loss adjuster responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agent and loss adjuster responsibilities. 400.405 Section 400.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS General...

  4. 7 CFR 400.405 - Agent and loss adjuster responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agent and loss adjuster responsibilities. 400.405 Section 400.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS General...

  5. 7 CFR 400.405 - Agent and loss adjuster responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agent and loss adjuster responsibilities. 400.405 Section 400.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS General...

  6. 7 CFR 400.405 - Agent and loss adjuster responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agent and loss adjuster responsibilities. 400.405 Section 400.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS General...

  7. 75 FR 35437 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... announces the intention of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to request revision...

  8. 77 FR 68732 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... announces the intention of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to request revision...

  9. 77 FR 68732 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... announces the intention the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to request revision...

  10. 77 FR 75120 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... announces the intention of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to request revision...

  11. 75 FR 61692 - Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for Pistachios AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request...

  12. 78 FR 23885 - Federal Seed Act Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Federal Seed Act Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for comments... announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request approval, from the Office...

  13. 78 FR 52127 - Tobacco Inspection and Grading Services: Notice of Request for an Extension of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Tobacco Inspection and Grading Services: Notice of Request for an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this notice announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  14. 78 FR 10596 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... announces the intention of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to request revision...

  15. 77 FR 40323 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... announces the intention of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to request revision...

  16. 77 FR 47029 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... announces the intention of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to request revision...

  17. Plant Scientists and the Productivity Effects of Extension Appointments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Jeremy D.; Gee, Vanity K.; Barham, Bradford L.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the primary scholarship activities of agricultural college plant science faculty with and without Extension appointments using survey data from all 1862 land-grant institutions. The evidence suggests that differences between Extension professors and others without Extension appointments are small for minor Extension…

  18. 1970-1971 Annual Report: Extension Service Program, Silliman University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maturan, Eulalio G.

    The 1970-1971 annual report of the Extension Service Program of Silliman University, Dumaguete City, Philippines, treats the following projects: Mabinay Agricultural Extension, Mabinay Negrito Action-Research, Reforestation, and Livestock Dispersal. Also discussed are the Rural Publications Center and other extension services--a radio program,…

  19. Communication for extension: developing country experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A J

    1985-01-01

    This paper characterizes several major approaches to the use of communication in support of agricultural extension and suggests directions for change. The approaches discussed include: direct farmer contact, farmer forums, open broadcasting, advertising and social marketing, print media, multiple channel systems (campaigns and distance teaching), and comprehensive communication systems. Although all programs should be able to use media in interaction with training and the coordination of other inputs, this approach has not been comprehensively implemented in extension programs. There are few examples of cases where multiple methods have been brought together under a comprehensive communications strategy and institutionalized as part of an ongoing extension system. Lessons from social marketing in other sectors have not been exploited, while lessons from distance teaching have been underutilized. In addition, the networking and feedback functions of communication in extenson have not been given adequate attention. There is substantial potential for increasing the coverage and impact of agricultural extension through the more systematic and comprehensive use of communication.

  20. Workplace Issues in Extension--A Delphi Study of Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael; Peutz, Joey

    2011-01-01

    Using the Delphi technique, expert Extension educators identified and prioritized those workplace issues they believe will be the most important to attract, motivate, and retain Extension educators/agents over the next 5 to 7 years. Obtaining and then utilizing a talented, highly motivated workforce during a period when many will be retiring will…

  1. SAF1. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y

    1997-06-01

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  2. Testing Extension Services through AKAP Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Rosa, Marcello; Bartoli, Luca; La Rocca, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyse the attitude of Italian farms in gaining access to agricultural extension services (AES). Design/methodology/approach: The ways Italian farms use AES are described through the AKAP (Awareness, Knowledge, Adoption, Product) sequence. This article investigated the AKAP sequence by submitting a…

  3. Best Practices for Extension Curricula Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Gayle; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Baker, Susan; Bowen, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Effective curricula are a cornerstone of successful Extension programming. The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Nutrition and Health Planning and Guidance Committee (NGPGC) developed a set of recommendations for a curriculum review system and created a curriculum review checklist. The checklist describes components of an effective…

  4. International Programming in the Cooperative Extension System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambur, Michael; And Others

    "Understanding World Agriculture" is a 3-year project (1984-1987) designed to mobilize resources of the Cooperative Extension Service (CES) to enhance citizen understanding of political, economic, technical, and social factors relating to world problems of hunger and poverty and to the stake of the United States in international…

  5. Extension Gets Help from "Master Gardeners"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Earl J.

    1973-01-01

    More than 150 citizens, after studying under Washington State University Extension personnel and passing an examination administered by the State Department of Agriculture, find satisfaction in spending a few hours a week during the growing season in areas of heavy public traffic to answer questions from backyard gardeners and urban homeowners.…

  6. Training for Agriculture: Annual Review of Selected Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    This review is a medium for dissemination of information and views on agricultural education and training, extension, and related subjects to the member governments and field workers of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The document consists of more than two dozen articles and comments on agricultural education,…

  7. Predictors of Job Satisfaction among Selected Agriculture Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foor, Ryan M.; Cano, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    The construct of job satisfaction is rooted in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory. The current study was conducted to ascertain the level of job satisfaction of faculty members specializing in agricultural communication, agricultural leadership, agricultural teacher education, and extension education and to…

  8. 7 CFR 1944.420 - Extension or revision of the grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Self-Help Technical Assistance... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Extension or revision of the grant agreement. 1944.420 Section 1944.420 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...

