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Sample records for agricultural field burning

  1. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation.

  2. Organic particulate emissions from field burning of garden and agriculture residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Evtyugina, Margarita; Alves, Célia; Monteiro, Cristina; Pio, Casimiro; Tomé, Mário

    2011-08-01

    To assess the particulate matter (PM) composition, the smoke from three different agriculture and garden residues, commonly subjected to open field burning in Northern Portugal (potato haulm (A), arable weed vegetation (B) and collard greens stalks/pruned green leafy-twigs (C)) have been sampled into 3 different size fractions (PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 ). To replicate another frequent practise of reducing or dispose agriculture/garden debris, residue C was complementarily burned in a metal container with addition of used lubricant oil. The size-segregated aerosol samples were analysed for elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon by a thermal-optical transmission technique. The organosoluble OC was fractionated by vacuum flash chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Burning of residue C produced the highest PM emissions. OC was the dominant carbonaceous component in all aerosol samples, contributing to about 98% of total carbon (TC). The detailed chemical profiles of particulate emissions, including organic tracer compounds, have been assessed. The contribution of phenolics (0.2-39% OC, w/w) and organic acids (1.5-13% OC, w/w) to OC was always predominant over other organic compounds, whose distribution patterns were found to vary from one residue to another. The polyphenols, as the guaiacyl derivatives, were particularly abundant in PM from the residue C burning, but anthropogenic constituents completely superimposed the emission profiles after addition of used lubricant oil. It was shown that the prevailing ambient conditions (such as high humidity) likely contributed to atmospheric processes (e.g. coagulation and hygroscopic growth), which influenced the particle size characteristics of the smoke tracers, shifting their distribution to larger diameters. Since it was shown that the relative contribution of different carbon forms and organic compounds may strongly depend on the size of the particulate matter, the barely

  3. Chemical and biological characterization of products of incomplete combustion from the simulated field burning of agricultural plastic.

    PubMed

    Linak, W P; Ryan, J V; Perry, E; Williams, R W; DeMarini, D M

    1989-06-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were performed to characterize products of incomplete combustion emitted during the simulated open field burning of agricultural plastic. A small utility shed equipped with an air delivery system was used to simulate pile burning and forced-air-curtain incineration of a nonhalogenated agricultural plastic that reportedly consisted of polyethylene and carbon black. Emissions were analyzed for combustion gases; volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate organics; and toxic and mutagenic properties. Emission samples, as well as samples of the used (possibly pesticide-contaminated) plastic, were analyzed for the presence of several pesticides to which the plastic may have been exposed. Although a variety of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were identified in the volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate fractions of these emissions, a substantial fraction of higher molecular weight organic material was not identified. No pesticides were identified in either combustion emission samples or dichloromethane washes of the used plastic. When mutagenicity was evaluated by exposing Salmonella bacteria (Ames assay) to whole vapor and vapor/particulate emissions, no toxic or mutagenic effects were observed. However, organic extracts of the particulate samples were moderately mutagenic. This mutagenicity compares approximately to that measured from residential wood heating on a revertant per unit heat release basis. Compared to pile burning, forced air slightly decreased the time necessary to burn a charge of plastic. There was not a substantial difference, however, in the variety or concentrations of organic compounds identified in samples from these two burn conditions. This study highlights the benefits of a combined chemical/biological approach to the characterization of complex, multi-component combustion emissions. These results may not reflect those of other types of plastic that may be used

  4. Chemical and biological characterization of products of incomplete combustion from the simulated field burning of agricultural plastic

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Ryan, J.V.; Perry, E.; Williams, R.W.; DeMarini, D.M.

    1989-06-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were performed to characterize products of incomplete combustion emitted during the simulated open field burning of agricultural plastic. A small utility shed equipped with an air delivery system was used to simulate pile burning and forced-air-curtain incineration of a nonhalogenated agricultural plastic that reportedly consisted of polyethylene and carbon black. Emissions were analyzed for combustion gases; volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate organics; and toxic and mutagenic properties. Emission samples, as well as samples of the used (possibly pesticide-contaminated) plastic, were analyzed for the presence of several pesticides to which the plastic may have been exposed. Although a variety of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were identified in the volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate fractions of these emissions, a substantial fraction of higher molecular weight organic material was not identified. No pesticides were identified in either combustion emission samples or dichloromethane washes of the used plastic. When mutagenicity was evaluated by exposing Salmonella bacteria (Ames assay) to whole vapor and vapor/particulate emissions, no toxic or mutagenic effects were observed. However, organic extracts of the particulate samples were moderately mutagenic. This mutagenicity compares approximately to that measured from residential wood heating on a revertant per unit heat release basis. Compared to pile burning, forced air slightly decreased the time necessary to burn a charge of plastic. There was not a substantial difference, however, in the variety or concentrations of organic compounds identified in samples from these two burn conditions. This study highlights the benefits of a combined chemical/biological approach to the characterization of complex, multi-component combustion emissions.

  5. Chemical and biological characterization of products of incomplete combustion from the simulated field burning of agricultural plastic

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.V.; Perry, E.; Linak, W.P.; DeMarini, D.M.; Williams, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were performed to characterize products of incomplete combustion emitted during the simulated open-field burning of agricultural plastic. A small utility shed equipped with an air delivery system was used to simulate pile burning and forced-air-curtain incineration of a nonhalogenated agricultural plastic that reportedly consisted of polyethylene and carbon black. Emissions were analyzed for combustion gases; volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate organics; and toxic and mutagenic properties. Emission samples, as well as samples of the used (possibly pesticide-contaminated) plastic, were analyzed for the presence of several pesticides to which the plastic may have been exposed. When mutagenicity was evaluated by exposing Salmonella bacteria (Ames assay) to whole vapor and vapor/particulate emissions, no toxic or mutagenic effects were observed. However, organic extracts of the particulate samples were moderately mutagenic. The study highlights the benefits of a combined chemical/biological approach to the characterization of complex, multi-component combustion emissions. These results may not reflect those of other types of plastic that may be used for agricultural purposes, especially those containing halogens.

  6. Spectral Characterization of Agricultural Burned Areas for Satellite Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boren, Erik J.

    Burned area detection with remotely sensed satellite data in agricultural landscapes is not only necessary for the estimation of global biomass burning emissions, but also has gained attention from managers interested in improved methods for the quantification of local scale emissions which affect air quality and human health. Mapping agricultural burned areas accurately, precisely and reliably, with methods that can be applied globally, is difficult because of the spectral and temporal characteristics of agricultural regions and prescribed cropland fires. These challenges have not been fully addressed by the scientific literature. Chapter 1 of this thesis presents an extensive literature review on the methods currently used for agricultural burned area mapping. Chapter 2 presents original research on the spectral characterization of agricultural burned areas, using field data and mixture models to analyze the response of spectral indices to the changes induced by fire and agricultural practices. The conclusions summarize the significance of the presented research for understanding the potential and limits of satellite data for agricultural burned area monitoring, and outline the directions for future work.

  7. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry...

  9. 40 CFR 49.133 - Rule for agricultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule for agricultural burning permits... agricultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for agricultural burning within the Indian reservation to control emissions of particulate...

  10. 40 CFR 49.133 - Rule for agricultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rule for agricultural burning permits... agricultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for agricultural burning within the Indian reservation to control emissions of particulate...

  11. 40 CFR 49.133 - Rule for agricultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule for agricultural burning permits... agricultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for agricultural burning within the Indian reservation to control emissions of particulate...

  12. 40 CFR 49.133 - Rule for agricultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule for agricultural burning permits... agricultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for agricultural burning within the Indian reservation to control emissions of particulate...

  13. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  14. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  15. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  16. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  17. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  18. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  19. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  20. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  1. SEM/EDS Characterization of Ambient PM during Agricultural Burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; Wall, S.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) samples were collected with UNC passive samplers during agricultural burns in Imperial Valley, California. Four Bermuda grass field burn events were sampled at 3-8 locations surrounding each burn. Sampling began at the start of each burn (30-60 min) and continued for 24-120 hours. During 3 of the 4 burn events, winds were calm and plumes were observed to travel straight up to the inversion layer. In one event, winds created a ground-level plume that enveloped two UNC samplers mounted on telephone poles very close to the field (0.2-0.3 miles away). Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy / energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDS) was used to measure particle sizes and elemental composition, from which mass concentrations and size distributions were calculated. The median PM2.5 and PM10 levels measured in this study were 3.4 and 20 ug/m3, respectively. To determine quantitative accuracy, UNC sampler PM2.5 results (PM< 2.5 um) were compared to PM2.5 results from four co-located, continuous-reading beta-attenuation monitors (EBAMs). The median agreement (EBAM - UNC) was 3.8 ug/m3. Manual SEM/EDS detected various distinctive species in these samples, including sea salt, spores, plant fragments, and large soot agglomerates. During the ‘plume event’, 24-hour PM2.5 exposures downwind were up to 17 times higher than that measured upwind. Numerous submicron combustion particles with carbon and oxygen only were directly observed by manual SEM/EDS in the two plume-impacted samples, along with larger ash particles enriched in potassium, sulfur, chlorine, calcium, sodium, and phosphorus. CCSEM/EDS data from this event was grouped into 5 particle classes to generate size-fraction-specific pie charts. Burn-related particle types contributed 95% of the PM2.5 in the location directly impacted by the ground-level plume, compared to only 12% in the upwind location. A sample of Imperial County Bermuda grass analyzed in bulk and

  2. A study for development of emission factors for trace gases and carbonaceous particulate species from in situ burning of wheat straw in agricultural fields in india

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Shivraj; Sharma, C.; Singh, D. P.; Dixit, C. K.; Singh, Nahar; Sharma, P.; Singh, K.; Bhatt, S.; Ghude, S.; Gupta, V.; Gupta, Raj K.; Tiwari, M. K.; Garg, S. C.; Mitra, A. P.; Gupta, Prabhat K.

    Major crops subject to field burning of crop residue (FBCR) generated an estimated 284 Tg of residue in India, of which 40% was contributed by wheat in the year 2000. About 7.5% of this total generated wheat straw was subjected to on-site burning, that is expected to emit large amounts of trace gases and particulate matter (PM) to the atmosphere, whose country-specific estimates and emission factors (EFs) are presently not available. An in situ experiment for wheat straw burning was undertaken for developing India specific EFs. The EFs of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, NOx, NO and NO2 were found to be 1787±36, 3.6±2.7, 28.1±20.1, 0.74±0.46, 1.70±1.68, 0.78±0.71 and 0.56±0.47gkg-1, whereas those for organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC) and total carbon (TC) were 0.3±0.1, 0.2±0.1, and 0.5±0.2gkg-1, respectively. Although these EFs have been generated from a single field experiment nevertheless they address important information gap on FBCR in the region. Further, the total emissions of CH4, CO2, CO, N2O, NOx, NO, NO2, OC, BC and TC from wheat straw burning in India for the year 2000 was estimated as 68±51, 34435±682, 541±387, 14±9, 33±32, 15±14, 11±9, 6±2, 3±1 and 10±4 Gg, respectively.

  3. Agricultural Burning in the Southeastern United States Detected by MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, J. L.; Justice, C. O.; Korontzi, S.

    2005-12-01

    The southeastern United States, including the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia, has a high occurrence of fire activity as detected by MODIS. The spatio-temporal analysis of the 1 km MODIS TERRA Active Fire Product (MOD 14) from 2001 to 2004 shows that agricultural burning in the southeastern United States accounts for an average of 16 percent of annual fire activity. In addition, the southeastern region contributes an average of 33 percent of all agricultural burning in the contiguous United States. Crop types that most likely burn in the southeast include rice, winter wheat, sugarcane, soybean and cotton. Much of the agricultural burning occurs in June and from October to January and is related to the harvest of winter wheat and rice in the spring and the harvest of sugarcane, soybean and cotton in the fall and winter. The results show that cropland burning is spatially dependent on crop type and temporally dependent on management practices (planting/harvesting). Three states represent more than 75 percent of all agricultural burning in the southeast: Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana. A 250 m MODIS land cover map cover was created for these three states using a decision tree classification. Compared to the MODIS 1 km Land Cover Dataset (MOD 12) (Friedl et al., 2002), the 250m classified images contain on average 50 percent more cropland area and improve the estimation of cropland area based on validation from ground control sites of croplands. Results from the decision tree classification for each state suggest that in 2004 agricultural burning contributed 73 percent, 54 percent, and 33 percent of total fires for Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, respectively.

  4. 40 CFR 49.133 - Rule for agricultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for agricultural burning permits. 49.133 Section 49.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... implementation plan in subpart M of this part for the specific reservation where this section applies. (3)...

  5. Emissions from Open burning of Used Agricultural Pesticide Containers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from simulated open burning of used agricultural pesticide containers were sampled for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs), and particle matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Clean high density polyethyl...

  6. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions. PMID:11266107

  7. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions.

