Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural extension system

  1. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  2. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  3. Public Sector Agricultural Extension System Reform and the Challenges Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is organized into two main sections. The first section examines extension as an engine for innovation and reviews the numerous priorities confronting extension systems. Section two highlights the current knowledge imperative and the critical connection of extension to post-secondary higher education and training, organizational…

  4. Building an Agricultural Extension Services System Supported by ICTs in Tanzania: Progress Made, Challenges Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanga, C.; Kalungwizi, V. J.; Msuya, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    The conventional agricultural extension service in Tanzania is mainly provided by extension officers visiting farmers to provide agricultural advisory service. This system of extension service provision faces a number of challenges including the few number of extension officers and limited resources. This article assesses the effectiveness of an…

  5. Decentralizing Agricultural Extension: Alternative Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines government strategies for decentralizing agricultural extension, concluding that such changes are largely determined by the country's constitutional status. Reviews decentralization guidelines for structural and fiscal reforms and participatory management systems. (SK)

  6. Agricultural Extension, Collective Action and Innovation Systems: Lessons on Network Brokering from Peru and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellin, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: New approaches to extension service delivery are needed that stimulate increased agricultural production, contribute to collective action and which also foster the emergence of agricultural innovation systems. Research in Peru and Mexico explores some of these new approaches. Design/methodology/approach: In both countries, a qualitative…

  7. Agricultural Extension: Who Uses It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Michael; Lasley, Paul

    1979-01-01

    A Missouri study conducted to determine agricultural extension usage patterns found that heavy users of extension publications tended to be younger farmers, those with a relatively large amount of land, and pork producers. Extension meetings were a less frequent source of information than either publications or county extension office visits. (LRA)

  8. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  9. Extending the Agricultural Extension Model. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.; And Others

    The purposes of this report are: to describe the main elements of the U.S. agricultural extension model and its effects on the agricultural revolution; to analyze attempts to extend this model to non-agricultural technology and/or to less developed countries; and to draw general conclusions about the diffusion of technological innovations, with…

  10. A New Extension Model: The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center is a new model for Extension. The center applies the Cooperative Extension Service System philosophy and mission to developing public education-based programs. Programming primarily serves middle school students and teachers through agricultural and natural resource science…

  11. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Professionals' Attitudes toward Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minarovic, Rosanne E.; Mueller, J. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 369 of 500 extension professionals reflected a shared vision for sustainable agriculture and recognition of a need for environmentally sound farming practices. There was less unanimity about endorsing the social aspects of sustainable agriculture, though they agreed on the need for more systems research. (SK)

  12. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  13. Developing Curriculum Markers for Agricultural Extension Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Sufficient changes have occurred in both the agricultural and educational sectors of South Africa to warrant a careful scrutiny of the agricultural education offerings in South Africa. Agricultural extension is identified as an important part of the intended transformation of the agricultural sector. Further, agricultural extension is essentially…

  14. Agricultural Extension in Africa. A World Bank Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nigel, Ed.

    The contributors to this document compare the main approaches to agricultural extension in sub-Saharan Africa; the cost-effectiveness in view of precarious national budgets; the weaknesses of the system for generating technology; the difficulties in forging productive partnerships between researchers, extensionists and farmers; the ineffective…

  15. Agriflection: A Learning Model for Agricultural Extension in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, S. H.

    2006-01-01

    Prosperity--continuous and sustainable wealth creation--is an elusive goal in South African smallholder agriculture. This paper suggests that agricultural extension can facilitate realising this objective if an appropriate approach to extension can be developed. To develop such an approach requires that the definition of extension and the…

  16. A Comparison of Agricultural Extension in Five States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    The nature of the Cooperative Extension Service in agriculture was examined to identify aspects that could be applied to the design of an educational extension service. To learn about the organization, programs, and priorities of Cooperative Extension, employees of the state extension services in California, Colorado, New Mexico, New York, and…

  17. Exploring Community Partnerships in Agricultural and Extension Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Stair, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The descriptive study reported here sought to discover how Extension and agricultural education programs develop and use community partnerships to enhance educational programming. The population was a census of all New Mexico Extension agents and agricultural education teachers. Agents partnered with 57 different agencies/organization and teachers…

  18. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  19. An Integrated Approach to Agricultural Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, G. A.

    The underlying theme of this paper is the relevance of the "package program" approach for the development of peasant agriculture in Southern Africa, particularly where there are livestock and population pressures with a declining soil fertility situation. In Rhodesia, full-time short literacy courses were held in June and July 1970, as a means of…

  20. Competence Challenges of Demand-Led Agricultural Research and Extension in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibwika, P.; Wals, A. E. J.; Nassuna-Musoke, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Governments and development agencies in Sub-Saharan Africa are experimenting alternative approaches within the innovation systems paradigm to enhance relevance of agricultural research and extension to the poverty eradication agenda. Uganda, for example, has recently shifted from the supply driven to demand-led agricultural research and extension.…

  1. Factors Affecting Performance of Agricultural Extension: Evidence from Democratic Republic of Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Ulimwengu, John; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Badibanga, Thaddee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: As part of the institutional reforms and agricultural restructuring in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this paper provides an assessment of the performance of the agricultural extension system as well as factors explaining it. Method: This paper involves key informants' interviews and surveys of 107 extension organizations and 162…

  2. EXTENSION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES, A MANUAL FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HOME EXTENSION WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAVILE, A.H.

    A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…

  3. Agricultural Extension Workers' Roles in Canada and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshewalul, Ayele; Griffith, William S.

    1984-01-01

    This research examined the effects of government and the university organizational models and of performing regulatory functions on American and Canadian agricultural extension workers' role perception and role performance. (Author/SSH)

  4. Some Leading Issues in International Agricultural Extension, a Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, R.

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural extension is grappling with concerns about the future role of the public sector. Public-private partnerships may combine the advantages of both sectors. However, privatization may also lead to commercialization and marginalization of small-scale farmers. (SK)

  5. Stimulating the Imaginative Capacities of Agricultural Extension Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Chaoyun; Chang, Wen-Shan; Yao, Shu-Nung; King, Jung-Tai; Chen, Shi-An

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To address the dynamic challenges associated with developing a globally sustainable society, numerous scholars have stressed the need to cultivate the imagination of agricultural students. This study aimed to explore how pictorial representations stimulate the imaginative capacities of agricultural extension students.…

  6. Industry and Extension Partnership to Enhance STEM and Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian T.; Wilkinson, Carol A.; Shepherd, Pamela J.; Gray, Paula

    2015-01-01

    STEM education has become essential in the United States, and agriculture allows for a great opportunity to teach STEM education in a fun, hands-on manner. The Virginia Southern Piedmont Agriculture Research and Extension Center (SPAREC), in partnership with King Arthur Flour, has created a program that reinforces what is taught in the classroom…

  7. Women's Access to Agricultural Extension Services in Botswana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettles, F. M.

    Extension services to women in rural Botswana, particularly emphasized since the women's extension program began in 1975, must take into account constraints faced by female farmers, as past development processes have concentrated on male perceptions of concern (the beef industry, modernizing the economy). In Botswana, agriculture has traditionally…

  8. Barriers to Participatory Extension in Egypt: Agricultural Workers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…

  9. Trends and Issues in International Agricultural Extension: The End of the Beginning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    This paper examines trends and issues in international agricultural extension and offers seven reasons for the establishment of extension systems after World War II. It makes the case that, although the general situation is somewhat similar today, three current developments color and shape extension and may cause its demise: (1) institutional…

  10. The Role of Agricultural Consultants in New Zealand in Environmental Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Neels; Coutts, Jeff; Roth, Hein

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the role that agricultural consultants in New Zealand were undertaking in the Research, Development and Extension (RD&E) system--and in particular in relation to environmental extension. New Zealand does not have a public extension service and hence there is a strong reliance on consultants and regional…

  11. Cost-Sharing of Agricultural Technology Transfer in Nigeria: Perceptions of Farmers and Extension Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozor, N.; Agwu, A. E.; Chukwuone, N. A.; Madukwe, M. C.; Garforth, C. J.

    2007-01-01

    Cost-sharing, which involves government-farmer partnership in the funding of agricultural extension service, is one of the reforms aimed at achieving sustainable funding for extension systems. This study examined the perceptions of farmers and extension professionals on this reform agenda in Nigeria. The study was carried out in six geopolitical…

  12. Implications of the U.S. Cooperative Extension Service for Agricultural Extension in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navaratnam, K. K.

    A study compared the organizational form and functional activities of the U.S. Cooperative Extension Service with agricultural extension activities in Sri Lanka and recommended ways of improving such programs in developing countries. Distinctive differences were found in the organizational set-up, subject-matter coverage, approach to clients,…

  13. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

    2008-01-01

    The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

  14. Exploring for Clientele Attitudes Toward Agricultural Extension Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Derwood G.

    Agricultural extension sometimes fails to relate itself to the total socio-economic picture of the community as it establishes policies and programs for the future; this research attempts to explain some concerns of farmers related to this problem, particularly the hiring of regional specialists. Data were gathered by a questionnaire given to over…

  15. 78 FR 79660 - Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... period for the notice published on November 4, 2013 (78 FR 65960) is extended. We will consider all... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On November 4, 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 65960-65962, Docket... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Extension of...

  16. Small Farmers' Habits of Reading Agricultural Extension Publications: The Case of Moshav Farmers in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham; Azencot, Moshe

    1989-01-01

    Interviews farmers in Moshavim, Israel, to examine the need for efficient written communication channels between agricultural extension services and small farmers. Identifies the main problems as a weak distribution system and the necessity for authors of extension pamphlets and brochures to consider the special needs of small farmers. (KEH)

  17. 76 FR 62755 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, United States Department of Agriculture..., and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education,...

  18. 78 FR 25691 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION... the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: All... Agriculture, National Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, 1400...

  19. 78 FR 32227 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  20. Informal Research and Development for Agricultural Development--Key Roles for Agricultural and Extension Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitinoja, Lisa

    Informal research and development (R & D) is defined as any small-scale, decentralized agricultural or extension education program that involves the population of learners in the process of planning, implementation, and evaluation of a learning process. It involves simple experimentation with potential solutions to common problems. The presence of…

  1. 78 FR 52496 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension,...

  2. 77 FR 27013 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Solicitation for membership. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory... nominations to fill 9 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

  3. 78 FR 14071 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION... to fill 10 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics... October 1, 2012. ADDRESSES: National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

  4. 77 FR 11064 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension,...

  5. 77 FR 58978 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY..., and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education,...

  6. The South African Education Agenda: Identifying Markers for Rewriting Agricultural Extension Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in education and agriculture in South Africa indicate that agricultural extension practitioners should facilitate continuous learning among farmers. This requires that extension practitioners acquire new skills. To provide these skills requires a critical examination of agricultural extension curricula in the light of South Africa's…

  7. Integrated agricultural energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to show New England farmers and other New England energy users how they can use alternative energy sources to reduce their energy cost and dependency on conventional sources. The project demonstrates alternative energy technologies in solar, alcohol and methane. Dissemination is planned through tours to be conducted by the Worcester County Extension Service. Most of these goals were completed as planned. A few things have yet to be completed. The solar panels and solar hot water tanks have to be installed. The fermenter's agitating and cooling system have to be secured inside the fermenter. Once these items are complete tours will begin early in the spring.

  8. Changes in Information Systems in Czech Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavik, Milan

    2004-01-01

    A study carried out in 1998 (reported in the Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 2003) of the information systems used by farmers in the Czech Republic to access information and advice was repeated in 2003. The research aim was to assess whether, and how, the systems had changed during these five years. The perceived importance of 10…

  9. Transforming the Roles of a Public Extension Agency to Strengthen Innovation: Lessons from the National Agricultural Extension Project in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Ataharul Huq; Odame, Helen Hambly; Leeuwis, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The rapidly evolving nature of agricultural innovation processes in low-income countries requires agricultural extension agencies to transform the classical roles that previously supported linear information dissemination and adoption of innovation. In Bangladesh, strengthening agricultural innovation calls for facilitation of interactive…

  10. Detecting transition in agricultural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, P. J.; Coiner, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural phenomena has been largely concentrated on analysis of agriculture at the field level. Concern has been to identify crop status, crop condition, and crop distribution, all of which are spatially analyzed on a field-by-field basis. A more general level of abstraction is the agricultural system, or the complex of crops and other land cover that differentiate various agricultural economies. The paper reports on a methodology to assist in the analysis of the landscape elements of agricultural systems with Landsat digital data. The methodology involves tracing periods of photosynthetic activity for a fixed area. Change from one agricultural system to another is detected through shifts in the intensity and periodicity of photosynthetic activity as recorded in the radiometric return to Landsat. The Landsat-derived radiometric indicator of photosynthetic activity appears to provide the ability to differentiate agricultural systems from each other as well as from conterminous natural vegetation.

  11. LaTeX for Agricultural Extension Professionals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LaTeX is a free open source document preparation system for professional quality documents and presentation materials. Extension professionals, trying to reach their audience though various forms of printed and online resources, can benefit from the vast potential of LaTeX. Using LaTeX empowers the ...

  12. 75 FR 32736 - Notice of Solicitation for Members of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., Extension, Education and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education and Economics, USDA. ACTION... National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: Deadline for..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Room...

  13. 76 FR 22667 - Solicitation of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics... to fill 8 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics..., National Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, 1400 Independence Avenue,...

  14. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  15. Appropriateness of Recommended Agricultural Water-Management Technologies as Perceived by the Personnel of Research and Extension System: A Study in the Eastern Region of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Souvik; Verma, H. N.; Chandra, Dinesh; Nanda, P.

    2005-01-01

    The key to agricultural development in the eastern region of India, where problems of excess water and water scarcity coexist, is the scientific management of water resources with the adoption of recommended water-management technologies. A vast networking of infrastructure for the development and dissemination of water-management technologies…

  16. Agricultural Research Needs and Priorities as Perceived by West Virginia Vocational Agriculture Teachers and County Extension Agents. Miscellaneous Publication 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalamira, Lucas R.; Lawrence, Layle D.

    Data were obtained in 1982 from 196 vocational agriculture teachers and 48 county agricultural extension agents identifying specific problems in West Virginia's agriculture that were most in need of research solutions. Multiflora rose eradication, coping with high production costs and interest rates, and improving state level funding for extension…

  17. What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

  18. Preferred Methods for Delivery of Technological Information by the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service: Opinions of Agricultural Producers Who Use Extension Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John G.; Mustian, R. David

    The findings of a questionnaire survey of 702 North Carolina agricultural producers indicated that communication methods historically used by the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service for information dissemination are accepted by state farmers and continue to be popular. Information delivery methods most frequently preferred are…

  19. 75 FR 68598 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION... to 9 member positions of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board; Research Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

  20. Integrating and Institutionalizing Lessons Learned: Reorganizing Agricultural Research and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…

  1. From Agricultural Extension to Capacity Development: Exploring the Foundations of an Emergent Form of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Al

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that capacity development is a response to changes in the organization and practice of agricultural extension as these changes have excluded small resource farmers. In this essay I trace the changes in the organization of agricultural extension through to the emergence of the concept and practice of capacity development. The idea…

  2. An Evaluation of Successful Collaboration among Agricultural Science Teachers and Extension Agents in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Harlin, Julie F.; Rayfield, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate collaboration between agricultural science teachers and Extension agents in Texas from the perspective of successful collaboration. Programs, leaders, and participants in both agricultural education and Extension can be impacted positively through collaboration. However, successful collaboration…

  3. Millennium III Challenges: A Major Role for Agricultural Research/Extension/Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) ad hoc Committee on Federal Support for Agricultural Research, Extension and Education suggests solutions to major challenges in agricultural research. Three new realities provide a powerful rationale for major new investment in agriculture: dramatic…

  4. The Many Turnings of Agricultural Extension in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Warren; Birch, Colin; Coutts, Jeff; Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the development of extension as a discipline in Australia, its organization, and the ideological changes that have occurred from the second half of the nineteenth century through to the present. Design/Methodology/Approach: It considers the evolution of extension across the different states of Australia from a…

  5. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘intensification’ is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. Scope and Conclusions This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural–environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and

  6. 78 FR 25691 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet May 28-30, 2013. The public may file written...

  7. An Extensive Survey of Gaseous Emissions from Rice Paddy Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redeker, K. R.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D.; Sass, R.; Cicerone, R.

    2002-05-01

    Rice agriculture currently occupies nearly 1% of the available land surface area of the globe. Increased population over the next few decades will drive the need for further expansion of global agriculture. Understanding atmospheric chemistry and climate change requires us to study small changes in relatively poorly quantified gases. In order to fully describe the effects of changing land use it is imperative to understand the relative shift in emissions post and prior to agricultural use for all relevant compounds. During the 2000 growing season we sampled over a commercial rice field in Houston TX. Our study surveyed over 45 separate compounds (up to C7), covering alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, isoprene, DMS, halocarbons, CFCs, and alkyl nitrates. We compare and include results from previous studies to complement our emissions. We include emissions from control plots (unplanted with rice, but flooded) that allows us to determine whether emissions are rice-plant dependent or are inherent in the rice paddy environment itself. Biomass burning estimates are calculated for fields where residue burning is practiced.

  8. Staff Leadership in the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearon, Ronald Wilson

    The purpose of this North Carolina study was to examine selected leadership correlates of variation in Cooperative Extension Chairmen's (CEC) conformity to an administrative professional leadership (APL) concept of their role. Two research instruments were developed--Survey I, used for collecting data from agents (419) and Survey II, for data from…

  9. A STUDY OF NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE ROLE OF FERTILIZER DEALERS IN EXTENSION PROGRAMMING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOODARD, BRUCE H.

    A QUESTIONNAIRE MAILED TO 98 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA WITH PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY IN AGRONOMY IN THEIR COUNTIES WAS USED TO COLLECT DATA ON THE AGENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF PERFORMANCE BY DEALERS IN SOIL FERTILITY PROGRAMS, AGENTS' FEELINGS ABOUT DEALER PARTICIPATION, AND THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AGENTS'…

  10. A Conceptual Model of Intrapreneurship in the Iranian Agricultural Extension Organization: Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Asef; Malekmohamadi, Iraj; Daryani, Mahmoud Ahmadpour; Rezvanfar, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to build a conceptual model of agricultural extension intrapreneurship that discusses the concept and phenomenon of intrapreneurship as well as its prerequisites and outcomes. The proposed model is intended to depict the main factors that affect the phenomena of intrapreneurship within the agricultural extension…

  11. 76 FR 78225 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Appointment of members. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: Appointments by the Secretary of Agriculture are for a 1,...

  12. Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate Online Course: An Effective Tool for Creating Extension Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitefield, Elizabeth; Schmidt, David; Witt-Swanson, Lindsay; Smith, David; Pronto, Jennifer; Knox, Pam; Powers, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to create competency among Extension professionals on the topic of climate change adaptation and mitigation in animal agriculture. The Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate online course provides an easily accessible, user-friendly, free, and interactive experience for learning science-based information on a national and…

  13. An Analysis of the Relationship of Certain Employee Characteristics to Tenure and Performance of Selected Virginia Extension Agents--Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Donald Jerome

    The relationship was analyzed of the characteristics of adaptability, vocational interests, and academic achievement of 77 Virginia agricultural extension agents to their tenure and performance. The agents were grouped on the basis of short, medium, or long tenure. Data were collected from personnel records of the state cooperative system, college…

  14. Extension for Organic Agriculture: A Comparative Study between Baden-Württemberg, Germany and Crete, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Österle, Nina; Koutsouris, Alex; Livieratos, Yannis; Kabourakis, Emmanuil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the extension services offered in the field of organic agriculture (OA) in Baden-Württemberg (BW), Germany and Crete, Greece. Design/methodology approach: 16 in-depth interviews, 10 in BW and 6 in Crete, were carried out with representatives of OA extension providers; interviews were qualitatively…

  15. The Importance of Motivational Appeals to Cooperative Extension Agricultural Clientele. Summary of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gary; Newcomb, L. H.

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship of certain motivational appeals to the extent of participation of extension clientele, as perceived by these clientele. A stratified random sample of thirty counties from the ten extension supervisory areas of Ohio was used for the study. This sample provided for 395 adult agricultural clientele…

  16. 76 FR 13124 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet March 30-31, 2011. The public may file written...

  17. 75 FR 61692 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet October 27-29, 2010. The public may file written...

  18. 76 FR 25298 - Solicitation of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ...-3684. Correction In the Federal Register of April 22, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-9638, on page 22667, in the... Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics... to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. The...

  19. 75 FR 12171 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet March 29-31, 2010. The public may file written...

  20. The Relationship of Future Agricultural Extension Educators' Cognitive Styles and Change Strategies for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Robert; Irani, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The study expands reported here Extension education's knowledge regarding characteristics of potential change agents. Graduate students learning to become agricultural Extension educators were studied to determine their definition of a change agent. Participants' cognitive styles were assessed using Kirton's Adaptation-Innovation Inventory to…

  1. Agricultural Extension in South-Eastern Europe: Issues of Transition and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daku, Lefter; Norton, George W.; Taylor, Daniel B.; Qenani-Petrela, Eivis

    2005-01-01

    Following the economic reforms in the early 90's, most of the south-eastern European countries (SEE) made efforts to establish agricultural extension services. However, a number of factors including tight governmental budgets, lack of experience, and the existence of vested interests have constrained the development of extension services. This…

  2. The Contact between Agricultural Extension and Family Farmers in Israel--with Some International Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham; Azencot, Moshe

    A study was conducted to determine the contacts between agricultural extension and family farmers in Israel. Structured interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 171 smallholder farmers. Advisers of the official Extension Service and the publications of this service and farmers' monthlies were considered to have contributed to…

  3. The State of Agricultural Extension: An Overview and New Caveats for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Amanda; Jafry, Tahseen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This review paper presents an overview of changes in agricultural extension on a global scale and helps to characterise on-going developments in extension practice. Design/methodology/approach: Through a critique and synthesis of literature the paper focuses on global political changes which have led to widespread changes from production-…

  4. [The role of national rural organization and agricultural extension services in relation to women].

    PubMed

    Martius Von Harder, G

    1985-01-01

    Rural extension services are designed to provide rural dwellers with information needed to further technical or social development and to solve problems. Extension agents should be fully aware of their responsibility for the advice they provide. The number of rural and agricultural development and extension agencies has multiplied greatly in the past 2 decades. Agricultural extension is the principal component of most rural development strategies. Training given to men is usually economic, while that for women is devoted to household and social functioning. Programs for women usually lag general development programs. Training of women is usually not included in agricultural extension programs, especially in countries practicing segregation of the sexes. Agricultural extension programs are generally limited to cultivation techniques and neglect transformation and storage of crops and seed preparation for increased production. Measures that could improve productivity of women's agriculture-related work are expected to be delivered through the intermediacy of their husbands, but the husbands may not appreciate the import of such messages if they are not familiar with their wives' work. Agricultural training should consider all stages of production, should be delivered to the individuals actually performing the tasks, and should be ecologically appropriate. The overall objective of agricultural extension is to increase production, but most programs do not specify who is to use the surplus or to benefit from it. The rural population or the urban population may be the prime beneficiary, or cash crops may be produced for export. Although increased production should benefit the rural population through a better food supply, in reality most extension programs are devoted to cash crops for export and are less than fully successful because of problems of crop distribution and marketing and other shortcomings. Where men and women perform the same agricultural work, it should

  5. Agricultural Extension Services and the Issue of Equity in Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monu, Erasmus D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews experiments in Kenya and Nigeria attempting to modify the progressive-farmer strategy. Success requires that extension services recognize small farmers' ability to make their own rational decisions and involve farmers in planning and implementing extension programs. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of…

  6. Superintegrable Extensions of Superintegrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanu, Claudia M.; Degiovanni, Luca; Rastelli, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    A procedure to extend a superintegrable system into a new superintegrable one is systematically tested for the known systems on E2 and S2 and for a family of systems defined on constant curvature manifolds. The procedure results effective in many cases including Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz and three-particle Calogero systems.

  7. Rural Housing Site Planning in North Carolina. Agricultural Extension Publication 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Randolph T., Jr.; And Others

    Addressing the problems of rural housing site selection and development in North Carolina, this guide is designed for cooperative and coordinated use by: technical assistance personnel employed by the Farmers Home Administration; local lending institutions; Health Departments; the Agricultural Extension Service; the Soil Conservation Service; and…

  8. Information and Communication Technologies as Agricultural Extension Tools: A Survey among Farmers in West Macedonia, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasios, Michailidis; Koutsouris, Alex; Konstadinos, Mattas

    2010-01-01

    This article critically assesses the potential of information and communication technologies (ICTs) as agricultural extension tools. Specifically, the purpose of the current piece of work is to identify the extent of the use of ICTs on farms, look into farmers' characteristics as related to ICTs' adoption and explore farmers' preferred extension…

  9. Thailand's Department of Agricultural Extension and Agrochemical Dependency: Perspectives on Contributing Factors and Mitigation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelles, Wayne; Visetnoi, Supawan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses theoretical, policy and practical issues concerning the problem of "agrochemical dependency" in Thailand, including roles that public extension services play in advocacy or mitigation of agrochemical use. Methodology/Approach: Our research aimed to better understand department of agricultural extension…

  10. 78 FR 44092 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Register of May 2, 2013 in FR Doc. 2013-10392, on pages 25691-25692 in the date section, correct to read as... Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Solicitation for membership..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. The notice was published in the Federal Register on...

  11. Perspectives of Extension Agents and Farmers toward Multifunctional Agriculture in the United States Corn Belt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doudna, John W.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Tyndall, John C.; Helmers, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed the perspectives of farmers, crop professionals, and Extension agents and found that they have positive perspectives concerning multifunctional agriculture, including a positive effect of a nearby prairie to cropland productivity. The survey was conducted in central Iowa and included individuals predominantly from Iowa involved in…

  12. Federal Cooperation in Agricultural Extension Work, Vocational Education, and Vocational Rehabilitation. Bulletin, 1933, No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blauch, Lloyd E.

    1933-01-01

    During the past quarter of a century there have been rather continuous and persistent efforts for Federal aid to education. Twenty-one years ago the Congress of the United States enacted the Smith-Lever Agricultural Extension Act, and 3 years later it passed the Smith-Hughes Vocational Education Act. Under the Smith-Lever Act and subsequent…

  13. Carbon dynamics in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil carbon (C) pool constitutes the largest reservoir of C in terrestrial ecosystems. Full accounting of C emissions and sequestration to obtain net C flux budgets for agriculture indicate that agricultural land can function as a net source or sink of C, depending on land use and management. Ad...

  14. A Study of Ordering Patterns of Extension Agents in Tennessee Counties for Selected Tennessee Agricultural Extension Publications with Agricultural Titles during the Two-Year Perios, July 1, 1965-June 30, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Jesse E.; And Others

    With a view toward improving allocation of funds, this study analyzed the ordering of agricultural extension publications during 1965-67 by the 95 agricultural Extension staffs in Tennessee. Ten variables in ordering behavior, and four relating to programs, were considered. Data from 1,559 order forms were reported in numbers, percentages,…

  15. An Assessment of Readiness and Barriers towards ICT Programme Implementation: Perceptions of Agricultural Extension Officers in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnomo, Sutrisno Hadi; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates agricultural extension officers' perception of readiness and barriers towards implementation of ICT programme. Data were gathered from 312 extension officers affiliated with public organisations of the Ministry of Agriculture in four regencies of Indonesia. Descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor…

  16. Roles of Extension Officers to Promote Social Capital in Japanese Agricultural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills. PMID:24642575

  17. Roles of extension officers to promote social capital in Japanese agricultural communities.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills. PMID:24642575

  18. Agricultural extension in Africa. World Bank discussion paper; Vulgarisation agricole en afrique

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchee, A.

    1995-12-31

    Detailed recommendations for extension services focus on ways of improving service management and providing technology and training that address local conditions. They also call for new ways of meeting the special needs of women, young farmers, shepherds, nomads and farmers` organizations. The main topics include how to strengthen national extension systems, promote neglected crops, encourage on-site farm research, improve the links between extension and other agencies, and advance information on water and soil conservation.

  19. Sustainability of Agricultural Systems: Concept to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture not only feeds the planet, it also is the biggest overall factor affecting the environment. Thus, innovative sustainable farming systems that produce healthy food and protect the environment at the same time are very much needed. We, as agricultural engineers, need ...

  20. Agricultural Drainage Management Systems Task Force (ADMSTF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Drainage Management Systems (ADMS) Task Force was initiated during a Charter meeting in the fall of 2002 by dedicated professional employees of Federal, State, and Local Government Agencies and Universities. The Agricultural Drainage Management (ADM) Coalition was established in 200...

  1. Extension for Russian Agricultural Industrial Complexes: Lessons from a Dairy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, A. O.; Kerr, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    A Canadian extension program in Russia revealed two major problems facing Western extension agents: failure of Russian farms to treat dairy farming as a holistic, interdependent system, and a low level of human resource management skills due to the past history of direction by command. (SK)

  2. Evaluation of Agricultural Professionals' Perceptions and Knowledge on Sustainable Agriculture: A Useful Step in the Development of an Online Extension Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menalled, Fabian D.; Grimberg, Bruna I.; Jones, Clain A.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed needs, knowledge, and interests of agricultural professionals who were likely to enroll in an online extension course in sustainable agriculture. The objectives of the study were: to (1) describe their demographic characteristics, (2) identify their concerns and interests related to farming, (3) evaluate participants' knowledge…

  3. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  4. Characterizing and modeling of extensive atrazine elution tailing for stable manure-amended agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Nihat Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Non-ideal sorption and extensive elution tailing behavior of atrazine was evaluated for an agricultural soil with and without stable manure amendment (10% by weight). A series of laboratory experiments showed that the sorption of atrazine was described by rate-limited, nonlinear reversible processes (Freundlich isotherm) for both non-amended and amended soil. Non-ideal transport of atrazine exhibited extensive low concentration elution tailing due to the most likely organic carbon fraction in the soil. This tailing behavior was more pronounced and extensive for soil with 10% stable-manure amendment. Two-site transport modeling analyses including non-linear sorption and rate-limited sorption-desorption provided a reasonably good match to the atrazine breakthrough curves but were unable to match the long-term concentration tailing, even for non-amended soil. A mathematical model incorporating nonlinear, rate-limited sorption/desorption described by a continuous-distribution function was used to successfully simulate atrazine transport early-time breakthrough and long-term concentration tailing for both non-amended and amended soil conditions. PMID:25303664

  5. Grasslands, Rangelands, and Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable agro-ecosystems are those systems whose production does not negatively affect energy flow, nutrient cycling or ecosystem services. We examined literature reports in each of these different arenas to determine if cellulosic biomass production in rangelands met these criteria. We focused...

  6. Extension Education for Dryland Cropping Systems in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abi-Ghanem, Rita; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne; Koenig, Richard; Pannkuk, Chris; Pan, William; Parker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Iraq, formerly known as Mesopotamia, is the birthplace of agriculture. The recent war and instability have significantly impacted the country's agricultural production and knowledge support systems. To support revitalization of the Iraqi agricultural system, the USDA funded a consortium of five U.S. universities (Washington State University,…

  7. AN EVALUATION OF LOCAL EDUCATIONAL EXTENSION TELEVISION PROGRAMS BY RURAL PEOPLE AND AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTLAND, OREGON.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARON, LLOYD C.

    OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH SELECTED GROUPS OF RURAL PEOPLE IN METROPOLITAN PORTLAND, OREGON, VIEWED AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION TELECASTS ON PORTLAND COMMERCIAL STATIONS AND USED THE INFORMATION GAINED TO GET SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SCHEDULING, TYPES, AND CONTENT OF FUTURE PROGRAMS. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE SENT TO…

  8. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through proper management, agricultural systems (cropland, pasture, and forest) have the ability to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sequester it in soils and wood products. The carbon thus sequestered can help slow the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide currently occurring as a res...

  9. Soil Organic Matter in Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agricultural systems, soil organic matter (SOM) has been recognized as an important source of nutrients and maintains favorable soil structure. Organic matter is considered a major binding agent that stabilizes soil aggregates. Soil aggregates especially, water stable aggregates, are important i...

  10. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Continuing and Online Education About Degree Programs Independent Learning School for Workers UW HELP UW System eCampus Cooperative Extension About Agriculture & Natural Resources Community, Natural Resource & ...

  11. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 2: PEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    User power, duration, and orbit requirements, which were the prime factors influencing power extension package (PEP) design, are discussed. A representative configuration of the PEP concept is presented and the major elements of the system are described as well as the PEP-to-Orbiter and remote manipulator interface provisions.

  12. Utilizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Agricultural Education to Promote Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.; Muchena, Olivia N.

    1991-01-01

    Understanding and appreciation of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) are essential for promoting sustainable agriculture development. IKS provides a cultural basis for nonformal agricultural programs that is absent in technology transfer approaches. (SK)

  13. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species. PMID:27147100

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education (15th, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago March 21-26, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John G., Ed.

    This proceedings contains session topics: extension systems, extension programs, extension evaluation, program impacts, extension management, extension reform, experiential learning, program delivery, farming systems research, professional training and development, program strategies, teaching effectiveness, organizational leadership, extension…

  15. Linkage of Higher Education with Agricultural Research, Extension and Development in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belay, Kassa

    2008-01-01

    High-level agricultural manpower training in Ethiopian institutions of higher education (AIHE)specializing in agriculture and related fields was studied. The study reveals that high-level agricultural manpower training began in the early 1950s and that, at present, the country has seven institutions of higher learning, which train students in…

  16. New polymer systems: Chain extension by dianhydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.; Ingham, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented for a systematic investigation on the use of anhydrides to prepare stable elastomeric materials for space use, under mild reaction conditions. The three anhydrides investigated were found to provide effective chain extension of hydroxy-terminated poly(alkylene oxides) and poly(butadienes). These were tetrahydrofuran tetracarboxylic dianhydride, pyromellitic dianhydride, and benzophenone tetracarboxylic diahydride. The most effective catalyst investigated was ferric acetylacetonate, which resulted in chain extension at 333 K (60 C). One feature of these anhydride reactants is that they are difunctional as anhydrides, but tetrafunctional if conditions are selected that lead to reaction of all carboxyl groups. Therefore, chain extension can be effected and then followed by crosslinking via the residual carboxyl groups.