  9. 7 CFR 1944.420 - Extension or revision of the grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Self-Help Technical Assistance... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension or revision of the grant agreement. 1944.420 Section 1944.420 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  10. 7 CFR 1944.420 - Extension or revision of the grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Self-Help Technical Assistance... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Extension or revision of the grant agreement. 1944.420 Section 1944.420 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...

  11. 7 CFR 2.66 - Administrator, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... research, extension, and education to address food and agricultural sciences (7 U.S.C. 450i(b)). (8... the food and agricultural sciences to meet major needs and challenges in food and agricultural system... education in the food and agricultural sciences; administer grants to colleges and universities; maintain...

  12. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial...

  13. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial...

  14. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial...

  15. Agriculture of the American Indian--A Select Bibliography. Bibliographies of Agriculture No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Cecil L., Comp.

    Sixty percent of the crops used in today's diet were developed by the American Indians, whose extensive agricultural technology spanned two continents and some 7000 years. The subject matter of this partly annotated bibliography not only covers the agricultural contributions of the American Indian, but also discusses aspects of technology,…

  16. Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2013-08-01

    07/30/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Senate Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-433. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. 78 FR 79660 - Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 79660] [FR... on November 4, 2013 (78 FR 65960) is extended. We will consider all comments that we receive on or...: On November 4, 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 65960-65962, Docket No....

  18. Delivery strategies: RNA interference in agriculture and human health.

    PubMed

    Heidebrecht, Richard W

    2017-04-01

    Crop protection through expression of introduced insecticidal proteins is a well-established technique. Modifications of endogenous gene expression have also been used successfully to produce safe and effective agrochemical products. The existing gene expression regulatory apparatus can be employed to alter messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) stability in the host species through a ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) mechanism. Such solutions are currently delivered by incorporation of new genes into the host plant. Direct delivery of RNAi is being extensively explored in the clinic to treat selected human diseases and could be advantageous in agriculture. What are the unifying characteristics of successful delivery agents, and how can we project those observations into the future? © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. AgriSense-STARS: Advancing Methods of Agricultural Monitoring for Food Security in Smallholder Regions - the Case for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempewolf, J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nakalembe, C. L.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ntikha, O.; Hansen, M.; Justice, C. J.; Adusei, B.; Kongo, V.

    2015-12-01

    In-season monitoring of crop conditions provides critical information for agricultural policy and decision making and most importantly for food security planning and management. Nationwide agricultural monitoring in countries dominated by smallholder farming systems, generally relies on extensive networks of field data collectors. In Tanzania, extension agents make up this network and report on conditions across the country, approaching a "near-census". Data is collected on paper which is resource and time intensive, as well as prone to errors. Data quality is ambiguous and there is a general lack of clear and functional feedback loops between farmers, extension agents, analysts and decision makers. Moreover, the data are not spatially explicit, limiting the usefulness for analysis and quality of policy outcomes. Despite significant advances in remote sensing and information communication technologies (ICT) for monitoring agriculture, the full potential of these new tools is yet to be realized in Tanzania. Their use is constrained by the lack of resources, skills and infrastructure to access and process these data. The use of ICT technologies for data collection, processing and analysis is equally limited. The AgriSense-STARS project is developing and testing a system for national-scale in-season monitoring of smallholder agriculture using a combination of three main tools, 1) GLAM-East Africa, an automated MODIS satellite image processing system, 2) field data collection using GeoODK and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and 3) the Tanzania Crop Monitor, a collaborative online portal for data management and reporting. These tools are developed and applied in Tanzania through the National Food Security Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFC) within a statistically representative sampling framework (area frame) that ensures data quality, representability and resource efficiency.

  20. An Annotated Bibliography of Resources on Educational Linking Agents: Roles, Functions, and Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Rodney J., Comp.

    The resources cited in this selected annotated bibliography are intended for linking agents, trainers of linking agents, managers of linking agents and their support systems, and educational policy makers. These resources, which date from 1975 to the present, variously refer to linking agents, change agents, extension agents, field agents, field…

  1. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology.