  8. Emissions from open burning of used agricultural pesticide containers.

    PubMed

    Gullett, Brian K; Tabor, Dennis; Touati, Abderrahmane; Kasai, Jeanne; Fitz, Nancy

    2012-06-30

    Emissions from simulated open burning of used agricultural pesticide containers were sampled for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs), and particle matter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)). Clean high density polyethylene (HDPE) containers, containers with trace pesticide, and triple-rinsed containers were burned separately in an open combustion facility and their emissions compared. Two common chlorinated pesticides were used: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-chloro-3-ethylamino-5-isopropylamino-2,4,6-triazine (atrazine). PCDD/PCDF emission factors ranged from 0.1 to 24ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg C burned with a mean and median of 4.9 and 1.9ng TEQ/kgC burned, respectively. In a limited number of trials, the trace 2,4-D in the HDPE container led to a statistically significant increase in PCDD/PCDF formation compare to all other conditions. Residual atrazine did not lead to more PCDD/PCDF than the unrinsed 2,4-D container. Total (16 compounds) PAH emission factors varied from 1.5 to 6.7mg/kgC burned. These limited data suggest that rinsing the 2,4-D container prior to burning reduces both PCDD/PCDF and PAH emissions. Nine PM(2.5) emission factors ranged from 9 to 35mg/gC burned and ten PM(10) values ranged from 6 to 43mg/gC burned. Neither pesticide appeared to have any effect on PM concentration.

  9. Agricultural burning smoke in Eastern Washington: Part II. Exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Jimenez, Jorge; Claiborn, Candis; Gould, Tim; Simpson, Christopher D.; Larson, Tim; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    Several studies have documented potential health effects due to agricultural burning smoke. However, there is a paucity of literature characterizing community residents' exposure to agricultural burning smoke. This study assesses personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 μm (PM 2.5) from agriculture burning smoke ( Eb) for 33 asthmatic adults in Pullman, WA. PM 2.5 concentrations were measured on 16 subjects, inside of all but four residences, outside of 6 residences, and at a central site. The mean±standard deviation of personal exposure to PM 2.5 was 13.8±11.1 μg m -3, which was on average 8.0 μg m -3 higher during the agricultural burning episodes (19.0±11.8 μg m -3) than non-episodes (11.0±9.7 μg m -3). The levoglucosan (LG, a unique marker for biomass burning PM) on personal filter samples also was higher during the episodes than non-episodes (0.026±0.030 vs. 0.010±0.012 μg m -3). We applied the random component superposition model on central-site and home indoor PM measurements, and estimated a central-site infiltration factor between 0.21 and 2.05 for residences with good modeling performance. We combined the source apportionment and total exposure modeling results to estimate individual Eb, which ranged from 1.2 to 6.7 μg m -3 and correlated with personal LG with an r of 0.51. The sensitivity analysis of applying the infiltration efficiency estimated from the recursive model showed that the Eb (range: 1.3-4.3 μg m -3) obtained from this approach have a higher correlation with personal LG ( r=0.75). Nevertheless, the small sample size of personal LG measurements prevents a comparative and conclusive assessment of the model performance. We found a significant between-subject variation between episodes and non-episodes in both the Eb estimates and subjects' activity patterns. This suggests that the LG measurements at the central site may not always represent individual exposures to agricultural burning smoke

  10. Electric field effects on droplet burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patyal, Advitya; Kyritsis, Dimitrios; Matalon, Moshe

    2015-11-01

    The effects of an externally applied electric field are studied on the burning characteristics of a spherically symmetric fuel drop including the structure, mass burning rate and extinction characteristics of the diffusion flame. A reduced three-step chemical kinetic mechanism that reflects the chemi-ionization process for general hydrocarbon fuels has been proposed to capture the production and destruction of ions inside the flame zone. Due to the imposed symmetry, the effect of the ionic wind is simply to modify the pressure field. Our study thus focuses exclusively on the effects of Ohmic heating and kinetic effects on the burning process. Two distinguished limits of weak and strong field are identified, highlighting the relative strength of the internal charge barrier compared to the externally applied field, and numerically simulated. For both limits, significantly different charged species distributions are observed. An increase in the mass burning rate is noticed with increasing field in either limit with negligible change in the flame temperature. Increasing external voltages pushes the flame away from the droplet and causes a strengthening of the flame with a reduction in the extinction Damkhöler number.

  11. New field-based agricultural biomass burning trace gas, PM2.5, and black carbon emission ratios and factors measured in situ at crop residue fires in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianran; Wooster, Martin J.; Green, David C.; Main, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Despite policy attempts to limit or prevent agricultural burning, its use to remove crop residues either immediately after harvest (e.g. field burning of wheat stubble) or after subsequent crop processing (e.g. "bonfires" of rice straw and rapeseed residues) appears to remain widespread across parts of China. Emission factors for these types of small but highly numerous fire are therefore required to fully assess their impact on atmospheric composition and air pollution. Here we describe the design and deployment of a new smoke measurement system for the close-range sampling of key gases and particles within smoke from crop residue fires, using it to assess instantaneous mixing ratios of CO and CO2 and mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 from wheat stubble, rice straw, and rapeseed residue fires. Using data of our new smoke sampling system, we find a strong linear correlation between the PM2.5 mass and BC, with very high PM2.5 to BC emission ratios found in the smouldering phase (up to 80.7 mg m-3.(mg m-3)-1) compared to the flaming phase (2.0 mg m-3.(mg m-3)-1). We conclude that the contribution of BC to PM2.5 mass was as high as 50% in the flaming phase of some burns, whilst during smouldering it sometimes decreased to little over one percent. A linear mixing model is used to quantify the relative contribution of each combustion phase to the overall measured smoke composition, and we find that flaming combustion dominated the total emission of most species assessed. Using time series of trace gas concentrations from different fire cases, we calculated 'fire integrated' trace gas emission factors (EFs) for wheat, rice and rapeseed residue burns as 1739 ± 19 g kg-1, 1761 ± 30 g kg-1and 1704 ± 27 g kg-1 respectively for CO2, and 60 ± 12 g kg-1, 47 ± 19 g kg-1 and 82 ± 17 g kg-1 respectively for CO. Where comparisons were possible, our EFs agreed well with those derived via a simultaneously-deployed open path Fourier transform infrared (OP

  12. Particulate matter characteristics during agricultural waste burning in Taichung City, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Horng, Chuen-Liang; Su, Yi-Ru; Lin, Li-Kai; Lin, Yu-Chi; Chou, Charles C-K

    2009-06-15

    Agricultural waste burning is performed after harvest periods in June and November in Taiwan. Typically, farmers use open burning to dispose of excess rice straw. PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) measurements were conducted at National Chung Hsing University in Taichung City using a dichotomous sampler. The sampling times were during straw burning periods after rice harvest during 2002-2005. Ionic species including SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-) and Na(+) and carbonaceous species (EC and OC) in PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) were analyzed. The results showed that the average PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) concentrations were 123.6 and 31.5 microg m(-3) during agricultural waste burning periods and 32.6 and 21.4 microg m(-3) during non-waste burning periods, respectively. The fine aerosol ionic species including Cl(-), K(+) and NO(3)(-) increased 11.0, 6.7 and 5.5 times during agricultural burning periods compared with periods when agricultural waste burning is not performed. K(+) was found mainly in the fine mode during agricultural burning. High nitrogen oxidation ratio was found during agricultural waste burning periods which might be caused by the conversion of Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) to NO(3)(-). It is concluded that agricultural waste burning with low dispersion often causes high PM(2.5) and gases pollutant events.

  13. Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan (14.5N, 33.5E) is very distinctive in both size and shape. The region contains thousands of these rectangular fields bounded by canals which carry water from both the White and Blue Nile Rivers. A crop rotation system is used so that some fields are in cotton, millit, sorghum or fallow to conserve moisture and control weeds and insects. See also STS049-96-003.

  14. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  15. Uncertainty analysis of moderate- versus coarse-scale satellite fire products for quantifying agricultural burning: Implications for Air Quality in European Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, J. L.; Krylov, A.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Banach, D. M.; Potapov, P.; Tyukavina, A.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Turubanova, S.; Romanenkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cropland and pasture burning are common agricultural management practices that negatively impact air quality at a local and regional scale, including contributing to short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This research focuses on both cropland and pasture burning in European Russia, Lithuania, and Belarus. Burned area and fire detections were derived from 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 30 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Carbon, particulate matter, volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and harmful air pollutants (HAPs) emissions were then calculated using MODIS and Landsat-based estimates of fire and land-cover and land-use. Agricultural burning in Belarus, Lithuania, and European Russia showed a strong and consistent seasonal geographic pattern from 2002 to 2012, with the majority of fire detections occurring in March - June and smaller peak in July and August. Over this 11-year period, there was a decrease in both cropland and pasture burning throughout this region. For Smolensk Oblast, a Russian administrative region with comparable agro-environmental conditions to Belarus and Lithuania, a detailed analysis of Landsat-based burned area estimations for croplands and pastures and field data collected in summer 2014 showed that the agricultural burning area can be up to 10 times higher than the 1 km MODIS active fire estimates. In general, European Russia is the main source of agricultural burning emissions compared to Lithuania and Belarus. On average, all cropland burning in European Russia as detected by the MCD45A1 MODIS Burned Area Product emitted 17.66 Gg of PM10 while annual burning of pasture in Smolensk Oblast, Russia as detected by Landsat burn scars emitted 494.85 Gg of PM10, a 96% difference. This highlights that quantifying the contribution of pasture burning and burned area versus cropland burning in agricultural regions is important for accurately

  16. Field spectroscopy of agricultural crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Hall, F. G.

    1986-01-01

    The development of the full potential of multispectral data acquired from satellites, requires quantitative knowledge, and physical models of the spectral properties of specific earth surface features. Knowledge of the relationships between spectral-radiometric characteristics and important biophysical parameters of agricultural crops and soils can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies of fields or plots. It is important to select plots where data describing the agronomic-biophysical properties of the crop canopies and soil background are attainable, taking into account also the feasibility of frequent timely calibrated spectral measurements. The term 'field spectroscopy' is employed for this research. The present paper is concerned with field research which was sponsored by NASA as part of the AgRISTARS Supporting Research Project. Attention is given to field research objectives, field research instrumentation, measurement procedures, spectral-temporal profile modeling, and the effects of cultural and environmental factors on crop reflectance.

  17. Emissions from Combustion of Open Area Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural Burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural burns generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...

  18. Determinants of rice residue burning in the field.

    PubMed

    Haider, Mohammed Ziaul

    2013-10-15

    This study determines the factors that influence rice residue burning in the field. We consider the southwest region of Bangladesh as the study site. Our results indicate that while straw length, low-elevation land, and distance of the plot from homestead positively and significantly influence the rice residue burning decision, residue price negatively and significantly influences the residue burning decision of farmers. Our study proposes subsidies for the purchase of new varieties of seeds and/or education in order to persuade farmers to move to short-straw varieties on high/medium-elevation lands as policy interventions for handling the residue burning issue. Another option might be to switch from residue burning to incorporation. Research and development efforts into shortening straw length and shortening the time period between planting and harvesting time are among other options that would mitigate the problem under consideration.

  19. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical Burns For chemical and electrical burns, call 911 or your local ... the power source has been turned off. For chemical burns: Dry chemicals should be brushed off the ...

  20. Application of the Doppler lidar system to agricultural burning and air-sea interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, D.

    1980-01-01

    The Doppler lidar system is potentially a very powerful measurement system. Three areas concerning the system are discussed: (1) error analysis of the system to verify the results; (2) application of the system to agricultural burning in California central valley; and (3) oceanographic possibilities of the system.

  1. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur by direct or indirect contact with heat, electric current, radiation, or chemical agents. Burns can lead to ... is. The burn is caused by chemicals or electricity. The person shows signs of shock . The person ...

  2. Study on the Agricultural Residues Burning and PM2.5 Change in China by Remote Sensing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shuai; Wang, Xiufeng; Zhong, Guosheng; Sun, Zhongyi; Tani, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural residues are materials left over from the production of crops. The total amount of agricultural residues in China is about 660 million tons every year, while a large proportion of that is burnt directly on the croplands. Agricultural residues burning is a significant source of air pollution in developing countries including China. In this study, the MODIS MOD14A1 products were used to derive the daily fire spots of China. Then, the agricultural residues burning spots were obtained by extracting with the area of croplands which is from MODIS MCD12Q1 products. After vectorization of agricultural residues burning pixels and with the help of fishnet, the burning density distribution maps were eventually completed. According to the statistics, there were 71,237 pixels of agricultural residues burning in 2014. The pixels mainly focused on April, June and October, the number of which were 11,628, 10,912 and 20,965 respectively. The results show that the distribution of agricultural residues burning is closely connected with ploughing and harvesting activities and it is more severe in north China. The air quality data of 150 cities in China were also used to obtain the daily and monthly distribution maps of PM2.5 by Kriging interpolation method. The maps indicate that the PM2.5 is always higher in north China than that in south China. Comparing the results of agricultural residues burning points with the results of PM2.5, we found the agricultural residues burning can cause the PM2.5 increase, especially in June, the agricultural residues burning region was spatially and temporally consistent with the PM2.5 increase region in this month.

  3. [Emission Inventory of Crop Residues Field Burning and Its Temporal and Spatial Distribution in Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    He, Min; Wang, Xing-rui; Han, Li; Feng, Xiao-qiong; Mao, Xue

    2015-04-01

    Based on the collected activity data, the 2012 emission inventory of crop residues field burning in Sichuan province was developed through the emission factor approach. Besides, the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutant emissions was also analysed in this paper. The results showed that the total emissions of SO2, NO(x), NH3, CH4, NMVOC, CO, PM2.5, EC and OC from crop residues field burning in Sichuan province in the year of 2012 were 1 210, 12 185, 2 827, 20 659, 40 463, 292 671, 39 277, 1 984 and 10 215 t, respectively; The rice straw, wheat straw, corn straw and oil rape straw were four major contributors to pollutant emissions, with a total contribution about 88% - 94%; Crop residues field burning emissions were affected by agricultural harvesting. Temporally, the emissions were concentrated in July and August with a small peak in May; Spatially, the Chengdu plain, the Northern area and the Eastern area of Sichuan province were the highest emission areas, while the Western area had relatively low emissions; The key uncertain sources included emission factors and parameters used for estimating crop burning amounts.