  17. The Role of Agricultural Education and Extension in Influencing Best Practice for Managing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, E. J.; Hennessy, T.; Cullinan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of agricultural education and extension in influencing the adoption of best practice with regard to herd-level mastitis management. Design/Methodology/Approach: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of herd health with regard to mastitis and is negatively related to productivity and profitability. Panel data…

  18. Impact Assessment and Participant Profiles of Extension's Education Programs for Agricultural Chemical/Seed Retailers and Crop Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Michael A.; Durgan, Beverly R.; Iverson, Sarah M.

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 698 agriculture professionals indicate that extension programs have positive agronomic and environmental impact and attendance was influenced more by topics and speakers than cost. Greater impact can be achieved through partnerships with companies, associations, and agencies to target professionals who will be able to use or…

  19. Public-Private Policy Change and Its Influence on the Linkage of Agricultural Research, Extension and Farmers in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to show the linkage of Iranian agricultural research centres with extension and farmers, using three case studies in 1999, 2005 and 2010. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected through document analyses, structured and semi-structured interviews and observations. Findings: The 1999 and 2005 cases were…

  20. New polymer systems: Chain extension by dianhydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.; Ingham, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Three anhydrides provide effective chain extension of hydroxy-terminated polyalkylene oxides and polybutadienes. Novel feature of these anhydride reactants is that they are difunctional as anhydrides, but they are tetrafunctional if conditions are selected that lead to total esterification or reaction of all carboxyl groups.

  1. The Virtual Research and Extension Communication Network (VRECN): An Interactive Learning and Communication Network for Research and Extension Personnel. Concept Paper for the Food & Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Don

    A Virtual Research and Extension Communication Network (VRECN) is a set of networked electronic tools facilitating improvement in communication processes and information sharing among stakeholders involved in agricultural development. In developing countries, research and extension personnel within a ministry of agriculture, in consultation and…

  2. Agricultural Extension Services and Market Regulation: Learning from a Comparison of Six EU Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Catherine; Cerf, Marianne; Labarthe, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    If farmers are to meet the new challenges facing agriculture (environment, rural development, etc.), appropriate knowledge has to be produced. But observations in six EU countries (France, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK) show that unexpected problems arise when technical support for agriculture is linked to market regulation,…

  3. Extensions to Dynamic System Simulation of Fissile Solution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Bernardin, John David; Kimpland, Robert Herbert; Spernjak, Dusan

    2015-08-24

    Previous reports have documented the results of applying dynamic system simulation (DSS) techniques to model a variety of fissile solution systems. The SUPO (Super Power) aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) was chosen as the benchmark for comparison of model results to experimental data for steadystate operation.1 Subsequently, DSS was applied to additional AHR to verify results obtained for SUPO and extend modeling to prompt critical excursions, ramp reactivity insertions of various magnitudes and rate, and boiling operations in SILENE and KEWB (Kinetic Experiment Water Boiler).2 Additional models for pressurized cores (HRE: Homogeneous Reactor Experiment), annular core geometries, and accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADAHR) were developed and results reported.3 The focus of each of these models is core dynamics; neutron kinetics, thermal hydraulics, radiolytic gas generation and transport are coupled to examine the time-based evolution of these systems from start-up through transition to steady-state. A common characteristic of these models is the assumption that (a) core cooling system inlet temperature and flow and (b) plenum gas inlet pressure and flow are held constant; no external (to core) component operations that may result in dynamic change to these parameters are considered. This report discusses extension of models to include explicit reference to cooling structures and radiolytic gas handling. The accelerator-driven subcritical generic system model described in References 3 and 4 is used as a basis for this extension.

  4. Crop Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Agricultural Extension Services in Bangladesh: Cases of Selected Villages in Two Important Agro-Ecological Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uddin, Ektear MD.; Gao, Qijie; Mamun-Ur-Rashid, MD.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Globally, many extension professionals and policy-makers are advocating fee based services, in addressing the fund shortage and sustainable provision of agricultural advisory services. Hence, the article attempts to expose the farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) as agricultural extension in Bangladesh is experiencing chronic fund crisis.…

  5. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  6. Progress Report--Globalizing U.S. Extension Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Barbara G.

    2002-01-01

    Directors from 50 of the 51 U.S. extension systems responded to a survey on efforts to globalize over a 20-year period. Directors recognize that globalization will become more integrated into future Extension programming. Between 1990-2000, 35 systems moved towards globalizing. Lack of financial resources, lack of time, concern about clientele…

  7. Extension Education Impacts of Farming Systems Research in Lesotho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youmans, David Vance

    A study examined the nonformal extension education impacts of farming systems research in three prototype areas in rural Lesotho. The extension education programs that were carried out in Lesotho from 1979 through 1984 in conjunction with a farming systems research development strategy were found to have tentative, but indicative, impacts on…

  8. An Obstacle Alerting System for Agricultural Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Wire strikes are a significant cause of helicopter accidents. The aircraft most at risk are aerial applicators. The present study examines the effectiveness of a wire alert delivered by way of the lightbar, a GPS-based guidance system for aerial application. The alert lead-time needed to avoid an invisible wire is compared with that to avoid a visible wire. A flight simulator was configured to simulate an agricultural application helicopter. Two pilots flew simulated spray runs in fields with visible wires, invisible wires, and no wires. The wire alert was effective in reducing wire strikes. A lead-time of 3.5 sec was required for the alert to be effective. The lead- time required was the same whether the pilot could see the wire or not.

  9. The Use of Mass Media in the Agricultural Extension Services of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efionayi, J. A. B.

    1973-01-01

    Pioneer survey of 180 farmers and 75 extension workers of Nigeria indicated radio, newsletters, and posters as rich sources of information for rural farmers; extension workers often did not realize the free use of mass media. Decentralization of media preparation and the mobilizing effect of mass media need future accomplishment. (EA)

  10. 77 FR 64794 - Cancellation of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board scheduled for October 23-25, 2012 has been cancelled. The..., and Economics Advisory Board; telephone: (202) 720-3684; fax: (202) 720-6199; or email:...

  11. External Economic Drivers and U.S. Agricultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S agriculture operates in a market driven economy. As with other businesses, agricultural producers respond to economic incentives and disincentives and make decisions to maximize their welfare. In this paper we examine external economic drivers that shape agricultural systems. Specifically, we c...

  12. Successes and challenges in a novel doctoral program in systems agriculture: a case example.

    PubMed

    Lust, D; Topliff, D; Deotte, R

    2010-01-01

    A doctoral program in Systems Agriculture was initiated at West Texas A&M University, Canyon, TX, in September, 2003. The stated objective of the program was "..to prepare leaders for the agricultural industry that are trained in a multidisciplinary, research-based curriculum that emphasizes a systems approach to problem solving". The program offers a single doctoral degree in Agriculture and accepts qualified students with a master's or professional degree in agricultural or related disciplines. Courses related to systems methodologies, leadership, agricultural economics, plant and soil science, and animal science are required. Additional program requirements include a systems research project and dissertation, leadership training, and written and oral exams. The program has exceeded enrollment and graduation targets, suggesting interest in this approach to a doctoral degree. Students have entered the program with M.S. backgrounds in education, traditional agricultural disciplines, veterinary medicine, business, and physics. Graduates have gained employment in industry, university teaching and research, government research/administration, and extension. Doctoral student projects in systems agriculture contributed to curriculum changes and to the conceptual framework adopted by a multi-state research group. Designing and teaching courses for students with diverse backgrounds has been challenging. Development of a common understanding of systems agriculture was identified by a third-party program review as an issue for faculty. Development and maintenance of program standards and administrative procedures posed additional challenges. Leadership, administrative support, and timely and continuing program assessment are suggested as necessary components for a nontraditional doctoral program. PMID:20491404

  13. Employer Perception of the Preparation of Agricultural and Extension Education Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Donna L.

    Educational reform measures have forced schools to form partnerships with business and industry to achieve common goals of a prepared workforce. These partnerships have forced colleges of agriculture to examine its mission and update the curriculum. This study sought to provide benchmark data from employers on the skills and abilities deemed…

  14. In-Service Training of Agricultural Agents in New York State: 1963; Extension Study Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Frank D.; Harshaw, Jean

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the nature and amount of inservice training which the 168 agricultural agents in New York State received during 1963. Emphasis was on refresher and other training. The greatest number of days of training offered agents was in November followed closely by March and February, in all, a total of 36% of the…

  15. Aspects of Rural Life in Northern Nigeria with Implications for Agricultural Extension Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Dhara Singh

    Research on rural life in Northern Nigeria was carried out through interviews with a stratified random sample of farmers in a district of Zaria Province. Among the findings were: roadside villages were more susceptible to accepting the use of fertilizer and other innovative agricultural practices than more remote settlements; women hold different…

  16. Compilation of Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Questions for Discussion. 104th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This volume compiles and reprints the responses of 37 organizations to a series of questions issued by the House Committee on Agriculture in anticipation of debates concerning the Research Title of the 1995 Farm Bill due for updating and revision. The questions address some of the following topics: the role of the federal government in…

  17. Bee Pollination in Agricultural Eco-Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many agricultural crops, bees play a vital role as pollinators, and this book discusses the interplay between bees, agriculture and the environment. Although honey bees are well recognized as pollinators, managed bumble bees and solitary bees are also critical for the successful pollination of c...

  18. Correlates of Administrative Professional Leadership in the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearon, Ronald W.

    This study analyzed variance in county extension chairmen's (CEC) conformity to an administrative performance leadership (APL) concept of their role. Relationships between APL and agent morale and performance, CEC attributes, and CEC relationships with agents, were assessed. Results were reexamined after adjusting for effects of sex, level of…

  19. An Analysis of "In-Depth" Schools Conducted by Area Extension Agents in the Agricultural Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Clarence J.

    The Ohio Extension Service conducted "in-depth" schools on Dairy Genetics and Reproduction, Beef Cattle, Capital Management, and Fertilizer and Lime at area centers in Wooster, Defiance and Fremont, Washington Court House, and McConnellsville. Two thirds of the instructional staff were area agents; others were specialists, resident staff, research…

  20. Farmer Perceptions of Soil and Water Conservation Issues: Implications to Agricultural and Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas; Martin, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 731 Iowa farmers received 432 responses indicating that (1) groundwater and water quality were of greater concern than soil conservation; (2) field demonstrations and county meetings were useful information sources on these issues; and (3) government agencies such as cooperative extension and state universities were useful sources of…

  1. Adult Learning Principles for the Improvement of Agricultural Extension in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebun-Cole, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Basic adult education principles should be applied in the change agent-farmer relationship in extension education in Sierra Leone. They include active learners, lifelong learning, teacher knowledge as nonabsolute, and the farming community as the center of problem generation. (SK)

  2. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 3: PEP analysis and tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The objectives, conclusions, and approaches for accomplishing 19 specific design and analysis activities related to the installation of the power extension package (PEP) into the Orbiter cargo bay are described as well as those related to its deployment, extension, and retraction. The proposed cable handling system designed to transmit power from PEP to the Orbiter by way of the shuttle remote manipulator system is described and a preliminary specification for the gimbal assembly, solar array drive is included.

  3. Quality assurance of weather data for agricultural system model input

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well known that crop production and hydrologic variation on watersheds is weather related. Rarely, however, is meteorological data quality checks reported for agricultural systems model research. We present quality assurance procedures for agricultural system model weather data input. Problems...

  4. An extensive Markov system for ECG exact coding.

    PubMed

    Tai, S C

    1995-02-01

    In this paper, an extensive Markov process, which considers both the coding redundancy and the intersample redundancy, is presented to measure the entropy value of an ECG signal more accurately. It utilizes the intersample correlations by predicting the incoming n samples based on the previous m samples which constitute an extensive Markov process state. Theories of the extensive Markov process and conventional n repeated applications of m-th order Markov process are studied first in this paper. After that, they are realized for ECG exact coding. Results show that a better performance can be achieved by our system. The average code length for the extensive Markov system on the second difference signals was 2.512 b/sample, while the average Huffman code length for the second difference signals was 3.326 b/sample. PMID:7868151

  5. Integrating Sensory/Actuation Systems in Agricultural Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of new and more powerful perception systems for agriculture, such as computer-vision and global positioning systems. Due to these advances, the automation of agricultural tasks has received an important stimulus, especially in the area of selective weed control where high precision is essential for the proper use of resources and the implementation of more efficient treatments. Such autonomous agricultural systems incorporate and integrate perception systems for acquiring information from the environment, decision-making systems for interpreting and analyzing such information, and actuation systems that are responsible for performing the agricultural operations. These systems consist of different sensors, actuators, and computers that work synchronously in a specific architecture for the intended purpose. The main contribution of this paper is the selection, arrangement, integration, and synchronization of these systems to form a whole autonomous vehicle for agricultural applications. This type of vehicle has attracted growing interest, not only for researchers but also for manufacturers and farmers. The experimental results demonstrate the success and performance of the integrated system in guidance and weed control tasks in a maize field, indicating its utility and efficiency. The whole system is sufficiently flexible for use in other agricultural tasks with little effort and is another important contribution in the field of autonomous agricultural vehicles. PMID:24577525

  6. Integrating sensory/actuation systems in agricultural vehicles.

    PubMed

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of new and more powerful perception systems for agriculture, such as computer-vision and global positioning systems. Due to these advances, the automation of agricultural tasks has received an important stimulus, especially in the area of selective weed control where high precision is essential for the proper use of resources and the implementation of more efficient treatments. Such autonomous agricultural systems incorporate and integrate perception systems for acquiring information from the environment, decision-making systems for interpreting and analyzing such information, and actuation systems that are responsible for performing the agricultural operations. These systems consist of different sensors, actuators, and computers that work synchronously in a specific architecture for the intended purpose. The main contribution of this paper is the selection, arrangement, integration, and synchronization of these systems to form a whole autonomous vehicle for agricultural applications. This type of vehicle has attracted growing interest, not only for researchers but also for manufacturers and farmers. The experimental results demonstrate the success and performance of the integrated system in guidance and weed control tasks in a maize field, indicating its utility and efficiency. The whole system is sufficiently flexible for use in other agricultural tasks with little effort and is another important contribution in the field of autonomous agricultural vehicles. PMID:24577525

  7. Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education 1994 Conference Papers. Annual Conference (10th, Arlington, Virginia, March 24-26, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Roger E., Comp.

    Selected papers are as follows: "Member Perceptions of the Association for International Agricultural & Extension Education" (Eaton et al.); "Historical Review of U.S. Involvement in International Agricultural Education between World War II and Enactment of Title XII" (Thuemmel, Meaders); "Educational Needs of International Graduate Students as…

  8. Against the Grain: The Influence of Changing Agricultural Management on the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The rise of modern agriculture was one of the most transformative events in human history, and has forever changed our relationship to the natural world. By clearing tropical forests, practicing subsistence agriculture on marginal lands and intensifying industrialized farmland production, agricultural practices are changing the worldês landscapes in pervasive ways. In the past decade, we have made tremendous progress in monitoring agricultural expansion from satellites, and modeling associated environmental impacts. In the past decade, the Earth System Science research community has begun to recognize the importance of agricultural lands, particularly as they continue expanding at the expense of important natural ecosystems, potentially altering the planetês carbon cycle and climate. With the advent of new remote sensing and global modeling methods, several efforts have documented the expansion of agricultural lands, the corresponding loss of natural ecosystems, and how this may influence the earth system. But the geographic expansion of agricultural lands is not the whole story. While significant agricultural expansion (or extensification) has occurred in the past few decades, the intensification of agricultural practices Ð under the aegis of the -Green Revolution" Ð has dramatically altered the relationship between humans and environmental systems across the world. Simply put, many of the worldês existing agricultural lands are being used much more intensively as opportunities for agricultural expansion are being exhausted elsewhere. In the last 40 years, global agricultural production has more than doubled Ð although global cropland has increased by only 12% Ð mainly through the use of high yielding varieties of grain, increased reliance on irrigation, massive increases in chemical fertilization, and increased mechanization. Indeed, in the past 40 years there has been a 700% increase in global fertilizer use and a 70% increase in irrigated cropland area

  9. Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture.

    PubMed

    Chiarello

    2000-05-01

    A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations. PMID:10959107

  10. A Landscape Perspective on Sustainability of Agricultural Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Kaffka, Stephen R; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape sustainability of agricultural systems considers effects of farm activities on social, economic, and ecosystem services at local and regional scales. Sustainable agriculture entails: defining sustainability, developing easily measured indicators of sustainability, moving toward integrated agricultural systems, and offering incentives or imposing regulations to affect farmer behavior. A landscape perspective is useful because landscape ecology provides theory and methods for dealing with spatial heterogeneity, scaling, integration, and complexity. To implement agricultural sustainability, we propose adopting a systems perspective, recognizing spatial heterogeneity, addressing the influences of context, and integrating landscape-design principles. Topics that need further attention at local and regional scales include (1) protocols for quantifying material and energy flows; (2) effects of management practices; (3) incentives for enhancing social, economic, and ecosystem services; (4) integrated landscape planning and management; (5) monitoring and assessment; (6) effects of societal demand; and (7) consistent and holistic policies for promoting agricultural sustainability.

  11. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  12. Extensions of Hamiltonian systems dependent on a rational parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanu, Claudia Maria; Degiovanni, Luca; Rastelli, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    The technique of "extension" allows to build (d + 2)-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with a non-trivial polynomial in the momenta first integral of any given degree starting from a suitable d-dimensional Hamiltonian. Until now, the application of the technique was restricted to integer values of a certain fundamental parameter determining the degree of the additional first integral. In this article, we show how the technique of extension can be generalized to any rational value of the same parameter. Several examples are given, among them the two uncoupled oscillators and a special case of the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system.

  13. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  14. PROCAMS - A second generation multispectral-multitemporal data processing system for agricultural mensuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    PROCAMS (Prototype Classification and Mensuration System) has been designed for the classification and mensuration of agricultural crops (specifically small grains including wheat, rye, oats, and barley) through the use of data provided by Landsat. The system includes signature extension as a major feature and incorporates multitemporal as well as early season unitemporal approaches for using multiple training sites. Also addressed are partial cloud cover and cloud shadows, bad data points and lines, as well as changing sun angle and atmospheric state variations.

  15. Bearing lubrication system for extension housing of vehicular transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kubo, S.; Taga, Y.

    1986-11-11

    A bearing lubrication system is described for bearing means supported with an extension housing of an automatic transmission. The extension housing is connected at one end face flush to an end face of a transmission case. The transmission has a hydraulic control system including a valve casing fastened to the transmission case and a transmission output shaft supported in the extension housing. The extension housing has a sleeve yoke splined to the output shaft and fitted within the bearing means supported by the extension housing. The hydraulic control system includes a first passage formed in the transmission case for supply of hydraulic operating fluid under pressure from the valve means. The lubrication system is provided with a forced feed lubrication means comprising: second passage means, branched off from the first passage, for supplying hydraulic operating fluid to the bearing means thereby lubricating the bearing means. The second passage means includes a first passage portion running through the transmission case and terminating at the end face of the transmission case and a second passage portion running between a first terminus at the one end face and a second terminus discharging the fluid for lubrication of the bearing means; sealing means for connecting the first and second passage portions at the juncture of the end faces; throttle means, disposed within the second passage means, for limiting the flow of fluid therethrough; and fluid collecting means for establishing a pool of the fluid in contact with the bearing beneath the output shaft. The fluid collecting means comprises a weir and a trough formed in the extension housing and running between the weir and the bearing means.

  16. Diabetes on the Navajo nation: what role can gardening and agriculture extension play to reduce it?

    PubMed

    Lombard, Kevin A; Forster-Cox, Susan; Smeal, Dan; O'Neill, Mick K

    2006-01-01

    Navajo nation involving public health officials, nutritionists, and horticultural extension agents that could also be applied internationally in similar multicultural, semi-arid climates. PMID:17044752

  17. Revitalizing Rural America: A Cooperative Extension System Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Doug

    The survival of rural American farms and communities is dependent upon expansion of income and employment opportunities in rural areas. Recognizing the growing challenge for local leaders and the contribution that educational assistance can make, the Cooperative Extension System has identified Revitalizing Rural America as a priority program for…

  18. Three-Dimensional Extension of a Digital Library Service System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Long

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overall methodology and case study for the innovation and extension of a digital library, especially the service system. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the three-dimensional structure theory of the information service industry, this paper combines a comprehensive analysis with the practical experiences…

  19. A proboscis extension response protocol for investigating behavioral plasticity in insects: application to basic, biomedical, and agricultural research.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian H; Burden, Christina M

    2014-01-01

    Insects modify their responses to stimuli through experience of associating those stimuli with events important for survival (e.g., food, mates, threats). There are several behavioral mechanisms through which an insect learns salient associations and relates them to these events. It is important to understand this behavioral plasticity for programs aimed toward assisting insects that are beneficial for agriculture. This understanding can also be used for discovering solutions to biomedical and agricultural problems created by insects that act as disease vectors and pests. The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol was developed for honey bees (Apis mellifera) over 50 years ago to study how they perceive and learn about floral odors, which signal the nectar and pollen resources a colony needs for survival. The PER procedure provides a robust and easy-to-employ framework for studying several different ecologically relevant mechanisms of behavioral plasticity. It is easily adaptable for use with several other insect species and other behavioral reflexes. These protocols can be readily employed in conjunction with various means for monitoring neural activity in the CNS via electrophysiology or bioimaging, or for manipulating targeted neuromodulatory pathways. It is a robust assay for rapidly detecting sub-lethal effects on behavior caused by environmental stressors, toxins or pesticides. We show how the PER protocol is straightforward to implement using two procedures. One is suitable as a laboratory exercise for students or for quick assays of the effect of an experimental treatment. The other provides more thorough control of variables, which is important for studies of behavioral conditioning. We show how several measures for the behavioral response ranging from binary yes/no to more continuous variable like latency and duration of proboscis extension can be used to test hypotheses. And, we discuss some pitfalls that researchers commonly encounter

  20. A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brian H.; Burden, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Insects modify their responses to stimuli through experience of associating those stimuli with events important for survival (e.g., food, mates, threats). There are several behavioral mechanisms through which an insect learns salient associations and relates them to these events. It is important to understand this behavioral plasticity for programs aimed toward assisting insects that are beneficial for agriculture. This understanding can also be used for discovering solutions to biomedical and agricultural problems created by insects that act as disease vectors and pests. The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol was developed for honey bees (Apis mellifera) over 50 years ago to study how they perceive and learn about floral odors, which signal the nectar and pollen resources a colony needs for survival. The PER procedure provides a robust and easy-to-employ framework for studying several different ecologically relevant mechanisms of behavioral plasticity. It is easily adaptable for use with several other insect species and other behavioral reflexes. These protocols can be readily employed in conjunction with various means for monitoring neural activity in the CNS via electrophysiology or bioimaging, or for manipulating targeted neuromodulatory pathways. It is a robust assay for rapidly detecting sub-lethal effects on behavior caused by environmental stressors, toxins or pesticides. We show how the PER protocol is straightforward to implement using two procedures. One is suitable as a laboratory exercise for students or for quick assays of the effect of an experimental treatment. The other provides more thorough control of variables, which is important for studies of behavioral conditioning. We show how several measures for the behavioral response ranging from binary yes/no to more continuous variable like latency and duration of proboscis extension can be used to test hypotheses. And, we discuss some pitfalls that researchers commonly encounter

  1. Shuttle-tethered satellite system definition study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A system requirements definition and configuration study (Phase B) of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) was conducted during the period 14 November 1977 to 27 February 1979. Subsequently a study extension was conducted during the period 13 June 1979 to 30 June 1980, for the purpose of refining the requirements identified during the main phase of the study, and studying in some detail the implications of accommodating various types of scientific experiments on the initial verification flight mission. An executive overview is given of the Tethered Satellite System definition developed during the study. The results of specific study tasks undertaken in the extension phase of the study are reported. Feasibility of the Tethered Satellite System has been established with reasonable confidence and the groundwork laid for proceeding with hardware design for the verification mission.

  2. Stable transitivity of Heisenberg group extensions of hyperbolic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niţică, Viorel; Török, Andrei

    2014-04-01

    We consider skew-extensions with fibre the standard real Heisenberg group { H}_n of a uniformly hyperbolic dynamical system. We show that among the Cr extensions (r > 0) that avoid an obvious obstruction, those that are topologically transitive contain an open and dense set. More precisely, we show that an { H}_n -extension is transitive if and only if the { R}^{2n} -extension given by the Abelianization of { H}_n is transitive. A new technical tool introduced in the paper, which is of independent interest, is a diophantine approximation result. We show, under general conditions, the existence of an infinite set of approximate positive integer solutions for a diophantine system of equations consisting of a quadratic indefinite form and several linear equations. The set of approximate solutions can be chosen to point in a certain direction. The direction can be chosen from a residual subset of full measure of the set of real directions solving the system of equations exactly. Another contribution of the paper, which is used in the proof of the main result, but it is also of independent interest, is the solution of the so-called semigroup problem for the Heisenberg group. We show that for a subset S\\subset { H}_n , which avoids any maximal semigroup with non-empty interior, the closure of the semigroup generated by S is actually a group.

  3. Solid Propulsion Systems, Subsystems, and Components Service Life Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hundley, Nedra H.; Jones, Connor

    2011-01-01

    The service life extension of solid propulsion systems, subsystems, and components will be discussed based on the service life extension of the Space Transportation System Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and Booster Separation Motors (BSM). The RSRM is certified for an age life of five years. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident there were a number of motors that were approaching the end of their five year service life certification. The RSRM Project initiated an assessment to determine if the service life of these motors could be extended. With the advent of the Constellation Program, a flight test was proposed that would utilize one of the RSRMs which had been returned from the launch site due to the expiration of its five year service life certification and twelve surplus Chemical Systems Division BSMs which had exceeded their eight year service life. The RSRM age life tracking philosophy which establishes when the clock starts for age life tracking will be described. The role of the following activities in service life extension will be discussed: subscale testing, accelerated aging, dissecting full scale aged hardware, static testing full scale aged motors, data mining industry data, and using the fleet leader approach. The service life certification and extension of the BSMs will also be presented.

  4. Systems in peril: Climate change, agriculture and biodiversity in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocklin, Chris; Dibden, Jacqui

    2009-11-01

    This paper reflects on the interplay amongst three closely linked systems - climate, agriculture and biodiversity - in the Australian context. The advance of a European style of agriculture has imperilled Australian biodiversity. The loss and degradation of biodiversity has, in turn, had negative consequences for agriculture. Climate change is imposing new pressures on both agriculture and biodiversity. From a policy and management perspective, though, it is possible to envisage mitigation and adaptation responses that would alleviate pressures on all three systems (climate, agriculture, biodiversity). In this way, the paper seeks to make explicit the important connections between science and policy. The paper outlines the distinctive features of both biodiversity and agriculture in the Australian context. The discussion then addresses the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, followed by an overview of how climate change is impacting on both of these systems. The final section of the paper offers some commentary on current policy and management strategies that are targeted at mitigating the loss of biodiversity and which may also have benefits in terms of climate change.

  5. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 12: PEP data item descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Contractor information requirements necessary to support the power extension package project of the space shuttle program are specified for the following categories of data: project management; configuration management; systems engineering and test; manufacturing; reliability, quality assurance and safety; logistics; training; and operations.

  6. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 5: PEP environmental specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This specification establishes the natural and induced environments to which the power extension package may be exposed during ground operations and space operations with the shuttle system. Space induced environments are applicable at the Orbiter attach point interface location. All probable environments are systematically listed according to each ground and mission phase.

  7. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth.

    PubMed

    Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Moraes, Fernando C; Brasileiro, Poliana S; Salomon, Paulo S; Mahiques, Michel M; Bastos, Alex C; Almeida, Marcelo G; Silva, Jomar M; Araujo, Beatriz F; Brito, Frederico P; Rangel, Thiago P; Oliveira, Braulio C V; Bahia, Ricardo G; Paranhos, Rodolfo P; Dias, Rodolfo J S; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G; Pereira, Renato C; Leal, Camille V; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S; Moreira, Ana P B; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L; Teixeira, João B; Valle, Rogerio A B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-04-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 10(6)-km(2) plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume's eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km(2)) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth-ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  8. Application of principles of integrated agricultural systems: results from farmer panels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Integrated Agricultural Systems working group comprised of USDA-ARS scientists is examining different agricultural systems from various geographic regions of the United States to determine fundamental principles that underlie successful integrated agricultural systems. Our hypothesis is that prin...

  9. Modeling soil processes for adapting agricultural systems to climate variability and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, B.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change, drought, and agricultural intensification are increasing the demand for enhanced resource use efficiency (water, nitrogen and radiation). There is a global consensus between climate and agricultural scientists about the need to quantify the likely impacts of climate change on crop yields due to their significant consequences on food prices as well as the global economy. Crop models have been extensively tested for yields, but their validation for soil water balance, and carbon and nitrogen cycling in agricultural systems has been limited. The objective of this research is to illustrate the importance of modeling soil processes correctly to identify management strategy that allow cropping systems to adapt to climate variability and change. Results from the first phase of the AgMIP soil and crop rotation initiative will also be discussed.

  10. Sustainable Uses of FGD Gypsum in Agricultural Systems: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Watts, Dexter B; Dick, Warren A

    2014-01-01

    Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. Abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants, in major agricultural producing regions within the last two decades has attributed to this interest. Currently, published data on the long-term sustainability of FGD gypsum use in agricultural systems is limited. This has led to organization of the American Society of Agronomy's Community "By-product Gypsum Uses in Agriculture" and a special collection of nine technical research articles on various issues related to FGD gypsum uses in agricultural systems. A brief review of FGD gypsum, rationale for the special collection, overviews of articles, knowledge gaps, and future research directions are presented in this introductory paper. The nine articles are focused in three general areas: (i) mercury and other trace element impacts, (ii) water quality impacts, and (iii) agronomic responses and soil physical changes. While this is not an exhaustive review of the topic, results indicate that FGD gypsum use in sustainable agricultural production systems is promising. The environmental impacts of FGD gypsum are mostly positive, with only a few negative results observed, even when applied at rates representing cumulative 80-year applications. Thus, FGD gypsum, if properly managed, seems to represent an important potential input into agricultural systems. PMID:25602557

  11. Traceability System For Agricultural Productsbased on Rfid and Mobile Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Koji

    In agriculture, it is required to establish and integrate food traceability systems and risk management systems in order to improve food safety in the entire food chain. The integrated traceability system for agricultural products was developed, based on innovative technology of RFID and mobile computing. In order to identify individual products on the distribution process efficiently,small RFID tags with unique ID and handy RFID readers were applied. On the distribution process, the RFID tags are checked by using the readers, and transit records of the products are stored to the database via wireless LAN.Regarding agricultural production, the recent issues of pesticides misuse affect consumer confidence in food safety. The Navigation System for Appropriate Pesticide Use (Nouyaku-navi) was developed, which is available in the fields by Internet cell-phones. Based on it, agricultural risk management systems have been developed. These systems collaborate with traceability systems and they can be applied for process control and risk management in agriculture.

  12. Funding priorities in animal reproduction at the United States Department of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.

    PubMed

    Mirando, Mark A; Hamernik, Debora L

    2006-03-01

    The National Research Initiative (NRI) Competitive Grants Program is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's major competitive grants program and is administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). Since its inception in 1991, the NRI has funded competitive grants in the discipline of animal reproduction. Previously, this program provided funding for a broad range of projects encompassing almost every subdiscipline in reproductive biology of farm animals, including aquatic species important to the aquaculture industry. During fiscal year 2004, the NRI Animal Reproduction Program narrowed the focus of funding priorities to the topics of infertility, basic mechanisms regulating fertility, cryopreservation of gametes, reducing the postpartum interval to conception, and sterilization methods or development of monosex populations. In response to a directive to further narrow the focus of funding priorities for fiscal year 2005 and beyond, CSREES conducted a Stakeholder Workshop on Funding Priorities in Animal Reproduction at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction in Vancouver, Canada. More than 75 stakeholder scientists from a cross section of federal, public, and private institutions from across the United States participated in the workshop and provided recommendations to CSREES for future NRI-funding priorities in Animal Reproduction. The recommendations provided by stakeholders included continuing efforts to focus funding priorities into fewer high-impact areas relevant to animal agriculture and aquaculture. Recommendations also included movement back toward subdisciplines of animal reproduction that cut across all applicable species. The three funding priorities that consistently emerged as recommendations from the workshop participants were 1) gonadal function and production of gametes, 2) pituitary-hypothalamic function, and 3) embryo and conceptus development, including interaction between the

  13. APPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM MODELS IN ASSESSING AND MANAGING CONTAMINATION OF THE SOIL-WATER-ATMOSPHERE CONTINUUM IN AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last three decades, there has been a growing public concern about the adverse effects of modern agriculture on environmental quality and soil-water resources. In the mid-1980's, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) identified the need for models of whole agricultural systems that wi...

  14. Application of Agricultural System Models in Assessing and Managing Contamination of Soil-Water-Atmosphere Continuum in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last three decades, there has been a growing public concern about the adverse effects of modern agriculture on environmental quality and soil-water resources. In the mid-1980s, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) identified the need for models of whole agricultural systems th...

  15. SOIL QUALITY IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building and maintaining soil quality is the basis for successful organic farming. However, before developing a soil management plan focused on soil quality in organic systems, farmers should become knowledgeable regarding the overall philosophies, legalities, and marketing opportunities in organic ...