  2. Antibiotic Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing ). Examples of this type are the alcohols, chlorine, peroxides, and aldehydes. The second group consists mostly ... viruses have some kind of antibacterial agent. Alcohols, chlorine and peroxides have been used for many decades ...

  3. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible Veterans a free Agent Orange Registry health exam for possible long-term health problems related to ...

  4. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  5. Vocational Agriculture Handbook for Agriculture Cooperative Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This handbook was designed to assist school administrators, vocational administrators, vocational agricultural teachers, and area consultants of vocational agriculture in developing, implementing, and improving an agricultural cooperative training program (especially in Texas). The handbook, which presents information in a narrative format,…

  6. Accountability in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Arlen E.; Swoboda, Donald W.

    1972-01-01

    Authors discuss the advantages of the EMIS/SEMIS (Extension Management Information System/State Extension Management Information System), point out some of its deficiencies, and suggest ways to strengthen and improve it. (Editor)

  7. 7 CFR 3201.99 - Water clarifying agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water clarifying agents. 3201.99 Section 3201.99... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.99 Water clarifying agents. (a) Definition. Products designed to clarify and...

  8. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  9. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  10. Creating Safe Spaces within Extension Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    Extension agents, educators, and specialists are challenged to find effective ways to ensure that our participants learn in program contexts that are inclusive and respectful of all people. In order to make our programs inclusive environments, it is important for us to be brave enough to disrupt statements that are demeaning and marginalize…

  11. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  12. How Clientele with Varying Education Levels View Extension Dissemination Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obahayujie, Julius O.; Hillison, John

    1987-01-01

    Studies the dissemination methods and clientele of agricultural extension in rural Virginia. Sample was 300 beef farmers. Identifies typical farmer characteristics. Farmers rate farm visits as beneficial, whereas they rated computer messages and cartoons low. Suggests favored extension methods change with clientele's education levels. Includes…

  13. Gender-Sensitive Approaches to Extension Programme Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafry, Tahseen; Sulaiman, V. Rasheed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Though women are engaged in farming and play a major role in almost every agricultural operation, they continue to receive very limited extension support. While several interventions have been made to address this "gender" bias in extension delivery, there continues to be a shortfall between the kind of support that is provided…

  14. Extension and the VET Sector: Time for Closer Alignment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Millar, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Extension (industry training) and VET (the formal Vocational Education and Training system), each vital to Australia's education and training for agriculture, have developed as separate domains. Recent research suggests that the potential of closer alignment should be further explored. Extension provides usually non-certified courses to primary…

  15. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  16. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  17. Theme: Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

  18. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  19. A Spatial Data Model Desing For The Management Of Agricultural Data (Farmer, Agricultural Land And Agricultural Production)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taşkanat, Talha; İbrahim İnan, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 2000s, it has been conducted many projects such as Agricultural Sector Integrated Management Information System, Agriculture Information System, Agricultural Production Registry System and Farmer Registry System by the Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock and the Turkish Statistical Institute in order to establish and manage better agricultural policy and produce better agricultural statistics in Turkey. Yet, it has not been carried out any study for the structuring of a system which can meet the requirements of different institutions and organizations that need similar agricultural data. It has been tried to meet required data only within the frame of the legal regulations from present systems. Whereas the developments in GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and standardization, and Turkey National GIS enterprise in this context necessitate to meet the demands of organizations that use the similar data commonly and to act in terms of a data model logic. In this study, 38 institutions or organization which produce and use agricultural data were detected, that and thanks to survey and interviews undertaken, their needs were tried to be determined. In this study which is financially supported by TUBITAK, it was worked out relationship between farmer, agricultural land and agricultural production data and all of the institutions and organizations in Turkey and in this context, it was worked upon the best detailed and effective possible data model. In the model design, UML which provides object-oriented design was used. In the data model, for the management of spatial data, sub-parcel data model was used. Thanks to this data model, declared and undeclared areas can be detected spatially, and thus declarations can be associated to sub-parcels. Within this framework, it will be able to developed agricultural policies as a result of acquiring more extensive, accurate, spatially manageable and easily updatable farmer and

  20. Mid-Career Extension Graduates' Perceptions of the Impact of a Demand-Driven, Extension Curriculum in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwarteng, Joseph A.; Boateng, Samuel Akuamoah

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing Africa today is ensuring that extension practitioners are well trained to enable them function effectively as facilitators of change at the farmers' level. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a mid-career B. Sc. Agricultural Extension Curriculum in meeting the educational needs of…

  1. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cooperative agricultural extension program relating to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to... challenges in food and agricultural system productivity; development of new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources; promotion of the health and welfare of people;...

  2. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cooperative agricultural extension program relating to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to... challenges in food and agricultural system productivity; development of new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources; promotion of the health and welfare of people;...

  3. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cooperative agricultural extension program relating to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to... challenges in food and agricultural system productivity; development of new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources; promotion of the health and welfare of people;...