  4. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... are burns treated? In many cases, topical antibiotics (skin creams or ointments) are used to prevent infection. For third-degree burns and some second-degree ones, immediate blood transfusion and/or extra fluids ... is skin grafting? There are two types of skin grafts. ...

  5. 7 CFR 3434.5 - Agriculture-related fields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agriculture-related fields. 3434.5 Section 3434.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS § 3434.5...

  6. 7 CFR 3434.5 - Agriculture-related fields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agriculture-related fields. 3434.5 Section 3434.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS § 3434.5...

  7. Size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon particulate emission factors from agricultural burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshtkar, Haleh; Ashbaugh, Lowell L.

    Burning of agricultural waste residue is a common method of disposal when preparing land following crop harvest. This practice introduces volatile organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), into the atmosphere. This study examines the particle size distribution in the smoke emissions of two common agricultural waste residues (biofuels) in California, almond prunings and rice straw. The residues were burned in a combustion chamber designed specifically for this purpose, and the smoke emissions were collected on 10-stage MOUDI impactors for analysis of PAH and total particle mass. The results, in units of emission factors, show that combustion temperature is an important factor in determining the smoke particle PAH composition. Total PAH emissions from rice straw burns were 18.6 mg kg -1 of fuel, while the emissions from almond prunings were lower at 8.03 mg kg -1. The less volatile five- and six-ring PAH was predominately on smaller particles where it condensed in the early stages of combustion while the more volatile three- and four-ring PAH formed on larger particles as the smoke cooled.

  8. Contribution of agricultural and forest fires in Ukraine to impact of Eurasian burnings on Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibtsev, S.; Goldammer, J. G.; Gilitukha, D.

    2012-04-01

    Burning potentially can occur on major part of lands of Ukraine (total 57.93 million ha) and, first of all, on agricultural ones - that occupy 71% of total area of the country. Forests occupy 17.6% of the area of country, where from 2 to 4 thousands fires happens annually. Good wildfire statistics, as well as proper fire management system only for part of forest lands of Ukraine - 68% is established, in particularly, for forests that managed by State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine. While other 2 million ha of forests that managed by other Ministries are out of regular fire management action, detection and protection. There are no reliable detection and accounting of wildfires, outdated or absent fire engines, lack of fire crews and facilities on most part of agricultural, grass, abandoned lands, pastures. During emergency wildfires situation in Ukraine in August 2010 only full mobilization of forest personal together with forces of internal affairs (police) for patrolling of wildfire situation nationwide allows to avoid catastrophic scenario in spite of general low preparedness and unsatisfactory technical provision of fire management on agricultural lands. That year in forest lands totally 3065 cases of fires were registered with total area burned 8916 ha (fire season 2010) and 3145 cases of wildfires on agricultural lands (August 2010). There are no reliable statistics and effective fire management system on grass and agricultural lands in Ukraine even agricultural fires burned much larger area of lands then forest fires and produce significant amount of black carbon both during spring and summer fire events. Results of analysis of wildfire cases in Ukraine at 1x1 km spatial resolution for the period 2006-2008 based on active detection of thermals anomaly by MODIS shows that annually, during the period nearly 20,000 cases of wildfires were detected. In extreme years like 2008, amount of fires doubled. Wildfires in Ukraine make important input in total

  9. Black carbon contribution to stabilised SOM in soil under slash and burn agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpel, C.; Chaplot, V.; Valentin, C.

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) produced during slash and burn agriculture on tropical soils may enhance the soils organic matter content and hence their biological properties. However, once deposited on the soil surface, BC may be subject to erosion and/or microbial decomposition and thus not be preserved on site. Up to now, few studies have been carried out to assess the contribution of BC to the soils stable carbon pool on sites under slash and burn agriculture. The aim of the study was to assess the survival potential of BC in sloping tropical soils of clayey texture. The study was carried out in Northern Laos, where the soils are subjected to addition of black carbon produced by burning of agricultural crop residues. Our conceptual approach included the characterisation of (a) morphologically distinct BC forms and (b) chemical soil fractions. The samples were analysed for elemental content, chemical composition by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy, carbon resistant to acid hydrolysis with HCl, carbon resistant to oxidation with acid dichromate solution and 14C activity. Our results indicated that BC produced by slash and burn agriculture was highly aromatic in nature. Its elemental composition as well as its susceptibility to be lost by chemical oxidation was dependent on its morphology. Acid hydrolysis did not lead to carbon loss from any BC form. We thus hypothesised that BC should be present in the hydrolysis resistant fraction isolated from soil. The charactersation of the chemical composition by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy showed that the hydrolysis residue was composed of highly aromatic carbon. Considering the low lignin content of these soils and the good recovery of bulk soil aromatic carbon signal (80-100%) in the hydrolysis residue, we consider that this fraction may be suitable to assess BC contribution to clayey soils. We suggest that BC isolated as hydrolysis resistant C may represent up to 25% of the soils C as compared to 8% as isolated by acid dichromate oxidation

  10. Care of the Burn Casualty in the Prolonged Field Care Environment.

    PubMed

    Studer, Nicholas M; Driscoll, Ian R; Daly, Ivonne M; Graybill, John C

    2015-01-01

    Burns are frequently encountered on the modern battlefield, with 5% - 20% of combat casualties expected to sustain some burn injury. Addressing immediate life-threatening conditions in accordance with the MARCH protocol (massive hemorrhage, airway, respirations, circulation, hypothermia/head injury) remains the top priority for burn casualties. Stopping the burning process, total burn surface area (TBSA) calculation, fluid resuscitation, covering the wounds, and hypothermia management are the next steps. If transport to definitive care is delayed and the prolonged field care stage is entered, the provider must be prepared to provide for the complex resuscitation and wound care needs of a critically ill burn casualty.

  11. Characteristics of Ambient Black Carbon Mass and Size-Resolved Particle Number Concentrations during Corn Straw Open-Field Burning Episode Observations at a Rural Site in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Sing

    2016-01-01

    Information on the effect of open-field burning of agricultural residues on ambient black carbon (BC) mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations is scarce. In this study, to understand the effect of such open-field burning on short-term air quality, real-time variations of the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations were monitored before and during a corn straw open-field burning episode at a rural site. Correlations between the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations during the episode were investigated. Moreover, the particle number size distribution and absorption Ångström exponent were determined for obtaining the characteristics of aerosol emissions from the corn straw open-field burning. The results can be used to address public health concerns and as a reference for managing similar episodes of open-field burning of agricultural residues. PMID:27399754

  12. Characteristics of Ambient Black Carbon Mass and Size-Resolved Particle Number Concentrations during Corn Straw Open-Field Burning Episode Observations at a Rural Site in Southern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Sing

    2016-01-01

    Information on the effect of open-field burning of agricultural residues on ambient black carbon (BC) mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations is scarce. In this study, to understand the effect of such open-field burning on short-term air quality, real-time variations of the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations were monitored before and during a corn straw open-field burning episode at a rural site. Correlations between the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations during the episode were investigated. Moreover, the particle number size distribution and absorption Ångström exponent were determined for obtaining the characteristics of aerosol emissions from the corn straw open-field burning. The results can be used to address public health concerns and as a reference for managing similar episodes of open-field burning of agricultural residues. PMID:27399754

  13. Slash and Burn Agriculture: A Dynamic Spatio-temporal Model of Shifting Cultivation Locations and Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagge, C. E.; Frolking, S.; Chini, L. P.; Hurtt, G.

    2008-12-01

    Shifting cultivation is a form of agriculture, also known as slash-and-burn or swidden agriculture, in which a plot of forest is cleared and then cultivated continuously for several years, after which it is abandoned to revert to natural vegetation, and then is subsequently re-cleared after a longer fallow period. Shifting cultivation is an important form of agriculture because it affects soil erosion rates, canopy cover in tropical forests, nutrient deficiency in soils, and also has an impact on the global carbon cycle. Because it is generally outside of the larger economy, shifting cultivation is not well-represented in large-scale earth system analyses. We investigated a new way to model shifting cultivation which will be included in a global land-use transitions model to better quantify this type of land use, both historically and into the future. Ultimately this study will improve simulations of changes in the Earth system and will aid in the study of the carbon cycle and thus climate change. Our model calculates the area of shifting cultivation in square kilometers per half-degree grid cell, using gridded population data, the fraction of that population that is rural, the fraction of global population that practices shifting cultivation, the crop area needed per person, and the length of cultivation plus the fallow. Locations of shifting cultivation were further constrained by variables such as potential vegetation biomass density, population density, fraction of land already in use, GDP per capita, and average winter temperatures. With this model, we generated global estimates for total cultivated area, total population involved in shifting cultivation, and total shifting cultivation area including fallow lands. From this model it was estimated that the total global area of shifting cultivation in 2000 was approximately 1.5 million km2 with 90,000 km2 of that actually in cultivation by 190 million people.

  14. An Integrated Greenhouse Gas Assessment of an Alternative to Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in Eastern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E. A.; Sá, T. D.; Carvalho, C. J.; Figueiredo, R. D.; Kato, M. D.; Kato, O. R.; Ishida, F. Y.

    2007-12-01

    Fires set for slash-and-burn agriculture contribute to the current unsustainable accumulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases, and they also deplete the soil of essential nutrients, which compromises agricultural sustainability at local scales. Integrated assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have compared intensive cropping systems in industrialized countries, but such assessments have not been applied to common cropping systems of smallholder farmers in developing countries. We report an integrated assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in slash-and-burn agriculture and an alternative chop-and-mulch system in the Amazon Basin. The soil consumed atmospheric methane under slash-and-burn treatment and became a net emitter of methane to the atmosphere under the mulch treatment. Mulching also caused about a 50 percent increase in soil emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide and required use of fertilizer and fuel for farm machinery. Despite these significantly higher emissions of greenhouse gases during the cropping phase under the alternative chop- and-mulch system, calculated pyrogenic emissions in the slash-and-burn system were much larger, especially for methane. The global warming potential CO2-equivalent emissions calculated for the entire crop cycles were at least five times lower in chop-and-mulch compared to slash-and-burn and were dominated by differences in methane emissions. The crop yields were similar for the two systems. While economic and logistical considerations remain to be worked out for alternatives to slash-and-burn, these results demonstrate a potential "win-win" strategy for maintaining soil fertility and reducing net greenhouse gas emissions, thus simultaneously contributing to sustainability at both spatial scales.

  15. [Preliminary Study on the Structural Characteristics of Residue from Rice Straw Burning in Field].

    PubMed

    Hu, Lin-chao; Chen, Li-na; Yin, Yong; Huang, Zhao-qin; Dai, Jing-yu

    2015-07-01

    Because of their special structural characteristics, straw burning residues (biochar) have important impacts on the soil carbon sequestration and the transport and transformation behavior of pollutants. In this paper, a series of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) , X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to study the basic physical and chemical properties and structural features of rice straw burning residues generating at different incineration intensity in field. The results show that: the basic physical and chemical properties of straw burning residues from field were closely associated with the burning intensity. The higher the burning intensity, the lower the TOC content. Meanwhile, the order degree of carbon atoms in the resulting residue increased. Wherein the fatty component of rice straw burning residues is gradually reduced with the burning intensity while the aromaticity of rice straw burning residues is gradually increased. In addition, the organic components in the straw burning residues from field have more significant contribution to the surface area.

  16. Characterization of gaseous and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from field burning of rice straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Tipayarom, Aungsiri; Bich, Thuy Ly; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Simpson, Christopher D.; Hardie, David; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2015-10-01

    Rice straw (RS) field burning, commonly practiced in Asia, produces large amounts of toxic air pollutants but has not been comprehensively characterized. This study conducted field and laboratory measurements for gaseous pollutants and semi-VOCs (16 PAHs, 16 chlorinated pesticides and 14 PCBs) in RS burning smoke to determine emission factors (EFs) and emission concentration profiles. Paddy burning experiments were done following common practices used by farmers in Southeast Asia and EFs were estimated using the carbon balance method. Laboratory hood experiments simulated burning of dry RS (moisture content ∼ 5%) and normal RS (moisture ∼ 23-30%). Semi-VOCs were analyzed separately in the particulate (PM) and gas phases, and the levels measured in smoke were compared with those in the paddy background and in general ambient air to identify enrichment of the compounds. Lower EFs of all pollutants were obtained for hood burning dry RS as compared to hood burning normal RS. EFs of all detected pollutants in the field burning were higher than hood burning. The EFs of field burning in mg kg-1 RS were 760 for benzene, 230 for toluene, 510 for SO2, 490 for NO2, 260 for total PAHs (88% in gas phase), 0.11 for total PCBs (59% in gas phase) and 0.23 for OCPs (62% in gas phase). The EF of aldehydes determined in the hood experiment was 80-150 mg kg-1 RS. As compared to ambient air, RS smoke had significant enrichment of light PAHs, fluoranthene in PM and acenaphthylene in gas phase. Smoke had a higher proportion of benzene in BTEX than roadside air. Levels of PCBs, OCPs and aldehydes were higher in the burning smoke compared to ambient air, but there was no significant enrichment of particular compounds. This study provides appropriate ranges of EFs for developing emission inventory of RS spread field burning.