  16. A Food Systems Approach To Healthy Food And Agriculture Policy.

    PubMed

    Neff, Roni A; Merrigan, Kathleen; Wallinga, David

    2015-11-01

    Food has become a prominent focus of US public health policy. The emphasis has been almost exclusively on what Americans eat, not what is grown or how it is grown. A field of research, policy, and practice activities addresses the food-health-agriculture nexus, yet the work is still often considered "alternative" to the mainstream. This article outlines the diverse ways in which agriculture affects public health. It then describes three policy issues: farm-to-school programming, sustainability recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and antibiotic use in animal agriculture. These issues illustrate the progress, challenges, and public health benefits of taking a food systems approach that brings together the food, agriculture, and public health fields. PMID:26526249

  17. Quantification of isotopic turnover in agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, A.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic turnover, which is a proxy for the metabolic rate, is gaining scientific importance. It is quantified for an increasing range of organisms, from microorganisms over plants to animals including agricultural livestock. Additionally, the isotopic turnover is analyzed on different scales, from organs to organisms to ecosystems and even to the biosphere. In particular, the quantification of the isotopic turnover of specific tissues within the same organism, e.g. organs like liver and muscle and products like milk and faeces, has brought new insights to improve understanding of nutrient cycles and fluxes, respectively. Thus, the knowledge of isotopic turnover is important in many areas, including physiology, e.g. milk synthesis, ecology, e.g. soil retention time of water, and medical science, e.g. cancer diagnosis. So far, the isotopic turnover is quantified by applying time, cost and expertise intensive tracer experiments. Usually, this comprises two isotopic equilibration periods. A first equilibration period with a constant isotopic input signal is followed by a second equilibration period with a distinct constant isotopic input signal. This yields a smooth signal change from the first to the second signal in the object under consideration. This approach reveals at least three major problems. (i) The input signals must be controlled isotopically, which is almost impossible in many realistic cases like free ranging animals. (ii) Both equilibration periods may be very long, especially when the turnover rate of the object under consideration is very slow, which aggravates the first problem. (iii) The detection of small or slow pools is improved by large isotopic signal changes, but large isotopic changes also involve a considerable change in the input material; e.g. animal studies are usually carried out as diet-switch experiments, where the diet is switched between C3 and C4 plants, since C3 and C4 plants differ strongly in their isotopic signal. The

  18. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Brasileiro, Poliana S.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Bastos, Alex C.; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Silva, Jomar M.; Araujo, Beatriz F.; Brito, Frederico P.; Rangel, Thiago P.; Oliveira, Braulio C. V.; Bahia, Ricardo G.; Paranhos, Rodolfo P.; Dias, Rodolfo J. S.; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Pereira, Renato C.; Leal, Camille V.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S.; Moreira, Ana P. B.; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C.; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L.; Teixeira, João B.; Valle, Rogerio A. B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 106–km2 plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume’s eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km2) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth–ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  19. Sustaining the Earth's watersheds, agricultural research data system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS water resources program has developed a web-based data system, STEWARDS: Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data System to support research that encompasses a broad range of topics such as water quality, hydrology, conservation, land use, and soils. The data syst...

  20. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  1. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  2. An Analysis of the Level of Involvement of the County Staff Members by the County Extension Chairman in Decision Making in the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Max Gettys

    This study was to investigate some determinants and effects that relate to the degree of involvement of the county staff members by the County Extension Chairman in decision making. The population included 79 County Extension Chairmen who had been appointed to the position in the county and had been on the job at least one year, and 419 county…

  3. Program to justify life extension of older nuclear piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.K.; Dwight, J.E. Jr.; Morton, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has a history of more than 40 years devoted to the operation of nuclear reactors designed for research and experiments. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is one such operating reactor whose mission requires continued operation for an additional 25 years or more. Since the ATR is approaching its design life of twenty years, life extension evaluations have been initiated. Of particular importance are the associated high temperature, high pressure loop piping system supporting in--reactor experiments. Failure of this piping could challenge core safety margins. Since regulatory rules for nuclear power plant life extension are only in the formulation stage, the current technical guidance on this subject provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) or the commercial nuclear industry is incomplete. In the interim, order to assure continued safe operation of this piping beyond its initial design life, a program has been developed to provide the necessary technical justification for life extension. This paper describes a program that establishes Section 11 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code as the governing criteria document, retains B31.1 as the Code of record for Section 11 activities, specifies additional inservice inspection requirements more strict than Section 11, and relies heavily on flaw detection and fracture mechanics evaluations. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  4. The Potential of Interpersonal Relationships among Subject Matter Specialists for the Performance of the Integration Function on Behalf of Clients: Missouri Agricultural Extension as a Case in Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lionberger, Herbert F.; Cheng, Wei-Yaun

    Responses of 127 agricultural specialists concerning their information seeking and interactive contacts within the Missouri Extension Service revealed an interpersonal communicative network among subject matter specialists with a potential for performing the integration (putting together) function on behalf of farmers. This occurred in an…

  5. Collaboration as a Tool to Improve Career and Technical Education: A Qualitative Study of Successful Collaboration among Extension Agents and Agricultural Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Miller, Kimberley A.; Harlin, Julie; Rayfield, John

    2011-01-01

    Collaboration among Extension agents and agricultural science teachers has the potential to increase the reach of both organizations to serve clientele in obtaining critical skills and knowledge important to Career and Technical Education. However, successful collaboration requires that barriers be minimized and aspects of facilitation be…

  6. Extension Strategies Used To Develop a Traditional Farming Sector in an Advanced Agricultural Surrounding. The Case of the Nazareth Region in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    A case study of the Nazareth Region in Israel analyzed the extension strategies used to develop the traditional Arab farming sector in an advanced agricultural surrounding. As part of the study, the history of the Arab farmer before and after the creation of the State of Israel was given. The methodology for the study involved interviews with…

  7. Analysis And Assistant Planning System Ofregional Agricultural Economic Inform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jie; Zhang, Junfeng

    For the common problems existed in regional development and planning, we try to design a decision support system for assisting regional agricultural development and alignment as a decision-making tool for local government and decision maker. The analysis methods of forecast, comparative advantage, liner programming and statistical analysis are adopted. According to comparative advantage theory, the regional advantage can be determined by calculating and comparing yield advantage index (YAI), Scale advantage index (SAI), Complicated advantage index (CAI). Combining with GIS, agricultural data are presented as a form of graph such as area, bar and pie to uncover the principle and trend for decision-making which can't be found in data table. This system provides assistant decisions for agricultural structure adjustment, agro-forestry development and planning, and can be integrated to information technologies such as RS, AI and so on.

  8. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for pediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three subtypes of motor speech disorders. Part II describes the Madison Speech Assessment Protocol (MSAP), an approximately two-hour battery of 25 measures that includes 15 speech tests and tasks. Part III describes the Competence, Precision, and Stability Analytics (CPSA) framework, a current set of approximately 90 perceptual- and acoustic-based indices of speech, prosody, and voice used to quantify and classify subtypes of Speech Sound Disorders (SSD). A companion paper, Shriberg, Fourakis, et al. (2010) provides reliability estimates for the perceptual and acoustic data reduction methods used in the SDCS. The agreement estimates in the companion paper support the reliability of SDCS methods and illustrate the complementary roles of perceptual and acoustic methods in diagnostic analyses of SSD of unknown origin. Examples of research using the extensions to the SDCS described in the present report include diagnostic findings for a sample of youth with motor speech disorders associated with galactosemia (Shriberg, Potter, & Strand, 2010) and a test of the hypothesis of apraxia of speech in a group of children with autism spectrum disorders (Shriberg, Paul, Black, & van Santen, 2010). All SDCS methods and reference databases running in the PEPPER (Programs to Examine Phonetic and Phonologic Evaluation Records; [Shriberg, Allen, McSweeny, & Wilson, 2001]) environment will be disseminated without cost when complete. PMID:20831378

  9. New Directions for a New Decade. A Report to the Cooperative Extension System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This document, the first joint annual report issued by the Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (ES-USDA), and the Extension Committee on Organization and Policy (ECOP), summarizes the decisions made by the two organizations in November, 1989, and includes descriptive highlights of the process implemented by the cooperative extension…

  10. Connecting Marginal Rice Farmers to Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems in Vietnam Uplands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castella, Jean-Christophe; Slaats, Joep; Quang, Dang Dinh; Geay, Francois; Van Linh, Nguyen; Tho, Pham Thi Hanh

    2006-01-01

    In Vietnam, agricultural extension has contributed to rural development and poverty alleviation over the past two decades of agricultural decollectivization, but it was not very effective in reducing disparities within farmer communities. The study examined how better interactions of extension services with other agencies and information sources…

  11. Multi-User Space Link Extension (SLE) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Toby

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-User Space (MUS) Link Extension system, a software and data system, provides Space Link Extension (SLE) users with three space data transfer services in timely, complete, and offline modes as applicable according to standards defined by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). MUS radically reduces the schedule, cost, and risk of implementing a new SLE user system, minimizes operating costs with a lights-out approach to SLE, and is designed to require no sustaining engineering expense during its lifetime unless changes in the CCSDS SLE standards, combined with new provider implementations, force changes. No software modification to MUS needs to be made to support a new mission. Any systems engineer with Linux experience can begin testing SLE user service instances with MUS starting from a personal computer (PC) within five days. For flight operators, MUS provides a familiar-looking Web page for entering SLE configuration data received from SLE. Operators can also use the Web page to back up a space mission's entire set of up to approximately 500 SLE service instances in less than five seconds, or to restore or transfer from another system the same amount of data from a MUS backup file in about the same amount of time. Missions operate each MUS SLE service instance independently by sending it MUS directives, which are legible, plain ASCII strings. MUS directives are usually (but not necessarily) sent through a TCP-IP (Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol) socket from a MOC (Mission Operations Center) or POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) system, under scripted control, during "lights-out" spacecraft operation. MUS permits the flight operations team to configure independently each of its data interfaces; not only commands and telemetry, but also MUS status messages to the MOC. Interfaces can use single- or multiple-client TCP/IP server sockets, TCP/IP client sockets, temporary disk files, the system log, or standard in

  12. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Cabraal, R.A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-04-01

    The following subjects are included: demographic overview;Philippine development plans; financing of energy, agriculture and development projects; potential photovoltaic applications in Philippine agriculture; market assessment; and business environment. The applications cover fish/prawn hatchery operations, irrigation, maintenance facilities, grinding and milling, fish cultivation, salt production, ice manufacture, and agricultural extension services. (MHR)

  13. Ohio Agricultural Business and Production Systems. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Gayl M.; Kershaw, Isaac; Mokma, Arnie

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in agricultural business and production systems. Following an introduction, the Ohio College Tech Prep standards and program, and relevant definitions are described. Next are the technical competency profiles for these…

  14. Transformation and Transport Processes of Nitrogen in Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transformation and transport processes of nitrogen (N) in agricultural systems are discussed and information is provided on overall reservoir sizes for N. Nitrogen is ubiquitous in the environment and is required for the survival of all living things. It is also one of the most important essen...

  15. Remote sensing with unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Federal Aviation Administration is revising regulations for using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace. An important potential application of UAS may be as a remote-sensing platform for precision agriculture, but simply down-scaling remote sensing methodologies developed usi...

  16. Extensible query processing and data communication in geoscientific information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shek, Eddie Chi-Ho

    Research interest in geoscientific data management, processing, and dissemination has significantly increased over the last few years. Geoscientific applications are characterized by the massive size and spatio-temporal nature of their datasets, as well as the complexity and variety of their operations. In this dissertation, we study issues concerning data modeling, query processing, and data communication in an extensible distributed information system designed to satisfy the requirements imposed by the characteristics of geoscientific applications. Data model and computation architecture form the basis of an information system. It is important that they fit the requirements imposed by the application to be supported. We define a conceptually simple yet expressive scientific data modeling framework, called the Field data model, that captures the structure of a wide variety of scientific and traditional data structures. In addition, it models a number of common higher-order scientific computation patterns hence allowing application-specific operations fitting these patterns to be naturally and seamless introduced. Parallel evaluation is one of the most effective approaches to deliver high query performance. At the same time, geoscientific information systems have to be extensible to accommodate user-defined application-specific operations. To support extensibility in parallel query optimization, we introduce a model that allows the implicit parallelism available in scientific operations to be declaratively captured. Query parallelism algorithms are developed to demonstrate how these information can be exploited to systematically generate efficient parallel query execution plans. The cost of data communication in a scientific information system can be expensive despite the advancement of networking technology, especially during the delivery of data to user over a wide-area network such as the Internet. We present a flexible object-oriented framework called FALCON to

  17. An environmental impact assessment system for agricultural R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Geraldo Stachetti; Campanhola, Clayton; Kitamura, Paulo Choji

    2003-03-01

    A strategic planning process has been implemented at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) to introduce sustainable agriculture concepts in all steps of Research and Development (R and D). An essential part of the devised mission statement called for the impact assessment of all technology innovation resulting from R and D, under field conditions (ex-post). However, methods for impact assessment of technology innovations at the farmstead level appropriate for the institutional context were lacking. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) system (AMBITEC-AGRO) developed to attend that demand is composed by a set of weighing matrices constructed in an electronic spreadsheet. Impact indicators are evaluated in the field in an interview/survey, and weighed according to their spatial scale and importance toward effecting environmental impacts. The results of these weighing procedures are expressed graphically in the assessment spreadsheets. Finally, the indicator evaluations are composed into an Environmental Impact Index for the agricultural technology innovation.

  18. Extension of a standoff explosive detection system to CBRN threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Alan; Waterbury, Rob; Rose, Jeremy; Pohl, Ken; Eisterhold, Megan; Thorn, Thelma; Lee, Keesoo; Dottery, Ed

    2010-04-01

    Recent progress has been made on an explosive laser standoff detection system called TREDS-2 constructed from COTS components. The TREDS-2 system utilizes combination of Laser Induced Breakdown (LIBS), Townsend Effect Plasma Spectroscopy (TEPS) and Raman spectroscopy techniques with chemometric algorithms to detect hazardous materials. Extension of the detection capability of the TREDS-2 system on the real-time point detection of chemical, biological, radioactive, and nuclear threats has been tested and presented in this report. System performance of surface detection of a variety of CBRNE materials is shown. An overview of improvements to the explosives detection capabilities is given first. Challenges to sensing some specific CBRN threats are then discussed, along with the initial testing of TREDS-2 on CBRN surrogates on a limited number of surfaces. Signal processing using chemometric algorithms are shown as a demonstration of the system's capabilities. A path forward for using the specific technologies is also provided, as well as a discussion of the advantages that each technology brings to the CBRNE detection effort.

  19. Channel Extension in Deep-Water Distributive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyal, D. C.; Sheets, B. A.

    2007-12-01

    acceleration to Fr'-critical conditions and the formation of a depositional hydraulic jump, which perturbs sediment transport and ends channel extension. Similar morphodynamic length scale controls are observed in shallow water fan-delta experiments (e.g., SAFL DB-03) and in 2-D depositional cyclic steps. The experiments seem to explain two interesting observations from the earlier self-organized fan experiments and from real submarine fans. Firstly, the observation of 'perched' fills at the steep entrances to salt withdrawal minibasins (e.g., in the Gulf of Mexico) suggesting higher sedimentation rates (or inefficient sediment transport) on higher slopes (initially higher than at the slope break downstream). Secondly, strong progradation as the fan evolves and slope decreases in 'perched' fans suggests increasing flow efficiency on lower slopes, at least over a certain window of parameter space. Apparently deep water systems have a tendency to self-regulate even when flows differ significantly in initial density. The observed modulation to Fr'-critical flow appears to be an important control on length scales in deep- water distributive channel systems, potentially explaining strong deepwater progradation or 'delta-like' patterns that have remained paradoxical. Near critical conditions have been inferred from observations of many active submarine fans but the extent to which these results from conservative density currents apply to non-conservative and potentially 'ignitive' turbidity currents is the subject of ongoing investigation.

  20. Rapid assessment methods of resilience for natural and agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Juan C; Janssens, Marc J J

    2010-12-01

    The resilience, ecological function and quality of both agricultural and natural systems were evaluated in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Rain Forest of Rio de Janeiro through Rapid Assessment Methods. For this goal new indicators were proposed, such as eco-volume, eco-height, bio-volume, volume efficiency, and resilience index. The following agricultural and natural systems have been compared according: (i) vegetables (leaf, fruit and mixed); (ii) citrus; (iii) ecological system; (iv) cattle, (v) silvo-pastoral system, (vi) forest fragment and (vii) forest in regeneration stage (1, 2 and 3 years old). An alternative measure (index) of resilience was proposed by considering the actual bio-volume as a function of the potential eco-volume. The objectives and hypotheses were fulfilled; it is shown that there does exist a high positive correlation between resilience index, biomass, energy efficiency and biodiversity. Cattle and vegetable systems have lowest resilience, whilst ecological and silvo-pastoral systems have greatest resilience. This new approach offers a rapid, though valuable assessment tool for ecological studies, agricultural development and landscape planning, particularly in tropical countries. PMID:21152779

  1. A GEO Global Agricultural Water Productivity Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thenkabail, P. S.; Pozzi, W.; Miller, N. L.; Fekete, B.; Sheffield, J.; Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    Agriculture is the main consumer of freshwater, and improved precision and accuracy of the terrestrial water cycle requires a more reliable way of monitoring agricultural water use and agricultural water productivity. Wisser et al 2008 reported that agricultural water consumption over the satellite-determined crop acreage (from AVHRR, SPOT VGT), particularly for India and China (Thenkabail et al 2006) was 30% higher than the commonly used Food and Agricultural Organization country-reported agricultural crop census data. We propose further quantification and clarification of this error through the following methodology: 1) greater accuracy in measuring actual area and precise spatial distribution of irrigated and rainfed cropland areas, along with identification of crop types and cropping intensities; 2) satellite monitoring of actual evapotranspiration (water use) by croplands; 3) reconciling agricultural plot information and evapotranspiration against calculated stores of water and water budgets, as derived from a Global Hydrologic Model Multi-Model Ensemble; and (d) modeling and pin-pointing areas of low and high water productivity (WP) to optimize agricultural water use and thus save large quanta of water. We propose producing global irrigated and rainfed areas at finer scales using Landsat 30 m imagery in fusion with MODIS 250 m imagery using the spectral matching technique (Thenkabail et al 2009). Crop water use (water transpired by the crop) and crop water productivity maps can be prepared for terrestrial areas, by using the surface energy balance model, in which evapotranspiration fraction is provided from Landsat ETM+ and\\or MODIS thermal data, combined with locally derived meteorological data such as wind speed, humidity, incoming radiation, and other surface values to derive turbulent diffusion and finally computing reference evapotranspiration (e.g., Penman-Montieth approach), so that sensible heat flux may be deducted from net radiation to derive

  2. TMDL Implementation in Agricultural Landscapes: A Communicative and Systemic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Nicholas R.; Slotterback, Carissa Schively; Cadieux, Kirsten Valentine; Mulla, David J.; Pitt, David G.; Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2011-07-01

    Increasingly, total maximum daily load (TMDL) limits are being defined for agricultural watersheds. Reductions in non-point source pollution are often needed to meet TMDL limits, and improvements in management of annual crops appear insufficient to achieve the necessary reductions. Increased adoption of perennial crops and other changes in agricultural land use also appear necessary, but face major barriers. We outline a novel strategy that aims to create new economic opportunities for land-owners and other stakeholders and thereby to attract their voluntary participation in land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Our strategy has two key elements. First, focused efforts are needed to create new economic enterprises that capitalize on the productive potential of multifunctional agriculture (MFA). MFA seeks to produce a wide range of goods and ecosystem services by well-designed deployment of annual and perennial crops across agricultural landscapes and watersheds; new revenue from MFA may substantially finance land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Second, efforts to capitalize on MFA should use a novel methodology, the Communicative/Systemic Approach (C/SA). C/SA uses an integrative GIS-based spatial modeling framework for systematically assessing tradeoffs and synergies in design and evaluation of multifunctional agricultural landscapes, closely linked to deliberation and design processes by which multiple stakeholders can collaboratively create appropriate and acceptable MFA landscape designs. We anticipate that application of C/SA will strongly accelerate TMDL implementation, by aligning the interests of multiple stakeholders whose active support is needed to change agricultural land use and thereby meet TMDL goals.

  3. TMDL implementation in agricultural landscapes: a communicative and systemic approach.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Nicholas R; Slotterback, Carissa Schively; Cadieux, Kirsten Valentine; Mulla, David J; Pitt, David G; Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2011-07-01

    Increasingly, total maximum daily load (TMDL) limits are being defined for agricultural watersheds. Reductions in non-point source pollution are often needed to meet TMDL limits, and improvements in management of annual crops appear insufficient to achieve the necessary reductions. Increased adoption of perennial crops and other changes in agricultural land use also appear necessary, but face major barriers. We outline a novel strategy that aims to create new economic opportunities for land-owners and other stakeholders and thereby to attract their voluntary participation in land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Our strategy has two key elements. First, focused efforts are needed to create new economic enterprises that capitalize on the productive potential of multifunctional agriculture (MFA). MFA seeks to produce a wide range of goods and ecosystem services by well-designed deployment of annual and perennial crops across agricultural landscapes and watersheds; new revenue from MFA may substantially finance land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Second, efforts to capitalize on MFA should use a novel methodology, the Communicative/Systemic Approach (C/SA). C/SA uses an integrative GIS-based spatial modeling framework for systematically assessing tradeoffs and synergies in design and evaluation of multifunctional agricultural landscapes, closely linked to deliberation and design processes by which multiple stakeholders can collaboratively create appropriate and acceptable MFA landscape designs. We anticipate that application of C/SA will strongly accelerate TMDL implementation, by aligning the interests of multiple stakeholders whose active support is needed to change agricultural land use and thereby meet TMDL goals. PMID:21547434

  4. Greenhouse gas budget of agricultural systems: real possibility or dream?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Calanca, P.; Fuhrer, J.; Leifeld, J.; Jocher, M.; Volk, M.

    2003-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) by human activities are causing an increase of global mean temperature. Model calculations have shown that the rate of increase might have a decisive influence on the stability of the climate. It is therefore crucial to slow down the increase of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Storage of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere is mentioned as one possibility in the Kyoto protocol. Mitigation options to decrease GHG emissions in agricultural systems as well as to increase carbon stock in agricultural soils are in discussion. The quantification and verification of the GHG budget is a prerequisite to establish a trade within the Kyoto protocol. On the scientific level this comes down to a greenhouse gas budget for agricultural systems. Comparability and interpretation of GHG budgets depends on an appropriate and consistent choice of the considered system, especially the system boundaries. In this presentation we discuss the feasibility of such a budget for a the smallest unit: the yearly budget of grassland system. Differences between GHG budget and carbon budget will be assessed.

  5. Long-Term Farm Policy to Succeed the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 (Research, Extension, and Teaching). Part 5. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Departmental Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (June 6, 7, 12, and 13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This congressional hearing is the fifth of five volumes examining various aspects of agricultural research, extension, and teaching as a prelude to determining what changes are to be made in Title XIV of the farm bill. Focuses are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) biotechnology program plans and regulatory concerns and the public benefits…

  6. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  7. Agricultural biodiversity, social-ecological systems and sustainable diets.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo; Cogill, Bruce; Flichman, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    The stark observation of the co-existence of undernourishment, nutrient deficiencies and overweight and obesity, the triple burden of malnutrition, is inviting us to reconsider health and nutrition as the primary goal and final endpoint of food systems. Agriculture and the food industry have made remarkable advances in the past decades. However, their development has not entirely fulfilled health and nutritional needs, and moreover, they have generated substantial collateral losses in agricultural biodiversity. Simultaneously, several regions are experiencing unprecedented weather events caused by climate change and habitat depletion, in turn putting at risk global food and nutrition security. This coincidence of food crises with increasing environmental degradation suggests an urgent need for novel analyses and new paradigms. The sustainable diets concept proposes a research and policy agenda that strives towards a sustainable use of human and natural resources for food and nutrition security, highlighting the preeminent role of consumers in defining sustainable options and the importance of biodiversity in nutrition. Food systems act as complex social-ecological systems, involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Nutritional patterns and environment structure are interconnected in a mutual dynamic of changes. The systemic nature of these interactions calls for multidimensional approaches and integrated assessment and simulation tools to guide change. This paper proposes a review and conceptual modelling framework that articulate the synergies and tradeoffs between dietary diversity, widely recognised as key for healthy diets, and agricultural biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, crucial resilience factors to climate and global changes. PMID:25068204

  8. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An array deployment assembly, power regulation and control assembly, the necessary interface, and display and control equipment comprise the power extension package (PEP) which is designed to provide increased power and duration, as well as reduce fuel cell cryogen consumption during Spacelab missions. Compatible with all currently defined missions and payloads, PEP imposes minimal weight and volume penalties on sortie missions, and can be installed and removed as needed at the launch site within the normal Orbiter turnaround cycle. The technology on which it is based consists of a modified solar electric propulsion array, standard design regulator and control equipment, and a minimally modified Orbiter design. The requirements from which PEP was derived, and the system and its performance capabilities are described. Features of the recommended project are presented.

  9. REDUCING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL AND NON-AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS: MITIGATING OFF-SITE TRANSPORT OF PESTICIDES WITH RUNOFF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality surveys have detected numerous pesticides in surface waters of urban and agricultural areas. The intense use of pesticides in highly managed turf systems and agriculture is of concern due to their potential adverse effects on the quality of surface waters, impacting drinking water reso...

  10. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  11. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  12. Collaboration and Cooperation in a Global Community. Annual Meeting of the Association for International Agriculture and Extension Education (9th, Arlington, Virginia, March 18-20, 1993). Conference Proceedings, Volume IX, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, James E., Comp.

    This conference proceedings presents the following papers: "Some Thoughts on Agricultural Education and Training in a New South Africa" (Bembridge); "Do Zimbabweans Want Agricultural and Extension Education?" (Steele et al.); "Perceived Professional Competencies Needed by Extension Specialists and Agents in Khorasan State of Islamic Republic of…

  13. Effect of the Relationship between Agricultural Extension Agents and Wheat Farmers in Medina Region, Saudi Arabia, on the Adoption of Appropriate Wheat Production Practices. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 91-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakri, Mohammad Saleh

    The relationship between agricultural extension agents and wheat farmers in the Medina region, Saudi Arabia, was analyzed, based on each group's perception of the relationship. Participants were 73 randomly selected wheat farmers and 31 of 34 agricultural extension agents working in the region during spring 1990. Farmers were interviewed, and…

  14. Integrating Digital Response Systems within a Diversity of Agricultural Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciarappa, William; Quinn, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators have new computer-assisted tools as audience response systems (clickers) for increasing educational effectiveness and improving assessment by facilitating client input. From 2010-2012, 26 sessions involving 1093 participants in six diverse client categories demonstrated wide audience acceptance and suitability of clickers in…

  15. Improvements and Extensions for Joint Polar Satellite System Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Feeley, J. H.; Miller, S. W.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS replaced the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the old POES system managed by the NOAA. JPSS satellites will carry sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for the JPSS is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3), data processing and product delivery. CGS's data processing capability processes the data from the JPSS satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for S-NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the JPSS program. The EDRs for S-NPP are currently undergoing an extensive Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) campaign. Changes identified by the Cal/Val campaign are coming available for implementation into the operational system in support of both S-NPP and JPSS-1 (scheduled for launch in 2017). Some of these changes will be available in time to update the S-NPP algorithm baseline, while others will become operational just prior to JPSS-1 launch. In addition, new capabilities, such as higher spectral and spatial resolution, will be exercised on JPSS-1. This paper will describe changes to current algorithms and products as a result of the Cal/Val campaign and related initiatives for improved capabilities. Improvements include Cross Track Infrared Sounder high spectral

  16. Agricultural Extension Agents' Perceptions of Effective Teaching Strategies for Adult Learners in the Master Beef Producer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Robert; Harder, Amy; Carter, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to explore and describe how Extension agents selected teaching strategies for adult audiences. Andragogy is hypotheses concerning the attributes of adult learners (Knowles, Swanson, & Holton III, 2005). Extension agents responsible for teaching the Master Beef Producer (MBP) program were purposively…

  17. Investigating Leadership Characteristics and Attitudes toward Creativity According to Agency Context for Agriculture Extension Agents in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravina, Maria Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward creativity and leadership characteristics according to the agency context for extension agents in Uruguay. Extension agents come from the three different agency contexts in Uruguay of the University, government, and private institutions. Leadership characteristics are those that combine…

  18. Evolutionary ecology of mycorrhizal functional diversity in agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Erik; Toby Kiers, E

    2010-09-01

    The root systems of most agronomic crops are colonized by diverse assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), varying in the functional benefits (e.g. nutrient transfer, pathogen protection, water uptake) provided to hosts. Little is known about the evolutionary processes that shape the composition of these fungal assemblages, nor is it known whether more diverse assemblages are beneficial to crop productivity. In this review we aim to identify the evolutionary selection pressures that shape AMF diversity in agricultural systems and explore whether promotion of AMF diversity can convincingly be linked to increases in agricultural productivity and/or sustainability. We then ask whether farmers can (and should) actively modify evolutionary selection pressures to increase AMF functioning. We focus on three agriculturally imposed selection regimes: tillage, fertilization, and continuous monoculture. We find that the uniform nature of these practices strongly selects for dominance of few AMF species. These species exhibit predictable, generally non-beneficial traits, namely heavy investment in reproduction at the expense of nutrient scavenging and transfer processes that are beneficial for hosts. A number of focus-points are given based on empirical and theoretical evidence that could be utilized to slow down negative selection pressures on AMF functioning, therein increasing crop benefit. PMID:25567946

  19. Evolutionary ecology of mycorrhizal functional diversity in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, Erik; Toby Kiers, E

    2010-01-01

    The root systems of most agronomic crops are colonized by diverse assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), varying in the functional benefits (e.g. nutrient transfer, pathogen protection, water uptake) provided to hosts. Little is known about the evolutionary processes that shape the composition of these fungal assemblages, nor is it known whether more diverse assemblages are beneficial to crop productivity. In this review we aim to identify the evolutionary selection pressures that shape AMF diversity in agricultural systems and explore whether promotion of AMF diversity can convincingly be linked to increases in agricultural productivity and/or sustainability. We then ask whether farmers can (and should) actively modify evolutionary selection pressures to increase AMF functioning. We focus on three agriculturally imposed selection regimes: tillage, fertilization, and continuous monoculture. We find that the uniform nature of these practices strongly selects for dominance of few AMF species. These species exhibit predictable, generally non-beneficial traits, namely heavy investment in reproduction at the expense of nutrient scavenging and transfer processes that are beneficial for hosts. A number of focus-points are given based on empirical and theoretical evidence that could be utilized to slow down negative selection pressures on AMF functioning, therein increasing crop benefit. PMID:25567946

  20. From discrete elements to continuum fields: Extension to bidisperse systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak R.; Thornton, Anthony R.; Weinhart, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Micro-macro transition methods can be used to, both, calibrate and validate continuum models from discrete data obtained via experiments or simulations. These methods generate continuum fields such as density, momentum, stress, etc., from discrete data, i.e. positions, velocity, orientations and forces of individual elements. Performing this micro-macro transition step is especially challenging for non-uniform or dynamic situations. Here, we present a general method of performing this transition, but for simplicity we will restrict our attention to two-component scenarios. The mapping technique, presented here, is an extension to the micro-macro transition method, called coarse-graining, for unsteady two-component flows and can be easily extended to multi-component systems without any loss of generality. This novel method is advantageous; because, by construction the obtained macroscopic fields are consistent with the continuum equations of mass, momentum and energy balance. Additionally, boundary interaction forces can be taken into account in a self-consistent way and thus allow for the construction of continuous stress fields even within one element radius of the boundaries. Similarly, stress and drag forces can also be determined for individual constituents of a multi-component mixture, which is critical for several continuum applications, e.g. mixture theory-based segregation models. Moreover, the method does not require ensemble-averaging and thus can be efficiently exploited to investigate static, steady and time-dependent flows. The method presented in this paper is valid for any discrete data, e.g. particle simulations, molecular dynamics, experimental data, etc.; however, for the purpose of illustration we consider data generated from discrete particle simulations of bidisperse granular mixtures flowing over rough inclined channels. We show how to practically use our coarse-graining extension for both steady and unsteady flows using our open-source coarse

  1. From discrete elements to continuum fields: Extension to bidisperse systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak R.; Thornton, Anthony R.; Weinhart, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Micro-macro transition methods can be used to, both, calibrate and validate continuum models from discrete data obtained via experiments or simulations. These methods generate continuum fields such as density, momentum, stress, etc., from discrete data, i.e. positions, velocity, orientations and forces of individual elements. Performing this micro-macro transition step is especially challenging for non-uniform or dynamic situations. Here, we present a general method of performing this transition, but for simplicity we will restrict our attention to two-component scenarios. The mapping technique, presented here, is an extension to the micro-macro transition method, called coarse-graining, for unsteady two-component flows and can be easily extended to multi-component systems without any loss of generality. This novel method is advantageous; because, by construction the obtained macroscopic fields are consistent with the continuum equations of mass, momentum and energy balance. Additionally, boundary interaction forces can be taken into account in a self-consistent way and thus allow for the construction of continuous stress fields even within one element radius of the boundaries. Similarly, stress and drag forces can also be determined for individual constituents of a multi-component mixture, which is critical for several continuum applications, e.g. mixture theory-based segregation models. Moreover, the method does not require ensemble-averaging and thus can be efficiently exploited to investigate static, steady and time-dependent flows. The method presented in this paper is valid for any discrete data, e.g. particle simulations, molecular dynamics, experimental data, etc.; however, for the purpose of illustration we consider data generated from discrete particle simulations of bidisperse granular mixtures flowing over rough inclined channels. We show how to practically use our coarse-graining extension for both steady and unsteady flows using our open-source coarse

  2. Reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions: role of biotechnology, organic systems, and consumer behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All agricultural systems have environmental and societal costs and benefits that should be objectively quantified before recommending specific management practices. Agricultural biotechnology, which takes advantage of genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), along with organic cropping systems, econ...