  4. Torque-wrench extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Torque-wrench extension makes it easy to install and remove fasteners that are beyond reach of typical wrenches or are located in narrow spaces that prevent full travel of wrench handle. At same time, tool reads applied torque accurately. Wrench drive system, for torques up to 125 inch-pounds, uses 2 standard drive-socket extensions in aluminum frame. Extensions are connected to bevel gear that turns another bevel gear. Gears produce 1:1 turn ratio through 90 degree translation of axis of rotation. Output bevel has short extension that is used to attach 1/4-inch drive socket.

  5. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vendor ACH Signup UW-Extension Working For You Business and Entrepreneurship About Center for Technology Commercialization Small Business Development Centers Continuing and Online Education About Degree ...

  6. Half-life extension technologies for haemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-01-01

    The use of plasma-derived and recombinant coagulation factors for the treatment of haemophilia A and B is well established and permits patients to live a relatively normal life. In order to improve treatment options, several products are in development, which have a prolonged duration of action, thus enabling less frequent prophylactic dosing and aiming to reduce the burden of treatment. Several innovative approaches are being pursued to extend the half-life of factor VIIa, factor VIII and factor IX, utilising technologies such as Fc fusion, recombinant albumin fusion and addition of polyethyleneglycol (PEG) (PEGylation). These methods prolong the time in the circulation by reducing degradation and elimination. This review summarises the technologies and products in development and their stages of development, and also discusses their pros and cons.

  7. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  8. SUMMARIES OF RESEARCH STUDIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR THE PACIFIC REGION, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCOMAS, J.D.

    TWENTY DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS, STAFF STUDIES, AND MASTERS' THESES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION ARE REPORTED IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS -- AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES, CIVIL DEFENSE, COMMUNITY COLLEGES, CURRICULUM, EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION, DROPOUTS, EXTENSION EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES, JUNIOR COLLEGES, LAND LABORATORIES, OCCUPATIONAL…

  9. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  10. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  11. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2003-12-31

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  12. History of Extension Work in Virginia Prior to Smith-Lever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillison, John; Sutphin, Cathy M.

    1999-01-01

    Before the Smith-Lever Act of 1914, agricultural schools begun in 11 Virginia congressional districts in 1908 performed a great deal of extension work, such as agricultural demonstrations, youth activities, and home economics programs. This helped pave the way for formal extension programs established by the legislation. (SK)

  13. Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Jacob; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Webb, Edward L; Koh, Lian Pin; Pascual, Unai

    2013-05-07

    The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive "slash-and-burn" farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives.

  14. Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Jacob; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Webb, Edward L.; Koh, Lian Pin; Pascual, Unai

    2013-01-01

    The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive “slash-and-burn” farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives. PMID:23589860

  15. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  16. Agricultural Education: Gender Identity and Knowledge Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trauger, Amy; Sachs, Carolyn; Barbercheck, Mary; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen; Brasier, Kathy; Findeis, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Women farmers are underserved in agricultural education and technical assistance. Long held social constructions of farming women as "farmwives" and in some cases "the bookkeepers" rather than farmers or decision-makers influence the direction of most educational programming delivered through extension programs in land-grant…

  17. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  18. Communication Technologies and Knowledge Building in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrave, Robin

    2004-01-01

    The concept of knowledge building communities has not traditionally been associated with agricultural extension, but is one which has the potential to increase the rate of adoption of best management practices by the industry. A potentially important mechanism to facilitate knowledge building is information and communication technology (ICT);…

  19. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  20. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

  1. Alternative Agricultural Enterprises. Production, Management & Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Linda Kirk; And Others

    These nine cooperative extension bulletins provide basic information on various alternative agricultural enterprises. Discussed in the first eight bulletins are the following topics: business ownership (sole proprietorship, partnership, incorporation, cooperatives); business and the family (goals, qualifications, ways of ensuring family support,…

  2. 7 CFR 279.6 - Legal advice and extensions of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal advice and extensions of time. 279.6 Section 279.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE..., the Benefit Redemption Division shall obtain the advice of the Department's Office of the...

  3. 75 FR 45088 - Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Program; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Program; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35), this notice announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's...

  4. 78 FR 11136 - Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY:...

  5. 75 FR 77611 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In... Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request approval from the Office of Management and...

  6. 75 FR 9572 - Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In... Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request approval, from the Office of Management and...

  7. The changing face of agricultural health and safety--alternative agriculture.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Larabee, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Alternative agriculture (defined as any production that is not commodity production) is an important growing area of agriculture. The produce ranges widely, from organic products, locally grown products, and exotic crops and animals. This conference included an overview of the evolving field of alternative agriculture plus descriptions of three different alternative agricultural operations, by the actual producers. These producers described the health and safety concerns encountered in their operations. Affordable and accessible health care was a common and very important concern of all these producers. Further, the extensive manual work load is extremely challenging, risking mental and physical stress and burnout. The major occupational health issues were musculoskeletal pain and dysfunction related to the extensive manual labor. Producers presented several suggestions for managing their occupational health issues. It was clear that research is warranted in investigating ergonomic solutions. Further, research and solutions to affordable and accessible health care is a priority issue.