  17. Reliability of biomass burning estimates from savanna fires: Biomass burning in northern Australia during the 1999 Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment B field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Edwards, Andrew C.; Cook, Garry D.

    2003-02-01

    This paper estimates the two-daily extent of savanna burning and consumption of fine (grass and litter) fuels from an extensive 230,000 km2 region of northern Australia during August-September 1999 encompassing the Australian continental component of the Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment B (BIBLE B) campaign [, 2002]. The extent of burning for the study region was derived from fire scar mapping of imagery from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite. The mapping was calibrated and verified with reference to one Landsat scene and associated aerial transect validation data. Fine fuel loads were estimated using published fuel accumulation relationships for major regional fuel types. It is estimated that more than 43,000 km2 was burnt during the 25 day study period, with about 19 Mt of fine (grass and litter) fuels. This paper examines assumptions and errors associated with these estimates. It is estimated from uncalibrated fire mapping derived from AVHRR imagery that 417,500 km2 of the northern Australian savanna was burnt in 1999, of which 136,405 km2, or 30%, occurred in the Northern Territory study region. Using generalized fuel accumulation equations, such biomass burning consumed an estimated 212.3 Mt of fine fuels, but no data are available for consumption of coarse fuels. This figure exceeds a recent estimate, based on fine fuels only, for the combined Australian savanna and temperate grassland biomass burning over the period 1990-1999 but is lower than past estimates derived from classification approaches. We conclude that (1) fire maps derived from coarse-resolution optical imagery can be applied relatively reliably to estimate the extent of savanna fires, generally with 70-80% confidence using the approach adopted here, over the major burning period in northern Australia and (2) substantial further field assessment and associated modeling of fuel accumulation

  18. Evolution of Biomass Burning Aerosol Optical Properties in the Near Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, A. J., III; Arnott, W. P.; Chand, D.; Fortner, E.; Freedman, A.; Kleinman, L. I.; Onasch, T. B.; Shilling, J. E.; Springston, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) events are known to produce chemically rich environments that can impact the evolution of primary aerosols and influence secondary aerosols production rates. With their increasing in frequency, BB events are expected to exert an ever-increasing impact on climate due to aerosol radiative forcing processes. One area that is still poorly understood is the evolution of these smoke aerosols in the near field. Recent literature suggests that BB aerosols undergo a rapid evolution near their source that is then followed by a slower aging phase. During the summer of 2013, the Department of Energy-sponsored an aircraft field campaign called the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) that specifically targeted the evolution of smoke aerosols in the near field (< 2 hours). Results examining the evolution of BB optical and microphysical properties will be presented. To probe these properties, the BBOP field campaign deployed a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to probe the mixing state of refractory black carbon (rBC) and a Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) to investigate the composition of both non-refractory and rBC-containing particles. Aerosol optical properties were measured in situ using a 355 nm Photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS), a 532 nm photo thermal interferometer (PTI), a 630 nm cavity Attenuation Phase Shifted (CAPS) spectrometer, a 3-λ nephelometer, and a 3-λ PSAP. The BBOP study represented the maiden aircraft deployment for the SP-AMS, the 355 nm PAS and 532 nm PTI. Discussion will be on the near-field evolution of particle mixing state and morphology, chemical composition, and microphysical processes that determine aerosol size distributions and single scattering albedo (SSA) of light absorbing aerosols. In the cases studied, increases in the coating thickness of refractive black carbon (rBC) particles, organic aerosol/rBC ratio, scattering/CO ratio, and aerosol size distributions have been observed. Results will be

  19. Yanomamo ecology, population control, and their relationship to slash and burn agriculture.

    PubMed

    Owl, M Y

    1976-01-01

    Population control among the Yanomamo tribe of the Amazonian tropical rainforest is studied. 25% of male deaths are due to warfare. A male-female balance is achieved by the practice of infantcide, especially among female infants. The male:female ratio among the under-15 age group is 135:100, belying the tribe's contention that neither sex is more likely to be killed than the other. The major population controlffactor, however, is disease with about 54.2% of adult deaths due to malaria, and other communicable disease accounting for 11.7%. Other population controls are abortion and postnatal sex taboos, although the latter is for the most part overruled by the practice of infanticide for any child born while a previous child is still nursing. The intense intervillage warfare is increased by the shortage of women, resulting from female infanticide combined with polygamy and marriage alliances in which even unborn females are promised. Because there is war, male children are preferred and the cycle continues. Other observers, however, feel that the constant warfare is part of the need for new garden sites brought about by reliance on slash and burn agriculture. The author believes the shortage of women is just a side effect of population control occasioned by a protein shortage. PMID:12334855

  20. Satellite observation of abnormal yellow haze clouds over East China during summer agricultural burning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Minghui; Chen, Liangfu; Wang, Zifeng; Tao, Jinhua; Su, Lin

    2013-11-01

    Durative haze clouds with unusual yellow color appeared in East China in agricultural burning period during June 8-12 in 2012, causing extreme air pollution in densely populated regions including Jiangsu, Hubei, and the Yangtze River Delta. The spatial variation, vertical structure, optical properties, as well as formation process, were investigated using combined multiple satellite observations, ground measurements, and meteorological data. Different from previous studies, our analysis reveals that the yellow haze clouds were caused by mixing and interaction among airborne dust, fire emissions, and urban pollution under humid conditions. The pollution layers were 3-5 km thick, and their vertical structures were very inhomogeneous, with dust mostly distributed in the upper part and mixing of fires smoke and urban haze concentrated near surface. Compared with fire smoke, the dust-like haze clouds exhibited different optical properties with higher volume depolarization ratio and notable increase in coarse mode aerosols. Although fire emissions and urban pollution may play a more important role in surface pollution, we conclude that dust transport and high humidity were the main reason that the haze pollution was much heavier than that in previous years. In addition, regional concentrated fires only occurred in several days, and fire count was inconsistent with regional average aerosol loading. The long-range transport of fire emissions can be overestimated. In order to avoid such regional pollution event, our results also suggest that the strict measures in fire management should be extended from special periods to normal season.

  1. Zoning of agricultural field using a fuzzy indicators model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. One method for deciding how to subdivide a field into a few relatively homogenous zones is using applications of fuzzy sets theory. Data collected from a precision agriculture study in central Texas...

  2. Synergistic analyses of optical and microphysical properties of agricultural crop residue burning aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Shibata, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning is one of the important sources of trace gas emissions and aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). The present study deals with the spatial variability including the vertical structure of optical and microphysical properties of aerosols, during the crop residue burning season (October and November) of 2009 over the IGB. Increased number of fire counts observed by MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) that is associated with high aerosol optical depth (MODIS-AOD > 0.7) and enhanced tropospheric columnar NO2 concentrations observed by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), suggests agriculture crop residue burning as a main source of aerosol loading over the IGB during October and November. PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Science coupled with Observations from a Lidar) observations show an increase in fine mode AOD (at 865 nm) from October (0.1-0.2) to November (0.2-0.3) over the IGB, which is well corroborated with MODIS observations. CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) data shows the elevated aerosol plume (4.0-4.5 km) over the north-west IGB (associated with burning activities) that could have been caused by positive buoyancy through pyro-convection. However, large concentrations of aerosol were found below 1.0 km altitude. The averaged vertical structure of crop residue burning aerosols shows an exponential decrease with altitude (mean scale height ˜1.44 ± 0.20 km). Aerosol optical and microphysical properties coupled with backward air trajectories analyses at Kanpur indicated regional transport of biomass burning aerosols in a downwind direction from north-west IGB to south-east IGB. Aerosol classification, using AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork)-derived absorption properties coupled with size parameter (2006-2010) showed clear seasonal dependency of aerosol types which revealed the presence of biomass burning aerosols only during the crop

  3. Pre-harvest cane burning and health: the association between school absences and burning sugarcane fields.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Carla Cabrini; Ferrante, Vera Lúcia Silveira Bota; Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Ribeiro, Maria Lúcia; Magnani, Romeu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate an association between pre-harvest sugarcane burning and respiratory diseases in children under five years of age. The following data were collected in five schools in the city of Araraquara, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between March and June 2009: daily records of absences and the reasons stated for these absences, total concentration of suspended particulate matter (µg/m3), and air humidity. The relationship between the percentage of school absences due to respiratory problems and the concentration of particulate matter in March and from April to June presented a distinct behavior: absences increased alongside the increase in particulate matter concentration. The use of school absences as indicators of this relationship is an innovative approach.

  4. Pre-harvest cane burning and health: the association between school absences and burning sugarcane fields

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Carla Cabrini; Ferrante, Vera Lúcia Silveira Bota; Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Ribeiro, Maria Lúcia; Magnani, Romeu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate an association between pre-harvest sugarcane burning and respiratory diseases in children under five years of age. The following data were collected in five schools in the city of Araraquara, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between March and June 2009: daily records of absences and the reasons stated for these absences, total concentration of suspended particulate matter (µg/m3), and air humidity. The relationship between the percentage of school absences due to respiratory problems and the concentration of particulate matter in March and from April to June presented a distinct behavior: absences increased alongside the increase in particulate matter concentration. The use of school absences as indicators of this relationship is an innovative approach. PMID:26018783

  5. Pre-harvest cane burning and health: the association between school absences and burning sugarcane fields.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Carla Cabrini; Ferrante, Vera Lúcia Silveira Bota; Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Ribeiro, Maria Lúcia; Magnani, Romeu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate an association between pre-harvest sugarcane burning and respiratory diseases in children under five years of age. The following data were collected in five schools in the city of Araraquara, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between March and June 2009: daily records of absences and the reasons stated for these absences, total concentration of suspended particulate matter (µg/m3), and air humidity. The relationship between the percentage of school absences due to respiratory problems and the concentration of particulate matter in March and from April to June presented a distinct behavior: absences increased alongside the increase in particulate matter concentration. The use of school absences as indicators of this relationship is an innovative approach. PMID:26018783

  6. Eradication of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in burn wounds by antiseptic pulsed electric field

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G. Felix; Vecchio, Daniela; Khan, Saiqa; Hamblin, Michael R.; Austen, William G.; Sheridan, Robert L.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging bacterial resistance to multiple drugs is an increasing problem in burn wound management. New non-pharmacologic interventions are needed for burn wound disinfection. Here we report on a novel physical method for disinfection: antiseptic pulsed electric field (PEF) applied externally to the infected burns. In a mice model, we show that PEF can reduce the load of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii present in a full thickness burn wound by more than four orders of magnitude, as detected by bioluminescence imaging. Furthermore, using a finite element numerical model, we demonstrate that PEF provides non-thermal, homogeneous, full thickness treatment for the burn wound, thus, overcoming the limitation of treatment depth for many topical antimicrobials. These modeling tools and our in vivo results will be extremely useful for further translation of the PEF technology to the clinical setting, as they provide the essential elements for planning of electrode design and treatment protocol. PMID:25089285

  7. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.

    2014-06-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC) rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC rates for various biomes and fuel categories to better understand FC rates and variability, and to provide a~database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 76 studies covering 10 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126), temperate forest (n = 11, FC = 93), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 39), pasture (n = 6, FC = 28), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5), chaparral (n = 2, FC = 32), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only 3 measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences were found within the defined biomes: for example FC rates of temperate pine forests in the USA were 38% higher than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC rates, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that care should be taken with using averaged values, and our comparison with FC rates from GFED3 indicates that also modeling studies have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.

  8. Evaluating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Systems for Agricultural Waste Burning Using MODIS Active Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Jin, Y.; Giglio, L.; Foley, J. A.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. We evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries and the consistency of emissions reporting among countries. We also evaluated the success of the individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. We combined global crop maps with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections. At a global scale, we recommend adding ground nuts, cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, pulse other and rye from the UNFCCC list of 14 crops. This leads to an overall increase of 6% of the active fires covered by the reporting system. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 10% to 20%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico and Nigeria) would capture over 58% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the U.S. and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year-to-year variations in agricultural fire emissions. Remote sensing provides an efficient tool for an independent assessment of current UNFCCC emissions reporting system; and, if combined with census data, field experiments and expert opinion, has the potential for improving the robustness of the next generation inventory

  9. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC is usually modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC for various biomes and fuel categories to understand FC and its variability better, and to provide a database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 77 studies covering 11 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1 with a standard deviation of 2.2), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126 ± 77), temperate forest (n = 12, FC = 58 ± 72), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 35 ± 24), pasture (n = 4, FC = 28 ± 9.3), shifting cultivation (n = 2, FC = 23, with a range of 4.0-43), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5 ± 9.0), chaparral (n = 3, FC = 27 ± 19), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314 ± 196), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42 [42-43]), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only three measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences in FC were found within the defined biomes: for example, FC of temperate pine forests in the USA was 37% lower than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that substantial uncertainties are associated with using biome-averaged values to represent FC for whole

  10. Physiochemical properties of carbonaceous aerosol from agricultural residue burning: Density, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunlin; Hu, Yunjie; Chen, Jianmin; Ma, Zhen; Ye, Xingnan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-09-01