  3. Multiscale Land surface feedbacks within agricultural and urban systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, D.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will first discuss the interplay between agricultural landscapes and regional hydroclimatology with particular emphasis on the US Corn Belt. Results and experiences from studies underway as part of a multistate project (Making Climate Information Useful 2 Usable- U2U) will be summarized. The presentation will also highlight experiences regarding the different challenges in developing the regional assessment and guidance regarding sustainable futures. Study results will also be compared with findings from other geographical regions where agriculture - climate linkages are stretching the limits of sustainable water use. A vulnerability framework that can be considered for such agriculture - climate - water links will also be presented. The second issue the presentation will discuss relates to the urban land surface feedbacks and efforts underway to guide efforts related to greening as well as regional landuse planning. The complex links between city structures, urban layouts, and regional climate will be synthesized and the framework regarding a decision support system that is being developed will be presented. Salient points of the modeling efforts, data challenges, and the need for linking multiple disciplines will be presented with special focus on droughts and the need for considering complex multiscale coupled interactions within the analysis.

  4. Exploring agricultural production systems and their fundamental components with system dynamics modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production in the United States is undergoing marked changes due to rapid shifts in consumer demands, input costs, and concerns for food safety and environmental impact. Agricultural production systems are comprised of multidimensional components and drivers that interact in complex wa...

  5. An Assessment of Agriculture and Natural Resource Extension Program Needs on American Indian Reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Hill, George

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a needs assessment involving American Indians and outreach professionals on reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. The survey featured 36 questions about agricultural and natural resource issues that may pose challenges on reservation lands. A comparison between reservation residents and…

  6. Design of a solar controlled environment agriculture system (SCEAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Landstrom, D.K.; Stickford, G.H.; Talbert, S.G.; Wilkinson, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    The overall objective of the SCEAS project was to integrate advanced greenhouse agriculture technology with various energy sources and innovative cooling/ventilation concepts to demonstrate technical and economic feasibility of these facilities in several climatic regions where conventional greenhouse technology will not permit yearround growing of certain crops. The designed facility is capable of high yields of practically any crop, even temperaturesensitive vegetables such as lettuce, in extremely hostile external environments. The recirculation and ventilation system provides considerable flexibility in precise control of temperature and humidity throughout the year and in reducing water and energy consumption.

  7. Extension Specialist Roles in Communities of Interest and Place: An Example from the Agriculture-Wildlife Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Eileen M.

    2010-01-01

    The role of land-grant university Extension specialist originates in a community of place, enters into communities of interest to leverage resources or partnership opportunities, and returns to the local level with more effective outcomes than possible by operating solely within the community of place. A case study describes synergistic specialist…

  8. Demand for Agricultural Extension Services among Small-Scale Maize Farmers: Micro-Level Evidence from Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gido, Eric O.; Sibiko, Kenneth W.; Ayuya, Oscar I.; Mwangi, Joseph K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine the level and determinants of demand for extension services among small-scale maize farmers in Kenya. Design/methodology/approach: Based on an exploratory research design, primary data were collected from a sample of 352 households through face-to-face interviews. Focus group discussions were…

  9. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  10. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  11. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  12. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  13. TECHNOLOGY, COMPLEXITY AND CHANGE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technological advances have greatly impacted agricultural production. Some innovations have been specifically designed to address problems or shortcomings in current production practices, while others have been borrowed from other disciplines and adapted to agriculture. Many of the advances in agric...

  14. Differences in Aquatic Communities Between Wetlands Created by an Agricultural Water Recycling System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of an agricultural water recycling system known as the wetland reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to s...

  15. Spatial analysis of extension fracture systems: A process modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Little consensus exists on how best to analyze natural fracture spacings and their sequences. Field measurements and analyses published in geotechnical literature imply fracture processes radically different from those assumed by theoretical structural geologists. The approach adopted in this paper recognizes that disruption of rock layers by layer-parallel extension results in two spacing distributions, one representing layer-fragment lengths and another separation distances between fragments. These two distributions and their sequences reflect mechanics and history of fracture and separation. Such distributions and sequences, represented by a 2 ?? n matrix of lengthsL, can be analyzed using a method that is history sensitive and which yields also a scalar estimate of bulk extension, e (L). The method is illustrated by a series of Monte Carlo experiments representing a variety of fracture-and-separation processes, each with distinct implications for extension history. Resulting distributions of e (L)are process-specific, suggesting that the inverse problem of deducing fracture-and-separation history from final structure may be tractable. ?? 1985 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  16. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Steigelman, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-07-01

    A month-long study in Mexico was aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture. The types of applications considered are those requiring less than 15 kw of power. The applications include irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing and animal raising. Descriptions are provided of power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing. The Mexican market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principal advantages are recognition of the technical superiority of American photovoltaics and the favorable reputation of several American PV firms already active in the Mexican market. Major disadvantages include lack of government incentives for PV use, cheap domestic energy sources, extensive electric grid, high first cost of PV, competition from Mexican and other non-US PV companies, and lack of financing. Given these parameters the market for PV in the Mexican agricultural sector during the period 1981 to 1986, will be relatively small, about 605 kwp. However, other sectors where the market for PV is likely to be more favorable than for agriculture include: rural services, telecommunications and cathodic protection. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financing constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sources available to the private sector.

  17. Lake Urmia (Iran): can future socio-ecologically motivated river basin management restore lake water levels in an arid region with extensive agricultural development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazel, Nasim; Berndtsson, Ronny; Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Klove, Bjorn; Madani, Kaveh

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest hyper saline lakes located in northwest of Iran, is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and Ramsar site, protected as a national park and, supports invaluable and unique biodiversity and related ecosystem services for the region's 6.5 million inhabitants. Due to increased development of the region's water resources for agriculture and industry and to a certain extent climate change, the lake has started to shrink dramatically since 1995 and now is holding less than 30 percent of its volume. Rapid development in agricultural sector and land-use changes has resulted in immense construction of dams and water diversions in almost all lake feeding rivers, intensifying lake shrinking, increasing salinity and degrading its ecosystem. Recently, lake's cultural and environmental importance and social pressure has raised concerns and brought government attention to the lake restoration plans. Along with poor management, low yield agriculture as the most water consuming activity in the region with, rapid, insufficient development is one of the most influential drivers in the lake desiccation. Part of the lake restoration plans in agricultural sector is to restrict the agricultural areas in the main feeding river basins flowing mostly in the southern part of the lake and decreasing the agricultural water use in this area. This study assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed plans and its influence on the lake level rise and its impacts on economy in the region using a system dynamics model developed for the Lake consist of hydrological and agro-economical sub-systems. The effect of decrease in agricultural area in the region on GDP and region economy was evaluated and compared with released water contribution in lake level rise for a five year simulation period.

  18. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 4: PEP functional specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The functional, performance, design, and test requirements for the Orbiter power extension package and its associated ground support equipment are defined. Both government and nongovernment standards and specifications are cited for the following subsystems: electrical power, structural/mechanical, avionics, and thermal control. Quality control assurance provisions and preparation for delivery are also discussed.

  19. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, D.; Steingass, H.; Nolfi, J.

    1981-10-01

    The results of a month-long study in Nigeria conducted in February 1981 are detailed. The study was aimed at assessing in the 1981 to 1986 market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture. Information on technically and economically feasible applications, and assessments of business, government and financial climate for photovoltaic sales are provided. The study concluded that the market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems will be large, the primary reasons being the availability of capital and the high premium placed on high reliability, low maintenance power systems. A market exists for such agricultural/rural applications as: micro-irrigation, veterinary units, grain grinding, dryers, produce coolers, ice makers, water/boreholes, and health, education and extension services. Other markets with high PV sales potential include: remote local government centers, public and private communication systems, TV battery chargers, domestic power supply and cathodic protection. The potential market for photovoltaics in the 1981 to 1986 time frame is estimated at about 1.9 to 4.7 MW. The major purchaser in the near-term would be the federal and state governments.

  20. The limitations of environmental management systems in Australian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cary, John; Roberts, Anna

    2011-03-01

    The efficacy of government-supported programs to encourage improved management of land and water systems associated with agricultural land in Australia has been mixed. The broad approach of Australian governments is reviewed briefly. Evidence is presented from case assessments of a program to promote adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs) to improve environmental outcomes from agricultural practices. EMSs are systems implemented to manage the environmental impacts and ameliorate environmental risk associated with business activity. Data are presented on reported EMS activity and experience of four selected groups of farmers in Victoria, south-eastern Australia, representing broad-acre cropping, beef and dairy farming. The pro-environmental behaviours of farmers were mediated through voluntary adoption of government and industry sponsored EMSs, often with financial incentives and other support. Findings from the study were that adoption of EMS practices with sufficient public benefits is unlikely to occur at sufficient scale for significant environmental impact. Farmers more readily adopted practices which were financially beneficial than those which had a positive environmental impact. Although the focus on voluntary market-based instrument (MBI) type programs is popular in western countries, enforcing regulation is an important, but usually politically unpopular, component of land use policy. The comparative advantage of EMSs differed for the industries studied, but overall there were insufficient market drivers for widespread EMS adoption in Australia. Environmental outcomes could be more effectively achieved by directly funding land management practices which have highest public net benefits. Having a clear and unambiguous management objective for a particular land management policy is more likely to achieve outcomes than having multiple objectives as occurs in a number of international programs currently. PMID:21084146

  1. WEBGIS based CropWatch online agriculture monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Wu, B.; Zeng, H.; Zhang, M.; Yan, N.

    2015-12-01

    CropWatch, which was developed by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has achieved breakthrough results in the integration of methods, independence of the assessments and support to emergency response by periodically releasing global agricultural information. Taking advantages of the multi-source remote sensing data and the openness of the data sharing policies, CropWatch group reported their monitoring results by publishing four bulletins one year. In order to better analysis and generate the bulletin and provide an alternative way to access agricultural monitoring indicators and results in CropWatch, The CropWatch online system based on the WEBGIS techniques has been developed. Figure 1 shows the CropWatch online system structure and the system UI in Clustering mode. Data visualization is sorted into three different modes: Vector mode, Raster mode and Clustering mode. Vector mode provides the statistic value for all the indicators over each monitoring units which allows users to compare current situation with historical values (average, maximum, etc.). Users can compare the profiles of each indicator over the current growing season with the historical data in a chart by selecting the region of interest (ROI). Raster mode provides pixel based anomaly of CropWatch indicators globally. In this mode, users are able to zoom in to the regions where the notable anomaly was identified from statistic values in vector mode. Data from remote sensing image series at high temporal and low spatial resolution provide key information in agriculture monitoring. Clustering mode provides integrated information on different classes in maps, the corresponding profiles for each class and the percentage of area of each class to the total area of all classes. The time series data is categorized into limited types by the ISODATA algorithm. For each clustering type, pixels on the map, profiles, and percentage legend are all linked

  2. Extension of a System Level Tool for Component Level Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Schallhorn, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of a numerical algorithm for network flow analysis code to perform multi-dimensional flow calculation. The one dimensional momentum equation in network flow analysis code has been extended to include momentum transport due to shear stress and transverse component of velocity. Both laminar and turbulent flows are considered. Turbulence is represented by Prandtl's mixing length hypothesis. Three classical examples (Poiseuille flow, Couette flow and shear driven flow in a rectangular cavity) are presented as benchmark for the verification of the numerical scheme.

  3. Extension of a System Level Tool for Component Level Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Schallhorn, Paul; McConnaughey, Paul K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of a numerical algorithm for network flow analysis code to perform multi-dimensional flow calculation. The one dimensional momentum equation in network flow analysis code has been extended to include momentum transport due to shear stress and transverse component of velocity. Both laminar and turbulent flows are considered. Turbulence is represented by Prandtl's mixing length hypothesis. Three classical examples (Poiseuille flow, Couette flow, and shear driven flow in a rectangular cavity) are presented as benchmark for the verification of the numerical scheme.

  4. Shaping Collective Functions in Privatized Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems: The Positioning and Embedding of a Network Broker in the Dutch Dairy Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines new organizational arrangements that have emerged in the context of a privatized extension system. It investigates the positioning and embedding of a network broker aimed at enhancing interaction in the privatized agricultural knowledge and information system (AKIS), to assess whether tensions reported in other sectors also…

  5. GORE Flow Reversal System and GORE Embolic Filter Extension Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-22

    Carotid Stenosis; Constriction, Pathologic; Carotid Artery Diseases; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Brain Diseases; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Pathological Conditions, Anatomical

  6. Patent term extension systems differentiate Japanese and US drug lifecycle management.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takayuki; Kano, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Drug lifecycle management (LCM) contributes to maximizing drug discovery investment returns. After initial drug approval, additional approvals can be sought for novel indications and formulations to extend product marketability. Patents provide additional barriers to entry and patent term extension systems facilitate extension of these. Several aspects of the US and Japanese patent term extension systems differ. Therefore, we compared both systems using a drug LCM case study to highlight the differences. Our findings indicate that the extension of multiple drug patents on multiple occasions in Japan produces a more complicated range of extended patent protections, compared with the US system. PMID:26360052

  7. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    This report integrates and extrapolates worldwide the results of the agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Philippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand-alone mode. The study focused on the needs of low- and middle-income countries. The major conclusions derived from the studies were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 - 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 - 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market-related factors influencing the potential for US PV sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long-term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have their governments support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  8. A speech recognition system for data collection in precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dux, David Lee

    Agricultural producers have shown interest in collecting detailed, accurate, and meaningful field data through field scouting, but scouting is labor intensive. They use yield monitor attachments to collect weed and other field data while driving equipment. However, distractions from using a keyboard or buttons while driving can lead to driving errors or missed data points. At Purdue University, researchers have developed an ASR system to allow equipment operators to collect georeferenced data while keeping hands and eyes on the machine during harvesting and to ease georeferencing of data collected during scouting. A notebook computer retrieved locations from a GPS unit and displayed and stored data in Excel. A headset microphone with a single earphone collected spoken input while allowing the operator to hear outside sounds. One-, two-, or three-word commands activated appropriate VBA macros. Four speech recognition products were chosen based on hardware requirements and ability to add new terms. After training, speech recognition accuracy was 100% for Kurzweil VoicePlus and Verbex Listen for the 132 vocabulary words tested, during tests walking outdoors or driving an ATV. Scouting tests were performed by carrying the system in a backpack while walking in soybean fields. The system recorded a point or a series of points with each utterance. Boundaries of points showed problem areas in the field and single points marked rocks and field corners. Data were displayed as an Excel chart to show a real-time map as data were collected. The information was later displayed in a GIS over remote sensed field images. Field corners and areas of poor stand matched, with voice data explaining anomalies in the image. The system was tested during soybean harvest by using voice to locate weed patches. A harvester operator with little computer experience marked points by voice when the harvester entered and exited weed patches or areas with poor crop stand. The operator found the

  9. Nitrate loading and isotopic signatures in subsurface agricultural drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, E L; Kellman, L M

    2011-01-01

    Artificially draining soils using subsurface tiles is a common practice on many agricultural fields. High levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) are often released from these systems; therefore, knowledge on the sources and processes controlling NO-N in drainage systems is needed. A dual isotope study (δN and δO) was used to investigate three subsurface drainage systems (shallow, conventional, and controlled) in Onslow, Nova Scotia, Canada. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify which drainage system more effectively reduced the NO-N loading, (ii) to examine differences in isotopic signatures under identical nutrient and cropping regimes for a fixed soil type, and (iii) to identify the utility of different drainage systems in controlling nutrient flows. Nitrate concentrations measured ranged from 0.92 to 11.8, from 2.3 to 17.3, and from 2.1 to 19.8 mg L for the shallow, conventional, and controlled drains, respectively. Total NO-N loading from shallow and controlled drains were 20 and 5.6 kg ha, respectively, lower than conventional (39.1 kg ha). The isotopic composition of NO-N for all drainage types appeared to be a mixture of two organic sources (manure and soil organic matter) via the process of nitrification. There was no evidence that denitrification played a significant role in removing NO-N during transport. Overall, shallow drainage reduced NO-N loading but offered no water conservation benefits. Combining the benefits of decreased NO-N loading from shallow systems with water control capability may offer the best solution to reducing nutrient loadings into water systems, achieving optimal crop yield, and decreasing drainage installation costs. PMID:21712595

  10. A Flexible, Extensible Online Testing System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Tim; Brookshaw, Leigh; Butler, Harry

    2011-01-01

    An online testing system developed for entry-skills testing of first-year university students in algebra and calculus is described. The system combines the open-source computer algebra system "Maxima" with computer scripts to parse student answers, which are entered using standard mathematical notation and conventions. The answers can involve…

  11. Application Of Colored Petri Net In Modeling Ofan Agricultural Enterprise Informationmanagement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangtian; Wang, Kaiyi; Sui, Jin; Liu, Chang; Liu, Zhongqiang

    Business system modeling of an agricultural enterprise is one of the difficulties in developing and researching an agricultural enterprise management information system. Given the inadequate description of concurrent and synchronal events in the traditional modeling methods, this paper presents a modeling method, which uses Colored Petri Net. The paper discusses the application of Colored Petri Net in system modeling with the example of an agricultural enterprise production management system model, and analyzes the feasibility and effectiveness of that model.

  12. Economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production within a biomass system

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Flaim, S.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production in the United States is discussed. The beverage fermentation processes are compared and contrasted with the wet milling of corn, and alternative agricultural products for alcohol production are discussed. Alcohol costs for different fermentation methods and for various agricultural crops (corn, sugar cane, sugar beets, etc.) are presented, along with a brief discussion of US government policy implications. (JMT)

  13. Life cycle assessment of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Santosh R; Johnston, John M; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Hawkins, Troy R

    2014-04-01

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricultural rainwater harvesting (ARWH) systems. We also summarize the design aspects of DRWH and ARWH systems adapted to the Back Creek watershed, Virginia. The baseline design reveals that the pump and pumping electricity are the main components of DRWH and ARWH impacts. For nonpotable uses, the minimal design of DRWH (with shortened distribution distance and no pump) outperforms municipal drinking water in all environmental impact categories except ecotoxicity. The minimal design of ARWH outperforms well water in all impact categories. In terms of watershed sustainability, the two minimal designs reduced environmental impacts, from 58% to 78% energy use and 67% to 88% human health criteria pollutants, as well as avoiding up to 20% blue water (surface/groundwater) losses, compared to municipal drinking water and well water. We address potential environmental and human health impacts of urban and rural RWH systems in the region. The Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) model-based life cycle inventory data were used for this study. PMID:24605844

  14. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT).

  15. Extension of spatiotemporal chaos in glow discharge-semiconductor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmet, Marat Fen, Mehmet Onur; Rafatov, Ismail

    2014-12-15

    Generation of chaos in response systems is discovered numerically through specially designed unidirectional coupling of two glow discharge-semiconductor systems. By utilizing the auxiliary system approach, [H. D. I. Abarbanel, N. F. Rulkov, and M. M. Sushchik, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4528–4535 (1996)] it is verified that the phenomenon is not a chaos synchronization. Simulations demonstrate various aspects of the chaos appearance in both drive and response systems. Chaotic control is through the external circuit equation and governs the electrical potential on the boundary. The expandability of the theory to collectives of glow discharge systems is discussed, and this increases the potential of applications of the results. Moreover, the research completes the previous discussion of the chaos appearance in a glow discharge-semiconductor system [D. D. Šijačić U. Ebert, and I. Rafatov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 056220 (2004).].

  16. Entropy meters and the entropy of non-extensive systems

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Elliott H.; Yngvason, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In our derivation of the second law of thermodynamics from the relation of adiabatic accessibility of equilibrium states, we stressed the importance of being able to scale a system's size without changing its intrinsic properties. This leaves open the question of defining the entropy of macroscopic, but unscalable systems, such as gravitating bodies or systems where surface effects are important. We show here how the problem can be overcome, in principle, with the aid of an ‘entropy meter’. An entropy meter can also be used to determine entropy functions for non-equilibrium states and mesoscopic systems. PMID:25002830

  17. Informa: An Extensible Framework for Group Response Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, Matthias

    Classroom clickers, also called group response systems, represent a form of technology-enhanced learning. An instructor can pose a question to the class during a lecture, and students can use their clicker devices to submit their answers. The system immediately aggregates the submissions and presents feedback to the instructor (and possibly the class).

  18. Phosphorus cycling in Montreal's food and urban agriculture systems.

    PubMed

    Metson, Geneviève S; Bennett, Elena M

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities' P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents' relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting. PMID:25826256

  19. Development of sensor systems for precision agriculture in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture (PA) is an information-based technology, using detailed information within an agricultural field to optimize production inputs on a spatially variable basis, maximize farm profit, and minimize environmental impact. Information collection and processing plays a very important ro...

  20. Representative Agricultural Pathways and Climate Impact Assessment for Pacific Northwest Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MU, J.; Antle, J. M.; Zhang, H.; Capalbo, S. M.; Eigenbrode, S.; Kruger, C.; Stockle, C.; Wolfhorst, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs) are projections of plausible future biophysical and socio-economic conditions used to carry out climate impact assessments for agriculture. The development of RAPs iss motivated by the fact that the various global and regional models used for agricultural climate change impact assessment have been implemented with individualized scenarios using various data and model structures, often without transparent documentation or public availability. These practices have hampered attempts at model inter-comparison, improvement, and synthesis of model results across studies. This paper aims to (1) present RAPs developed for the principal wheat-producing region of the Pacific Northwest, and to (2) combine these RAPs with downscaled climate data, crop model simulations and economic model simulations to assess climate change impacts on winter wheat production and farm income. This research was carried out as part of a project funded by the USDA known as the Regional Approaches to Climate Change in the Pacific Northwest (REACCH). The REACCH study region encompasses the major winter wheat production area in Pacific Northwest and preliminary research shows that farmers producing winter wheat could benefit from future climate change. However, the future world is uncertain in many dimensions, including commodity and input prices, production technology, and policies, as well as increased probability of disturbances (pests and diseases) associated with a changing climate. Many of these factors cannot be modeled, so they are represented in the regional RAPS. The regional RAPS are linked to global agricultural and shared social-economic pathways, and used along with climate change projections to simulate future outcomes for the wheat-based farms in the REACCH region.

  1. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Lytle, John K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT). This paper discusses the salient features of the NPSS Architecture including its interface layer, object layer, implementation for accessing legacy codes, numerical zooming infrastructure and its computing layer. The computing layer focuses on the use and deployment of these propulsion simulations on parallel and distributed computing platforms which has been the focus of NASA Ames. Additional features of the object oriented architecture that support MultiDisciplinary (MD) Coupling, computer aided design (CAD) access and MD coupling objects will be discussed. Included will be a discussion of the successes, challenges and benefits of implementing this architecture.

  2. Extension of the law of entropy increase to nonisolated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Nobuo

    1996-04-01

    The behavior of the entropy of stationary states in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated by use of ideal gases is investigated in an attempt to gain insight into the thermodynamics of open nonlinear systems. The second law of thermodynamics predicts that for an adiabatic CSTR, the change of entropy of the reactor contents in a stationary state relative to the inflow is always nonnegative. This is an example of the law of entropy increase in an isolated system. This law as such does not in general apply to a nonadiabatic CSTR, i.e., when the reactor exchanges heat with its environment. The law, however, can still be made valid for such systems under suitable conditions provided the entropy of a stationary state is measured relative to the equilibrium state that would be attained by isolating the stationary state from its surroundings. This is illustrated on the basis of a number of specific models.

  3. Energy Absorbing Seat System for an Agricultural Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A task was initiated to improve the energy absorption capability of an existing aircraft seat through cost-effective retrofitting, while keeping seat-weight increase to a minimum. This task was undertaken as an extension of NASA ongoing safety research and commitment to general aviation customer needs. Only vertical crash scenarios have been considered in this task which required the energy absorbing system to protect the seat occupant in a range of crash speeds up to 31 ft/sec. It was anticipated that, the forward and/or side crash accelerations could be attenuated with the aid of airbags, the technology of which is currently available in automobiles and military helicopters. Steps which were followed include, preliminary crush load determination, conceptual design of cost effective energy absorbers, fabrication and testing (static and dynamic) of energy absorbers, system analysis, design and fabrication of dummy seat/rail assembly, dynamic testing of dummy seat/rail assembly, and finally, testing of actual modified seat system with a dummy occupant. A total of ten full scale tests have been performed including three of the actual aircraft seat. Results from full-scale tests indicated that occupant loads were attenuated successfully to survivable levels.

  4. Designing and Implementing a Computerized Information Management System for Employment Demand Data in Agriculture/Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Arthur L.; Cooper, Gloria S.

    Planning for educational programs in agriculture/agribusiness demands knowledge of future employment demand for various occupations. At present, a functional and comprehensive occupational information system for agriculture/agribusiness does not exist. Systems that do exist, such as the Occupational Information System (OIS) and the Dictionary of…

  5. Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloruntoba, Abayomi; Adegbite, Dorcas A.

    2006-01-01

    University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga ("noxious witch weed") ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in…

  6. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Kishan

    2011-01-01

    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  7. Indicating anthropogenic effectson urban water system - indicators and extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, G.; Ufz-Team

    2003-04-01

    Urban water systems are polluted by diffusive and direct contribution of anthropogenic activities. Besides industrial contaminants like aromatic and chlorinated HC and other persistent organic compounds, the urban aquatic environment is increasingly polluted by low concentrated but high eco-toxic compounds as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, plasticizers which most have disrupt endocrine functions, and trace elements carried in by surface and sub-surface waste water and seeping processes. This contamination could have a longtime impact on the urban ecosystem and on the human health. The interdisciplinary project on risk assessment of water pollution was initiated to explore new methodologies for assessing human activities on the urban water system and processes among urban watersheds. In a first assumption we used a flow model concept with in- and output and surface water transport represented by the city of Halle, Germany, and the river Saale. The river Saale acts as surface water system collecting waste water inputs along the city traverse. We investigated the anthropogenic effect on the urban water system using the indicators hydrological parameters, compound specific pattern of complex organic substances and trace elements, isotopic signatures of water (H, O) and dissolved substances (sulfate, DIC, nitrate), pathogens, and microbiota. A first balance modeling showed that main ions are not very sensitive concerning the direct urban input into the river. Depending on the discharge of the river in high and low flood stages the load of dissolved matter has no specific urban effect. However, the concentration pattern of fragrances (tonalid, galaxolid) and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol) point to a different pollution along the city traverse: downstream of the sewage plant a higher load was observed in comparison to the upstream passage. Furthermore, a degradation ability of fungi and bacteria occurred in the bank sediments could be detected in lab experiments

  8. HyspIRI Measurements of Agricultural Systems in California: 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, P. A.; Kruger, E. L.; Singh, A.; Jablonski, A. D.; Kochaver, S.; Serbin, S.

    2015-12-01

    During 2013-2015, NASA collected high-altitude AVIRIS hyperspectral and MASTER thermal infrared imagery across large swaths of California in support of the HyspIRI planning and prototyping activities. During these campaigns, we made extensive measurements of photosynthetic capacity—Vcmax and Jmax—and their temperature sensitivities across a range of sites, crop types and environmental conditions. Our objectives were to characterize the physiological diversity of agricultural vegetation in California and develop generalizable algorithms to map these physiological parameters across several image acquisitions, regardless of crop type and canopy temperatures. We employed AVIRIS imagery to scale and estimate the vegetation parameters and MASTER surface temperature to provide context, since physiology responds exponentially to leaf temperature. We demonstrate a segmentation approach to disentangling leaf and background soil temperature, and then illustrate our retrievals of Vcmax and Jmax during overflight conditions across a large number of the 2013-2015 HyspIRI acquisitions. Our results show >80% repeatability (R2) across split sample jack-knifing, with RMSEs within 15% of the range of our data. The approach was robust across crop types (e.g., grape, almond, pistachio, avocado, pomegranate, oats, peppers, citrus, date palm, alfalfa, melons, beets) and leaf temperatures. A global imaging spectroscopy system such as HyspIRI will offer unprecedented ability to monitor agricultural crop performance under widely varying surface conditions.

  9. Case Analysis of Farm Agriculture Machinery Informatization Management Network System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Xi; Zhuang, Weidong

    In the process of China's agricultural modernization, especially agricultural machinery modernization, in terms of equipment, we've chose the way that foreign imports (and domestic research) with the combination of self-developed, in the software, it is difficult to fully apply this approach, the specific reasons are: the modernization of China's agriculture development model is diversified, it is difficult to find a unified management model, even in the scale of operations of the representative state-owned farms and the abroad farms are also very different management models. Due to various types of growth models of biological complexity, diverse climatic and geographical environment factors, coupled with the characteristics such as long cycle of agricultural production, high input, high-risk, and decentralized management, industrial management mode it is very difficult to apply. Moreover, the application of modern management tools is also difficult to quantify the benefits, leading to the current research and application are in a state of comparatively dropped behind.

  10. To establish pilot projects for agriculture renewable energy systems.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Holden, Tim [D-PA-17

    2010-09-29

    11/16/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Biotechnology, Specialty Crops, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Energy efficiency of Pacific Northwest agriculture irrigation pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.

    1987-03-01

    This document addresses the energy use and efficiency characteristics of pumping plants used to irrigate agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The principal focus of this document is on field information obtained from tests of irrigation pumping plants.

  12. Integration of agricultural and energy system models for biofuel assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a coupled modeling framework to capture the dynamic linkages between agricultural and energy markets that have been enhanced through the expansion of biofuel production, as well as the environmental impacts resulting from this expansion. The framework incorpor...

  13. Design of extensible meteorological data acquisition system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yin-hua; Zhang, Hui-jun; Li, Xiao-hui

    2015-02-01

    In order to compensate the tropospheric refraction error generated in the process of satellite navigation and positioning. Temperature, humidity and air pressure had to be used in concerned models to calculate the value of this error. While FPGA XC6SLX16 was used as the core processor, the integrated silicon pressure sensor MPX4115A and digital temperature-humidity sensor SHT75 are used as the basic meteorological parameter detection devices. The core processer was used to control the real-time sampling of ADC AD7608 and to acquire the serial output data of SHT75. The data was stored in the BRAM of XC6SLX16 and used to generate standard meteorological parameters in NEMA format. The whole design was based on Altium hardware platform and ISE software platform. The system was described in the VHDL language and schematic diagram to realize the correct detection of temperature, humidity, air pressure. The 8-channel synchronous sampling characteristics of AD7608 and programmable external resources of FPGA laid the foundation for the increasing of analog or digital meteorological element signal. The designed meteorological data acquisition system featured low cost, high performance, multiple expansions.

  14. A Smalltalk-based extension to traditional Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Korp, P.A.; Lurie, G.R.; Christiansen, J.H.

    1995-11-01

    The Dynamic Environmental Effects Model{copyright} (DEEM), under development at Argonne National Laboratory, is a fully object-based modeling software system that supports distributed, dynamic representation of the interlinked processes and behavior of the earth`s surface and near-surface environment, at variable scales of resolution and aggregation. Many of these real world objects are not stored in a format conducive to efficient GIS usage. Their dynamic nature, complexity and number of possible DEEM entity classes precluded efficient integration with traditional GIS technologies due to the loosely coupled nature of their data representations. To address these shortcomings, an intelligent object-oriented GIS engine (OOGIS) was developed. This engine provides not only a spatially optimized object representation, but also direct linkages to the underlying object, its data and behaviors.

  15. Definitions of temperature in non-extensive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2015-03-01

    Superstatistics (Beck and Cohen, 2003) is a proposed formalism for explaining the presence of non-Boltzmann distributions in Nature for systems out of equilibrium. The superstatistical ensemble is a superposition of canonical ensembles according to P (r --> , p --> | H) =∫0∞dβP (β | H) exp/(- β (r --> , p -->)) Z (β) , with P (β | H) the probability density for the inverse temperature parameter β. In this work we show that, in order for this formalism to be internally consistent, it is impossible to have a definition of β as an observable which is valid across all ``superstatistical'' ensembles. In other words, the shape of the ensemble cannot be determined by measuring temperature, only by measuring energy. Our results also reveal the fact that energy and temperature are not in the same footing as observables for non-canonical ensembles. Funding from FONDECYT 1140514.

  16. Systems and methods for an extensible business application framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, David G. (Inventor); Crawford, Michael (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and systems for editing data from a query result include requesting a query result using a unique collection identifier for a collection of individual files and a unique identifier for a configuration file that specifies a data structure for the query result. A query result is generated that contains a plurality of fields as specified by the configuration file, by combining each of the individual files associated with a unique identifier for a collection of individual files. The query result data is displayed with a plurality of labels as specified in the configuration file. Edits can be performed by querying a collection of individual files using the configuration file, editing a portion of the query result, and transmitting only the edited information for storage back into a data repository.

  17. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  18. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  19. Simulating semiarid dryland cropping systems using the precision agricultural landscape modeling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS) is a terrain and weather driven, and distributed parameter hydrological-biophysical model primarily used in the Midwestern United States. Recently, research was started to evaluate the effectiveness of PALMS on irrigated and on dryland cro...

  20. Extension to distributed annotation system: Summary and summaryplot commands.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Brookes, Anthony J

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies provided an effective way to generate data from entire genomes and test variants from thousands of individuals. The information acquired from analysing the data generated from high-throughput sequencing technologies provided useful insights into applications like whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing to discover the genetic cause of complex diseases and drug responses. The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is one of the proposed solution developed to share and unify biological data from multiple local and remote DAS annotation servers. The researchers can use DAS to request data from federated or centralised databases and integrate them into a unified view. Furthermore, with the use of Reference DAS servers, structural and sequence data can be used to accompany annotation data, for the pursue of new knowledge for a particular feature or region. In this paper, two additional commands, summary and summary-plot commands, to the existing DAS protocol are proposed and implemented. The proposed commands were created in order to give the users the capabilities to request a summary of features for a particular region of interest. The summary command was created in order to extend the capabilities of the current DAS protocol, while the summaryplot command was created to provide a more user-friendly alternative to standard XML DAS responses. Finally, three examples are presented based on the GENCODE annotation data. PMID:26738065

  1. Sequential growth for lifetime extension in biomimetic polypyrrole actuator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazin, J. C.; Mascaro, Stephen A.