  8. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  9. Agriculture: Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  10. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  11. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  12. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  13. A Case Study of Stakeholder Needs for Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Mariger, S. Christian

    2002-01-01

    Data from 65 extension stakeholders engaged in forestry-related activities showed that communication barriers existed between university faculty and stakeholders. Stakeholders were not getting the information they needed, extension agents generally lacked appropriate content knowledge, and printed communications were ineffective or too technical.…

  14. Use of Demonstration Gardens in Extension: Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Charlotte D.; Moore, Gary E.; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Bradley, Lucy K.

    2014-01-01

    Extension agents' use of demonstration gardens was studied to determine how gardens are employed in horticultural programming, perceived benefits and challenges of using gardens for Extension programming, and desired competencies. Gardens are primarily used to enhance educational efforts by providing hands-on learning experiences. Greatest…

  15. Advanced agricultural biotechnologies and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Thomas A

    2002-05-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies are anchored to a scientific paradigm rooted in experimental biology, whereas sustainable agriculture rests on a biological paradigm that is best described as ecological. Both biotechnology and sustainable agriculture are associated with particular social science paradigms: biotechnology has its foundation in neoclassical economics, but sustainability is framed by an emerging community-centered, problem-solving perspective. Fundamentally, biotechnology and neoclassical economics are reductionist in nature. Sustainability and community problem-solving, however, are nonreductionist. Given these differences, we might see the development of two rather distinct systems of food production in the near future.

  16. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  17. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  18. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  19. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  20. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  1. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  2. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  3. Globalizing Agricultural Science and Education Programs for America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This document proposes an agenda for globalizing agricultural science and education which has implications for higher education, research, and extension programs at land-grant and similar universities. To enhance global competitiveness of U.S. agriculture through human resource development, institutions are urged to: globalize undergraduate and…

  4. The Future of Agricultural Education: A View from the Bleachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Gordon I.

    1991-01-01

    From a holistic, iconoclastic point of view, the article reviews dominant forces of the century and the state of agricultural education in agricultural colleges, public schools, and extension. States four imperatives for the future: focus on people, address the leadership crisis, recapture a creative role for science and technology, and reduce…

  5. 12 CFR 614.4010 - Agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... company, savings institution, credit union, or any association of agricultural producers or corporation....4130 and subpart P of this part. (d) Extensions of credit to or on behalf of eligible cooperatives... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural credit banks. 614.4010 Section...

  6. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be

  7. Agricultural Diversification and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Secondary, Postsecondary, and Continuing Education Agriculture Programs in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Agriculture, Des Moines.

    These instructional materials on agricultural diversification and marketing were developed for use by Iowa's vocational and technical agricultural instructors and extension personnel. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The…

  8. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  9. Multiple Knowledges for Agricultural Production: Implications for the Development of Conservation Agriculture in Kenya and Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Keith M.; Lamb, Jennifer N.; Sikuku, Dominic Ngosia; Ashilenje, Dennis S.; Laker-Ojok, Rita; Norton, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates the extent of multiple knowledges among smallholders and connected non-farm agents around Mount Elgon in Kenya and Uganda in order to build the communicative competence needed to scale up conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS). Design/methodology/approach: Our methodological approach examines local…

  10. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  11. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  12. Extensible Systems Dynamics Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    pedigree information across communities-of-interest and across network boundaries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ptolemy II, Systems Dynamics, PMESII, National...3 4.2 ADAPT THE PTOLEMY II FRAMEWORK TO ENSURE A WELL-SUITED MODELING...report of activities in the Extensible Systems Dynamics Framework project performed by the Ptolemy Project, University of California, Berkeley for

  13. Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  14. Targeting Extension Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehiley, James M.; William, Ray D.

    1980-01-01

    A study on the readability of publications of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service shows that most are written at the 12th-grade level, though the average Floridian reads at the sixth-grade level. The materials present a barrier to comprehension by limited-resource audiences in Florida. (JOW)

  15. Extensive Floods in United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rain continues to fall in the United Kingdom, bringing more water to an already water-logged landscape. Some rivers there are experiencing their worst flooding in more than 50 years. Of particular note, Britain's River Ouse reached its highest levels on record since 1625. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes since October 30, when a large low-pressure system brought torrential rains and hurricane-force winds, placing regions around more than 40 rivers across the country on flood alert. Since then, the rains have persisted, keeping water levels high and causing additional rivers to overrun their banks. In all, at least 12 people have been killed and more than 5,000 properties flooded. Some officials estimate damages could reach 500 million pounds (roughly $715 million). These Landsat 7 scenes show a comparison of the region surrounding Exeter, England, before and after the floods. The top image was acquired September 28 and the bottom image was acquired October 30, 2000. Note the extensive flooding along the River Exe in the bottom image (blue pixels). The light bluish-white pixels in the top image are clouds, and the black splotches on the landscape are the clouds' shadows. The reddish-brown shapes are agricultural fields. Image by Robert Simmon and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC. Data provided by Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center.