    Size-resolved effective density, mixing state, and hygroscopicity of smoke particles from five kinds of agricultural residues burning were characterized using an aerosol chamber system, including a volatility/hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (V/H-TDMA) combined with an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). To profile relationship between the thermodynamic properties and chemical compositions, smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5 were also measured for the water soluble inorganics, mineral elements, and carbonaceous materials like organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Smoke particle has a density of 1.1-1.4 g cm-3, and hygroscopicity parameter (κ) derived from hygroscopic growth factor (GF) of the particles ranges from 0.20 to 0.35. Size- and fuel type-dependence of density and κ are obvious. The integrated effective densities (ρ) and hygroscopicity parameters (κ) both scale with alkali species, which could be parameterized as a function of organic and inorganic mass fraction (forg &finorg) in smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5: ρ-1 =finorg ·ρinorg-1 +forg · ρorg-1 and κ =finorg ·κinorg +forg ·κorg . The extrapolated values of ρinorg and ρorg are 2.13 and 1.14 g cm-3 in smoke PM1.0, while the characteristic κ values of organic and inorganic components are about 0.087 and 0.734, which are similar to the bulk density and κ calculated from predefined chemical species and also consistent with those values observed in ambient air. Volatility of smoke particle was quantified as volume fraction remaining (VFR) and mass fraction remaining (MFR). The gradient temperature of V-TDMA was set to be consistent with the splitting temperature in the OC-EC measurement (OC1 and OC2 separated at 150 and 250 °C). Combing the thermogram data and chemical composition of smoke PM1.0, the densities of organic matter (OM1 and OM2 correspond to OC1 and OC2) are estimated as 0.61-0.90 and 0.86-1.13 g cm-3, and the ratios of OM1/OC1 and OM2/OC2 are 1.07 and 1.29 on average

  11. Physiochemical properties of carbonaceous aerosol from agricultural residue burning: Density, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunlin; Hu, Yunjie; Chen, Jianmin; Ma, Zhen; Ye, Xingnan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-09-01

    Size-resolved effective density, mixing state, and hygroscopicity of smoke particles from five kinds of agricultural residues burning were characterized using an aerosol chamber system, including a volatility/hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (V/H-TDMA) combined with an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). To profile relationship between the thermodynamic properties and chemical compositions, smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5 were also measured for the water soluble inorganics, mineral elements, and carbonaceous materials like organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Smoke particle has a density of 1.1-1.4 g cm-3, and hygroscopicity parameter (κ) derived from hygroscopic growth factor (GF) of the particles ranges from 0.20 to 0.35. Size- and fuel type-dependence of density and κ are obvious. The integrated effective densities (ρ) and hygroscopicity parameters (κ) both scale with alkali species, which could be parameterized as a function of organic and inorganic mass fraction (forg &finorg) in smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5: ρ-1 =finorg · ρinorg-1 +forg · ρorg-1 and κ =finorg ·κinorg +forg ·κorg . The extrapolated values of ρinorg and ρorg are 2.13 and 1.14 g cm-3 in smoke PM1.0, while the characteristic κ values of organic and inorganic components are about 0.087 and 0.734, which are similar to the bulk density and κ calculated from predefined chemical species and also consistent with those values observed in ambient air. Volatility of smoke particle was quantified as volume fraction remaining (VFR) and mass fraction remaining (MFR). The gradient temperature of V-TDMA was set to be consistent with the splitting temperature in the OC-EC measurement (OC1 and OC2 separated at 150 and 250 °C). Combing the thermogram data and chemical composition of smoke PM1.0, the densities of organic matter (OM1 and OM2 correspond to OC1 and OC2) are estimated as 0.61-0.90 and 0.86-1.13 g cm-3, and the ratios of OM1/OC1 and OM2/OC2 are 1.07 and 1.29 on average

  12. Field potential soil variability index to identify precision agriculture opportunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture (PA) technologies used for identifying and managing within-field variability are not widely used despite decades of advancement. Technological innovations in agronomic tools, such as canopy reflectance or electrical conductivity sensors, have created opportunities to achieve a ...

  13. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  14. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field.

    PubMed

    Yarden, O; Ebbole, D J; Freeman, S; Rodriguez, R J; Dickman, M B

    2003-10-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  15. Merging aerosol optical depth data from multiple satellite missions to view agricultural biomass burning in Central and East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Xu, H.; Mei, L.; Guang, J.; Guo, J.; Li, Y.; Hou, T.; Li, C.; Yang, L.; He, X.

    2012-04-01

    Agricultural biomass burning (ABB) in Central and East China occurs every year from May to October and peaks in June. The biomass burning event in June 2007 was very strong. During the period from 26 May to 16 June 2007, ABB occurred mainly in Anhui, Henan, Jiangsu and Shandong provinces. A comprehensive set of aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, produced by a merger of AOD product data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MIRS), is used to study the spatial and temporal distribution of agricultural biomass aerosols in Central and East China combining with ground observations from both AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and China Aerosol Remote Sensing NETwork (CARSNET) measurements. We compared merged AOD data with single-sensor single-algorithm AOD data (MODIS Dark Target AOD data, MODIS Deep Blue AOD data, SRAP-MODIS AOD data and MISR AOD data). In this comparison, we found merged AOD products can improve the quality of AOD products from single-sensor single-algorithm data sets by expanding the spatial coverage of the study area and keeping the statistical confidence in AOD parameters. There existed high correlation (0.8479) between the merged AOD data and AERONET measurements. Our merged AOD data make use of synergetic information conveyed in all of the available satellite data. The merged AOD data were used for the analysis of the biomass burning event from 26 May to 16 June 2007 together with meteorological data. The merged AOD products and the ground observations from China suggest that biomass burning in Central and East China has had great impact on AOD over China. Influenced by this ABB, the highest AOD value in Beijing on 12 June 2007 reached 5.71.

  16. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-06-01

    -to-year variations in agricultural fire emissions. Remote sensing provides an effective means for evaluating some aspects of the current UNFCCC emissions reporting system; and, if combined with census data, field experiments and expert opinion, has the potential to improve the robustness of the next generation inventory system.

  17. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-06-01

    -to-year variations in agricultural fire emissions. Remote sensing provides an effective means for evaluating some aspects of the current UNFCCC emissions reporting system; and, if combined with census data, field experiments and expert opinion, has the potential to improve the robustness of the next generation inventory system. PMID:22827140

  18. Lightning burns.

    PubMed

    Russell, Katie W; Cochran, Amalia L; Mehta, Sagar T; Morris, Stephen E; McDevitt, Marion C

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a lightning-strike victim. This case illustrates the importance of in-field care, appropriate referral to a burn center, and the tendency of lightning burns to progress to full-thickness injury.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of Field Trips on Instruction in Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Norval L.

    To determine the effect of field trips on student achievement in each of four subject matter areas in vocational agriculture, 12 schools offering approved programs were randomly selected and divided into a treatment group and a control group. Uniform teaching outlines and reference materials were provided to each group. While no field trips were…

  20. A contemporary decennial global sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, E.; Roy, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    In the last several hundred years agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) with dramatic cropland expansion and a marked increase in agricultural productivity. The size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLUC. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, diffusion of disease pathogens and pests, and loss or degradation in buffers to nutrient, herbicide and pesticide flows. In this study, globally distributed locations with significant contemporary field size change were selected guided by a global map of agricultural yield and literature review and were selected to be representative of different driving forces of field size change (associated with technological innovation, socio-economic conditions, government policy, historic patterns of land cover land use, and environmental setting). Seasonal Landsat data acquired on a decadal basis (for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were used to extract field boundaries and the temporal changes in field size quantified and their causes discussed.

  1. Siberian and North American Biomass Burning Contributions to the Processes that Influenced the 2008 Arctic Aircraft and Satellite Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Carr, R.; Pierce, R. B.; Natarajan, M.; Fromm, M.

    2009-05-01

    Current climate change scenarios predict increases in biomass burning in terms of increases in fire frequency, area burned, fire season length and fire season severity, particularly in boreal regions. Climate and weather control fire danger, which strongly influences the severity of fire events, and these in turn, feed back to the climate system through direct and indirect emissions, modifying cloud condensation nuclei and altering albedo (affecting the energy balance) through vegetative land cover change and deposition. Additionally, fire emissions adversely influence air quality and human health downwind of burning. The boreal zone is significant because this region stores the largest reservoir of terrestrial carbon, globally, and will experience climate change impacts earliest. Boreal biomass burning is an integral component to several of the primary goals of the ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) and ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate) 2008 field campaigns, which include its implication for atmospheric composition and climate, aerosol radiative forcing, and chemical processes with a focus on ozone and aerosols. Both the spring and summer phases of ARCTAS and ARCPAC offered substantial opportunities for sampling fresh and aged biomass burning emissions. However, the extent to which spring biomass burning influenced arctic haze was unexpected, which could inform our knowledge of the formation of arctic haze and the early deposition of black carbon on the icy arctic surface. There is already evidence of increased extreme fire seasons that correlate with warming across the circumboreal zone. In this presentation, we discuss seasonal and annual fire activity and anomalies that relate to the ARCTAS and ARCPAC spring (April 1 - 20) and summer (June 18 - July 13) periods across Siberia and North America, with particular emphasis on fire danger and fire behavior as they relate

  2. Influence of agricultural biomass burning on aerosol size distribution and dry deposition in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Gisele O; Allen, Andrew G; Cardoso, Arnaldo A

    2005-07-15

    The size distributed composition of ambient aerosols is used to explore seasonal differences in particle chemistry and to show that dry deposition fluxes of soluble species, including important plant nutrients, increase during periods of biomass (sugar cane trash) burning in São Paulo State, Brazil. Measurements were made at a single site centrally located in the State's sugar cane growing region but away from the immediate vicinity of burns, so that the airsampled was representative of the regional background. Calculation of ion equivalent balances showed that during burning periods smaller particles (Aitken and accumulation modes) were more acidic, containing higher concentrations of SO4(2-), oxalate, NO3-, HCOO-, CH3COO-, and CI-, but insufficient NH4+ and K+ to achieve neutrality. Larger particles showed an anion deficit due to the presence of unmeasured ions and comprised resuspended dusts modified by accumulation of nitrate, chloride, and organic anions. Increases of resuspended particles during the burning season were attributed to release of earlier deposits from the surfaces of burning vegetation as well as increased vehicle movement on unsurfaced roads. During winter months the relative contribution of combined emissions from road transport and industry diminished due to increased emissions from biomass combustion and other activities specifically associated with the harvest period. Positive increments in annual particulate dry deposition fluxes due to higher fluxes during the sugar cane harvest were 44.3% (NH4+), 42.1% (K+), 31.8% (Mg2+), 30.4% (HCOO-), 12.8% (CI-), 6.6% (CH3COO-), 5.2% (Ca2+), 3.8% (SO4(2-)), and 2.3% (NO3-). Na+ and oxalate fluxes were seasonally invariant. Annual aerosol dry deposition fluxes (kg ha(-1)) were 0.5 (Na+), 0.25 (NH4+), 0.39 (K+), 0.51 (Mg2+), 3.19 (Ca2+), 1.34 (Cl-), 4.47 (NO3-), 3.59 (SO4(2-)), 0.58 (oxalate), 0.71 (HCOO-), and 1.38 (CH3COO-). Contributions of this mechanism to combined aerosol dry deposition and

  3. “Comprehensive emission measurements from prescribed burning in Florida: field and laboratory, aerial and ground”

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous aerial- and ground-based emission sampling was conducted during prescribed burns at Eglin Air Force Base in November 2012 on a short grass/shrub field and a pine forest. Cumulative emission samples for volatile organic comounds, elemental carbon, organic carbon, ch...

  4. Comprehensive emission measurements from prescribed burning in Florida: field and laboratory, aerial and ground

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous aerial- and ground-based emission sampling was conducted during prescribed burns at Eglin Air Force Base in November 2012 on a short grass/shrub field and a pine forest. Cumulative emission samples for volatile organic compounds, elemental carbon, organic carbon, c...

  5. Development of turf-type Poa pratensis l. germplasm for seed production without field burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Open-field burning of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) post- harvest residue, which maintains grass seed yield and stand longevity, has been eliminated in Washington and is restricted in Idaho and Oregon, USA. Our objective was to develop Kentucky bluegrass germplasm that has sustainable seed y...

  6. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, X.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Rollins, M.; Ohlen, D.; Key, C.H.; Yang, L.; Huang, C.; Shi, H.

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  7. Vertical distribution of agriculture crop residue burning aerosol observed by space-borne lidar CALIOP - A case study over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A. K.; Shibata, T.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning is one of the important sources of trace gas emissions and aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). It is also one of the main causes for dense atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) formation over South Asian region. Present study deals with spatial and vertical variability of aerosol optical and microphysical properties during the crop residue burning season (October and November) over the IGB. MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire location data and MODIS AOD data confirms the crop residue burning activities over irrigated cropland of the IGB during October and November, 2009. Large values (> 0.7) of MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) backscatter (>0.006 km-1 sr-1 below 1.0 km altitude) are suggesting enhanced atmospheric pollution associated with agriculture crop residue burning. The increase in tropospheric columnar NO2 and surface CO concentration during October and November also emphasized the significant contribution of crop residue burning activities in enhanced anthropogenic pollution over the IGB. Vertical distribution of backscatter coefficients showed trapping of biomass (crop residues) burning aerosol within boundary layer. Spatial variation of aerosol backscatter and AOD showed large value above north-west part of IGB, major area of crop residue burning activities. The results of this study will be very useful in quantification of optical properties of atmospheric brown clouds and its effect on climate.