    2015-04-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs) present prospective use in actuation and manipulation devices due to their low electrical activation requirements, biocompatibility, and mechanical performance. One of the main drawbacks with EAP actuators is a decrease in performance over extended periods of operation caused by over-oxidation of the polymer and general polymer degradation. Synthesis of the EAP material, polypyrrole with an embedded metal helix allows for sequential growth of the polymer during operation. The helical metal electrode acts as a scaffolding to support the polymer, and direct the 3-dimensional change in volume of the polymer along the axis of the helix during oxidative and reductive cycling. The metal helix also provides a working metal electrode through the entire length of the polymer actuator to distribute charge for actuation, as well as for sequential growth steps during the lifetime of operation of the polymer. This work demonstrates the method of sequential growth can be utilized after extended periods of use to partially restore electrical and mechanical performance of polypyrrole actuators. Since the actuation must be temporarily stopped to allow for a sequential growth cycle to be performed and reverse some of the polymer degradation, these actuator systems more closely mimic natural muscle in their analogous maintenance and repair.

  2. Drive system for the retraction/extension of variable diameter rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gmirya, Yuriy (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A drive system for a variable diameter rotor (VDR) system includes a plurality of rotor blade assemblies with inner and outer rotor blade segments. The outer blade segment being telescopically mounted to the inner blade segment. The VDR retraction/extension system includes a drive housing mounted at the root of each blade. The housing supports a spool assembly, a harmonic gear set and an electric motor. The spool assembly includes a pair of counter rotating spools each of which drive a respective cable which extends through the interior of the inboard rotor blade section and around a pulley mounted to the outboard rotor blade section. In operation, the electric motor drives the harmonic gear set which rotates the counter rotating spools. Rotation of the spools causes the cables to be wound onto or off their respective spool consequently effecting retraction/extension of the pulley and the attached outboard rotor blade section relative the inboard rotor blade section. As each blade drive system is independently driven by a separate electrical motor, each independent VDR blade assembly is independently positionable.

  3. Soil organic carbon sequestration with conservation agricultural systems in the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southeastern USA has approximately 111 million acres (45 Mha) in agricultural production. This extensive land resource has the potential to sequester soil organic C (SOC), especially following historical conversion of land, first from native forest to intensively cultivated cropland and more re...

  4. MULTI-DISCIPLINARY TEAMS - A NECESSITY FOR RESEARCH IN PRECISION AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture may offer great promise for the future, but extensive additional research is required if that promise is to be realized. The research will not be easy, for few, if any, individuals have sufficiently broad training in the many disciplines (e.g. economics, engineering, crop and ...

  5. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Moon, H J; Kim, T I; Kim, H W; Han, M Y

    2013-10-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. PMID:23892044

  6. Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    2006-01-01

    As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

  7. The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Zareen; Pretty, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter–gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods by agricultural and forager communities in 22 countries of Asia and Africa (36 studies) is 90–100 species per location. Aggregate country estimates can reach 300–800 species (e.g. India, Ethiopia, Kenya). The mean use of wild species is 120 per community for indigenous communities in both industrialized and developing countries. Many of these wild foods are actively managed, suggesting there is a false dichotomy around ideas of the agricultural and the wild: hunter–gatherers and foragers farm and manage their environments, and cultivators use many wild plants and animals. Yet, provision of and access to these sources of food may be declining as natural habitats come under increasing pressure from development, conservation-exclusions and agricultural expansion. Despite their value, wild foods are excluded from official statistics on economic values of natural resources. It is clear that wild plants and animals continue to form a significant proportion of the global food basket, and while a variety of social and ecological drivers are acting to reduce wild food use, their importance may be set to grow as pressures on agricultural productivity increase. PMID:20713393

  8. Integrability properties of a coupled KdV system and its supersymmetric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor, Adrián; Restuccia, Alvaro

    2016-05-01

    We discuss several integrability properties of a coupled KdV system. We obtain a new generalization of the already known static solutions for the system. We then consider the supersymmetric extension of the coupled KdV system, it is a new integrable system. We show that for particular Grassmann algebras the system is the limit of a Clifford algebra valued system with nice stability properties. We briefly discuss the hamiltonian structures of this supersymmetric integrable system.

  9. Ultimate drivers of native biodiversity change in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Norton, David A; Reid, Nick; Young, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to address land degradation and biodiversity loss while maintaining the production of plant and animal products is a key global challenge. Biodiversity decline as a result of vegetation clearance, cultivation, grazing, pesticide and herbicide application, and plantation establishment, amongst other factors, has been widely documented in agricultural ecosystems. In this paper we identify six ultimate drivers that underlie these proximate factors and hence determine what native biodiversity occurs in modern agricultural landscapes; (1) historical legacies; (2) environmental change; (3) economy; (4) social values and awareness; (5) technology and knowledge; and (6) policy and regulation. While historical legacies and environmental change affect native biodiversity directly, all six indirectly affect biodiversity by influencing the decisions that land managers make about the way they use their land and water resources. Understanding these drivers is essential in developing strategies for sustaining native biodiversity in agricultural landscapes into the future. PMID:26834971

  10. Three Dimensional Modeling of Agricultural Contamination of Groundwater: a Case Study in the Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbariyeh, S.; Snow, D. D.; Bartelt-Hunt, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Contamination of groundwater from nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural lands is an important environmental and water quality management issue. It is well recognized that in agriculturally intensive areas, fertilizers and pesticides may leach through the vadose zone and eventually reach groundwater, impacting future uses of this limited resource. While numerical models are commonly used to simulate fate and transport of agricultural contaminants, few models have been validated based on realistic three dimensional soil lithology, hydrological conditions, and historical changes in groundwater quality. In this work, contamination of groundwater in the Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site was simulated based on extensive field data including (1) lithology from 69 wells and 11 test holes; (2) surface soil type, land use, and surface elevations; (3) 5-year groundwater level and flow velocity; (4) daily meteorological monitoring; (5) 5-year seasonal irrigation records; (6) 5-years of spatially intensive contaminant concentration in 40 multilevel monitoring wells; and (7) detailed cultivation records. Using this data, a three-dimensional vadose zone lithological framework was developed using a commercial software tool (RockworksTM). Based on the interpolated lithology, a hydrological model was developed using HYDRUS-3D to simulate water flow and contaminant transport. The model was validated through comparison of simulated atrazine and nitrate concentration with historical data from 40 wells and multilevel samplers. The validated model will be used to predict potential changes in ground water quality due to agricultural contamination under future climate scenarios in the High Plain Aquifer system.

  11. Sustainable uses of FGD gypsum in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil/water quality has recently increased. Abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur (S) from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants, in major agricultural...

  12. Nitrogen in agricultural systems: Implications for conservation policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen is an important agricultural input that is critical for providing food to feed a growing world population. However, the introduction of large amount of reactive nitrogen into the environment has a number of undesirable impacts on water, terrestrial, and atmospheric resources. Careful manage...

  13. A decision support system for rainfed agricultural areas of Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural inhabitants of arid lands lack sufficient water to fulfill their agricultural and household needs. They do not have readily available technical information to support decisions regarding the course of action they should follow to handle the agro-climatic risk. In this paper, a computer model (...

  14. Interactions in Integrated Agricultural Systems: The Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 20th century, American agriculture underwent dramatic changes. At the beginning, farms were more diverse, dependent on animal traction, on-farm inputs and income, and after initial land grants nearly independent of government policy. Subsequently, social/political, economic, environmental...

  15. Agricultural Model for the Nile Basin Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bolt, Frank; Seid, Abdulkarim

    2014-05-01

    To analyze options for increasing food supply in the Nile basin the Nile Agricultural Model (AM) was developed. The AM includes state-of-the-art descriptions of biophysical, hydrological and economic processes and realizes a coherent and consistent integration of hydrology, agronomy and economics. The AM covers both the agro-ecological domain (water, crop productivity) and the economic domain (food supply, demand, and trade) and allows to evaluate the macro-economic and hydrological impacts of scenarios for agricultural development. Starting with the hydrological information from the NileBasin-DSS the AM calculates the available water for agriculture, the crop production and irrigation requirements with the FAO-model AquaCrop. With the global commodity trade model MAGNET scenarios for land development and conversion are evaluated. The AM predicts consequences for trade, food security and development based on soil and water availability, crop allocation, food demand and food policy. The model will be used as a decision support tool to contribute to more productive and sustainable agriculture in individual Nile countries and the whole region.

  16. Landscape context and plant community composition in grazed agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate humid grazinglands are an important component of the landscape of the northeastern Unites States. Grass-based agriculture is a major contributor to the economy of this region, but little is known about the basic ecology of these grazinglands. During an eight-year survey of 28 farms across ...

  17. CHEMICALS, RUNOFF, AND EROSION FROM AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - CREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CREAMS model can simulate pollutant movement on and from a field site, including such constituents as fertilizers (N and P), pesticides, and sediment. The effects of various agricultural practices can be assessed by simulation of the potential water, soil, nutrient, and pesti...

  18. Multifunctional systems approaches to water management for agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of anthropogenic chemicals on water quality, wildlife, and human health has received increasing attention in recent years. One potential source of anthropogenic compounds is land-based recycling programs which apply municipal wastes (biosolids) to large tracts of agricultural land in lie...

  19. Extension of Expiration Dates for Four Body System Listings. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    We are extending the expiration dates of the following body systems in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations: Musculoskeletal System, Cardiovascular System, Digestive System, and Skin Disorders. We are making no other revisions to these body systems in this final rule. This extension ensures that we will continue to have the criteria we need to evaluate impairments in the affected body systems at step three of the sequential evaluation processes for initial claims and continuing disability reviews. PMID:27487579

  20. Environmental Services from Agricultural Stormwater Detention Systems in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Knowles, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural Stormwater Detention Areas (ADAs) commonly exist for the purpose of downstream flood protection in high water table regions of Florida. In addition to flood protection, they are also considered an important Best Management Practice due to their presumed effectiveness in reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to the Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades (KLE) ecosystem. The KLE ecosystem has been adversely impacted due to excessive P loads. Despite their presumed water quality effectiveness, limited data exist on actual N and P treatment efficiencies. A study was conducted at two ADAs (ADA 1 and ADA 2) located in two row crop farms to quantify the total N and P treatment efficiencies. Water, N, and P inflow and outflows at both ADAs were monitored for a year. Results from ADA 1 suggested that P treatment efficiency was below zero indicating that the ADA was a source of P rather than a sink. On the other hand, N treatment efficiency was found to be 20%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 1 were 1.6 and 1.4 mg/l respectively, indicating a 9% reduction. Mean inflow and outflow P concentrations were 0.04 and 0.06 mg/l respectively, showing an increase of 67%. Although ADA 1 was effective in retaining N it was not for P. In contrast to ADA 1, the P treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was positive (20%). Nitrogen treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was 22%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 2 were 4.0 and 2.0 mg/l respectively, indicating 50% reduction. A reduction of 32% was observed for P concentrations with mean inflow and outflow P concentrations of 0.5 and 0.3 mg/l respectively. No P retention at ADA 1 was mainly due to low P adsorption capacity of the soil. Analysis of surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-20 cm) soil P retention characteristics suggested that ADA 1 had no remaining P storage capacity which resulted in it being a source of P. At ADA 2, a large fraction of the area still had P storage capacity which resulted in

  1. Using Coastal Fog to Support Sustainable Water Use in a California Agricultural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baguskas, S. A.; Loik, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of climate change threaten California farmers in a number of ways, most importantly through a decline in freshwater availability, concurrent with a rise in water demand. The future of California's multibillion-dollar agricultural industry depends on increasing water use efficiency on farms. In coastal California, the growing season of economically important crops overlaps with the occurrence of coastal fog, which buffers the summer dry season through shading effects and direct water inputs. While the impacts of coastal fog on plant biology have been extensively studied in natural ecosystems, very few studies have evaluated its direct effects on the water and energy budgets of agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to develop a mechanistic understanding of the relationships between coastal fog and the water and energy budgets of croplands in order to improve estimates of crop-scale evapotranspiration rates, which has potential to curtail groundwater use based on local cloud meteorology. We established three sites on strawberry farms along a coastal-inland gradient in the Salinas Valley, California. At each site, we installed a passive fog collector and a micrometeorological station to monitor variation in microclimate conditions. Flow meters were installed in drip lines to quantify irrigation amount and timing. To assess plant response to foggy and non-foggy conditions, we collected measurements of photosynthesis and transpiration rates at the leaf and canopy-scale between June-September 2015. We found that canopy-level transpiration rates on foggy days were reduced by half compared to sunny, clear days (1.5 and 3 mmol H2O m-2 s-1, respectively). Whereas the amount of direct fog water inputs to the soil did not differ significantly between foggy and clear days, average photosynthetically active radiation between 0900-1100 hr. was reduced from 1500 to 500 μmol photons m-2 s-1 between these sampling periods. Our results provide convincing

  2. From LACIE to GEOGLAM: Integrating Earth Observations into Operational Agricultural Monitoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-12-01

    Earth observation data, owing to their synoptic, timely and repetitive coverage, have long been recognized as an indispensible tool for agricultural monitoring at local to global scales. Research and development over the past several decades in the field of agricultural remote sensing has led to considerable capacity for crop monitoring within the current operational monitoring systems. These systems are relied upon nationally and internationally to provide crop outlooks and production forecasts as the growing season progresses. This talk will discuss the legacy and current state of operational agricultural monitoring using earth observations. In the US, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) have been collaborating to monitor global agriculture from space since the 1970s. In 1974, the USDA, NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) which demonstrated that earth observations could provide vital information on crop production, with unprecedented accuracy and timeliness, prior to harvest. This experiment spurred many agencies and researchers around the world to further develop and evaluate remote sensing technologies for timely, large area, crop monitoring. The USDA and NASA continue to closely collaborate. More recently they jointly initiated the Global Agricultural Monitoring Project (GLAM) to enhance the agricultural monitoring and the crop-production estimation capabilities of the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service by using the new generation of NASA satellite observations including from MODIS and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instruments. Internationally, in response to the growing calls for improved agricultural information, the Group on Earth Observations (partnership of governments and international organizations) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative which was adopted

  3. Application of the Doppler lidar system to agricultural burning and air-sea interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, D.

    1980-01-01

    The Doppler lidar system is potentially a very powerful measurement system. Three areas concerning the system are discussed: (1) error analysis of the system to verify the results; (2) application of the system to agricultural burning in California central valley; and (3) oceanographic possibilities of the system.

  4. Characteristics of and Challenges for Advisors within a Privatized Extension System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuth, Ulrike; Knierim, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide evidence on the consequences of the privatization process in Brandenburg with a focus on the agricultural advisors' situation. Before the background of future European Union (EU) expectations on Farm Advisory Systems (FAS), their capacities and competences to respond to such challenges are discussed.…

  5. Sustaining the Earth's Watersheds-Agricultural Research Data System: Data development, user interaction, and operations management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To support the Agricultural Research Service’s Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in assessing USDA conservation programs and practices on soil and water quality, a publicly available web-based watershed data system, called Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data Sy...

  6. Exploring Agricultural Production Systems and Their Fundmental Components With Dynamic Modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is changing due to transitions in consumer demands, input costs, and concerns for food safety and the environment. Agricultural systems are comprised of multidimensional components, are quantitative and qualitative, and interact in complex ways. We developed a dynamic modeling environmen...

  7. Which Advisory System to Support Innovation in Conservation Agriculture? The Case of Madagascar's Lake Alaotra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faure, Guy; Penot, Eric; Rakotondravelo, Jean Chrysostome; Ramahatoraka, Haja Andrisoa; Dugue, Patrick; Toillier, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To promote sustainable agriculture, various development projects are encouraging farmers around Madagascar's Lake Alaotra to adopt conservation agriculture techniques. This article's objective is to analyze the capacity of a project-funded advisory system to accompany such an innovation and to design and implement an advisory method aimed…

  8. Integrated crop–livestock systems: Strategies to achieve synergy between agricultural production and environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world for food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce agriculture’s negative environmental impacts. We suggest that a cause of this dichotomy is loss of diversity within agricultural systems at field, farm and landscape scales....

  9. Higher Agricultural Universities Serve for "Sannong" by Offering English Human Resources Support System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Youqin; Cheng, Baole

    2008-01-01

    This paper puts higher agricultural English education how to serve for "Sannong" construction as priority, combining the actual market demand, based on teaching reform in the past few years, tries to explore English nurturing model and curriculum system for real delivery the agriculture-related qualified foreign language professionals.…

  10. State of science of phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  11. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staples, D.; Steingass, H.; Nolfi, J.

    1981-10-01

    The market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture was studied. Information is presented on technical and economically feasible applications, and assessments of the business, government and financial climate for photovoltaic sales. It is concluded that the market for stand-alone systems will be large because of the availability of captial and the high premium placed on high reliability, low maintenance power systems. Various specific applications are described, mostly related to agriculture.

  12. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Nigeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, D.; Steingass, H.; Nolfi, J.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture was studied. Information is presented on technical and economically feasible applications, and assessments of the business, government and financial climate for photovoltaic sales. It is concluded that the market for stand-alone systems will be large because of the availability of captial and the high premium placed on high reliability, low maintenance power systems. Various specific applications are described, mostly related to agriculture.

  13. Considerations for assessments of wadable drainage systems in the agriculturally dominated deltas of Arkansas and Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Stephens, W W; Moore, M T; Farris, J L; Bouldin, J L; Cooper, C M

    2008-10-01

    The watershed approach, currently used to assess regional streams in the United States, emphasizes least-disturbed reference conditions. Consideration of extensive wadable drainage systems found in Arkansas and Mississippi deltas challenges concepts of disturbance within a landscape of historic agricultural land use. Seventeen wadable drainage ditch sites in Arkansas and Mississippi deltas were characterized using water quality parameters and rapid bioassessment protocols. In all, 19 fish and 105 macroinvertebrate taxa were identified. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by coleopteran, dipteran, and hemipteran taxa at most drainage sites. Predominance of mobile, early colonists in ditches limits applicability of some metrics for assessment of stream integrity beyond prevalent conditions of ephemeral water quantity and habitat maintenance. This study provides evidence of considerable variability of physical characteristics, water quality, and fish and invertebrate metrics in wadable drainage systems. It indicates a disparity in usefulness of the watershed approach, emphasizing least-disturbed reference conditions, in assessing ecological integrity for a region with ditches as dominant landscape features. PMID:18305980

  14. Parasite management extension - challenging traditional practice through adoption of a systems approach.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L; Rhodes, A P; Dodunski, G

    2015-11-01

    The drivers for anthelmintic use today are substantial and anthelmintic use has become an embedded normalised behaviour. The cheapness and easy availability of anthelmintic products has meant that New Zealand farmers have had access to easy "solutions" for dealing with parasites and minimal forward planning or system redesign has been required. Despite 30 years of messaging about the emerging issue of anthelmintic resistance, management to reduce parasitism and the need to change behaviour, farmer practice has largely remained unchanged. Traditional approaches to extension, particularly around parasite management, appear to have been quite ineffective, apart from encouraging change in anthelmintic products and a switch to use of anthelmintics in combination. More effective approaches are required. The evolving nature of anthelmintic resistance and sustainable management of parasitism require attitudes, knowledge and behaviour to change. This is a challenge for all players in the industry; researchers, manufacturers and sellers, advisors and farmers. Looking beyond agriculture to the health sector provides some insight into models of decision making and behaviour change that can inform future strategies. Features in the health belief model including concepts of self-efficacy and cues to action appear to align with the issues, challenges and culture prevailing in farming, and parasite management in particular. Programmes through which farmers have made substantial beneficial behaviour change and the lessons learnt are discussed. Effecting consistent behaviour change around parasite management will involve new approaches by all participants in the process. And the process itself also needs to change. It requires an understanding of whole-farm systems, and the consideration of all the sources of influence on the farmer and the other participants in the process. The process of knowledge sharing involving the farmer should be based on equality; each person in the process

  15. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  16. 78 FR 63170 - Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) 2013-2016; Extension of Public Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) 2013-2016; Extension of Public Comment Period... Education Data System (IPEDS) 2013-2016''. The comment period for this information collection request...

  17. Relative impacts of land-use, management intensity and fertilization on microbial community structure in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of agricultural land management practices on soil prokaryotic diversity have not been well described. Soil microbial communities under three agricultural management systems (conventionally tilled cropland, hayed pasture, and grazed pasture) and two fertilizer systems [inorganic fertilizer (I...

  18. Climate change induced transformations of agricultural systems: insights from a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclère, D.; Havlík, P.; Fuss, S.; Schmid, E.; Mosnier, A.; Walsh, B.; Valin, H.; Herrero, M.; Khabarov, N.; Obersteiner, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change might impact crop yields considerably and anticipated transformations of agricultural systems are needed in the coming decades to sustain affordable food provision. However, decision-making on transformational shifts in agricultural systems is plagued by uncertainties concerning the nature and geography of climate change, its impacts, and adequate responses. Locking agricultural systems into inadequate transformations costly to adjust is a significant risk and this acts as an incentive to delay action. It is crucial to gain insight into how much transformation is required from agricultural systems, how robust such strategies are, and how we can defuse the associated challenge for decision-making. While implementing a definition related to large changes in resource use into a global impact assessment modelling framework, we find transformational adaptations to be required of agricultural systems in most regions by 2050s in order to cope with climate change. However, these transformations widely differ across climate change scenarios: uncertainties in large-scale development of irrigation span in all continents from 2030s on, and affect two-thirds of regions by 2050s. Meanwhile, significant but uncertain reduction of major agricultural areas affects the Northern Hemisphere’s temperate latitudes, while increases to non-agricultural zones could be large but uncertain in one-third of regions. To help reducing the associated challenge for decision-making, we propose a methodology exploring which, when, where and why transformations could be required and uncertain, by means of scenario analysis.

  19. Collaboration Method for EDI System for Mutual Provision of Extension Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiso, Hiroaki; Ohshita, Ryota; Michitaka, Nishio; Komoda, Norihisa

    The demand for extension courses is increasing. It is desirable for colleges to form a group and cooperate by adopting an agency system in providing courses. This requires a shared collaboration method that defines the flow of messages and payments. This paper presents such a method for the Inter-college EDI system. The user survey on the implemented system showed that 80% appreciated practicality of the system and 60% recognized increased efficiency.

  20. Extension of Expiration Dates for Two Body System Listings. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-24

    We are extending the expiration dates of the following body systems in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations: Endocrine Disorders and Immune System Disorders. We are making no other revisions to these body systems in this final rule. This extension ensures that we will continue to have the criteria we need to evaluate impairments in the affected body systems at step three of the sequential evaluation processes for initial claims and continuing disability reviews. PMID:27220121

  1. The Intelligent System of Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Based on Extension Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baiqing; Li, Yange; Zhang, Lin

    This thesis gives the general definition of the concepts of extension knowledge, extension data mining and extension data mining theorem in high dimension space, and also builds the IDSS integrated system by the rough set, expert system and neural network, develops the relevant computer software. From the diagnosis tests, according to the common diseases of myocardial infarctions, angina pectoris and hypertension, and made the test result with physicians, the results shows that the sensitivity, specific and accuracy diagnosis by the IDSS are all higher than the physicians. It can improve the rate of the accuracy diagnosis of physician with the auxiliary help of this system, which have the obvious meaning in low the mortality, disability rate and high the survival rate, and has strong practical values and further social benefits.

  2. Groundwater economics: An object-oriented foundation for integrated studies of irrigated agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater we...

  3. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  4. Extension of expiration dates for several body system listings. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    We are extending the expiration dates of the following body systems in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations: Growth Impairment, Musculoskeletal System, Respiratory System, Cardiovascular System, Digestive System, Hematological Disorders, Skin Disorders, Neurological, and Mental Disorders. We are making no other revisions to these body systems in this final rule. This extension will ensure that we continue to have the criteria we need to evaluate impairments in the affected body systems at step three of the sequential evaluation processes for initial claims and continuing disability reviews. PMID:25562897

  5. Extension of expiration dates for several body system listings. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-06-11

    We are extending the expiration dates of the following body systems in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations: Cardiovascular System, Endocrine System, Growth Impairment, Hematological Disorders, Musculoskeletal System, Mental Disorders, Neurological, and Respiratory System. We are making no other revisions to these body system listings. This extension will ensure that we continue to have in the listings the criteria we need to evaluate impairments in the affected body systems at the appropriate steps of the sequential evaluation processes for initial claims and continuing disability reviews. PMID:20540223

  6. Extension of expiration dates for several body system listings. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-02-26

    We are extending the expiration dates of the following body systems in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations: Growth Impairment, Musculoskeletal System, Respiratory System, Cardiovascular System, Digestive System, Skin Disorders, and Neurological. We are making no other revisions to these body systems in this final rule. This extension will ensure that we continue to have the criteria we need to evaluate impairments in the affected body systems at step three of the sequential evaluation processes for initial claims and continuing disability reviews. PMID:24611210

  7. Extension of expiration dates for several body systems listings. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-06-13

    We are extending the expiration dates of the following body systems in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations: Growth Impairment, Musculoskeletal System, Respiratory System, Cardiovascular System, Digestive System, Hematological Disorders, Skin Disorders, Neurological, and Mental Disorders. We are making no other revisions to these body system listings in this final rule. This extension will ensure that we continue to have the criteria we need to evaluate impairments in the affected body systems at step three of the sequential evaluation processes for initial claims and continuing disability reviews. PMID:22730572

  8. Designing a Model for Integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the Iranian Agricultural Research System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifzadeh, Aboulqasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholam Hossein; Sharifi, Mahnoosh

    2009-01-01

    Capacity Development is needed in the Iranian Agricultural System. Integrating Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the agricultural research system is an appropriate capacity development mechanism. The appropriate application of ICTs and information such as a National Agricultural Information System requires a systemically…

  9. Changes in Soil Chemistry and Agricultural Return Flow in an Integrated Seawater Agriculture System (ISAS) Demonstration in Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Q.; Matiin, W. A.; Ahmad, F.

    2012-12-01

    Growing halophytes using Integrated Seawater Agriculture Systems (ISAS) offers a sustainable solution for the generation of biomass feedstock for carbon neutral biofuels - halophytes do not enter the foodchain and they do not compete with food-crops for natural resources. A field demonstration of ISAS in the coastal regions of Abu Dhabi, UAE, scheduled to start in 2013, will likely face a number of region-specific challenges not encountered in past demonstrations of ISAS at coastal locations in Mexico and Eritrea. The arid climate, unique soil chemistry (evaporite deposits, especially gypsum), and hypersaline coastal hydrogeology of Abu Dhabi will affect long-term halophyte agricultural productivity when Arabian Gulf seawater is applied to coastal soils as part of ISAS. Therefore, the changes in irrigation return flow quality and soil chemistry must be monitored closely over time to establish transient salt and water balances in order to assess the sustainability of ISAS in the region. As an initial phase of the ISAS demonstration project, numerical modeling of different seawater loadings onto coastal soils was conducted to estimate the chemical characteristics of soil and the irrigation return flow over time. These modeling results will be validated with field monitoring data upon completion of one year of ISAS operation. The results from this study could be used to (i) determine the optimal saline water loading that the soils at the ISAS site can tolerate, (ii) potential for sodicity of the soil with saline water application, (iii) impacts of land application of saline water on underlying coastal groundwater, and (iv) develop strategies to control soil water activities in favor of halophyte agricultural productivity.

  10. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater and sediments and mineralogy of sediments and grain coatings underlying the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Fishman, Neil S.; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected from June through October 2007 from seven plots at the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, and analyzed for a suite of pesticides (including fungicides) and other physical and chemical parameters (including sediment mineralogy) by the U.S. Geological Survey. Plots were selected for inclusion in this study on the basis of the crops grown and the pesticides used. Forty-one pesticides were detected in 14 water samples; these include 5 fungicides, 13 herbicides, 1 insecticide, and 22 pesticide degradates. The following pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in 50 percent or more of the groundwater samples: 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil, alachlor sulfonic acid, metolachlor oxanilic acid, metolachlor sulfonic acid, metalaxyl, and simazine. Dissolved-pesticide concentrations ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 36 micrograms per liter (for metolachlor sulfonic acid, a degradate of the herbicide metolachlor). The total number of pesticides found in groundwater samples ranged from 0 to 29. Fourteen pesticides were detected in sediment samples from continuous cores collected within each of the seven sampled plots; these include 4 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 7 pesticide degradates. Pesticide concentrations in sediment samples ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 34.2 nanograms per gram (for azoxystrobin). The total number of pesticides found in sediment samples ranged from 0 to 8. Quantitative whole-rock and grain-coating mineralogy of sediment samples were determined by x-ray diffraction. Whole-rock analysis indicated that sediments were predominantly composed of quartz. The materials coating the quartz grains were removed to allow quantification of the trace mineral phases present.

  11. Late Quaternary Arc-parallel Extension of the Kongur Extensional System (KES), Chinese Pamir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Yuan, Zhaode; Li, Wenqiao; Li, Tao; Owen, Lewis A.; Sobel, Edward R.; Hedrick, Kate

    2015-04-01

    Active deformation in the Chinese Pamir plateau is dominated by east-west extension along the active Kongur extensional system (KES). The KES lies along the northeastern margin of the Pamir at the western end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic belt, and is part of a regional fault system which accommodates east-west extension in the hanging wall of the active Main Pamir Thrust (MPT). Previous work has shown that the MPT has been active since at least the Late Oligocene and accommodates northward motion of the Pamir salient over the Tarim and Tajik basins. It has been proposed that North-directed thrusting along the Main Pamir thrust has been interpreted to be related to east-west extension in the northern Pamir by either extensional collapse of over-thickened crust, or radial thrusting, or oroclinal bending along the Main Pamir Thrust. Alternatively, the east-west extension is related to northward propagation of the right-slip Karakoram fault. A newer model relates the extension to gravitational collapse of the Pamir into the Tadjik depression. Clearly the precise driver remains poorly understood. To better understand the nature of extension in the Pamir and to test the existing models, late Quaternary slip rate along the KES need to be defined using geomorphic mapping, geodetic surveying, Be-10 surface exposure and depth profile dating to quantify rates of fault slip using multiple landforms as strain markers such as offset outwash terraces, lateral moraines, and landslides at five sites, to identify spatial patterns in deformation rates. The preliminary results show that the overall extension direction is subhorizontal, is oriented E-W, and occurs at a high rate of about 7 mm/yr along the Muji and Qimugan faults to the north and deceased to about 1 mm/yr at Kuzigan to the south near Tashkurgan town, which matches the pattern of GPS data. A regional compilation from this study and existing data shows that recent extension along the KES is arc-parallel extension

  12. Multivariate Climate-Weather Forecasting System: An Integrated Approach for Mitigating Agricultural Risks in Punjab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindranath, A.; Devineni, N.

    2015-12-01

    While India has a long history of prediction of the All India Monsoon, work on spatially specific attributes of the monsoon, as well as monsoon break periods has only recently emerged. However, from a risk management context, prognostic information of a single variable such as total precipitation or average temperature will be of less utility especially for specific operational purposes. An integrated regional climate-weather forecast system covering precipitation, temperature and humidity etc. over the year will benefit the farmers in the context of a specific decision time table for irrigation scheduling as well as for pre-season crop choices. Hence, contrary to the existing forecasting methods that develop multi time scale information of a single variable at a time, in this paper, we introduce an integrated regional multivariate climate-weather forecasting system that directly relates to agricultural decision making and risk mitigation. These multi-scale risk attributes include mutually dependent, spatially disaggregated statistics such as total rainfall, average temperature, growing degree days, relative humidity, total number of rainfall days/dry spell length, and cumulative water deficits that inform the potential irrigation water requirements for crops. Given that these attributes exhibit mutual dependence across space and time, we propose to explore common ocean-atmospheric conditions from the observations and the state of the art Global Circulation Models (GCMs) that can be utilized as the predictor variables for the forecasting system. Hierarchical Bayesian methods are be used to develop the integrated forecast system. The developed multivariate forecasts will be adapted and disseminated as decision tools for the farmers under the extension projects in Punjab region of India.

  13. Extension of expiration dates for two body system listings. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    We are extending the expiration dates of the following body systems in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations: Genitourinary Impairments and Hematological Disorders. We are making no other revisions to these body systems in this final rule. These extensions will ensure that we continue to have the criteria we need to evaluate impairments in the affected body systems at step three of the sequential evaluation processes for initial claims and continuing disability reviews. PMID:24040682

  14. Risk Evaluation of Bogie System Based on Extension Theory and Entropy Weight Method

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yanping; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    A bogie system is the key equipment of railway vehicles. Rigorous practical evaluation of bogies is still a challenge. Presently, there is overreliance on part-specific experiments in practice. In the present work, a risk evaluation index system of a bogie system has been established based on the inspection data and experts' evaluation. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative aspects, the risk state of a bogie system has been evaluated using an extension theory and an entropy weight method. Finally, the method has been used to assess the bogie system of four different samples. Results show that this method can assess the risk state of a bogie system exactly. PMID:25574159

  15. Risk evaluation of bogie system based on extension theory and entropy weight method.

    PubMed

    Du, Yanping; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    A bogie system is the key equipment of railway vehicles. Rigorous practical evaluation of bogies is still a challenge. Presently, there is overreliance on part-specific experiments in practice. In the present work, a risk evaluation index system of a bogie system has been established based on the inspection data and experts' evaluation. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative aspects, the risk state of a bogie system has been evaluated using an extension theory and an entropy weight method. Finally, the method has been used to assess the bogie system of four different samples. Results show that this method can assess the risk state of a bogie system exactly. PMID:25574159

  16. Extensible Flexible Optical System for Nano-scale Remote Sensing Satellite “PRISM”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuki; Kim, Sang Kyun; Kusakawa, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Kensuke; Tanaka, Takashi; Komatsu, Mitsuhito; Lambert, Casey; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    As traditional satellites successfully utilize extensible structures such as long magnetic booms or large antennae, the variety of space missions to be realized by nano-scale satellites would be greatly expanded if they employed such structures. Specifically for remote sensing applications, extensible structures are convenient for achieving long focal lengths required by the optics system. In our laboratory, a nano-scale remote sensing satellite “PRISM” has been developed with an expected launch date in the 2008 fiscal year. PRISM has an extensible boom with a telephoto lens at its tip, creating a refractive telescope, which on the orbit can acquire earth images with a resolution better than 30m. In this paper, we describe the design of the boom and present results from a micro-gravity experiment where the operation and system identification tests were performed.