  16. Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

    The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

  17. A History of the Extension Division, Rutgers-The State University 1891-1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Frank Paul

    Rutgers College began offering extension work in 1891 in agriculture, history, the arts, and scientific subjects. The Industrial Extension Division, established in 1925 and renamed the University Extension Division in 1927, was conducting college credit courses within a year of its founding; and, in 1934, University College was established as a…

  18. Does the General Public Know the Extension Service? A Survey of Ohio Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loibl, Cazilia; Diekmann, Florian; Batte, Marvin T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents results of an assessment of the familiarity of the general public of Ohio with OSU Extension and the means of contact with OSU Extension. One-fifth of respondents were familiar with programs and services OSU Extension provides. Agriculture and Natural Resources area programs were most popular among those Ohio residents…

  19. Extension's Online Presence: Are Land-Grant Universities Promoting the Tripartite Mission?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Shannon; Hill, Alexandra; Bailey, Nikki; Meyers, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    Land-grant universities were established with a tripartite mission: education, research, and outreach through the Cooperative Extension Service. The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the online presence and technological adoptions of Extension on land-grant university, college of agriculture, and state Extension websites. Almost…

  20. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS... sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral Fellowship Grants Program...

  1. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  2. 7 CFR 1430.210 - MILC agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.210... operation may authorize an agent of a dairy cooperative or milk handler affiliated with such cooperative to...; (4) Disburse payment to the dairy operation in the producer's monthly milk check or in an...

  3. [Bacteriophages as antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M; Sharon, Nehama; Inbar, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacteria. They have played an important role in the development of molecular biology and have been used as anti-bacterial agents. Since their independent discovery by Twort and d'Herelle, they have been extensively used to prevent and treat bacterial infections, mainly in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In western countries this method has been sporadically employed on humans and domesticated animals. However, the discovery and widespread use of antibiotics, coupled with doubts about the efficacy of phage therapy, led to an eclipse in the use of phage in medicine. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, especially strains that are multiply resistant, has resulted in a renewed interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One of the possible replacements for antibiotics is the use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents. This brief review aims to describe the history of bacteriophage and early clinical studies on their use in bacterial disease prophylaxis and therapy, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bacteriophage in this regard.

  4. An Educational Extension Service in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krichevsky, M. I.

    2001-12-01

    A strength of US education is interaction with the public under the Land Grant University program. The public benefits from outreach through extension services which evolved for communication with end users, e.g., farmers, homemakers, public health providers, schoolchildren and entrepreneurs i.e., the public with problems and the extension agents who advise on solutions. Further, the agents can seek specialized advice from university faculty. No such system exists in India. The University of Pune (UP), Bionomics International (BI), and WorldSpace Foundation (WSF) will use digital radio broadcasts to facilitate educational extension services. The UP (350,000 students, 250 campuses, among dispersed communities) is a useful institutional setting to demonstrate the value of an outreach system in India. The UP will coordinate development of the broadcast content and the teaching faculty. The campuses will be focal points for outreach. BI will consult on development of the extension structure. WSF will provide the facilities and technical expertise for use of the digital system under the terms of an agreement with Bionomics International. Digital radios (&$slash75-150 each) and PCs will be at each campus and community. The major components of the Extension Service are broadcast of 1) University lecture and examination material in many disciplines; 2) outreach to the general population with of "canned" presentations and talks, skits, songs, games. The steps are: 1) Enhance communication among the campuses by use of satellite digital audio and multimedia broadcasts with feedback by telephone, mail, fax, etc. 2) Develop course material for training of extension personnel. 3) Train extension personnel to interface between the faculty of the University and the local population. 4) Extend digital radio services to population centers for communication of locally useful information. 5) Utilize extension personnel for system maintenance, motivating use of the broadcast

  5. Connecting Marginal Rice Farmers to Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems in Vietnam Uplands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castella, Jean-Christophe; Slaats, Joep; Quang, Dang Dinh; Geay, Francois; Van Linh, Nguyen; Tho, Pham Thi Hanh

    2006-01-01

    In Vietnam, agricultural extension has contributed to rural development and poverty alleviation over the past two decades of agricultural decollectivization, but it was not very effective in reducing disparities within farmer communities. The study examined how better interactions of extension services with other agencies and information sources…