  8. Assessment of health status of adolescent burn victims undergoing rehabilitation: a cross-sectional field study.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, Júlia Teixeira; de Carvalho, Viviane Fernandes; Sabatés, Ana Llonch; Paggiaro, André Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Teenagers may experience physiological and psychological changes when they suffer from a severe burn. The aim of this study was to assess the state of health of teenagers who were undergoing a rehabilitation process following a severe burn. A cross-sectional field study was carried out with 63 teenagers and young adults who had suffered burns. The tests applied were social, demographic, and clinical instruments. The specific tests included the Burn Specific Health Scale-Revised, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Functional Independence Measurement. The results were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, variance analysis, and Cronbach's reliability analysis. The social and demographic analysis of the population has shown a prevalence of female (60.3%), single subjects (93.7%), and ages between 12 and 20 years (mean age of 15.95 years). The mean total body surface area burn was 23.84%, with accidents as the main causative factor (92.10%). More than half (52.4%) reported functional and aesthetic effects after the burn, with 81% concerned about the visible scar. Cronbach's reliability analysis has shown statistically confident results for all the instruments as applied. The multivariate analysis showed a correlation between the work domain and marital status, whereas there was no evidence to show a correlation between sex, age, physical or aesthetic sequelae or visibility of burns, and depression, self-esteem, functional independence, or current state of health. The results obtained prove the reliability of the instruments applied, making it possible to assess the state of teenagers and young adults health during the rehabilitation process. PMID:24297081

  9. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Laboratory and Field Technician Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the agricultural laboratory and field technician cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for…

  10. Lidar Based Particulate Flux Measurements of Agricultural Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system was developed to derive information on particulate spatial aerosol distribution over remote distances. The lidar system and retrieval approach has been tested during several field campaigns measuring agricultural emissions from a swine feeding operat...

  11. Black Carbon in the Arctic: Assessment of and efforts to reduce black carbon emissions from wildfires and agricultural burning in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinder, B.; Hao, W. M.; Larkin, N. K.; McCarty, G.; O'neal, K. J.; Gonzalez, O.; Luxenberg, J.; Rosenblum, M.; Petkov, A.

    2011-12-01

    Black carbon and other short-lived climate forcers exert a warming effect on the climate but remain in the atmosphere for short time periods when compared to carbon dioxide. Black carbon is a significant contributor to increasing temperatures in the Arctic region, which has warmed at twice the global rate over the past 100 years. Black carbon warms the Arctic by absorbing incoming solar radiation while in the atmosphere and, when deposited onto Arctic ice, leading to increased atmospheric temperatures and snow and ice melt. Black carbon remains in the atmosphere for a short time period ranging from days to weeks; therefore, local atmospheric conditions at the time of burning determine the amount of black carbon transport to the Arctic. Most black carbon transport and deposition in the Arctic results from the occurrence of wildfires, prescribed forest fires, and agricultural burning at latitudes greater than 40 degrees north latitude. Wildfire affects some 10-15 million hectares of forest, forest steppe, and grasslands in Russia each year. In addition to wildfire, there is widespread cropland burning in Russia occurring in the fall following harvest and in the spring prior to tilling. Agricultural burning is common practice for crop residue removal as well as suppression of weeds, insects and residue-borne diseases. The goal of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Black Carbon Initiative is to assess black carbon emissions from agricultural burning and wildfires in Russia and explore practical options and opportunities for reducing emissions from these two sources. The emissions assessment combines satellite-derived burned area measurements of forest and agricultural fires, burn severity information, ancillary geospatial data, vegetation and land cover maps, fuels data, fire emissions data, fire/weather relationship information, and smoke transport models to estimate black carbon transport and deposition in the Arctic. The assessment addresses

  12. Chemical properties of urban waste ash produced by open burning on the Jos Plateau: implications for agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, M W; Alexander, M J

    2004-02-01

    Urban centres produce most of the world's waste and between a third and a half goes uncollected. The answer to the problem of waste disposal lies partly in agriculture, as waste can be extremely nutrient-rich. In the last decade there has been a tremendous increase in the developing world in total city area under informal food production and there are many examples of waste recycling onto the urban or peri-urban plots. Farmers on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, have developed a successful soil fertility management strategy based on the combination of inorganic fertilisers, manure and urban waste ash. This study sought to provide some preliminary data on urban waste ash produced by open burning and used in farming in a developing country. Ash samples were collected from different locations around Jos and tested for C, N, pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. It was found that ash is an effective liming material (because of the high pH, and high Ca, Mg and K contents), and has the potential to contribute significant quantities of micro-nutrients such as Mn, Zn and Cu. Ash, however, is far from being a homogenous material and its variability means that its fertilising potential will vary between batches and that, even if mean and median levels are low, there is the risk of the formation of localised areas of soil with excessive heavy metal contents (this is particularly the case with Pb). Further research is required to determine the plant-availability of these elements in the ash and to assess the wider environmental and health implications of uncontrolled, open burning of waste as a means of producing ash for agricultural purposes.

  13. OPEN BURNING OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLE-PHASE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort presents the physical and chemical characterization of PM2.5 emissions from simulated agricultural fires of surface residuals of two major grain crops, rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L). The O2 levels and CO/CO

  14. High-resolution historical emission inventories of crop residue burning in fields in China for the period 1990-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Li, Yaqi; Bo, Yu; Xie, Shaodong

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution historical emission inventories of crop residue burning in fields in China were developed for the period 1990-2013. More accurate time-varying statistical data and locally observed emission factors were utilized to estimate crop residue open burning emissions at provincial level. Then pollutants emissions were allocated to a high spatial resolution of 10 km × 10 km and a high temporal resolution of 1 day based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Fire Product (MOD/MYD14A1). Results show that China's CO emissions have increased by 5.67 times at an annual average rate of 24% from 1.06 Tg in 1990 to 7.06 Tg in 2013; the emissions of CO2, CH4, NMVOCs, N2O, NOx, NH3, SO2, PM2.5, OC, and BC have increased by 595%, 500%, 608%, 584%, 600%, 600%, 543%, 571%, 775%, and 500%, respectively, over the past 24 years. Spatially, the regions with high emissions had been notable expanding over the years, especially in the central eastern districts, the Northeastern of China, and the Sichuan Basin. Strong temporal pattern were observed with the highest emissions in June, followed by March to May and October. This work provides a better understanding of the spatiotemporal representation of agricultural fire emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved accuracy.

  15. Black carbon aerosol variations over Patiala city, Punjab, India—A study during agriculture crop residue burning period using ground measurements and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharol, Shailesh Kumar; Badarinath, K. V. S.; Sharma, Anu Rani; Mahalakshmi, D. V.; Singh, Darshan; Prasad, V. Krishna

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, we have analyzed the variations in black carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentration over Patiala city, Punjab, India, during October/November-2008 associated with agriculture crop residue burning activities. BC mass concentration, observed to be very high (above 20 μg m-3) on certain days during November-2008, was closely associated with intensive agriculture crop residue burning practices over the region. Higher values (>1.0) of ground-measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) together with increase (>1.2) in angstrom exponent (α) values suggested dominance of fine mode aerosols over the region. Satellite observations clearly define the fire spot areas and the enhanced aerosol burden over the region. BC absorption coefficient calculated from seven channels aethalometer exhibits a pronounced diurnal variation with higher values during early morning and evening hours and lower during noon and early afternoon associated with biomass-burning activities and boundary-layer dynamics over the region.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Fire in Slash and Burn Agriculture Landscape: A Case Study from Nagaland, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalia, H.; Mondal, P. P.

    2014-11-01

    Increasing incidences of fire from land conversion and residue burning in tropics is the major concern in global warming. Spatial and temporal monitoring of trends of fire incidences is, therefore, significant in order to determine contribution of carbon emissions from slash and burn agriculture. In this study, we analyzed time-series Terra / Aqua MODIS satellite hotspot products from 2001 to 2013 to derive intra- and inter-annual trends in fire incidences in Nagaland state, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Time-series regression was applied to MODIS fire products at variable spatial scales in GIS. Significance of change in fire frequency at each grid level was tested using t statistic. Spatial clustering of higher or lower fire incidences across study area was determined using Getis-OrdGi statistic. Maximum fire incidences were encountered in moist mixed deciduous forests (46%) followed by secondary moist bamboo brakes (30%). In most parts of the study area fire incidences peaked during March while in warmer parts (e.g. Mon district dominated by indigenous people) fire activity starts as early as during November and peaks in January. Regression trend analysis captured noticeable areas with statistically significant positive (e.g. Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon, Tuensang and Kiphire districts) and negative (e.g. Kohima and north-western part of Mokokchung district) inter-annual fire frequency trends based on area-based aggregation of fire occurrences at different grid sizes. Localization of spatial clusters of high fire incidences was observed in Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon,Tuensang and Kiphire districts.

  17. Pulsed Electric Fields for Burn Wound Disinfection in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G. Felix; Vecchio, Daniela; Khan, Saiqa; Hamblin, Michael R.; Austen, William G.; Sheridan, Robert L.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging bacterial resistance renders many antibiotics ineffective, making alternative strategies of wound disinfection important. Here the authors report on a new, physical burn wound disinfection method: pulsed electric fields (PEFs). High voltage, short PEFs create nonthermal, permanent damage to cell membranes, possibly by irreversible electroporation. In medicine, PEF technology has recently been used for nonthermal ablation of solid tumors. The authors have expanded the spectrum of PEF applications in medicine to burn wound disinfection. A third-degree burn was induced on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Immediately after the injury, the burn wound was infected with Acinetobacter baumannii expressing the luxCDABE operon. Thirty minutes after infection, the infected areas were treated with 80 pulses delivered at 500 V/mm, 70 μs, 1 Hz. The authors used bioluminescence to quantify bacteria on skin. Three animals were used for each experimental condition. PEFs were effective in the disinfection of infected burned murine skin. The bacterial load reduction correlated with the number of delivered pulses. Forty pulses of 500 V/mm led to a 2.04 ± 0.29 Log10 reduction in bacterial load; 80 pulses led to the immediate 5.53 ± 0.30 Log10 reduction. Three hours after PEF, the bacterial reduction of the skin treated with 500 V/mm, 80 pulses was 4.91 ± 0.71 Log10. The authors introduce a new method of wound disinfection using high voltage, short PEFs. They believe that PEF technology may represent an important alternative to antibiotics in addressing bacterial contamination of wounds, particularly those contaminated with multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:25167374

  18. aerial and ground measurements of emissions from agricultural and forest burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes our measurement capabilities, particularly as they relate to interests within Region 7. Aerial instrumentation systems are discussed and field measurement campaigns are described in text and photos.

  19. Effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India: A study using satellite data and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, K.; Safai, P. D.; Devara, P. C. S.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning in the tropics is a major source of the global atmospheric aerosols and monitoring their long-range transport is an important element in climate change studies. In this paper, we study the effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India during a smoke event that occurred between 09 and 17 November 2013, with the help of satellite measurements and model simulation data. Satellite data observations on aerosol properties suggested transport of particles from agriculture crop residue burning in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) over large regions. Additionally, ECMWF winds at 850 hPa have been used to trace the source, path and spatial extent of smoke events. Most of the smoke aerosols, during the study period, travel from a west-to-east pathway from the source-to-sink region. Furthermore, aerosol vertical profiles from CALIPSO show a layer of thick smoke extending from surface to an altitude of about 3 km. Smoke aerosols emitted from biomass burning activity from Punjab have been found to be a major contributor to the deterioration of local air quality over the NE Indian region due to their long range transport.

  20. Effects of magnetic fields on the nuclear burning propagation and the Type Ia SNe runaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Boyan; Collins, David C.; Hoeflich, Peter; Weatherford, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The consistency of Type Ia SNe allows for simple descriptions of the phenomena founded on basic physics and yet no theory is able to explain the observations entirely. In particular we are addressing an outstanding problem with current 3D simulations, in which Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities bring too much burned material to the outer layers thus mixing iron group elements towards the surface but those are not observed. Additionally light curves are reproduced well only in spherically symmetric explosions, while they break down when instabilities are present. We attempt to explain these discrepancies by introducing magnetic fields, which affects the rate of growth of unstable modes. Specifically it increases the growth rate of modes parallel to itself and suppress the transverse modes. This reduces the mixing in two possible ways: stronger burning causes faster pre-expansion, then plumes rise with the similar speed as the surrounding material is expanding; and RT instabilities are suppressed so much that they don't rise at all. Our preliminary models run in a rectangular domain inside a C/O white dwarf (WD) extending 120km along the stellar radius and is about 15km on the side. External magnetic fields between 1e4G and 1e9G are superimposed at various angles to the WD radius. A simple two-species nuclear network is employed in the form of fuel-product (C/O -> 56Ni). The front propagation is modeled as diffusion of the burned fraction of the C/O fuel. All simulations were done with Enzo - a 3D AMR MHD code for astrophysical and cosmological imulations, which was enhanced with additional physics for the nuclear burning. Future work will extend to full star simulations and more complex nuclear networks.

  1. Parkinson's Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields.

    PubMed

    Yitshak Sade, Maayan; Zlotnik, Yair; Kloog, Itai; Novack, Victor; Peretz, Chava; Ifergane, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel) contains approximately 252.5 km(2) of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF). We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all "Clalit" Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population) between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs) for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001-2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005-2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009-2012). Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79). In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk.

  2. Methane uptake in agricultural and old-field ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.L.; Halstead, S.J.; Robertson, G.P. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing )

    1993-06-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH[sub 4]) concentrations are rising approximately 1% per year, with important consequences for the earth's radiation balance and tropospheric chemistry. Sources of this increase are not well known; recent evidence suggests that land conversion to agriculture may play some role in this increase if CH[sub 4] consumption in upland soils is suppressed by agronomic activities. We tested this hypothesis in a series of replicated agricultural and old-field communities at the KBS LTER site in southwest Michigan. We measured CH[sub 4] flux with static chambers in 6 different cropping systems (conventional till and no-till annual crops, ridge-till organic based crops, perennial crops) and in early successional and mid-succession (never tilled) old field communities. Chambers were sampled 17 times over the 1992 growing season and analyzed for CH[sub 4], N[sub 2]O, and CO[sub 2]. We found significant but highly variable CH[sub 4] uptake on some dates in all 8 ecosystem types, with most consistent consumption in the organic based crops and old-field communities.