  17. Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

    To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

  18. A framework for developing an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system from remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    With a changing climate, drought has become more intensified, of which agriculture is the major affected sector. Satellite observations have proven great utilities for real-time drought monitoring as well as crop yield estimation, and many remotely sensed indicators have been developed for drought monitoring based on vegetation growth conditions, surface temperature and evapotranspiration information. However, those current drought indicators typically don't take into account the different responses of various input information and the drought impacts during the growing season, revealing some limitations for effective agricultural drought monitoring and impact analysis. Therefore, the goal of this research is to build a framework for the development of an impact-oriented and remote sensing based agricultural drought indicator. Firstly, the global agricultural drought risk was characterized to provide an overview of the agricultural drought prone areas in the world. Then, the responses of different remotely sensed indicators to drought and the impacts of drought on crop yield from the remote sensing perspective during the growing season were explored. Based on previous works on drought risk, drought indicator response and drought impact analysis, an impact-oriented drought indicator will be prototyped from the integration of the drought responses of different indicators and the drought impacts during the growing season. This research can inform an impact-oriented agricultural drought indicator, help prototype an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system, and thus provide valuable inputs for effective agricultural management.

  19. 78 FR 18976 - Proposed Rate Extension and Opportunities for Public Review and Comment for the Cumberland System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Southeastern Power Administration Proposed Rate Extension and Opportunities for Public Review and Comment for the Cumberland System AGENCY: Southeastern Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of proposed rate extension. SUMMARY: Southeastern Power Administration (Southeastern) proposes to extend the...

  20. Authoring Effective Embedded Tutors: An Overview of the Extensible Problem Specific Tutor (xPST) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Stephen B.; Blessing, Stephen B.; Guo, Enruo

    2015-01-01

    The Extensible Problem Specific Tutor (xPST) allows authors who are not cognitive scientists and not programmers to quickly create an intelligent tutoring system that provides instruction akin to a model-tracing tutor. Furthermore, this instruction is overlaid on existing software, so that the learner's interface does not have to be made from…

  1. Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.

    2007-01-01

    In this project final report, entitled "Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas," we provide a detailed description and model representation for the wireless channel in the airport surface environment in this band. In this executive summary, we review report contents, describe the achieved objectives and major findings, and highlight significant conclusions and recommendations.

  2. 75 FR 22844 - Construction Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices and Training Requirements; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 5-2007 (72 FR 31160). Signed at... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Construction Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices and Training Requirements; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

  3. 78 FR 70091 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Deadline Extension and Import Statistics Relating to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... on July 29, 2013 (78 FR 45596) announced the launch of the 2013 GSP Annual Review, including, inter... Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee. BILLING CODE 3290-F4-P ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Deadline Extension and Import...

  4. 78 FR 73696 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... in the Federal Register of December 3, 2013, (78 FR 72571) extending the expiration date of the... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 RIN 0960-AH62 Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System... rule, we incorrectly stated the RIN as 0960-AH49. This correction changes the RIN to 0960-AH62. In...

  5. Application of methane fermentation technology into organic wastes in closed agricultural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Ryosuke; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    Sustainable and recycling-based systems are required in space agriculture which takes place in an enclosed environment. Methane fermentation is one of the most major biomass conversion technologies, because (1) it provides a renewable energy source as biogas including methane, suitable for energy production, (2) the nutrient-rich solids left after digestion can be used as compost for agriculture. In this study, the effect of the application of methane fermentation technology into space agriculture on the material and energy cycle was investigated.

  6. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associatedmore » with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.« less

  7. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.

  8. Convergent Bacterial Microbiotas in the Fungal Agricultural Systems of Insects

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Klepzig, Kier D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes. PMID:25406380

  9. 12 CFR 617.7620 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? 617.7620 Section 617.7620 Banks and... What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? System institutions electing to sell or lease acquired agricultural real estate or...

  10. 12 CFR 617.7620 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? 617.7620 Section 617.7620 Banks and... What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? System institutions electing to sell or lease acquired agricultural real estate or...

  11. Implementation of AN Agricultural Environmental Information System (aeis) for the Sanjiang Plain, Ne-China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Brocks, S.; Lenz-Wiedemann, V.; Miao, Y.; Jiang, R.; Chen, X.; Zhang, F.; Bareth, G.

    2012-07-01

    The Sino-German Project between the China Agricultural University and the University of Cologne, Germany, focuses on regional agro-ecosystem modelling. One major focus of the cooperation activity is the establishment of joint rice field experiment research in Jiansanjiang, located in the Sanjiang Plain (Heilongjiang Province, north-eastern part of China), to investigate the different agricultural practices and their impact on yield and environment. An additional task is to set-up an Agricultural Environmental Information System (AEIS) for the Sanjiang Plain (SJP), which covers more than 100 000 km2. Research groups from Geography (e.g. GIS & Remote Sensing) and Plant Nutrition (e.g. Precision Agriculture) are involved in the project. The major aim of the AEIS for the SJP is to provide information about (i) agriculture in the region, (ii) the impact of agricultural practices on the environment, and (iii) simulation scenarios for sustainable strategies. Consequently, the AEIS for the SJP provides information for decision support and therefore could be regarded as a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS), too. The investigation of agricultural and environmental issues has a spatial context, which requires the management, handling, and analysis of spatial data. The use of GIS enables the capture, storage, analysis and presentation of spatial data. Therefore, GIS is the major tool for the set-up of the AEIS for the SJP. This contribution presents the results of linking agricultural statistics with GIS to provide information about agriculture in the SJP and discusses the benefits of this method as well as the integration of methods to produce new data.

  12. The Role of Crop Systems Simulation in Agriculture and Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 30 to 40 years, simulation of crop systems has advanced from a neophyte science with inadequate computing power into a robust and increasingly accepted science supported by improved software, languages, development tools, and computer capabilities. Crop system simulators contain mathe...

  13. An airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  14. Organizational Issues Involved in the Development and Operation of Farm Informational Systems for Modernizing Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lionberger, Herbert F.

    The need for an information development system for farmers is discussed in this paper. Issues and alternatives are described in terms of the research-extension-teaching trinity, extension services, role combinations, specialist advisor issues, innovations, research orientation, reward structures, and information services. Information gathered in…

  15. Integrating NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Data Into Global Agricultural Decision Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Kempler, S.; Chiu, L.; Doraiswamy, P.; Liu, Z.; Milich, L.; Tetrault, R.

    2003-12-01

    Monitoring global agricultural crop conditions during the growing season and estimating potential seasonal production are critically important for market development of U.S. agricultural products and for global food security. Two major operational users of satellite remote sensing for global crop monitoring are the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) and the U.N. World Food Programme (WFP). The primary goal of FAS is to improve foreign market access for U.S. agricultural products. The WFP uses food to meet emergency needs and to support economic and social development. Both use global agricultural decision support systems that can integrate and synthesize a variety of data sources to provide accurate and timely information on global crop conditions. The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has begun a project to provide operational solutions to FAS and WFP, by fully leveraging results from previous work, as well as from existing capabilities of the users. The GES DAAC has effectively used its recently developed prototype TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS) to provide ESE data and information to the WFP for its agricultural drought monitoring efforts. This prototype system will be evolved into an Agricultural Information System (AIS), which will operationally provide ESE and other data products (e.g., rainfall, land productivity) and services, to be integrated into and thus enhance the existing GIS-based, decision support systems of FAS and WFP. Agriculture-oriented, ESE data products (e.g., MODIS-based, crop condition assessment product; TRMM derived, drought index product) will be input to a crop growth model in collaboration with the USDA Agricultural Research Service, to generate crop condition and yield prediction maps. The AIS will have the capability for remotely accessing distributed data, by being compliant with community-based interoperability standards, enabling easy access to

  16. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  17. Photovoltaic applications definition and photovoltaic system definition study in the agricultural sector. Volume 2: Technical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, R. W.; Nadolski, T. P.; Sparks, D. C.; Young, S. K.; Yingst, A.

    1980-05-01

    This volume describes the technical results of the study of potential photovoltaic (P/V) applications in US agriculture. The results presented address all technical aspects of the program and include a summary of agricultural energy consumption. The objectives of the technical effort reported were to: (1) identify and characterize agricultural energy demands that can effectively use P/V power systems; (2) develop effective P/V system designs for the four most promising applications; (3) determine performance and cost estimates for the designs; and (4) recommend systems for early test and demonstration and critical issues requiring further systems studies. The farms chosen for conceptual design include; (1) poultry layer farm, (2) hog production farm, (3) beef feedlot, and (4) year round vegetable farm.

  18. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-04-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  19. How can we harness quantitative genetic variation in crop root systems for agricultural improvement?

    PubMed

    Topp, Christopher N; Bray, Adam L; Ellis, Nathanael A; Liu, Zhengbin

    2016-03-01

    Root systems are a black box obscuring a comprehensive understanding of plant function, from the ecosystem scale down to the individual. In particular, a lack of knowledge about the genetic mechanisms and environmental effects that condition root system growth hinders our ability to develop the next generation of crop plants for improved agricultural productivity and sustainability. We discuss how the methods and metrics we use to quantify root systems can affect our ability to understand them, how we can bridge knowledge gaps and accelerate the derivation of structure-function relationships for roots, and why a detailed mechanistic understanding of root growth and function will be important for future agricultural gains. PMID:26911925

  20. Rolex: Resilience-oriented language extensions for extreme-scale systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lucas, Robert F.; Hukerikar, Saurabh

    2016-05-26

    Future exascale high-performance computing (HPC) systems will be constructed from VLSI devices that will be less reliable than those used today, and faults will become the norm, not the exception. This will pose significant problems for system designers and programmers, who for half-a-century have enjoyed an execution model that assumed correct behavior by the underlying computing system. The mean time to failure (MTTF) of the system scales inversely to the number of components in the system and therefore faults and resultant system level failures will increase, as systems scale in terms of the number of processor cores and memory modulesmore » used. However every error detected need not cause catastrophic failure. Many HPC applications are inherently fault resilient. Yet it is the application programmers who have this knowledge but lack mechanisms to convey it to the system. In this paper, we present new Resilience Oriented Language Extensions (Rolex) which facilitate the incorporation of fault resilience as an intrinsic property of the application code. We describe the syntax and semantics of the language extensions as well as the implementation of the supporting compiler infrastructure and runtime system. Furthermore, our experiments show that an approach that leverages the programmer's insight to reason about the context and significance of faults to the application outcome significantly improves the probability that an application runs to a successful conclusion.« less

  1. The Evaluation of Federal Programs in Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Resource Conservation, Research, and Forestry of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session (March 27, May 14, July 17, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    Three House of Representatives' subcommittee hearings were held in March, May, and July 1996 to evaluate the goals, priority setting, and advisory mechanisms of federal programs in agricultural research, education, and extension. To become competitive in global markets, farmers will need to rely on the research community to provide up-to-date…

  2. System design requirements for advanced rotary-wing agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemont, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Helicopter aerial dispersal systems were studied to ascertain constraints to the system, the effects of removal of limitations (technical and FAA regulations), and subsystem improvements. Productivity indices for the aircraft and swath effects were examined. Typical missions were formulated through conversations with operators, and differing gross weight aircraft were synthesized to perform these missions. Economic analysis of missions and aircraft indicated a general correlation of small aircraft (3000 lb gross weight) suitability for small fields (25 acres), and low dispersion rates (less than 32 lb/acre), with larger aircraft (12,000 lb gross weight) being more favorable for bigger fields (200 acres) and heavier dispersal rates (100 lb/acre). Operator problems, possible aircraft and system improvements, and selected removal of operating limitations were reviewed into recommendations for future NASA research items.

  3. Aerial applications dispersal systems control requirements study. [agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Cleary, W. L.; Rogers, W. F.; Simpson, W.; Sanders, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Performance deficiencies in aerial liquid and dry dispersal systems are identified. Five control system concepts are explored: (1) end of field on/off control; (2) manual control of particle size and application rate from the aircraft; (3) manual control of deposit rate on the field; (4) automatic alarm and shut-off control; and (5) fully automatic control. Operational aspects of the concepts and specifications for improved control configurations are discussed in detail. A research plan to provide the technology needed to develop the proposed improvements is presented along with a flight program to verify the benefits achieved.

  4. Research of Optimized Agricultural Information Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kui, Fang; Juan, Wang; Weiqiong, Bu

    The problems of information overload and resource disorientation which is caused by information explosion become more serious, especially for lots of farmers, who know little computer technologies. In order to provide information and knowledge conveniently, timely and efficiently to farmers, researchers do studies on recommendations system. In this paper, key technologies in recommender system are introduced. we provide a solution that construct a non-missing data user evaluation matrix through the clustering of the items. Addressing the differences in farmers' rating behavior, before making predictions, we normalize the user evaluation matrix.

  5. Identifying green infrastructure BMPs for reducing nitrogen export to a Chesapeake Bay agricultural stream: model synthesis and extension of experimental data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods The effectiveness of riparian forest buffers and other green infrastructure for reducing nitrogen export to agricultural streams has been well described experimentally, but a clear understanding of process-level hydrological and biogeochemical control...

  6. Toward agricultural sustainability through integrated crop–livestock systems. III. Social aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensification of cropping and animal production as two separately specialized agricultural systems has led to unacceptable deterioration of the environment due to (i) excessive concentration of nutrients and pathogens in livestock production systems and (ii) loss of natural biodiversity and excess...

  7. Evaluation of the Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS) in the Semiarid Texas Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate models to simulate the soil water balance in semiarid cropping systems are needed to evaluate management practices for soil and water conservation in both irrigated and dryland production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of the Precision Agricultural Land...

  8. Development of a data acquisition and processing system for precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A data acquisition and processing system for precision agriculture was developed by using MapX5.0 and Visual C 6.0. This system can be used easily and quickly for drawing grid maps in-field, creating parameters for grid-reorganization, guiding in-field data collection, converting data between diffe...

  9. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Site-Specific Agricultural Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for site-specific management in agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been avail...

  10. Inorganic fertilizer and poultry-litter manure amendments alter the soil microbial communities in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of agricultural land management practices on soil prokaryotic diversity are not well described. We investigated three land usage systems (row cropped, ungrazed pasture, and cattle-grazed pasture) and two fertilizer systems (inorganic fertilizer or IF and poultry-litter or PL) and compare...

  11. Benchmarking the performance of a land data assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of land data assimilation systems to operational agricultural drought monitoring requires the development of (at least) three separate system sub-components: 1) a retrieval model to invert satellite-derived observations into soil moisture estimates, 2) a prognostic soil water balance...

  12. Evaluating the performance of a soil moisture data assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite considerable interest in the application of land surface data assimilation systems (LDAS) for agricultural drought applications, relatively little is known about the large-scale performance of such systems and, thus, the optimal methodological approach for implementing them. To address this ...

  13. Development of a data acquisition and processing system for precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A data acquisition and processing system for precision agriculture was developed by using MapX5.0 and Visual C6.0. This system can be used easily and quickly for drawing grid maps in-field, making out parameters for grid-reorganization, guiding for in-field data collection, converting data between ...

  14. Evaluation of the precision agricultural landscape modeling system (PALMS) in the semiarid Texas southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate models to simulate the soil water balance in semiarid cropping systems are needed to evaluate management practices for soil and water conservation in both irrigated and dryland production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of the Precision Agricultural Land...

  15. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Agricultural Production Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for managing agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been available in recent year...

  16. Toward agricultural sustainability through integrated crop–livestock systems. II. Production responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensification of cropping and animal production as two separately specialized agricultural systems has led to unacceptable deterioration of the environment due to (i) excessive concentration of nutrients and pathogens in livestock production systems and (ii) loss of natural biodiversity and excess...

  17. Soil physical properties of agricultural systems in a large-scale study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large-scale field study was performed to determine the effects of agricultural management systems on soil physical properties, including their spatial and temporal variations. Replicates were established in 1998 at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems, Goldsboro, North Carolina; replicates...

  18. Water Quality Benefits of Constructed Wetlands Integrated Within Agricultural Water Recycling Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands have been integrated within innovative agricultural water recycling systems, and these systems are now being evaluated at three demonstration sites located in the northwest Ohio portion of the Maumee River Basin (Defiance, Fulton, and Van Wert Counties). The water recycling syst...

  19. Benchmarking a soil moisture data assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite considerable interest in the application of land surface data assimilation systems (LDAS) for agricultural drought applications, relatively little is known about the large-scale performance of such systems and, thus, the optimal methodological approach for implementing them. To address this ...

  20. A Review: Controlled release systems for agricultural and food applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled release systems are widely used in numerous applications. Polymers from natural resources, such as pectin, starch, zein and poly(lactic acid) have been used to construct carriers of bioactive substances and deliver them in a designed manner. The retention and release of volatile fragrance...

  1. Farm Women, Farming Systems, and Agricultural Structure: Suggestions for Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    1981-01-01

    Suggests research agenda to analyze the class struggle occurring with farm women. Views the household as the unit of analysis, both internally from a farming-systems perspective and externally as responding to shifts in policy and technology. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.…

  2. 76 FR 29083 - Agriculture Priorities and Allocations System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... on June 7, 2010 (75 FR 32122-32140); Energy published the proposed rule for EPAS on July 16, 2010 (75 FR 41405-41421); and Transportation published the proposed rule for TPAS on February 15, 2011 (76 FR... Priorities and Allocations System; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 97 / Thursday, May...

  3. Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

    Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

  4. The Philippine System of Education: Some Implications to Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancebo, Samuel T.

    The Philippine educational system views education as a human development resource conversion process that can maximize the realization of the national developmental goals. Students comprise the principal input of this manpower resource conversion process. The output is individuals who can find useful and productive employment. Two broad strategies…

  5. Approach for Service Life Extension of Explosive Devices for Aircraft Escape Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The service life evaluation of explosive devices used in a wide variety of aircraft escape systems is described. The purpose was to develop a service extension approach, supported by tests on candidate devices, to evaluate the effects of service, age, and degradation, and allow responsible, conservative, service life determinations. An overview is given on the recommended approach and experimental procedures for accurate service evaluations with test results on rigid and flexible explosive transfer lines, one-way transfers, and flexible linear shaped charges.

  6. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  7. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  8. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  9. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  10. Adaptation Options for Land Drainage Systems Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Environment: A Czech Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulhavý, Zbyněk; Fučík, Petr

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, issues of agricultural drainage systems are introduced and discussed from the views of their former, current and future roles and functioning in the Czech Republic (CR). A methodologically disparate survey was done on thirty-nine model localities in CR with different intensity and state of land drainage systems, aimed at description of commonly occurred problems and possible adaptations of agricultural drainage as perceived by farmers, land owners, landscape managers or by protective water management. The survey was focused on technical state of drainage, fragmentation of land ownership within drained areas as well as on possible conflicts between agricultural and environmental interests in a landscape. Achieved results confirmed that there is obviously an increasing need to reassess some functions of prevailingly single-purpose agricultural drainage systems. Drainage intensity and detected unfavourable technical state of drainage systems as well as the risks connected with the anticipated climate change from the view of possible water scarcity claims for a complex solution. An array of adaptation options for agricultural drainage systems is presented, aiming at enhancement of water retention time and improvement of water quality. It encompasses additional flow-controlling measures on tiles or ditches, or facilities for making selected parts of a drainage system inoperable in order to retain or slow down the drainage runoff, to establish water accumulation zones and to enhance water self-cleaning processes. However, it was revealed that the question of landowner parcels fragmentation on drained land in CR would dramatically complicate design and realization of these measures. Presented solutions and findings are propounded with a respect to contemporary and future state policies and international strategies for sustainable agriculture, water management and environment.

  11. An Interoperable, Agricultural Information System Based on Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Chiu, Long; Doraiswamy, Paul; Kempler, Steven; Liu, Zhong; Pham, Long; Rui, Hualan

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring global agricultural crop conditions during the growing season and estimating potential seasonal production are critically important for market development of US. agricultural products and for global food security. The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS), which will operationally provide satellite remote sensing data products (e.g., rainfall) and services. The data products will include crop condition and yield prediction maps, generated from a crop growth model with satellite data inputs, in collaboration with the USDA Agricultural Research Service. The AIS will enable the remote, interoperable access to distributed data, by using the GrADS-DODS Server (GDS) and by being compliant with Open GIS Consortium standards. Users will be able to download individual files, perform interactive online analysis, as well as receive operational data flows. AIS outputs will be integrated into existing operational decision support systems for global crop monitoring, such as those of the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service and the U.N. World Food Program.

  12. Beyond climate-smart agriculture: toward safe operating spaces for global food systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gulledge, Jay; Neufeldt, Heinrich; Jahn, Margaret M; Lezaks, David P; Meinke, Jan H; Scholes, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is considered to be climate-smart when it contributes to increasing food security, adaptation and mitigation in a sustainable way. This new concept now dominates current discussions in agricultural development because of its capacity to unite the agendas of the agriculture, development and climate change communities under one brand. In this opinion piece authored by scientists from a variety of international agricultural and climate research communities, we argue that the concept needs to be evaluated critically because the relationship between the three dimensions is poorly understood, such that practically any improved agricultural practice can be considered climate-smart. This lack of clarity may have contributed to the broad appeal of the concept. From the understanding that we must hold ourselves accountable to demonstrably better meet human needs in the short and long term within foreseeable local and planetary limits, we develop a conceptualization of climate-smart agriculture as agriculture that can be shown to bring us closer to safe operating spaces for agricultural and food systems across spatial and temporal scales. Improvements in the management of agricultural systems that bring us significantly closer to safe operating spaces will require transformations in governance and use of our natural resources, underpinned by enabling political, social and economic conditions beyond incremental changes. Establishing scientifically credible indicators and metrics of long-term safe operating spaces in the context of a changing climate and growing social-ecological challenges is critical to creating the societal demand and political will required to motivate deep transformations. Answering questions on how the needed transformational change can be achieved will require actively setting and testing hypotheses to refine and characterize our concepts of safer spaces for social-ecological systems across scales. This effort will demand prioritizing key

  13. Development of a Global Agricultural Hotspot Detection and Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, G.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Csak, G.

    2015-12-01

    The number of web based platforms for crop monitoring has grown rapidly over the last years and anomaly maps and time profiles of remote sensing derived indicators can be accessed online thanks to a number of web based portals. However, while these systems make available a large amount of crop monitoring data to the agriculture and food security analysts, there is no global platform which provides agricultural production hotspot warning in a highly automatic and timely manner. Therefore a web based system providing timely warning evidence as maps and short narratives is currently under development by the Joint Research Centre. The system (called "HotSpot Detection System of Agriculture Production Anomalies", HSDS) will focus on water limited agricultural systems worldwide. The automatic analysis of relevant meteorological and vegetation indicators at selected administrative units (Gaul 1 level) will trigger warning messages for the areas where anomalous conditions are observed. The level of warning (ranging from "watch" to "alert") will depend on the nature and number of indicators for which an anomaly is detected. Information regarding the extent of the agricultural areas concerned by the anomaly and the progress of the agricultural season will complement the warning label. In addition, we are testing supplementary detailed information from other sources for the areas triggering a warning. These regard the automatic web-based and food security-tailored analysis of media (using the JRC Media Monitor semantic search engine) and the automatic detection of active crop area using Sentinel 1, upcoming Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 imagery processed in Google Earth Engine. The basic processing will be fully automated and updated every 10 days exploiting low resolution rainfall estimates and satellite vegetation indices. Maps, trend graphs and statistics accompanied by short narratives edited by a team of crop monitoring experts, will be made available on the website on a

  14. The impact of roots on soil organic carbon dynamics in annual and perennial agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniston, J.; Dupont, T.; Glover, J.; Lal, R.

    2012-12-01

    Identifying and developing agricultural systems capable of transferring large quantities of carbon (C) to the soil and sustaining ecosystem processes and services is a priority for ecological researchers and land managers. Temperate grasslands have extensive root systems and transfer large quantities of C to the soil organic C (SOC) pool, which has lead to widespread interest in utilizing perennial grasses as both bioenergy crops and as a model for perennial grains. This study examined five sites in north central Kansas (U.S.A.) that contain the unique land use pairing of tall grass prairie meadows (PM) that have been harvested annually for hay for the past 75 years and annual grain (wheat) production fields (AG) that have been cultivated for a similar length of time, all on deep alluvial soils. Specific research objectives included: 1) To quantify below-ground biomass pools and root C contributions in the two systems; 2) To analyze and compare SOC pools and SOC concentration in primary particle size fractions in the two systems; 3) To utilize natural abundance δ13C signatures to determine the source and turnover of SOC in the soils of the AG sites; and 4) To elucidate the relationship of roots to both SOC pools and nematode food webs. Soil core samples were collected to a depth of 1 m in May and June 2008. Soil samples were analyzed for SOC, microbial biomass C (MBC), nematodes, and a particle size fractionation of SOC in coarse (>250 μm), particulate organic matter (POM) (53-250 μm), silt (2-53 μm), and clay (<2 μm) sized fractions. Root biomass, root length and root C were also analyzed to a depth of 1 m. Natural abundance δ13C values were obtained for all C parameters. Soils under PM had 4 times as much root C as AG soils to 1 m depth in mid May (PM 2.8 Mg ha-1 and AG 0.7 Mg ha-1) and 7 times as much root C to 1 m depth in late June (PM 3.5 Mg ha-1 and AG 0.5 Mg ha-1). The MBC pools were significantly larger in grassland soils to a depth of 60 cm in May

  15. FGF /FGFR Signal Induces Trachea Extension in the Drosophila Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Wei-Chen; Lee, Yuan-Ming; Henry Sun, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila compound eye is a large sensory organ that places a high demand on oxygen supplied by the tracheal system. Although the development and function of the Drosophila visual system has been extensively studied, the development and contribution of its tracheal system has not been systematically examined. To address this issue, we studied the tracheal patterns and developmental process in the Drosophila visual system. We found that the retinal tracheae are derived from air sacs in the head, and the ingrowth of retinal trachea begin at mid-pupal stage. The tracheal development has three stages. First, the air sacs form near the optic lobe in 42-47% of pupal development (pd). Second, in 47-52% pd, air sacs extend branches along the base of the retina following a posterior-to-anterior direction and further form the tracheal network under the fenestrated membrane (TNUFM). Third, the TNUFM extend fine branches into the retina following a proximal-to-distal direction after 60% pd. Furthermore, we found that the trachea extension in both retina and TNUFM are dependent on the FGF(Bnl)/FGFR(Btl) signaling. Our results also provided strong evidence that the photoreceptors are the source of the Bnl ligand to guide the trachea ingrowth. Our work is the first systematic study of the tracheal development in the visual system, and also the first study demonstrating the interactions of two well-studied systems: the eye and trachea. PMID:23991208

  16. The Role of Aerospace Technology in Agriculture. The 1977 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Possibilities were examined for improving agricultural productivity through the application of aerospace technology. An overview of agriculture and of the problems of feeding a growing world population are presented. The present state of agriculture, of plant and animal culture, and agri-business are reviewed. Also analyzed are the various systems for remote sensing, particularly applications to agriculture. The report recommends additional research and technology in the areas of aerial application of chemicals, of remote sensing systems, of weather and climate investigations, and of air vehicle design. Also considered in detail are the social, legal, economic, and political results of intensification of technical applications to agriculture.

  17. Nitrogen and phosphorus losses from agricultural systems in China: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Di; Cao, Wenzhi; Fang, Jing; Cai, Longyan

    2014-08-30

    Studies worldwide have indicated that agricultural pollution is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus (N and P) in surface waters. A systematic understanding of N and P sources and sinks in agricultural systems is important for selecting the appropriate remedial strategies to control nutrient losses and water pollution. Based on nationwide data and a long-term monitoring program in Southeast China, the nationwide spatial and temporal patterns of N and P losses and the relationships between such losses and N and P inputs and rainfall were analyzed. The results showed that the annual nutrient losses from agricultural systems in China strongly varied, and the N/P values ranged from 0.01 to 51.0, with a majority at approximately 0-20, and an arithmetic mean of 9.73; these values mostly overlap the suitable range of N/P (6-15) for red bloom algae. PMID:24934439

  18. Design and Implementation of a GPS Guidance System for Agricultural Tractors Using Augmented Reality Technology

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Fernández, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; del-Pozo-San-Cirilo, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Current commercial tractor guidance systems present to the driver information to perform agricultural tasks in the best way. This information generally includes a treated zones map referenced to the tractor’s position. Unlike actual guidance systems where the tractor driver must mentally associate treated zone maps and the plot layout, this paper presents a guidance system that using Augmented Reality (AR) technology, allows the tractor driver to see the real plot though eye monitor glasses with the treated zones in a different color. The paper includes a description of the system hardware and software, a real test done with image captures seen by the tractor driver, and a discussion predicting that the historical evolution of guidance systems could involve the use of AR technology in the agricultural guidance and monitoring systems. PMID:22163479

  19. Extensible Adaptable Simulation Systems: Supporting Multiple Fidelity Simulations in a Common Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Brian J.; Barrett, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Common practice in the development of simulation systems is meeting all user requirements within a single instantiation. The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) presents a unique challenge to establish a simulation environment that meets the needs of a diverse user community while also spanning a multi-mission environment over decades of operation. In response, the JPSS Flight Vehicle Test Suite (FVTS) is architected with an extensible infrastructure that supports the operation of multiple observatory simulations for a single mission and multiple mission within a common system perimeter. For the JPSS-1 satellite, multiple fidelity flight observatory simulations are necessary to support the distinct user communities consisting of the Common Ground System development team, the Common Ground System Integration & Test team, and the Mission Rehearsal Team/Mission Operations Team. These key requirements present several challenges to FVTS development. First, the FVTS must ensure all critical user requirements are satisfied by at least one fidelity instance of the observatory simulation. Second, the FVTS must allow for tailoring of the system instances to function in diverse operational environments from the High-security operations environment at NOAA Satellite Operations Facility (NSOF) to the ground system factory floor. Finally, the FVTS must provide the ability to execute sustaining engineering activities on a subset of the system without impacting system availability to parallel users. The FVTS approach of allowing for multiple fidelity copies of observatory simulations represents a unique concept in simulator capability development and corresponds to the JPSS Ground System goals of establishing a capability that is flexible, extensible, and adaptable.

  20. Generalized Gibbs ensemble in a nonintegrable system with an extensive number of local symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamazaki, Ryusuke; Ikeda, Tatsuhiko N.; Ueda, Masahito

    2016-03-01

    We numerically study the unitary time evolution of a nonintegrable model of hard-core bosons with an extensive number of local Z2 symmetries. We find that the expectation values of local observables in the stationary state are described better by the generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE) than by the canonical ensemble. We also find that the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis fails for the entire spectrum but holds true within each symmetry sector, which justifies the GGE. In contrast, if the model has only one global Z2 symmetry or a size-independent number of local Z2 symmetries, we find that the stationary state is described by the canonical ensemble. Thus, the GGE is necessary to describe the stationary state even in a nonintegrable system if it has an extensive number of local symmetries.

  1. PIMS sequencing extension: a laboratory information management system for DNA sequencing facilities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Facilities that provide a service for DNA sequencing typically support large numbers of users and experiment types. The cost of services is often reduced by the use of liquid handling robots but the efficiency of such facilities is hampered because the software for such robots does not usually integrate well with the systems that run the sequencing machines. Accordingly, there is a need for software systems capable of integrating different robotic systems and managing sample information for DNA sequencing services. In this paper, we describe an extension to the Protein Information Management System (PIMS) that is designed for DNA sequencing facilities. The new version of PIMS has a user-friendly web interface and integrates all aspects of the sequencing process, including sample submission, handling and tracking, together with capture and management of the data. Results The PIMS sequencing extension has been in production since July 2009 at the University of Leeds DNA Sequencing Facility. It has completely replaced manual data handling and simplified the tasks of data management and user communication. Samples from 45 groups have been processed with an average throughput of 10000 samples per month. The current version of the PIMS sequencing extension works with Applied Biosystems 3130XL 96-well plate sequencer and MWG 4204 or Aviso Theonyx liquid handling robots, but is readily adaptable for use with other combinations of robots. Conclusions PIMS has been extended to provide a user-friendly and integrated data management solution for DNA sequencing facilities that is accessed through a normal web browser and allows simultaneous access by multiple users as well as facility managers. The system integrates sequencing and liquid handling robots, manages the data flow, and provides remote access to the sequencing results. The software is freely available, for academic users, from http://www.pims-lims.org/. PMID:21385349

  2. An overview of crop growing condition monitoring in China agriculture remote sensing monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing; Zhou, Qing-bo; Zhang, Li

    2009-07-01

    China is a large agricultural country. To understand the agricultural production condition timely and accurately is related to government decision-making, agricultural production management and the general public concern. China Agriculture Remote Sensing Monitoring System (CHARMS) can monitor crop acreage changes, crop growing condition, agriculture disaster (drought, floods, frost damage, pest etc.) and predict crop yield etc. quickly and timely. The basic principles, methods and regular operation of crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS are introduced in detail in the paper. CHARMS can monitor crop growing condition of wheat, corn, cotton, soybean and paddy rice with MODIS data. An improved NDVI difference model was used in crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS. Firstly, MODIS data of every day were received and processed, and the max NDVI values of every fifteen days of main crop were generated, then, in order to assessment a certain crop growing condition in certain period (every fifteen days, mostly), the system compare the remote sensing index data (NDVI) of a certain period with the data of the period in the history (last five year, mostly), the difference between NDVI can indicate the spatial difference of crop growing condition at a certain period. Moreover, Meteorological data of temperature, precipitation and sunshine etc. as well as the field investigation data of 200 network counties were used to modify the models parameters. Last, crop growing condition was assessment at four different scales of counties, provinces, main producing areas and nation and spatial distribution maps of crop growing condition were also created.