  6. Pectic oligosaccharides from agricultural by-products: production, characterization and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Neha; Dejonghe, Winnie; Gatti, Monica; Sforza, Stefano; Elst, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Pectin containing agricultural by-products are potential sources of a new class of prebiotics known as pectic oligosaccharides (POS). In general, pectin is made up of homogalacturonan (HG, α-1,4-linked galacturonic acid monomers) and rhamnogalacturonan (RG, alternate galacturonic acid and rhamnose backbone with neutral side chains). Controlled hydrolysis of pectin containing agricultural by-products like sugar beet, apple, olive and citrus by chemical, enzymatic and hydrothermal can be used to produce oligo-galacturonides (GalpOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS), rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides (RGOS), etc. However, extensive research is needed to establish the role of POS, both as a prebiotic as well as therapeutic agent. This review comprehensively covers different facets of POS, including the nature and chemistry of pectin and POS, potential agricultural residual sources of pectin, pre-treatment methods for facilitating selective extraction of pectin, identification and characterization of POS, health benefits and important applications of POS in food and feed. This review has been compiled to establish a platform for future research in the purification and characterization of POS and for in vivo and in vitro studies of important POS, so that they could be commercially exploited.

  7. Gamut Extension for Cinema.

    PubMed

    Zamir, Syed Waqas; Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmio, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper, we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension (GE) by taking into account the analysis of distortions in hue, chroma, and saturation. User studies performed using a digital cinema projector under cinematic (low ambient light, large screen) conditions show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state of the art, producing gamut extended images that are perceptually more faithful to the wide-gamut ground truth, as well as free of color artifacts and hue shifts. We also show how currently available image quality metrics, when applied to the GE problem, provide results that do not correlate with users' choices.

  8. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  9. Central States Annual Research Conference in Agricultural Education Proceedings (42nd, Chicago, Illinois, February 21-22, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    The following papers are included in this conference report: "Generative Themes for Research in Agricultural Education," (Copa); "Factors Associated with Participation of Iowa Young Farmers in Agricultural Extension Programs" (Martin, Omer); "Personality Characteristics of Groups of Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and…

  10. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  11. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  12. Finding a Plausible Option for Revitalising Agricultural Higher Education in India: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to explore the existing status of agricultural higher education in India, application of marketing concepts in similar institutions and to find the most appropriate marketing concept to make agricultural higher education more competitive. Extensive searches of relevant agricultural education, business management…

  13. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  14. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  15. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  16. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  17. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  18. Vocational Agriculture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

    These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

  19. Agriculture in the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...

  20. USSR Report Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the last century one of the first Russian agronomists, M. G. Pavlov , in speaking about efficient agriculture, was asked the question, is agriculture...three are agronomists in enterprises--Nikolay Georgiyevich Kovalev, Fedor Akimovich Ivashchenko and Ivan Kirillovich Okhrimenko. All three work under the

  1. Revisiting Supervised Agricultural Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; Clarke, Ariane; Fallon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 40 agricultural educators unanimously agreed that supervised agricultural experience should remain an integral component of the curriculum; a name change is not currently warranted. Categories recommended were agribusiness entrepreneurship, placement, production, research, directed school lab, communications, exploration, and…

  2. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  3. Invasive species in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

  4. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  5. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    PubMed

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    Grande do Sul. Many were relatively small producers who were attracted to the Alto Parana region of Paraguay near the Brazilian border by its geographic proximity, extensive availability of land at low prices, and favorable credit and tax policies. Many small proprietors from Brazil were able to buy extensive tracts in Paraguay and to develop an economy based on cultivation of export crops on small and medium sized holdings. A serious and efficient plan for financial aid, together with technical assistance and intensive training programs, could have placed Paraguayan cultivators in a position similar to that of the Brazilians. Paraguayan colonists in the frontier areas could then have progressed rapidly beyond their current state of subsistence or semisubsistence agriculture to the kind of entrepreneurial agriculture practiced by the Brazilians.

  6. Chitinases: in agriculture and human healthcare.

    PubMed

    Nagpure, Anand; Choudhary, Bharti; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2014-09-01

    Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi and insects continues to inspire the research and development of environmentally friendly bioactive alternatives. Potentially lytic enzymes, chitinases can act as a biocontrol agent against agriculturally important fungi and insects. The cell wall in fungi and protective covers, i.e. cuticle in insects shares a key structural polymer, chitin, a β-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine polymer. Therefore, it is advantageous to develop a common biocontrol agent against both of these groups. As chitin is absent in plants and mammals, targeting its metabolism will signify an eco-friendly strategy for the control of agriculturally important fungi and insects but is innocuous to mammals, plants, beneficial insects and other organisms. In addition, development of chitinase transgenic plant varieties probably holds the most promising method for augmenting agricultural crop protection and productivity, when properly integrated into traditional systems. Recently, human proteins with chitinase activity and chitinase-like proteins were identified and established as biomarkers for human diseases. This review covers the recent advances of chitinases as a biocontrol agent and its various applications including preparation of medically important chitooligosaccharides, bioconversion of chitin as well as in implementing chitinases as diagnostic and prognostic markers for numerous diseases and the prospect of their future utilization.