  3. Polar and non-polar organic aerosols from large-scale agricultural-waste burning emissions in Northern India: Implications to organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on characteristics of organic aerosols (polar and non-polar) and total organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio (OM/OC) from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy- and wheat-residue) burning emissions in Northern India. Aerosol samples from an upwind location (Patiala: 30.2°N, 76.3°E) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain were analyzed for non-polar and polar fractions of organic carbon (OC1 and OC2) and their respective mass (OM1 and OM2). On average, polar organic aerosols (OM2) contribute nearly 85% of the total organic mass (OM) from the paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. The water-soluble-OC (WSOC) to OC2 ratio, within the analytical uncertainty, is close to 1 from both paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. However, temporal variability and relatively low WSOC/OC2 ratio (Av: 0.67±0.06) is attributed to high moisture content and poor combustion efficiency during paddy-residue burning, indicating significant contribution (∼30%) of aromatic carbon to OC2. The OM/OC ratio for non-polar (OM1/OC1∼1.2) and polar organic aerosols (OM2/OC2∼2.2), hitherto unknown for open agricultural-waste burning emissions, is documented in this study. The total OM/OC ratio is nearly identical, 1.9±0.2 and 1.8±0.2, from paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions.

  4. Long-range transport of aerosols from agriculture crop residue burning in Indo-Gangetic Plains—A study using LIDAR, ground measurements and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badarinath, K. V. S.; Kumar Kharol, Shailesh; Rani Sharma, Anu

    2009-01-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning in tropics is an important source of atmospheric aerosols and monitoring their long-range transport is an important element in climate change studies. Synchronous measurements using micro-pulsed lidar, MICROTOPS-II sun photometer, multi-filter rotating shadow band radiometer (MFRSR) on aerosol optical depth and ground reaching solar irradiance were carried at an urban location in central region of India. Aerosol backscatter profiles obtained from micro-pulse lidar showed elevated aerosol layers up to ~3 km on certain days during October 2007. Satellite data observations on aerosol properties suggested transport of particles from agriculture crop residue burning in Indo-Gangetic Plains over large regions. Radiative forcing of aerosols estimated from SBDART model with input information on aerosol chemical properties, aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo and broadband solar irradiance measurements using MFRSR showed good correlation (R=0.98).

  5. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 (during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C &cong

  6. Quantification of crop residue burning in the field and its influence on ambient air quality in Suqian, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shijian; He, Hongping; Lu, Shangling; Chen, Dong; Zhu, Jianxi

    In China, many pollutants are released because of crop residue burning in the field, resulting in serious pollution of ambient air. Suqian with 4523 km 2 of total area under cultivation was selected as a case to be studied, where wheat-rice double cropping system is widely adopted. Based on the data of crop output from 2001 to 2005, the annual average amount of crop residue generated was estimated as 3.04×10 6 t. About 82% of wheat straw and 37% of rice straw were burned in the field, so the proportion of crop residue burned in the field was about 43%. In combination with emission factors proposed by some literatures, the total amounts, the amounts in summer harvest and in autumn harvest of TSP, PM 10, SO 2, NO x, NH 3, CH 4, EC, OC, VOC, CO, and CO 2, emitted from crop residue burning in the field, were estimated. The total amounts of them were 11,051, 7572, 525, 3280, 1707, 3544, 905, 4331, 20,606, 120,747, and 1,988,376 t, respectively, and about 78% of them were emitted in summer harvest. During the summer harvest from June 4 to 13 in 2006, influenced by crop residue burning in the field, the daily average concentrations of PM 10, NO 2, and SO 2 were 0.266, 0.051, and 0.063 mg m -3, respectively. And the daily average concentration of PM 10 kept exceeding 0.250 mg m -3, the Third Standard Level of National Ambient Air Quality (China). Based on hourly concentration changes of PM 10 and meteorological condition, crop residue burning in the field was characterized. According to the field survey, it is regarded that combine harvester acts as an important role in crop residue burning in the field.

  7. Influence of rice straw burning on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in agricultural county of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Chen, Kang-Shin; Wang, Hsin-Kai

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) size distribution were measured at Jhu-Shan (a rural site) and Sin-Gang (a town site) in central Taiwan during the rice straw burning and non-burning periods. The concentrations of total PAHs accounting for a roughly 58% (34%) increment in the concentrations of total PAHs due to rice-straw burning. Combustion-related PAHs during burning periods were 1.54-2.57 times higher than those during non-burning periods. The mass median diameter (MMD) of 0.88-1.21 microm in the particulate phase suggested that rice-straw burning generated the increase in coarse particle number. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model analyses showed that the primary pollution sources at the two sites were similar. However, rice-straw burning emission was specifically identified as a significant source of PAH during burning periods at the two sites. Open burning of rice straws was estimated to contribute approximately 6.3%-24.6% to total atmospheric PAHs at the two sites.

  8. Tension on the Farm Fields: The Death of Traditional Agriculture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguamanam, Chidi

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the historic transitions and progressions in agricultural science, this article examines the emergence of the phenomenon of agricultural biotechnology. It identifies pivotal sites of tension between agricultural biotechnology and alternative approaches to agriculture. The article identifies two distinct sources of contemporary…

  9. Fusion core start-up, ignition and burn simulations of reversed-field pinch (RFP) reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Yuh-Yi

    1988-01-01

    A transient reactor simulation model is developed to investigate and simulate the start-up, ignition and burn of a reversed-field pinch reactor. The simulation is based upon a spatially averaged plasma balance model with field profiles obtained from MHD quasi-equilibrium analysis. Alpha particle heating is estimated from Fokker-Planck calculations. The instantaneous plasma current is derived from a self-consistent circuit analysis for plasma/coil/eddy current interactions. The simulation code is applied to the TITAN RFP reactor design which features a compact, high-power-density reversed-field pinch fusion system. A contour analysis is performed using the steady-state global plasma balance. The results are presented with contours of constant plasma current. A saddle point is identified in the contour plot which determines the minimum value of plasma current required to achieve ignition. An optimized start-up to ignition and burn path can be obtained by passing through the saddle point. The simulation code is used to study and optimize the start-up scenario. In the simulations of the TITAN RFP reactor, the OH-driven superconducting EF coils are found to deviate from the required equilibrium values as the induced plasma current increases. This results in the modification of superconducting EF coils and the addition of a set of EF trim coils. The design of the EF coil system is performed with the simulation code subject to the optimization of trim-coil power and current. In addition, the trim-coil design is subject to the constraints of vertical-field stability index and maintenance access. A power crowbar is also needed to prevent the superconducting EF coils from generating excessive vertical field. A set of basic results from the simulation of TITAN RFP reactor yield a picture of RFP plasma operation in a reactor. Investigations of eddy current are also presented. 145 refs., 37 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Emissions of PCDD and PCDF from combustion of forest fuels and sugarcane: a comparison between field measurements and simulations in a laboratory burn facility.

    PubMed

    Black, R R; Meyer, C P; Touati, A; Gullett, B K; Fiedler, H; Mueller, J F

    2011-05-01

    Release of PCDD and PCDF from biomass combustion such as forest and agricultural crop fires has been nominated as an important source for these chemicals despite minimal characterisation. Available emission factors that have been experimentally determined in laboratory and field experiments vary by several orders of magnitude from <0.5 μg TEQ (t fuel consumed)(-1) to >100 μg TEQ (t fuel consumed)(-1). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimental methods on the emission factor. A portable field sampler was used to measure PCDD/PCDF emissions from forest fires and the same fuel when burnt over a brick hearth to eliminate potential soil effects. A laboratory burn facility was used to sample emissions from the same fuels. There was very good agreement in emission factors to air (EF(Air)) for forest fuel (Duke Forest, NC) of 0.52 (range: 0.40-0.79), 0.59 (range: 0.18-1.2) and 0.75 (range: 0.27-1.2) μg TEQ(WHO2005) (t fuel consumed)(-1) for the in-field, over a brick hearth, and burn facility experiments, respectively. Similarly, experiments with sugarcane showed very good agreement with EF(Air) of 1.1 (range: 0.40-2.2), 1.5 (range: 0.84-2.2) and 1.7 (range: 0.34-4.4) μg TEQ (t fuel consumed)(-1) for in-field, over a brick hearth, open field and burn facility experiments respectively. Field sampling and laboratory simulations were in good agreement, and no significant changes in emissions of PCDD/PCDF could be attributed to fuel storage and transport to laboratory test facilities.

  11. Classification and soil moisture determination of agricultural fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenbroek, A. C.; Groot, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    During the Mac-Europe campaign of 1991 several SAR (Synthetic Aperature Radar) experiments were carried out in the Flevoland test area in the Netherlands. The test site consists of a forested and an agricultural area with more than 15 different crop types. The experiments took place in June and July (mid to late growing season). The area was monitored by the spaceborne C-band VV polarized ERS-1, the Dutch airborne PHARS with similar frequency and polarization and the three-frequency PP-, L-, and C-band) polarimetric AIRSAR system of NASA/JPL. The last system passed over on June 15, 3, 12, and 28. The last two dates coincided with the overpasses of the PHARS and the ERS-1. Comparison of the results showed that backscattering coefficients from the three systems agree quite well. In this paper we present the results of a study of crop type classification (section 2) and soil moisture determination in the agricultural area (section 3). For these studies we used field averaged Stokes matrices extracted from the AIRSAR data (processor version 3.55 or 3.56).

  12. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  13. Seed deterioration in flooded agricultural fields during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    We determined rate of seed deterioration for 3 crops (corn, rice, and soybean) and 8 weeds commonly found in agricultural fields and moist-soil management units in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The weeds were broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), junglerice barnyardgrass (Echinochloa colonum), morningglory (Ipomoea sp.), panic grass (Panicum sp.), bull paspalum (Paspalum boscianum), red rice (Oryza sativa), hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), and bristlegrass (Setaria sp.). Weed seeds, except morningglory, deteriorated slower than corn and soybean, whereas rice decomposed slower than all weed seeds except red rice and bull paspalum. For land managers desiring to provide plant food for wintering waterfowl, rice is clearly the most persistent small grain crop in the MAV. Persistence of weed seeds under flooded conditions throughout winter makes them a cost-effective alternative to traditional crops on land managed for waterfowl.

  14. Optimization of agricultural field workability predictions for improved risk management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Risks introduced by weather variability are key considerations in agricultural production. The sensitivity of agriculture to weather variability is of special concern in the face of climate change. In particular, the availability of workable days is an important consideration in agricultural practic...

  15. Epidemiological study on healthy subjects affected by agriculture crop-residue burning episodes and its relation with their pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ravinder; Awasthi, Amit; Singh, Nirankar; Mittal, Susheel K; Gupta, Prabhat Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Impact of agriculture crop-residue burning (ACRB) was studied on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) of 50 healthy subjects (13-53 years). Human subjects with no previous history of lung disease were residents of five sampling sites. Investigations were carried out from February 2007 to January 2010 using spirometry. Simultaneously, concentration levels of suspended particulate matter (PM) and fine particulates (PM2.5 and PM10) were monitored using high volume sampler and Anderson Cascade Impactor, respectively. The PFTs show a significant (p < 0.05) decrease, while PM shows momentous increase during exhaustive burning of wheat and rice crop residues. Effect of ACRB on the peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) is more than that on force expiratory flow (FEF25-75%). The PEF and FEF25-75% recovered to some extent on completion of burning period, while PFTs like force vital capacity and force expiratory volume did not show a significant improvement. Due to greater concentration of fine particulates during rice crop-residue burning (CRB) than wheat CRB, there was a greater effect on pulmonary functions. The ACRB, in general, poses more effect on the lower and upper age groups in comparison to the middle age group subjects. All the analyses are well supported with large significant levels (p < 0.05) obtained by using the paired t-test.

  16. Atmospheric pollutant emission factors from open burning of agricultural and forest biomass by wind tunnel simulations. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Williams, R.B.; Goronea, M.; Abd-el-Fattah, H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutant emission factors were determined by wind tunnel simulations of spreading and pile fires for 8 different types of fuel including barley, rice and wheat straw, corn stover, almond and walnut tree prunings, and Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine slash. Cereal straws and stover were burned in fires spreading against an impressed wind, pile burns in wood fuels were naturally ventilaled through the side doors. Emission factors were determined for each fuel for CO, NO, NOx, SO2, total hydrocarbons, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, total sulfur, CO2, particulate matter, volatile organic matter (VOC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Elemental compositions of particulate matter were determined by size category. Bulk aerosol absorption coefficients were determined from light transmission measurements through filter samples. Emission rates were correlated against burning conditions and fuel compositions. Factor affecting the burning rates and emission factors included inlet air temperature, loading rate, and wind speed.

  17. Agricultural Education Early Field Experience through the Lens of the EFE Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Scott W.; Retallick, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this national study was to describe agricultural teacher education early field experience (EFE) practices using the EFE model. The population for this study was all agricultural education teacher preparation programs (N = 83) listed in the AAAE Directory of University Faculty in Agricultural Education. Data were collected via an…

  18. Engineering and agronomy aspects of a long-term precision agriculture field experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much research has been conducted on specific precision agriculture tools and implementation strategies, but little has been reported on long-term evaluation of integrated precision agriculture field experiments. In 2004 our research team developed and initiated a multi-faceted “precision agriculture...