  3. Using landscape typologies to model socioecological systems: Application to agriculture of the United States Gulf Coast

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Preston, Benjamin L.; King, Anthony Wayne; Mei, Rui; Nair, Sujithkumar Surendran

    2016-02-11

    Agricultural enterprises are vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. Improved understanding of the determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in agricultural systems is important for projecting and managing future climate risk. At present, three analytical tools dominate methodological approaches to understanding agroecological vulnerability to climate: process-based crop models, empirical crop models, and integrated assessment models. A common weakness of these approaches is their limited treatment of socio-economic conditions and human agency in modeling agroecological processes and outcomes. This study proposes a framework that uses spatial cluster analysis to generate regional socioecological typologies that capture geographic variance inmore » regional agricultural production and enable attribution of that variance to climatic, topographic, edaphic, and socioeconomic components. This framework was applied to historical corn production (1986-2010) in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region as a testbed. The results demonstrate that regional socioeconomic heterogeneity is an important driving force in human dominated ecosystems, which we hypothesize, is a function of the link between socioeconomic conditions and the adaptive capacity of agricultural systems. Meaningful representation of future agricultural responses to climate variability and change is contingent upon understanding interactions among biophysical conditions, socioeconomic conditions, and human agency their incorporation in predictive models.« less

  4. A Remote Sensing-based Global Agricultural Drought Monitoring and Forecasting System for Supporting GEOSS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, L.; Yu, G.; Han, W.; Deng, M.

    2010-12-01

    Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations. GEO is coordinating the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a worldwide effort to make Earth observation resources more useful to the society. As one of the important technical contributors to GEOSS, the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems (CSISS), George Mason University, is implementing a remote sensing-based global agricultural drought monitoring and forecasting system (GADMFS) as a GEOSS societal benefit areas (agriculture and water) prototype. The goals of the project are 1) to establish a system as a component of GEOSS for providing global on-demand and systematic agriculture drought information to users worldwide, and 2) to support decision-making with improved monitoring, forecasting, and analyses of agriculture drought. GADMFS has adopted the service-oriented architecture and is based on standard-compliant interoperable geospatial Web services to provide online on-demand drought conditions and forecasting at ~1 km spatial and daily and weekly temporal resolutions for any part of the world to world-wide users through the Internet. Applicable GEOSS recommended open standards are followed in the system implementation. The system’s drought monitoring relies on drought-related parameters, such as surface and root-zone soil moisture and NDVI time series derived from remote sensing data, to provide the current conditions of agricultural drought. The system links to near real-time satellite remote sensing data sources from NASA and NOAA for the monitoring purpose. For drought forecasting, the system utilizes a neural-network based modeling algorithm. The algorithm is trained with inputs of current and historic vegetation-based and climate-based drought index data, biophysical characteristics of the environment, and time-series weather data. The trained algorithm will establish per-pixel model for

  5. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Müller, Christoph; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Schmitz, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction.

  6. The Cornell Cooperative Extension Statewide Data Collection System: An Online Data Collection Tool for Parent Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopko, Kimberly; Dunifon, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The Statewide Data Collection System for Parent Education Programs is an online tool for collecting statewide data on Cornell Cooperative Extension (CCE) parenting education programs. The process of the development and use of this data collection tool are provided as a guide to Extension systems. Results for data entered between March 2009 and…

  7. Extension Agents' Awareness of Climate Change in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual…

  8. Winds of Change: Toward a Realistic Vision for the Future of Cooperative Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitzthum, Edward F.

    The extension and research systems of land-grant institutions are in trouble. Six factors demonstrate the scope of the problem: significant cuts for agriculture in the Clinton administration budget; lawmakers opposed to extension research; federal budget deficit; state budget constraints; decreased power of agriculture in Congress; and…

  9. The Impacts of Agricultural Land Use on Dissolved Organic Matter in a Dryland River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, J. L.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Van Horn, D. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, expanding agriculture is significantly impacting aquatic nutrient cycles. In mesic systems, agriculture is a source of nitrogen and phosphorus and increases concentrations of structurally simple dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, recent studies suggest in dryland systems, where wastewater effluent is a primary nutrient source, agriculture is a nutrient sink—retaining nitrogen and phosphorous. Importantly, very little, is known about the influence of agriculture on DOC dynamics in dryland systems. To address this gap we used synoptic sampling, UV-absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy to elucidate source, character, and concentration of riverine and runoff DOC in a dryland agricultural system. Samples were collected along a 25 km stretch of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico (USA). The Rio Grande is an impoundment/irrigation-withdrawal controlled river that receives water from snowmelt, monsoonal storms, and wastewater effluent. During irrigation approximately 80% of the river's water is diverted into a manmade network where it waters crops and percolates through the soil before it enters a series of drains that return water to the river. Our preliminary characterization of the DOC reentering the river (DOCmean=3.23 mg/L, sd=0.81; SUVAmean=4.05, sd=1.37) indicates the agricultural pool is similar in concentration and aromaticity to riverine DOC (DOCmean= 3.10 mg/L, sd=1.17; SUVAmean= 4.64, sd=1.12). However, riverine organic matter is more terrestrially derived (FImean=1.68, sd=0.17) than organic matter in the drains (FImean=1.9, sd=0.24). Additionally, drains directly adjacent to actively irrigated fields show high concentrations (DOCmean=58.35; sd=0.91) of low aromaticity organic matter (SUVAmean=0.33; sd=0.11). We are continuing analysis throughout the irrigation season to further explore organic matter quality (traits such as bioavailability and freshness) and identify locations and processes of DOC transformation within the system

  10. A SCHOOL AND HEALTH RECORD TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR MIGRATORY CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS (CALIFORNIA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    THE CALIFORNIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION HAS ADOPTED A UNIFORM TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. EACH SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLLING MIGRANT CHILDREN MUST COMPLETE A STANDARDIZED FORM FOR EACH MIGRANT CHILD AND FORWARD IT WITH THE PUPIL WHEN HE WITHDRAWS FROM SCHOOL. A COPY ALSO MUST BE FORWARDED TO THE STATE…

  11. Implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks Based Pig Farm Integrated Management System in Ubiquitous Agricultural Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Lee, Jiwoong; Lee, Hochul; Yoe, Hyun

    The wireless sensor networks (WSN) technology based on low power consumption is one of the important technologies in the realization of ubiquitous society. When the technology would be applied to the agricultural field, it can give big change in the existing agricultural environment such as livestock growth environment, cultivation and harvest of agricultural crops. This research paper proposes the 'Pig Farm Integrated Management System' based on WSN technology, which will establish the ubiquitous agricultural environment and improve the productivity of pig-raising farmers. The proposed system has WSN environmental sensors and CCTV at inside/outside of pig farm. These devices collect the growth-environment related information of pigs, such as luminosity, temperature, humidity and CO2 status. The system collects and monitors the environmental information and video information of pig farm. In addition to the remote-control and monitoring of the pig farm facilities, this system realizes the most optimum pig-raising environment based on the growth environmental data accumulated for a long time.

  12. Sustaining the earth's watersheds-agricultural research data system: Overview of development and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive, long-term data for watershed systems across diverse locations are essential for interdisciplinary hydrologic and ecosystem analysis and model development, calibration and validation. The USDA and Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have supported watershed research since the 1930’s w...

  13. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  14. Object-Oriented Agricultural System Modeling: Component-Driven Nutrient Dynamics and Crop Yield Simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Challenges in agro-ecosystem conservation management have created demand for state-of-the-art, integrated, and flexible modeling tools. For example, agricultural system modeling tools are needed which are robust and fast enough to be applied on large watershed scales, but which are also able to sim...

  15. Integrated agricultural system modeling using OMS3: component driven runoff and nutrient dynamics simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Challenges in agro-ecosystem conservation management have created demand for state-of-the-art, integrated, and flexible modeling tools. For example, agricultural system modeling tools are needed which are robust and fast enough to be applied on large watershed scales, but which are also able to simu...

  16. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

  17. An Evaluation of a Welding Fumes Exhaust System. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 284.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    A study evaluated the feasibility of introducing unheated outside air into the airstream of a cross-flow welding exhaust system to reduce heating energy costs of a school welding laboratory. The physical facility used was the agricultural mechanics laboratory at the University of Arizona, which is similar to facilities in which instruction in…

  18. Application of the precision agricultural landscape modeling system in semiarid environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS) is a terrain and weather driven, distributed parameter hydrological-biophysical model primarily used in the Midwestern United States. Recently, research was started to evaluate the effectiveness of PALMS on irrigated and on dryland croppin...

  19. MULTIFUNCTIONALITY OF AGRICULTURE AND FARMING SYSTEM DESIGN: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farming systems are linked across three scales within the agricultural landscape. At each of these scales there are four functional aspects: i) production; ii) economics; iii) environment; and iv) multiple or alternative uses that link scales and endpoints. These linkages are observed in watershed...

  20. AGDEX: A System for Classifying, Indexing, and Filing Agricultural Publications. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Howard L.; Woodin, Ralph J.

    This document provides an introduction to and instructions for the use of AGDEX, a comprehensive numeric filing system to classify and organize a wide variety of agricultural publications. The index is subdivided and color coded according to the following categories: (1) field crops; (2) horticulture; (3) forestry; (4) animal science; (5) soils;…

  1. Benchmarking a soil moisture data assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drought is defined as a shortage of moisture in the root zone of plants. Recently available satellite-based remote sensing data have accelerated development of drought early warning system by providing spatially continuous soil moisture information repeatedly at short-term interval. Non...

  2. PARAMETERIZING GPFARM: AN AGRICULTURAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR INTEGRATING SCIENCE, ECONOMICS, RESOURCE USE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few farmers and ranchers adopt agricultural software such as decision support systems (DSS). While numerous decision aids are available, most are too difficult for producers to use, exclude components (e.g., economic budgeting, weeds, multicriteria decision analysis) necessary for meaningful use on...

  3. Current Water Deficit Stress Simulations in Selected Agricultural System Simulation Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    System models, which adequately simulate plant water stress effects, are valuable tools for developing management practices with improved water use efficiency in agriculture. Plants experience water stress when its supply in the soil fails to meet the demand. Although it is easy to define the conc...

  4. PRACTICAL SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS MODELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present a practical evaluation framework for analysis of two complex, process-based agricultural system models, WEPP and RZWQM. The evaluation framework combines sensitivity analysis and the uncertainty analysis techniques of first order error analysis (FOA) and Monte Carlo simulation with Latin ...

  5. Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important application of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be remote-sensing for precision agriculture, because of its ability to acquire images with very small pixel sizes from low altitude flights. The objective of this study was to compare pixel sampling with plot-scale metrics for the remo...

  6. Sources of nutrients to windward agricultural systems in pre-contact Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Molly A; Graves, Michael; Ladefoged, Thegn N; Chadwick, Oliver A; Duarte, T Ka'eo; Porder, Stephen; Vitousek, Peter M

    2009-09-01

    Prior to European contact in 1778, Hawaiians developed intensive irrigated pondfield agricultural systems in windward Kohala, Hawai'i. We evaluated three potential sources of nutrients to windward systems that could have sustained intensive agriculture: (1) in situ weathering of primary and secondary minerals in upland soils; (2) rejuvenation of the supply of rock-derived nutrients on eroded slopes and in alluvium; and (3) transport of rock-derived nutrients to crops via irrigation water. Our results show that most windward soils are infertile and suggest that weathering of minerals within upland soils was insufficient to sustain intensive agriculture without substantial cultural inputs. Erosion enhances weathering and so increases nutrient supply, with soils of the largest alluvial valleys (>200 m deep) retaining 37% of calcium from parent material (compared to 2% in upland sites). However, soils of smaller valleys that also supported pre-contact agricultural systems are substantially less enriched. Isotopic 87Sr/86Sr analyses of stream water demonstrate that at low to moderate stream flow over 90% of dissolved strontium derives from weathering of basalt rather than deposition of atmospheric sources; most other dissolved cations also derive from basalt weathering. We calculate that irrigation water could have supplied approximately 200 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) of calcium to pondfield systems, nearly 100 times more than was supplied by weathering in soils on stable geomorphic surfaces. In effect, irrigation waters brought nutrients from rocks to the windward crops. PMID:19769093

  7. Sustainable agriculture for a dynamic world: Forage-Crop-Livestock systems research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Grazinglands Research Laboratory is focused on development and delivery of improved technologies, strategies, and planning tools for integrated crop-forage-livestock systems under variable climate, energy, and market conditions. The GRL research p...

  8. A PROTOTYPE MOBILE SYSTEM FOR PYROLYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL AND/OR SILVICULTURAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was initiated to investigate three elements of a prototype mobile system for pyrolysis of agricultural and/or silvicultural wastes into clean, transportable fuels: the pyrolytic converter itself, a pyrolysis-gas-fueled internal combustion engine, and the com...

  9. Radio/antenna mounting system for wireless networking under row-crop agriculture conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in and deployment of wireless monitoring systems is increasing in many diverse environments, including row-crop agricultural fields. While many studies have been undertaken to evaluate various aspects of wireless monitoring and networking, such as electronic hardware components, data-colle...

  10. 29 CFR 780.408 - Facilities of system must be used exclusively for agricultural purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(12) The Irrigation Exemption § 780.408 Facilities of system... irrigation work that the ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways in connection with which the...

  11. From Cutlass to Agribusiness: Caribbean Food and Agriculture in Transition within a Global System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael J.

    This examination of the future role of food and agriculture in world peace and prosperity presents a regional cross-country view of the Caribbean countries with emphasis on the Caricom English speaking countries within a global food system environment. Following an introductory section, the second of six sections focuses on two broad agricultural…

  12. An Appraisal of the Contribution of Rural Sociological and Agricultural Extension Research to the Transfer of Technology to Small Scale Farmers in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monu, Erasmus D.

    A review of the information provided by rural sociologists and agricultural extensionists regarding the adoption of new and/or improved farm practices in Nigeria in order to determine their contribution to the transfer of technology to farmers indicates that a great deal of attention had been paid to communication variables and to personal and…

  13. Gemma: a Generic, Extensible and Modular Multi-Sensor Navigation Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, J. A.; Parés, M. E.; Colomina, I.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the concept of an architecture for a system that helps researchers in the field of Geomatics to speed up their daily research on kinematic geodesy, navigation and positioning fields. The presented ideas correspond to an extensible and modular software system aimed at the development of new navigation and positioning algorithms as well as at the evaluation of the performance of sensors. The concept, already implemented in the CTTC's system GEMMA is generic and extensible. This means that it is possible to incorporate new navigation algorithms or sensors at no maintenance cost. Only the effort related to the development tasks required to either create such algorithms or model sensors needs to be taken into account. As a consequence, change poses a much smaller problem for CTTC's research activities is this specific area. This system includes several standalone tools that may be combined in different ways to accomplish various goals; that is, it may be used to perform a variety of tasks, as, for instance, (1) define positioning and navigation scenarios, (2) simulate different kinds of sensors, (3) validate new navigation algorithms or (4) evaluate the quality of an estimated navigation solution.

  14. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  15. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993-2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall is

  16. Extensions to the time-oriented database model to support temporal reasoning in medical expert systems.

    PubMed

    Kahn, M G; Fagan, L M; Tu, S

    1991-01-01

    Physicians faced with diagnostic and therapeutic decisions must reason about clinical features that change over time. Database-management systems (DBMS) can increase access to patient data, but most systems are limited in their ability to store and retrieve complex temporal information. The Time-Oriented Databank (TOD) model, the most widely used data model for medical database systems, associates a single time stamp with each observation. The proper analysis of most clinical data requires accounting for multiple concurrent clinical events that may alter the interpretation of the raw data. Most medical DBMSs cannot retrieve patient data indexed by multiple clinical events. We describe two logical extensions to TOD-based databases that solve a set of temporal reasoning problems we encountered in constructing medical expert systems. A key feature of both extensions is that stored data are partitioned into groupings, such as sequential clinical visits, clinical exacerbations, or other abstract events that have clinical decision-making relevance. The temporal network (TNET) is an object-oriented database that extends the temporal reasoning capabilities of ONCOCIN, a medical expert system that provides chemotherapy advice. TNET uses persistent objects to associate observations with intervals of time during which "an event of clinical interest" occurred. A second object-oriented system called the extended temporal network (ETNET), is both an extension and a simplification of TNET. Like TNET, ETNET uses persistent objects to represent relevant intervals; unlike the first system, however, ETNET contains reasoning methods (rules) that can be executed when an event "begins", and that are withdrawn when that event "concludes". TNET and ETNET capture temporal relationships among recorded information that are not represented in TOD-based databases. Although they do not solve all temporal reasoning problems found in medical decision making, these new structures enable patient

  17. The Development of a Web-service-based On-demand Global Agriculture Drought Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, M.; Di, L.; Han, W.; Yagci, A.; Peng, C.

    2011-12-01

    The growing demand on detailed and accurate assessments of agriculture drought from local to global scales has made drought monitoring and forecasting a hot research topic in recent years. However, many challenges in this area still remain. One of such challenges is to how to let world-wide decision makers obtain accurate and timely drought information. Current agriculture drought information systems in the world are limited in many aspects, such as only regional or country level coverage, very coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, no on-demand drought information product generation and download services, no online analysis tools, no interoperability with other systems, and ineffective agriculture drought monitoring and forecasting. Leveraging the latest advances in geospatial Web service, interoperability and cyber-infrastructure technologies and the availability of near real-time global remote sensing data, we aims at providing a solution to those problems by building an open, interoperable, standard-compliant, and Web-service-based global agriculture drought monitoring and forecasting system (GADMFS) (http://gis.csiss.gmu.edu/GADMFS/). GADMFS will provide world-wide users with timely, on-demand, and ready-to-use agricultural drought data and information products as well as improved global agriculture drought monitoring, prediction and analysis services. For the monitoring purpose, the system lively links to near real-time satellite remote sensing data sources from NASA and NOAA and relies on drought related remotely sensed physical and biophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and drought-related vegetation indices (VIs, e.g., NDVI) to provide the current conditions of global agricultural drought at high resolutions (up to 500m spatial and daily temporal) to world-wide users on demand. For drought prediction, the system utilizes a neural network based modeling algorithm, trained with current and historic vegetation-based and climate-based drought index

  18. Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS): A Study of Stakeholders and Their Relations in System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchiradipta, Bhattacharjee; Raj, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper identifies the stakeholders of System of Rice Intensification (SRI), their roles and actions and the supporting and enabling environment of innovation in the state as the elements of the Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) in SRI in Tripura state of India and studies the relationship matrix among the stakeholders.…

  19. Structural Conditions for Collaboration and Learning in Innovation Networks: Using an Innovation System Performance Lens to Analyse Agricultural Knowledge Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Frans; Klerkx, Laurens; Roep, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate how the structural conditions of eight different European agricultural innovation systems can facilitate or hinder collaboration and social learning in multidisciplinary innovation networks. Methodology: We have adapted the Innovation System Failure Matrix to investigate the main barriers and enablers eight countries…

  20. [Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Kelodjoue, S

    1989-06-01

    traditional economy into the cash system. But by 1960 in the Bamileke plateau and Mont Mandaras and after 1970 in the Lekie country population no longer appeared as a consequence but as the main cause of rural structural changes. Containing the demographic pressure on the land and maintaining food self-sufficiency will require combatting poverty in general, through a series of actions aimed at both the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors. PMID:12178536

  1. 77 FR 13262 - Notice of Intent To Request an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... system such as the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) or the National ] Library of Medicine's Docline... National Agricultural Library Notice of Intent To Request an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  2. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 11: PEP, cost, schedules, and work breakdown structure dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Cost scheduling and funding data are presented for the reference design of the power extension package. Major schedule milestones are correlated with current Spacelab flight dates. Funding distributions provide for minimum expenditure during the first year of the project.

  3. Properties of hadronic systems according to the non-extensive self-consistent thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Deppman, A.

    2014-11-11

    The non-extensive self-consistent theory describing the thermodynamics of hadronic systems at high temperatures is used to derive some thermodynamical quantities, as pressure, entropy, speed of sound and trace-anomaly. The calculations are free of fitting parameters, and the results are compared to lattice QCD calculations, showing a good agreement between theory and data up to temperatures around 175 MeV. Above this temperature the effects of a singularity in the partition function at T{sub o} = 192 MeV results in a divergent behaviour in respect with the lattice calculation.

  4. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and systems analysis study. Volume 11: Study extension 2 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcockson, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    Work conducted in the second extension of the Phase A Orbit Transfer Vehicle Concept Definition and Systems Analysis Study is summarized. Four major tasks were identified: (1) define an initial OTV program consistent with near term Civil Space Leadership Initiative missions; (2) develop program evolution to long term advanced missions; (3) investigate the implications of current STS safety policy on an Aft Cargo Carrier based OTV; and (4) expand the analysis of high entry velocity aeroassist. An increased emphasis on the breath of OTV applications was undertaken to show the need for the program on the basis of the expansion of the nation's capabilities in space.

  5. Dynamic causal models of neural system dynamics: current state and future extensions

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Klaas E.; Harrison, Lee M.; Kiebel, Stefan J.; David, Olivier; Penny, Will D.; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    Complex processes resulting from the interaction of multiple elements can rarely be understood by analytical scientific approaches alone; additionally, mathematical models of system dynamics are required. This insight, which disciplines like physics have embraced for a long time already, is gradually gaining importance in the study of cognitive processes by functional neuroimaging. In this field, causal mechanisms in neural systems are described in terms of effective connectivity. Recently, Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) was introduced as a generic method to estimate effective connectivity from neuroimaging data in a Bayesian fashion. One of the key advantages of DCM over previous methods is that it distinguishes between neural state equations and modality-specific forward models that translate neural activity into a measured signal. Another strength is its natural relation to Bayesian Model Selection (BMS) procedures. In this article, we review the conceptual and mathematical basis of DCM and its implementation for functional magnetic resonance imaging data and event-related potentials. After introducing the application of BMS in the context of DCM, we conclude with an outlook to future extensions of DCM. These extensions are guided by the long-term goal of using dynamic system models for pharmacological and clinical applications, particularly with regard to synaptic plasticity. PMID:17426386

  6. An extensible operating system design for large-scale parallel machines.

    SciTech Connect

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Ferreira, Kurt Brian

    2009-04-01

    Running untrusted user-level code inside an operating system kernel has been studied in the 1990's but has not really caught on. We believe the time has come to resurrect kernel extensions for operating systems that run on highly-parallel clusters and supercomputers. The reason is that the usage model for these machines differs significantly from a desktop machine or a server. In addition, vendors are starting to add features, such as floating-point accelerators, multicore processors, and reconfigurable compute elements. An operating system for such machines must be adaptable to the requirements of specific applications and provide abstractions to access next-generation hardware features, without sacrificing performance or scalability.

  7. Progress Report 2008: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B; Worley, Patrick H; Hoffman, Forrest M; Jones, Phil

    2009-01-01

    This project employs multi-disciplinary teams to accelerate development of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), based at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). A consortium of eight Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories collaborate with NCAR and the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). The laboratories are Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL) Los Alamos (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore (LLNL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), Pacific Northwest (PNNL) and Sandia (SNL). The work plan focuses on scalablity for petascale computation and extensibility to a more comprehensive earth system model. Our stated goal is to support the DOE mission in climate change research by helping ... To determine the range of possible climate changes over the 21st century and beyond through simulations using a more accurate climate system model that includes the full range of human and natural climate feedbacks with increased realism and spatial resolution.

  8. N-body simulation for self-gravitating collisional systems with a new SIMD instruction set extension to the x86 architecture, Advanced Vector eXtensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Ataru; Yoshikawa, Kohji; Okamoto, Takashi; Nitadori, Keigo

    2012-02-01

    We present a high-performance N-body code for self-gravitating collisional systems accelerated with the aid of a new SIMD instruction set extension of the x86 architecture: Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX), an enhanced version of the Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE). With one processor core of Intel Core i7-2600 processor (8 MB cache and 3.40 GHz) based on Sandy Bridge micro-architecture, we implemented a fourth-order Hermite scheme with individual timestep scheme ( Makino and Aarseth, 1992), and achieved the performance of ˜20 giga floating point number operations per second (GFLOPS) for double-precision accuracy, which is two times and five times higher than that of the previously developed code implemented with the SSE instructions ( Nitadori et al., 2006b), and that of a code implemented without any explicit use of SIMD instructions with the same processor core, respectively. We have parallelized the code by using so-called NINJA scheme ( Nitadori et al., 2006a), and achieved ˜90 GFLOPS for a system containing more than N = 8192 particles with 8 MPI processes on four cores. We expect to achieve about 10 tera FLOPS (TFLOPS) for a self-gravitating collisional system with N ˜ 10 5 on massively parallel systems with at most 800 cores with Sandy Bridge micro-architecture. This performance will be comparable to that of Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) cluster systems, such as the one with about 200 Tesla C1070 GPUs ( Spurzem et al., 2010). This paper offers an alternative to collisional N-body simulations with GRAPEs and GPUs.

  9. Revealing Communication Constraints in Extension Communication Strategies: A Case Study of a Project under the World Bank's T & V System, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melkote, Srinivas R.

    A study looked at an agricultural extension project in south India to examine comprehension of the extension team's intentionality by the poorest farmers. Subjects, 50 farmers in the village of Porandla in the state of Andhra Pradesh, were interviewed and measured to see if their knowledge and comprehension approximated a constant across all…

  10. A Decision Support System for Climate Change Adaptation in Rainfed Sectors of Agriculture for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyás, Csaba; Berki, Imre; Drüszler, Áron; Eredics, Attila; Gálos, Borbála; Illés, Gábor; Móricz, Norbert; Rasztovits, Ervin; Czimber, Kornél

    2013-04-01

    • Background and aims: Rainfed sectors of agriculture such as nature-close forestry, non-irrigated agriculture and animal husbandry on nature-close pastures are threatened by projected climate change especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is the limiting factor of production and ecosystem stability. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimization is increasing. The aim of the Decision Support System under development is to raise awareness and initiate preparation for frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses in the mentioned sectors. • Services provided: The Decision Support System provides GIS-supported information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options regarding climate change impacts, projected for reference periods until 2100 (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, potential production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.). The projections are referring first of all on biological production (natural produce), but the System includes also social and economic consequences. • Methods: In the raster based system, the latest image processing technology is used. We apply fuzzy membership functions, Support Vector Machine and Maximum Likelihood classifier. The System is developed in the first step for a reference area in SW Hungary (Zala county). • Novelty: The coherent, fine-scale regional system integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions and expected production potential for three sectors of agriculture as options for land use and conservation. • Funding: The development of the Decision Support System "Agrárklíma" is supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV and 4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018 "Talentum" joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate change

  11. Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of global ammonia emissions from global agricultural production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beusen, A. H. W.; Bouwman, A. F.; Heuberger, P. S. C.; Van Drecht, G.; Van Der Hoek, K. W.

    Here we present an uncertainty analysis of NH 3 emissions from agricultural production systems based on a global NH 3 emission inventory with a 5×5 min resolution. Of all results the mean is given with a range (10% and 90% percentile). The uncertainty range for the global NH 3 emission from agricultural systems is 27-38 (with a mean of 32) Tg NH 3-N yr -1, N fertilizer use contributing 10-12 (11) Tg yr -1 and livestock production 16-27 (21) Tg yr -1. Most of the emissions from livestock production come from animal houses and storage systems (31-55%); smaller contributions come from the spreading of animal manure (23-38%) and grazing animals (17-37%). This uncertainty analysis allows for identifying and improving those input parameters with a major influence on the results. The most important determinants of the uncertainty related to the global agricultural NH 3 emission comprise four parameters (N excretion rates, NH 3 emission rates for manure in animal houses and storage, the fraction of the time that ruminants graze and the fraction of non-agricultural use of manure) specific to mixed and landless systems, and total animal stocks. Nitrogen excretion rates and NH 3 emission rates from animal houses and storage systems are shown consistently to be the most important parameters in most parts of the world. Input parameters for pastoral systems are less relevant. However, there are clear differences between world regions and individual countries, reflecting the differences in livestock production systems.

  12. Extreme temperature trends in major cropping systems and their relation to agricultural land use change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, N. D.; Butler, E. E.; McKinnon, K. A.; Rhines, A. N.; Tingley, M.; Siebert, S.; Holbrook, N. M.; Huybers, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    High temperature extremes during the growing season can reduce agricultural production. At the same time, agricultural practices can modify temperatures by altering the surface energy budget. Here we investigate growing season climate trends in major cropping systems and their relationship with agricultural land use change. In the US Midwest, 100-year trends exhibit a transition towards more favorable conditions, with cooler summer temperature extremes and increased precipitation. Statistically significant correspondence is found between the cooling pattern and trends in cropland intensification, as well as with trends towards greater irrigated land over a small subset of the domain. Land conversion to cropland, often considered an important influence on historical temperatures, is not significantly associated with cooling. We suggest that cooling is primarily associated with agricultural intensification increasing the potential for evapotranspiration, consistent with our finding that cooling trends are greatest for the highest temperature percentiles, and that increased evapotranspiration generally leads to greater precipitation. Temperatures over rainfed croplands show no cooling trend during drought conditions, consistent with evapotranspiration requiring adequate soil moisture, and implying that modern drought events feature greater warming as baseline cooler temperatures revert to historically high extremes. Preliminary results indicate these relationships between temperature extremes, irrigation, and intensification are also observed in other major summer cropping systems, including northeast China, Argentina, and the Canadian Prairies.

  13. Farmers' Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents' Characteristics as Factors for Enhancing Adult Learning in Mezam Division of Northwest Province of Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idowu, Oladele O.

    2005-01-01

    The education of farmers would be result oriented if among other things the learning enhancement situations are created. Farmers' receptivity to training largely depends on the use of several educational methods by extension agents to reach farmers in Mezam division of Northwest province of Cameroon. Data were collected from May to August 2000…

  14. 36 CFR 223.115 - Contract extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract extensions. 223.115 Section 223.115 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Administration § 223.115...

  15. 36 CFR 223.115 - Contract extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contract extensions. 223.115 Section 223.115 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  16. 36 CFR 223.115 - Contract extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contract extensions. 223.115 Section 223.115 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  17. 36 CFR 223.115 - Contract extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract extensions. 223.115 Section 223.115 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  18. 36 CFR 223.115 - Contract extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contract extensions. 223.115 Section 223.115 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  19. Best Practices for Extension Curricula Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Gayle; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Baker, Susan; Bowen, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Effective curricula are a cornerstone of successful Extension programming. The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Nutrition and Health Planning and Guidance Committee (NGPGC) developed a set of recommendations for a curriculum review system and created a curriculum review checklist. The checklist describes components of an effective…

  20. Extension and the VET Sector: Time for Closer Alignment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Millar, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Extension (industry training) and VET (the formal Vocational Education and Training system), each vital to Australia's education and training for agriculture, have developed as separate domains. Recent research suggests that the potential of closer alignment should be further explored. Extension provides usually non-certified courses to primary…

  1. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  2. Differences in Fish, Amphibian, and Reptile Communities Within Wetlands Created by an Agricultural Water Recycling System in Northwestern Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of a water recycling system known as the wetland-reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to store subirriga...

  3. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What should the System institution do when it... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  4. A Qualitative Study of Agricultural Literacy in Urban Youth: What Do Elementary Students Understand about the Agri-Food System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural literacy of K-12 students is a national priority for both scientific and agricultural education professional organizations. Development of curricula to address this priority has not been informed by research on what K-12 students understand about the agri-food system. While students' knowledge of food and fiber system facts have been…

  5. Evolution of the knowledge system for agricultural development in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Ellen B; Matson, Pamela A

    2016-04-26

    Knowledge systems-networks of linked actors, organizations, and objects that perform a number of knowledge-related functions that link knowledge and know how with action-have played a key role in fostering agricultural development over the last 50 years. We examine the evolution of the knowledge system of the Yaqui Valley, Mexico, a region often described as the home of the green revolution for wheat, tracing changes in the functions of critical knowledge system participants, information flows, and research priorities. Most of the knowledge system's key players have been in place for many decades, although their roles have changed in response to exogenous and endogenous shocks and trends (e.g., drought, policy shifts, and price trends). The system has been agile and able to respond to challenges, in part because of the diversity of players (evolving roles of actors spanning research-decision maker boundaries) and also because of the strong and consistent role of innovative farmers. Although the agricultural research agenda in the Valley is primarily controlled from within the agricultural sector, outside voices have become an important influence in broadening development- and production-oriented perspectives to sustainability perspectives. PMID:21606365

  6. Effects of agriculture production systems on nitrate and nitrite accumulation on baby-leaf salads

    PubMed Central

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are widespread contaminants of vegetables, fruits, and waters. The levels of these compounds are increased as a result of using organic wastes from chemical industries, domestic wastes, effluents, nitrogenous fertilizers, and herbicides in agriculture. Therefore, determining the nitrate and nitrite levels in biological, food, and environmental samples is important to protect human health and the environment. In this context, we set this study, in which we report the effect of production system (conventional and organic) on the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in fresh baby-leaf samples. The average levels of the nitrate () and nitrite () contents in six different baby-leaf salads of a single species (green lettuce, red lettuce, watercress, rucola, chard, and corn salad) produced in organic and conventional agriculture system were evaluated. Spectrophotometric analytical method recently published was validated and used. Nitrates and nitrites were detected in all samples. The nitrates levels from organic production varied between 1.45 and 6.40 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), whereas those from conventional production ranged from 10.5 to 45.19 mg/kg FW. The nitrites content was lower than nitrates and ranged from 0.32 to 1.89 mg/kg FW in organic production system and between 0.14 and 1.41 mg/kg FW in conventional production system. Our results showed that the nitrate content was dependent on the agricultural production system, while for nitrites, this dependency was less pronounced. PMID:24804008

  7. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, Secondary, Adult, and Extension Education § 15b.27 Extension education....