  7. 7 CFR 3201.99 - Water clarifying agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water clarifying agents. 3201.99 Section 3201.99... Designated Items § 3201.99 Water clarifying agents. (a) Definition. Products designed to clarify and improve the quality of water by reducing contaminants such as excess nitrites, nitrates, phosphates,...

  8. CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

  9. Developing a Mobile Extension Course for Youth Livestock Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzenkamp, Deborah; Dam, Karna; Chichester, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The 4-H Livestock Quality Assurance course is a mobile Extension course for youth and youth leaders. In 3 years of implementation, over 6,600 participants from 16 states have learned about good production practices for animal agriculture through the innovative online Nebraska Livestock Quality Assurance course. By evaluating the needs of our youth…

  10. Using Extension Fieldwork to Incorporate Experiential Learning into University Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Kynda; Mahon, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for incorporating experiential learning into university coursework through the use of Extension fieldwork projects. In this case, undergraduate agribusiness management students construct business plans for primary agricultural industries and proposed new industries, such as food processing. Results of the study…

  11. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  12. 75 FR 44724 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List; Reorganization of the Select Agent and Toxin List AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... regarding the list of select agents and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to animal...

  13. 7 CFR 1200.17 - Filing, extension of time, effective date of filing, and computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... judge, Administrator, or the Secretary, as the case may be, there is good reason for the extension. All... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing, extension of time, effective date of filing, and computation of time. 1200.17 Section 1200.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  14. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies; A Group Study of Four Topics in the Field of Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    Sixteen essays pertaining to agricultural extension education were the basis of the 18th National Agricultural Policy Conference, held September 10-18, 1968, at Sequoyah State Park, Wagoner, Oklahoma. Individual topics of papers include leadership training, Iowa State welfare, low income area community development, an urban extension pilot…

  15. Challenges for global agricultural research.

    PubMed

    Blake, R O

    1992-03-01

    The Green Revolution of the 60s can not be expected to continue to feed the world as its population continues to grow. Innovations in plant varieties, chemical inputs, and irrigation did result in more food; however, the cost of this innovation was loss of soil and fertility, poisoning of ground water, waterlogging, and salination of fields. If the world's food production system is to be sustainable and environmentally safe as well as capable of producing 50% more food in the next 20 years, then a lot of research must still be done. Now, instead of 2 international research centers, there are 17. All these centers are operated under the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Another 12 center are currently being set up or cooperating with CGIAR. The scientists are also being asked to develop cost and labor effective ways to improve the soil and conserve water. This change of priorities has come about partly from external pressure, but mostly from: the realization that agricultural productivity must continue to grow at unprecedented rates for the next 4 decades; chemical inputs are often to expensive, unavailable, or dangerous, there is very little room for expanding irrigation; national /agricultural research and extension centers have become underfunded, overly politicized, and ineffective; developing countries can not rely solely upon their fertile land to feed their people, they must bring marginal land into production. To accomplish all this, the World Bank must take a leadership role. It is the only organization with enough money and political power to effectively bring everyone together.

  16. 75 FR 80037 - Poultry Programs; Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Poultry Programs; Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision of a Currently..., & Technology Branch; Poultry Programs, AMS, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Stop..., Promotion, & Technology Branch; Poultry Programs, AMS, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 1400...

  17. 75 FR 68316 - Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments; correction. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service published a document in the Federal Register...

  18. 78 FR 23884 - Seed Testing Service Program; Request for an Extension of and Revision to a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Seed Testing Service Program; Request for an Extension of and Revision to a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for... document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request approval from the...

  19. Defining Audience Segments for Extension Programming Using Reported Water Conservation Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Paul; Ott, Emily; Wilber, Wendy; Gouldthorpe, Jessica; Racevskis, Laila

    2013-01-01

    A tool from social marketing can help Extension agents understand distinct audience segments among their constituents. Defining targeted audiences for Extension programming is a first step to influencing behavior change among the public. An online survey was conducted using an Extension email list for urban households receiving a monthly lawn and…

  20. Analyzing the Natural Resource Extension Needs of Spanish-Speakers: A Perspective from Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Miriam; Escobedo, Francisco; Varela, Sebastian; Asuaje, Cesar; Mayer, Henry; Swisher, Mickie; Hermansen-Baez, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Hispanics are the country's fastest growing minority group. The study reported here surveyed and assessed Extension agents from two demographically different regions in Florida on perceptions and attitudes about the need, quality, and dissemination of Spanish Extension materials. Results showed Extension programs are important sources of…