  8. Efficient mapping of agricultural soils using a novel electromagnetic measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, Immo; Pregesbauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    "Despite all our accomplishments, we owe our existence to a six-inch layer of topsoil and the fact that it rains." - Paul Harvey. Despite the fact, that a farmers most precious good is the soil that he or she cultivates, in most cases actually very little is known about the soils that are being farmed. Agricultural soils are under constant threat through erosion, depletion, pollution and other degrading processes, in particular when considering intensive industrial scale farming. The capability of soils to retain water and soil moisture is of vital importance for their agricultural potential. Detailed knowledge of the physical properties of soils, their types and texture, water content and the depth of the agricultural layer would be of great importance for resource-efficient tillage with sub-area dependent variable depth, and the targeted intelligent application of fertilizers or irrigation. Precision farming, which has seen increasing popularity in the USA as well as Australia, is still in its infancy in Europe. Traditional near-surface geophysical prospection systems for agricultural soil mapping have either been based on earth resistance measurements using electrode-disks that require soil contact, with inherent issues, or electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements conducted with EMI devices mounted in non-metallic sledges towed several metres behind survey vehicles across the fields. Every farmer passes over the fields several times during each growing season, working the soil and treating the crops. Therefore a novel user-friendly measurement system, the "Topsoil Mapper" (TSM) has been developed, which enables the farmer to simultaneously acquire soil conductivity information and derived soil parameters while anyway passing over the fields using different agricultural implements. The measurement principle of the TSM is electromagnetic induction using a multi-coil array to acquire conductivity information along a vertical profile down to approximately 1.1 m

  9. Space Operations Center system analysis study extension. Volume 4, book 2: SOC system analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) orbital space station research missions integration, crew requirements, SOC operations, and configurations are analyzed. Potential research and applications missions and their requirements are described. The capabilities of SOC are compared with user requirements. The SOC/space shuttle and shuttle-derived vehicle flight support operations and SOC orbital operations are described. Module configurations and systems options, SOC/external tank configurations, and configurations for geostationary orbits are described. Crew and systems safety configurations are summarized.

  10. Analysis agriculture's impact in a system of lakes on a karst environment with tropical climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olea Olea, Selene; Escolero Fuentes, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    This paper has as main object to analyze the impact of agriculture in the water quality of the "Lagos de Montebello" area; which is located in the Southeast of Mexico. This area is prominent by its tropical climate and a karstic environment. The issue arises in a lake system affected by pollution in the later years, which has turned its former clear water into a highly sedimented muddy water in the topographically lower terrains while no polluted on the higher ones; therefore it is intended to determine if the rise in agricultural activity in the lower terrains has induced this phenomenon. The impact of agriculture has been historically studied in temperate climates with karstic environments; nevertheless it has not been very well studied in tropical climates; which are the reason of this proposal to perform a study to analyze the impact of the intensive agriculture running in the area. To develop this project we studied the area regarding to the types of crops that has being established in the zone, being mostly tomato, corn, and bean; and the fertilizers and pesticides applied to them. A groundwater monitoring plan was designed with a variety of phases such as: piezometers building, measurement of groundwater levels, measurement of field parameters, with a two months intervals (Ph, temperature, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids), and water samplings for laboratory analysis (major ions, nutrients, total organic carbon, pesticides) at twice a year, once during rainy season and then on drought. The rates of pollution agents infiltration depends on the type of soil retention and volume of water. The materials found in the soil by the piezometers are clay, silt, sand and variations between them. We determined that the geochemical qualities of the groundwater vary from calcic bicarbonate to calcic sulfated. The results reached with this monitoring provides a preliminary diagnosis on the possible causes and other implications that intensive agriculture in a

  11. Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Claudia R.; Feola, Giuseppe; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2010-02-15

    This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

  12. Evolution of the knowledge system for agricultural development in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Ellen B.; Matson, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge systems—networks of linked actors, organizations, and objects that perform a number of knowledge-related functions that link knowledge and know how with action—have played a key role in fostering agricultural development over the last 50 years. We examine the evolution of the knowledge system of the Yaqui Valley, Mexico, a region often described as the home of the green revolution for wheat, tracing changes in the functions of critical knowledge system participants, information flows, and research priorities. Most of the knowledge system's key players have been in place for many decades, although their roles have changed in response to exogenous and endogenous shocks and trends (e.g., drought, policy shifts, and price trends). The system has been agile and able to respond to challenges, in part because of the diversity of players (evolving roles of actors spanning research–decision maker boundaries) and also because of the strong and consistent role of innovative farmers. Although the agricultural research agenda in the Valley is primarily controlled from within the agricultural sector, outside voices have become an important influence in broadening development- and production-oriented perspectives to sustainability perspectives. PMID:21606365

  13. Vulnerability of Rehabilitated Agricultural Production Systems to Invasion by Nontarget Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Sara G.; Engle, David M.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Langeland, Kenneth A.; Maxwell, Bruce D.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Symstad, Amy J.

    2009-02-01

    Vast areas of arable land have been retired from crop production and “rehabilitated” to improved system states through landowner incentive programs in the United States (e.g., Conservation and Wetland Reserve Programs), as well as Europe (i.e., Agri-Environment Schemes). Our review of studies conducted on invasion of rehabilitated agricultural production systems by nontarget species elucidates several factors that may increase the vulnerability of these systems to invasion. These systems often exist in highly fragmented and agriculturally dominated landscapes, where propagule sources of target species for colonization may be limited, and are established under conditions where legacies of past disturbance persist and prevent target species from persisting. Furthermore, rehabilitation approaches often do not include or successfully attain all target species or historical ecological processes (e.g., hydrology, grazing, and/or fire cycles) key to resisting invasion. Uncertainty surrounds ways in which nontarget species may compromise long term goals of improving biodiversity and ecosystem services through rehabilitation efforts on former agricultural production lands. This review demonstrates that more studies are needed on the extent and ecological impacts of nontarget species as related to the goals of rehabilitation efforts to secure current and future environmental benefits arising from this widespread conservation practice.

  14. A modular and extensible data acquisition and control system for testing superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Darryl F. Orris and Ruben H. Carcagno

    2001-07-20

    The Magnet Test Facility at Fermilab tests a variety of full-scale and model superconducting magnets for both R and D and production. As the design characteristics and test requirements of these magnets vary widely, the magnet test stand must accommodate a wide range of Data Acquisition (DAQ) and Control requirements. Such a system must provide several functions, which includes: quench detection, quench protection, power supply control, quench characterization, and slow DAQ of temperature, mechanical strain gauge, liquid helium level, etc. The system must also provide cryogenic valve control, process instrumentation monitoring, and process interlock logic associated with the test stand. A DAQ and Control system architecture that provides the functionality described above has been designed, fabricated, and put into operation. This system utilizes a modular approach that provides both extensibility and flexibility. As a result, the complexity of the hardware is minimized while remaining optimized for future expansion. The architecture of this new system is presented along with a description of the different technologies applied to each module. Commissioning and operating experience as well as plans for future expansion are discussed.

  15. Sum Insured Determination for Cereal, Citrus and Vineyards in the Spanish Agricultural Insurance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gómez-Barona, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    In general, insurance is a form of risk management used to hedge against a contingent loss. The conventional definition is the equitable transfer of a risk of loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium or a guaranteed and quantifiable small loss to prevent a large and possibly devastating loss being agricultural insurance a special line of property insurance. Agriculture insurance, as actually are designed in the Spanish scenario, were established in 1978. At the macroeconomic insurance studies scale, it is necessary to know a basic element for the insurance actuarial components: sum insured. When a new risk assessment has to be evaluated in the insurance framework, it is essential to determinate venture capital in the total Spanish agriculture. In this study, three different crops (cereal, citrus and vineyards) cases are showed to determinate sum insured as they are representative of the cases found in the Spanish agriculture. Crop sum insured is calculated by the product of crop surface, unit surface production and crop price insured. In the cereal case, winter as spring cereal sowing, represents the highest Spanish crop surface, above to 6 millions of hectares (ha). Meanwhile, the four citrus species (oranges, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits) occupied an extension just over 275.000 ha. On the other hand, vineyard target to wine process shows almost one million of ha in Spain. A new method has been applied to estimate crop sum insured in these three cases. Under the maximum economic impact assumption, the maximum market price has been used to insurance each species. Depending on crop and reliability of the data base available, the insured area or insured production has been used in this estimation. When for a certain crop varieties or type of varieties show different insurance prices a geometric average was used as average insurance price for that particular crop. One extreme difficult case was vineyards, where differentiate prices based on

  16. EXTENSION EDUCATION SYMPOSIUM: reinventing extension as a resource--what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Mirando, M A; Bewley, J M; Blue, J; Amaral-Phillips, D M; Corriher, V A; Whittet, K M; Arthur, N; Patterson, D J

    2012-10-01

    The mission of the Cooperative Extension Service, as a component of the land-grant university system, is to disseminate new knowledge and to foster its application and use. Opportunities and challenges facing animal agriculture in the United States have changed dramatically over the past few decades and require the use of new approaches and emerging technologies that are available to extension professionals. Increased federal competitive grant funding for extension, the creation of eXtension, the development of smartphone and related electronic technologies, and the rapidly increasing popularity of social media created new opportunities for extension educators to disseminate knowledge to a variety of audiences and engage these audiences in electronic discussions. Competitive grant funding opportunities for extension efforts to advance animal agriculture became available from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and have increased dramatically in recent years. The majority of NIFA funding opportunities require extension efforts to be integrated with research, and NIFA encourages the use of eXtension and other cutting-edge approaches to extend research to traditional clientele and nontraditional audiences. A case study is presented to illustrate how research and extension were integrated to improve the adoption of AI by beef producers. Those in agriculture are increasingly resorting to the use of social media venues such as Facebook, YouTube, LinkedIn, and Twitter to access information required to support their enterprises. Use of these various approaches by extension educators requires appreciation of the technology and an understanding of how the target audiences access information available on social media. Technology to deliver information is changing rapidly, and Cooperative Extension Service professionals will need to continuously evaluate digital technology and social media tools to appropriately integrate them into learning and

  17. Identifying populations potentially exposed to agricultural pesticides using remote sensing and a Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.H.; Nuckols, J.R.; Weigel, S. J.; Cantor, K.P.; Miller, Roger S.

    2000-01-01

    Pesticides used in agriculture may cause adverse health effects among the population living near agricultural areas. However, identifying the populations most likely to be exposed is difficult. We conducted a feasibility study to determine whether satellite imagery could be used to reconstruct historical crop patterns. We used historical Farm Service Agency records as a source of ground reference data to classify a late summer 1984 satellite image into crop species in a three-county area in south central Nebraska. Residences from a population-based epidemiologic study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were located on the crop maps using a geographic information system (GIS). Corn, soybeans, sorghum, and alfalfa were the major crops grown in the study area. Eighty-five percent of residences could be located, and of these 22% had one of the four major crops within 500 m of the residence, an intermediate distance for the range of drift effects from pesticides applied in agriculture. We determined the proximity of residences to specific crop species and calculated crop-specific probabilities of pesticide use based on available data. This feasibility study demonstrated that remote sensing data and historical records on crop location can be used to create historical crop maps. The crop pesticides that were likely to have been applied can be estimated when information about crop-specific pesticide use is available. Using a GIS, zones of potential exposure to agricultural pesticides and proximity measures can be determined for residences in a study.

  18. Agriculture and food systems in sub-Saharan Africa in a 4°C+ world.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Philip K; Jones, Peter G; Ericksen, Polly J; Challinor, Andrew J

    2011-01-13

    Agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa faces daunting challenges, which climate change and increasing climate variability will compound in vulnerable areas. The impacts of a changing climate on agricultural production in a world that warms by 4°C or more are likely to be severe in places. The livelihoods of many croppers and livestock keepers in Africa are associated with diversity of options. The changes in crop and livestock production that are likely to result in a 4°C+ world will diminish the options available to most smallholders. In such a world, current crop and livestock varieties and agricultural practices will often be inadequate, and food security will be more difficult to achieve because of commodity price increases and local production shortfalls. While adaptation strategies exist, considerable institutional and policy support will be needed to implement them successfully on the scale required. Even in the 2°C+ world that appears inevitable, planning for and implementing successful adaptation strategies are critical if agricultural growth in the region is to occur, food security be achieved and household livelihoods be enhanced. As part of this effort, better understanding of the critical thresholds in global and African food systems requires urgent research. PMID:21115516

  19. New families of superintegrable systems from k-step rational extensions, polynomial algebras and degeneracies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquette, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Four new families of two-dimensional quantum superintegrable systems are constructed from k-step extension of the harmonic oscillator and the radial oscillator. Their wavefunctions are related with Hermite and Laguerre exceptional orthogonal polynomials (EOP) of type III. We show that ladder operators obtained from alternative construction based on combinations of supercharges in the Krein-Adler and Darboux Crum (or state deleting and creating) approaches can be used to generate a set of integrals of motion and a corresponding polynomial algebra that provides an algebraic derivation of the full spectrum and total number of degeneracies. Such derivation is based on finite dimensional unitary representations (unirreps) and doesn't work for integrals build from standard ladder operators in supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) as they contain singlets isolated from excited states. In this paper, we also rely on a novel approach to obtain the finite dimensional unirreps based on the action of the integrals of motion on the wavefunctions given in terms of these EOP. We compare the results with those obtained from the Daskaloyannis approach and the realizations in terms of deformed oscillator algebras for one of the new families in the case of 1-step extension. This communication is a review of recent works.

  20. A methodology for existing system upgrade to current ASME standards and system lifetime extension

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.K.; Dwight, J.E. Jr.; Hawkes, G.L.; Pace, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl events, there has been an increase in the awareness and review of government operated reactors both internationally, and within the United States. Government reactors have recently come under increased and indepth scrutiny. Department of Energy Secretary Hodel committed to a review of the safety of non-commercial reactors and irradiation facilities within the department. The increased attention has been in the areas of accident response, PRA of the facilities, environmental impacts, and the construction and associated standards for the facilities. This paper focuses on the system qualifications to current standards. Specifically, this paper discusses a method used for upgrading an existing high pressure nuclear system to current ASME Code standards and to extend the system's lifetime. This paper reports the methods used in an attempt to qualify components of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to current ASME Code Section III standards.

  1. Drivers Impacting the Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Management Practices and Production Systems of the Northeast and Southeast U.S

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production responds to economic, social, environmental, and technological drivers operating both internal and external to the production system. These drivers influence producers’ decision making processes, and act to shape the individual production systems through modification of produ...

  2. A GPS Backpack System for Mapping Soil and Crop Parameters in Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, J. V.; Lebars, J. M.

    Farmers are having to gather increasing amounts of data on their soils and crops. Precision agriculture metre-by-metre is based on a knowledge of the spatial variation of soil and crop parameters across a field. The data has to be spatially located and GPS is an effective way of doing this. A backpack data logging system with GPS position tagging is described which has been designed to aid a fanner in the manual collection of data.

  3. System for analysis of LANDSAT agricultural data: Automatic computer-assisted proportion estimation of local areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Kauth, R. J.; Thomas, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A conceptual man machine system framework was created for a large scale agricultural remote sensing system. The system is based on and can grow out of the local recognition mode of LACIE, through a gradual transition wherein computer support functions supplement and replace AI functions. Local proportion estimation functions are broken into two broad classes: (1) organization of the data within the sample segment; and (2) identification of the fields or groups of fields in the sample segment.

  4. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-10-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agropastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socioeconomic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's (FEWS NET) science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S-8° N, 36-46° E) for the March-April-May (MAM) growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food-insecure, climatically variable, and socioeconomically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world; this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To produce an "agricultural outlook", our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios describing the upcoming season. First, we forced the VIC model with high-quality atmospheric observations to produce baseline soil moisture (SM) estimates (here after referred as SM a posteriori estimates). These compared favorably (correlation = 0.75) with the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI), an index that the FEWS NET uses to estimate crop yields. Next, we evaluated the SM forecasts generated by this system on 5 March and 5 April of each year between 1993 and 2012 by comparing them with the corresponding SM a posteriori estimates. We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (SOS) (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month and, in some cases, 3-month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with midseason (i.e., 5

  5. Benchmarking a Soil Moisture Data Assimilation System for Agricultural Drought Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hun, Eunjin; Crow, Wade T.; Holmes, Thomas; Bolten, John

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in the application of land surface data assimilation systems (LDAS) for agricultural drought applications, relatively little is known about the large-scale performance of such systems and, thus, the optimal methodological approach for implementing them. To address this need, this paper evaluates an LDAS for agricultural drought monitoring by benchmarking individual components of the system (i.e., a satellite soil moisture retrieval algorithm, a soil water balance model and a sequential data assimilation filter) against a series of linear models which perform the same function (i.e., have the same basic inputoutput structure) as the full system component. Benchmarking is based on the calculation of the lagged rank cross-correlation between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil moisture estimates acquired for various components of the system. Lagged soil moistureNDVI correlations obtained using individual LDAS components versus their linear analogs reveal the degree to which non-linearities andor complexities contained within each component actually contribute to the performance of the LDAS system as a whole. Here, a particular system based on surface soil moisture retrievals from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), a two-layer Palmer soil water balance model and an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is benchmarked. Results suggest significant room for improvement in each component of the system.

  6. Behavior of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in eco-agricultural system: A case study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weixiao; Li, Jianan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Like; Su, Chao; Qian, Yanyun; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Chen, Hong

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to determine abundance and persistence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in eco-agricultural system (EAS), which starts from swine feces to anaerobic digestion products, then application of anaerobic digestion solid residue (ADSR) and anaerobic digestion liquid residue (ADLR) to the soil to grow ryegrass, one of swine feed. Oxytetracycline had the highest concentration in manure reaching up to 138.7 mg/kg. Most of antibiotics could be effectively eliminated by anaerobic digestion and removal rates ranged from 11% to 86%. ARGs abundance fluctuated within EAS. TetQ had the highest relative abundance and the relative abundance of tetG had the least variation within the system, which indicates that tetG is persistent in the agricultural environment and requires more attention. Compared to the relative abundance in manure, tetC and tetM increased in biogas residue while three ribosomal protection proteins genes (tetO, tetQ, tetW) decreased (p<0.05), with other genes showing no significant change after anaerobic fermentation (p>0.05). Most ARGs in downstream components (soils and fishpond) of EAS showed significantly higher relative abundance than the control agricultural system (p<0.05), except for tetG and sulI. PMID:26546700

  7. A Systems Approach to Reverse Engineer Lifespan Extension by Dietary Restriction.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lei; Wang, Dan; Chen, Di; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yue; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Chi; Sun, Na; McDermott, Joseph; Mair, William B; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2016-03-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is the most powerful natural means to extend lifespan. Although several genes can mediate responses to alternate DR regimens, no single genetic intervention has recapitulated the full effects of DR, and no unified system is known for different DR regimens. Here we obtain temporally resolved transcriptomes during calorie restriction and intermittent fasting in Caenorhabditis elegans and find that early and late responses involve metabolism and cell cycle/DNA damage, respectively. We uncover three network modules of DR regulators by their target specificity. By genetic manipulations of nodes representing discrete modules, we induce transcriptomes that progressively resemble DR as multiple nodes are perturbed. Targeting all three nodes simultaneously results in extremely long-lived animals that are refractory to DR. These results and dynamic simulations demonstrate that extensive feedback controls among regulators may be leveraged to drive the regulatory circuitry to a younger steady state, recapitulating the full effect of DR. PMID:26959186

  8. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1986. Volume 9: Study extension results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofal, Allen E.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this extension to the OTV Concept Definition and Systems Analysis Study was to improve the definition of the OTV Program that will be most beneficial to the nation in the 1995 to 2010 timeframe. The implications of the defined mission and defined launch vehicle are investigated. The key mission requirements identified for the Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) were established and reflect a need for early capability and more ambitious capability growth. The key technical objectives and related issues addressed are summarized. The analyses of selected areas including aerobrake design, proximity operations, and the balance of EVA and IVA operations used in the support of the OTV at the space-base were enhanced. Sensitivity studies were conducted to establish how the OTV program should be tailored to meet changing circumstances.

  9. Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm with Extensive Cutaneous and Central Nervous System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Hayder; Awasthi, Mukta; Al-Qaisi, Abeer; Massarweh, Suleiman

    2014-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic neoplasm is an exceedingly rare tumor that has undergone several changes in nomenclature over the last two decades, largely because of confusion regarding its cell of origin. It does, however, have distinctive clinical features with a particularly aggressive clinical course and no standard treatment. Overall, prognosis is poor and relapse is routine after initial response to chemotherapy. In this report, we describe a typical patient with this disease and reconcile the available literature and its evolution. We emphasize the leukemic nature of this tumor’s behavior, with extensive central nervous system and skin involvement, and describe for the first time a potential role for maintenance chemotherapy in its treatment. PMID:25568744

  10. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Use of Space Link Extension (SLE) Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Cordier, G. R.; Johnson, L. M.; Tillery, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite -- Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological & solar-geophysical data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of Command, Control & Communications (C3) and Interface Data Processing (IDP) segments, is developed by Raytheon. CGS now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into Environmental Data Records for NOAA & DoD weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. CGS Block 2.0 (B2.0) is the recent CDR-approved design to support both the current S-NPP and upcoming JPSS-1 missions. In B2.0, many important improvements were made to evolve CGS C3. One of those improvements is the addition of SLE services. The CCSDS SLE Protocol standard facilitates and significantly improves GS-to-Data Center communications. The CGS SLE architecture provides data reliability and resource scheduling and is scalable to support added missions. The JPSS CGS is a mature, tested solution for supporting operational weather forecasting for civil, military, and international partners as well as climate research. It features a flexible design that handles order-of-magnitude increases in data over legacy satellite ground systems and meets demanding science accuracy needs. The JPSS CGS is expandable to support additional ground station service providers with or without the deployment of additional JPSS ground hardware by using standard SLE Transfer Service protocol and offers opportunities to reduce costs and improve information Integration across missions. The Raytheon-built JPSS CGS provides the full common ground capability, from design and development through operations & sustainment. These features lay the foundation for the CGS future

  11. Future space transportation systems analysis study. Phase 1 extension: Transportation systems reference data, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Transportation mass requirements are developed for various mission and transportation modes based on vehicle systems sized to fit the exact needs of each mission. The parametric data used to derive the mass requirements for each mission and transportation mode are presented to enable accommodation of possible changes in mode options or payload definitions. The vehicle sizing and functional requirements used to derive the parametric data are described.

  12. Desert agricultural terrace systems at EBA Jawa (Jordan) - Layout, water availability and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Julia; Krause, Jan; Müller-Neuhof, Bernd; Portillo, Marta; Reimann, Tony; Schütt, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Located in the arid basalt desert of northeastern Jordan, the Early Bronze Age (EBA) settlement of Jawa is by far the largest and best preserved archaeological EBA site in the region. Recent surveys in the close vicinity revealed well-preserved remains of three abandoned agricultural terrace systems. In the presented study these archaeological features are documented by detailed mapping and the analysis of the sediment records in a multi-proxy approach. To study the chronology of the terrace systems optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is used. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the water management techniques and its impact on harvest yields, a crop simulation model (CropSyst) under today's climatic conditions is applied, simulating crop yields with and without (runoff) irrigation. In order to do so, a runoff time series for each agricultural terrace system and its catchment is generated, applying the SCS runoff curve number method (CN) based on rainfall and soil data. Covering a total area of 38 ha, irrigated terrace agriculture was practiced on slopes, small plateaus, and valleys in the close vicinity of Jawa. Floodwater from nearby wadis or runoff from adjacent slopes was collected and diverted via surface canals. The terraced fields were arranged in cascades, allowing effective water exploitation through a system of risers, canals and spillways. The examined terrace profiles show similar stratigraphic sequences of mixed unstratified fine sediments that are composed of small-scale relocated sediments with local origin. The accumulation of these fines is associated with the construction of agricultural terraces, forcing infiltration and storage of the water within the terraces. Two OSL ages of terrace fills indicate that the construction of these terrace systems started as early as 5300 ± 300 a, which fits well to the beginning of the occupation phase of Jawa at around 3.500 calBC, thus making them to the oldest examples of its kind in the Middle East

  13. Participatory geographic information systems for agricultural water management scenario development: A Tanzanian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinderby, Steve; Bruin, Annemarieke de; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Kongo, Victor; Barron, Jennie

    One of the keys to environmental management is to understand the impact and interaction of people with natural resources as a means to improve human welfare and the consequent environmental sustainability for future generations. In terms of water management one of the on-going challenges is to assess what impact interventions in agriculture, and in particularly different irrigation strategies, will have on livelihoods and water resources in the landscape. Whilst global and national policy provide the overall vision of desired outcomes for environmental management, agricultural development and water use strategies they are often presented with local challenges to embed these policies in the reality on the ground, with different stakeholder groups. The concept that government agencies, advocacy organizations, and private citizens should work together to identify mutually acceptable solutions to environmental and water resource issues is increasing in prominence. Participatory spatial engagement techniques linked to geographic information systems (commonly termed participatory GIS (PGIS)) offers one solution to facilitate such stakeholder dialogues in an efficient and consultative manner. In the context of agricultural water management multi-scale PGIS techniques have recently been piloted as part of the ‘Agricultural Water Management Solutions’ project to investigate the current use and dependencies of water by small-holder farmers a watershed in Tanzania. The piloted approach then developed PGIS scenarios describing the effects on livelihoods and water resources in the watershed when introducing different management technologies. These relatively rapid PGIS multi-scale methods show promise for assessing current and possible future agriculture water management technologies in terms of their bio-physical and socio-economic impacts at the watershed scale. The paper discusses the development of the methodology in the context of improved water management decision

  14. Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biazin, Birhanu; Sterk, Geert; Temesgen, Melesse; Abdulkedir, Abdu; Stroosnijder, Leo

    Agricultural water scarcity in the predominantly rainfed agricultural system of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is more related to the variability of rainfall and excessive non-productive losses, than the total annual precipitation in the growing season. Less than 15% of the terrestrial precipitation takes the form of productive ‘green’ transpiration. Hence, rainwater harvesting and management (RWHM) technologies hold a significant potential for improving rainwater-use efficiency and sustaining rainfed agriculture in the region. This paper outlines the various RWHM techniques being practiced in SSA, and reviews recent research results on the performance of selected practices. So far, micro-catchment and in situ rainwater harvesting techniques are more common than rainwater irrigation techniques from macro-catchment systems. Depending on rainfall patterns and local soil characteristics, appropriate application of in situ and micro-catchment techniques could improve the soil water content of the rooting zone by up to 30%. Up to sixfold crop yields have been obtained through combinations of rainwater harvesting and fertiliser use, as compared to traditional practices. Supplemental irrigation of rainfed agriculture through rainwater harvesting not only reduces the risk of total crop failure due to dry spells, but also substantially improves water and crop productivity. Depending on the type of crop and the seasonal rainfall pattern, the application of RWHM techniques makes net profits more possible, compared to the meagre profit or net loss of existing systems. Implementation of rainwater harvesting may allow cereal-based smallholder farmers to shift to diversified crops, hence improving household food security, dietary status, and economic return. The much needed green revolution and adaptations to climate change in SSA should blend rainwater harvesting ideals with agronomic principles. More efforts are needed to improve the indigenous practices, and to disseminate best

  15. Assessment of transport parameters in a karst system under various flow periods through extensive analysis of artificial tracer tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doummar, J.; Margane, A.; Sauter, M.; Geyer, T.

    2012-04-01

    It is primordial to understand the sensibility of a catchment or a spring against contamination to secure a sustainable water resource management in karst aquifers. Artificial tracer tests have proven to be excellent tools for the simulation of contaminant transport within an aquifer before its arrival at a karst spring as they provide information about transit times, dispersivities and therefore insights into the vulnerability of a water body against contamination (Geyer et al. 2007). For this purpose, extensive analysis of artificial tracer tests was undertaken in the following work, in order to acquire conservative transport parameters along fast and slow pathways in a mature karst system under various flow conditions. In the framework of the project "Protection of Jeita Spring" (BGR), about 30 tracer tests were conducted on the catchment area of the Jeita spring in Lebanon (Q= 1 to 20 m3/s) under various flow conditions and with different injection points (dolines, sinkholes, subsurface, and underground channel). Tracer breakthrough curves (TBC) observed at karst springs and in the conduit system were analyzed using the two-region non-equilibrium approach (2NREM) (Toride & van Genuchten 1999). The approach accounts for the skewness in the TBCs long tailings, which cannot be described with one dimensional advective-dispersive transport models (Geyer et al. 2007). Relationships between the modeling parameters estimated from the TBC were established under various flow periods. Rating curves for velocity and discharge show that the flow velocity increases with spring discharge. The calibrated portion of the immobile region in the conduit system is relatively low. Estimated longitudinal dispersivities in the conduit system range between 7 and 10 m in high flow periods and decreases linearly with increasing flow. In low flow periods, this relationship doesn't hold true as longitudinal dispersivities range randomly between 4 and 7 m. The longitudinal dispersivity

  16. A Summary of Proceedings and Participant Recommendations from a National Workshop on Institutionalizing Progress in Agricultural Extension and Education in Taiwan (Taichung, Taiwan, April 22-24, 1991) = Cejin Wo Guo Nongye Tuiguang Jiaoyu Xin Tizhi Yantaohui Zhuanji. Zhonghua Minguao Bashi Nian Siyue 22 zhi 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Taipei (Taiwan).

    These proceedings contain four presentations from a workshop at which leaders in agriculture and education contributed suggestions for developing policies and plans for the new Agricultural Extension Education Graduate Institute (AEEGI) in Taiwan. Introductory materials include a list of members of the planning committee, workshop rationale,…

  17. Host-Specific and pH-Dependent Microbiomes of Copepods in an Extensive Rearing System.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Alf; Castro-Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are to an increasing extent cultivated as feed for mariculture fish larvae with variable production success. In the temperate climate zone, this production faces seasonal limitation due to changing abiotic factors, in particular temperature and light. Furthermore, the production of copepods may be influenced by biotic factors of the culture systems, such as competing microorganisms, harmful algae, or other eukaryotes and prokaryotes that may be non-beneficial for the copepods. In this study, the composition of bacteria associated with copepods was investigated in an extensive outdoor copepod production system. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that bacteria were primarily found attached to the exoskeleton of copepods although a few bacteria were also found in the gut as well as internally in skeletal muscle tissue. Through 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, a clear difference was found between the microbiomes of the two copepod species, Acartia tonsa and Centropages hamatus, present in the system. This pattern was corroborated through 454/FLX-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of copepod microbiomes, which furthermore showed that the abiotic parameters pH and oxygen concentration in rearing tank water were the key factors influencing composition of copepod microbiomes. PMID:26167852

  18. Practical Aspects of Stabilized FEM Discretizations of Nonlinear Conservation Law Systems with Convex Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This talk considers simplified finite element discretization techniques for first-order systems of conservation laws equipped with a convex (entropy) extension. Using newly developed techniques in entropy symmetrization theory, simplified forms of the Galerkin least-squares (GLS) and the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method have been developed and analyzed. The use of symmetrization variables yields numerical schemes which inherit global entropy stability properties of the POE system. Central to the development of the simplified GLS and DG methods is the Degenerative Scaling Theorem which characterizes right symmetrizes of an arbitrary first-order hyperbolic system in terms of scaled eigenvectors of the corresponding flux Jacobean matrices. A constructive proof is provided for the Eigenvalue Scaling Theorem with detailed consideration given to the Euler, Navier-Stokes, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Linear and nonlinear energy stability is proven for the simplified GLS and DG methods. Spatial convergence properties of the simplified GLS and DO methods are numerical evaluated via the computation of Ringleb flow on a sequence of successively refined triangulations. Finally, we consider a posteriori error estimates for the GLS and DG demoralization assuming error functionals related to the integrated lift and drag of a body. Sample calculations in 20 are shown to validate the theory and implementation.

  19. Extensibility of the fission surface power (FSP) system from the moon to Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David Irvin

    2011-01-28

    Fission reactors have great near-term potential to power human and robotic missions/outposts on the surface of the Moon and Mars (and potentially other planets, moons, and asteroids). The ability to provide a power-rich environment that is independent of solar intensity, nights, dust storms, etc., is of significant (perhaps enabling) importance to the further expansion of humans into our solar system. NASA's Reference Fission Surface Power (FSP) System is a 40 kWe system that has been primarily designed for lunar applications. This paper examines the extensibility of the FSP design and technology for potential missions on Mars. Possible impacts include the effects of changes in heat sink, gravity, day-night cycles, mission transit time, communication delay, and the chemistry of the regolith and atmosphere. One of the biggest impacts might be differences in the potential utilization of in-situ materials for shielding. Another major factor is that different missions will likely require different performance requirements, e.g. power, lifetime and mass. This paper concludes that the environmental differences between potential mission locations will not require significant changes in design and technologies, unless performance requirements for a specific mission are substantially different than those adopted for the FSP The primary basis for this conclusion is that the FSP has been designed with robust materials and design margins.

  20. Host-Specific and pH-Dependent Microbiomes of Copepods in an Extensive Rearing System

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, Alf; Castro-Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are to an increasing extent cultivated as feed for mariculture fish larvae with variable production success. In the temperate climate zone, this production faces seasonal limitation due to changing abiotic factors, in particular temperature and light. Furthermore, the production of copepods may be influenced by biotic factors of the culture systems, such as competing microorganisms, harmful algae, or other eukaryotes and prokaryotes that may be non-beneficial for the copepods. In this study, the composition of bacteria associated with copepods was investigated in an extensive outdoor copepod production system. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that bacteria were primarily found attached to the exoskeleton of copepods although a few bacteria were also found in the gut as well as internally in skeletal muscle tissue. Through 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, a clear difference was found between the microbiomes of the two copepod species, Acartia tonsa and Centropages hamatus, present in the system. This pattern was corroborated through 454/FLX-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of copepod microbiomes, which furthermore showed that the abiotic parameters pH and oxygen concentration in rearing tank water were the key factors influencing composition of copepod microbiomes. PMID:26167852