  19. Overview of the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment in Brazil during Sept - Oct 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Coe, Hugh; Artaxo, Paulo; Morgan, William; Freitas, Saulo

    2013-04-01

    The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) is an international research project investigating the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality and numerical weather prediction over South America. The project involves a combination of measurements and modelling activities to assess the role of biomass burning and biogenic emissions in the earth system. This international collaboration has been led by a partnership between the Met Office, the Brazilian National Institute for Space research (INPE), the University of Sao Paulo, and a consortium of UK Universities. The measurement program was headed by the deployment of UK's Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft over Brazil during the dry season of September - October 2012. This was co-ordinated with ground-based measurements operated by the University of Sao Paulo and INPE. This successful field experiment now provides an excellent source of observations to build our understanding of biomass burning processes and improve model simulations of biomass burning aerosols and their interactions with biogenic emissions, atmospheric chemistry, clouds, radiation, and the terrestrial biosphere. This talk will summarise the field experiment, including the aircraft measurements and ground-based observations made during the dry season of 2012. Preliminary results will highlight the range of biomass burning and biogenic emissions observed from tropical forest, deforested zones and scrub-land. Case studies will also show infra-red camera images of fire radiative output, the evolution of large smoke plumes and the variable composition of background aerosol and extensive haze layers across the region. The lidar data and aircraft profiles also highlight the prevalence of elevated aerosol layers observed at altitudes of 3 - 7km, presumed to be detrainment from large smoke plumes, pyrocumulus and mid-level convection. The ground-based observations also highlight the

  20. Efficacy of burning, tillage, and biocides in controlling bacteria released at field sites and effects on indigenous bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Donegan, K; Fieland, V; Fowles, N; Ganio, L; Seidler, R

    1992-04-01

    Decontamination treatments of burning and biocide application, alone and in combination with tillage, were evaluated for their ability to reduce populations of bacteria applied to the leaves of plants in field plots. In addition, the effects of these control methods on indigenous leaf and soil bacteria and fungi were assessed. Field plots of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), sprayed with the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, or Erwinia herbicola, received the following treatments: (i) control, (ii) tillage, (iii) burning, (iv) burning plus tillage (burn-tillage), (v) Kocide (cupric hydroxide), (vi) Kocide plus tillage, (vii) Agri-Strep (streptomycin sulfate), and (viii) Agri-Strep plus tillage. Leaves and soil from the plots were sampled at 1 day before and at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 30 days after application of the decontamination treatments. The burn and burn-tillage treatments produced the most significant reductions in bacterial populations. The Agri-Strep treatment was more effective than the Kocide treatment in eliminating applied bacteria, but neither biocide produced consistent or persistent control. In contrast, the tillage treatment, alone or in combination with the Agri-Strep or Kocide treatments, had a short-term stimulatory effect and increased populations of applied bacteria and also levels of indigenous fungi and bacteria. Agri-Strep and Kocide treatments caused significant reductions in indigenous bacterial populations up to 14 days after application and in indigenous fungal populations on day 7 after application. Our results suggest that conventional plant disease control methods may not provide satisfactory control of genetically engineered microorganisms and indicate a need for further development of effective and selective methods to control release microorganisms at field sites. PMID:1599240

  1. Efficacy of burning, tillage, and biocides in controlling bacteria released at field sites and effects on indigenous bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Donegan, K; Fieland, V; Fowles, N; Ganio, L; Seidler, R

    1992-01-01

    Decontamination treatments of burning and biocide application, alone and in combination with tillage, were evaluated for their ability to reduce populations of bacteria applied to the leaves of plants in field plots. In addition, the effects of these control methods on indigenous leaf and soil bacteria and fungi were assessed. Field plots of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), sprayed with the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, or Erwinia herbicola, received the following treatments: (i) control, (ii) tillage, (iii) burning, (iv) burning plus tillage (burn-tillage), (v) Kocide (cupric hydroxide), (vi) Kocide plus tillage, (vii) Agri-Strep (streptomycin sulfate), and (viii) Agri-Strep plus tillage. Leaves and soil from the plots were sampled at 1 day before and at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 30 days after application of the decontamination treatments. The burn and burn-tillage treatments produced the most significant reductions in bacterial populations. The Agri-Strep treatment was more effective than the Kocide treatment in eliminating applied bacteria, but neither biocide produced consistent or persistent control. In contrast, the tillage treatment, alone or in combination with the Agri-Strep or Kocide treatments, had a short-term stimulatory effect and increased populations of applied bacteria and also levels of indigenous fungi and bacteria. Agri-Strep and Kocide treatments caused significant reductions in indigenous bacterial populations up to 14 days after application and in indigenous fungal populations on day 7 after application. Our results suggest that conventional plant disease control methods may not provide satisfactory control of genetically engineered microorganisms and indicate a need for further development of effective and selective methods to control release microorganisms at field sites. PMID:1599240

  2. [Lay emphasis on the basic research in the field of burn surgery in China].

    PubMed

    Hu, D H; Tao, K

    2016-07-20

    The therapeutic methods and effects have been improved greatly in burn care and management with several important advancements in the past few decades, resulting in more effective patient stabilization and significantly decreased mortality in China. However, the challenging clinical problems still exist, such as a lack of ideally efficient scheme and drugs to protect damaged tissue and internal organs after severe burn, the limited functional cosmetic outcomes of current treatment techniques and synthetic skin substitutes for deep burn wound repair and reconstruction, the high mortality of severe sepsis accompanying with burn injury patients, and the uncontrolled scar formation and modification or potential regeneration in burn wound healing, a further exploration into both underling mechanisms and curable therapies. This article emphasizes the important roles of the basic study in exploration of above clinical issues in the viewpoint of the advanced development of modern life sciences and relevant techniques. PMID:27464627

  3. Thermal Infrared Imagery for Better Water Conservation in Agricultural Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water conservation is an issue that involves all citizens in Georgia. Within the agricultural row crop community, water is a very important part of producing a harvestable and profitable product. Although irrigation is used only as a supplement to natural rainfall, it can greatly affect crop yield...

  4. Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    2000-01-01

    The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings.

  5. Comparison of the carbon-sequestering abilities of pineapple leaf residue chars produced by controlled combustion and by field burning.

    PubMed

    Leng, L Y; Husni, M H A; Samsuri, A W

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the chemical properties and yields of pineapple leaf residue (PLR) char produced by field burning (CF) with that produced by a partial combustion of air-dried PLR at 340 °C for 3 h in a furnace (CL). Higher total C, lignin content, and yield from CL as well as the presence of aromatic compounds in the Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of the char produced from CL suggest that the CL process was better in sequestering C than was the CF process. Although the C/N ratio of char produced from CL was low indicating a high N content of the char, the C in the char produced from CL was dominated by lignin suggesting that the decomposition of char produced from CL would be slow. To sequester C by char application, the PLR should be combusted in a controlled process rather than by burning in the field.

  6. Comparison of the carbon-sequestering abilities of pineapple leaf residue chars produced by controlled combustion and by field burning.

    PubMed

    Leng, L Y; Husni, M H A; Samsuri, A W

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the chemical properties and yields of pineapple leaf residue (PLR) char produced by field burning (CF) with that produced by a partial combustion of air-dried PLR at 340 °C for 3 h in a furnace (CL). Higher total C, lignin content, and yield from CL as well as the presence of aromatic compounds in the Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of the char produced from CL suggest that the CL process was better in sequestering C than was the CF process. Although the C/N ratio of char produced from CL was low indicating a high N content of the char, the C in the char produced from CL was dominated by lignin suggesting that the decomposition of char produced from CL would be slow. To sequester C by char application, the PLR should be combusted in a controlled process rather than by burning in the field. PMID:21958525

  7. Study of flow field of burning particles in a pyrotechnic flame based on particle image and particle velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, R.; Xu, H. Q.; Li, Y.; Zhu, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    Studying the burning particles in the pyrotechnic flame is important to acquire the decomposition mechanism and spectral radiance of pyrotechnics. The high speed video (HSV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used in this paper to analyze the flow field and velocity of burning particles in the flame of pyrotechnics. The binary image was obtained through gray scale treatment and adaptive threshold segmentation from HSV and PIV data, by which the coordinate of each particle was marked. On the basis, the movement trajectory of each particle during combustion was pursued by the most recent guidelines algorithm of cancroids matching. Through the method proposed in this study, the velocity variation of each particle was obtained, the approximate distribution of particle quantity at each zone was visualized and the mathematical model of pyrotechnic particle velocity flow field was established.

  8. Assessing and modelling ecohydrologic processes at the agricultural field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    One of the primary goals of agricultural management is to increase the amount of crop produced per unit of fertilizer and water used. World record corn yields demonstrated that water use efficiency can increase fourfold with improved agronomic management and cultivars able to tolerate high densities. Planting crops with higher plant density can lead to significant yield increases, and increase plant transpiration vs. soil water evaporation. Precision agriculture technologies have been adopted for the last twenty years but seldom have the data collected been converted to information that led farmers to different agronomic management. These methods are intuitively appealing, but yield maps and other spatial layers of data need to be properly analyzed and interpreted to truly become valuable. Current agro-mechanic and geospatial technologies allow us to implement a spatially variable plan for agronomic inputs including seeding rate, cultivars, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and water. Crop models are valuable tools to evaluate the impact of management strategies (e.g., cover crops, tile drains, and genetically-improved cultivars) on yield, soil carbon sequestration, leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. They can help farmers identify adaptation strategies to current and future climate conditions. In this paper I illustrate the key role that precision agriculture technologies (yield mapping technologies, within season soil and crop sensing), crop modeling and weather can play in dealing with the impact of climate variability on soil ecohydrologic processes. Case studies are presented to illustrate this concept.

  9. Measurement of gas and aerosol agricultural emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of air quality indicate that agricultural emissions may impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Agriculture impacts can include primary dust emission, on-facility combustion from vehicles or seasonal field burning, and gaseous emissions from waste...

  10. A contemporary decennial global Landsat sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Emma; Roy, David

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change, with dramatic cropland expansion in the last century and significant increases in productivity over the past few decades. Satellite data have been used for agricultural applications including cropland distribution mapping, crop condition monitoring, crop production assessment and yield prediction. Satellite based agricultural applications are less reliable when the sensor spatial resolution is small relative to the field size. However, to date, studies of agricultural field size distributions and their change have been limited, even though this information is needed to inform the design of agricultural satellite monitoring systems. Moreover, the size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLU change. In many parts of the world field sizes may have increased. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, and impacts on the diffusion of herbicides, pesticides, disease pathogens, and pests. The Landsat series of satellites provide the longest record of global land observations, with 30m observations available since 1982. Landsat data are used to examine contemporary field size changes in a period (1980 to 2010) when significant global agricultural changes have occurred. A multi-scale sampling approach is used to locate global hotspots of field size change by examination of a recent global agricultural yield map and literature review. Nine hotspots are selected where significant field size change is apparent and where change has been driven by technological advancements (Argentina and U.S.), abrupt societal changes (Albania and Zimbabwe), government land use and agricultural policy changes (China, Malaysia, Brazil), and/or constrained by

  11. Organic aerosols and inorganic species from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning emissions over northern India: impact on mass absorption efficiency of elemental carbon.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M; Sharma, Deepti; Singh, Darshan

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm), collected from a source region [Patiala: 30.2 °N; 76.3 °E; 250 m above mean sea level] of emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy-residue) burning in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), North India, has been studied for its chemical composition and impact on regional atmospheric radiative forcing. On average, organic aerosol mass accounts for 63% of PM2.5, whereas the contribution of elemental carbon (EC) is ∼3.5%. Sulphate, nitrate and ammonium contribute up to ∼85% of the total water-soluble inorganic species (WSIS), which constitutes ∼23% of PM2.5. The potassium-to-organic carbon ratio from paddy-residue burning emissions (KBB(+)/OC: 0.05 ± 0.01) is quite similar to that reported from Amazonian and Savanna forest-fires; whereas non-sea-salt-sulphate-to-OC ratio (nss-SO4(2-)/OC: 0.21) and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratio of 2.6 are significantly higher (by factor of 5 to 8). The mass absorption efficiency of EC (3.8 ± 1.3 m(2) g(-1)) shows significant decrease with a parallel increase in the concentrations of organic aerosols and scattering species (sulphate and nitrate). A cross plot of OC/EC and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratios show distinct differences for post-harvest burning emissions from paddy-residue as compared to those from fossil-fuel combustion sources in south-east Asia.

  12. A contemporary decennial examination of changing agricultural field sizes using Landsat time series data

    PubMed Central

    White, Emma V.

    2015-01-01

    Field size distributions and their changes have not been studied over large areas as field size change datasets are not available. This study quantifies agricultural field size changes in a consistent manner using Landsat satellite data that also provide geographic context for the observed decadal scale changes. Growing season cloud‐free Landsat 30 m resolution images acquired from 9 to 25 years apart were used to extract field object classifications at seven sites located by examination of a global agricultural yield map, agricultural production statistics, literature review, and analysis of the imagery in the US Landsat archive. High spatial resolution data were used to illustrate issues identifying small fields that are not reliably discernible at 30 m Landsat resolution. The predominant driver of field size change was attributed by literature review. Significant field size changes were driven by different factors, including technological advancements (Argentina and USA), government land use and agricultural policies (Malaysia, Brazil, France), and political changes (Albania and Zimbabwe). While observed local field size changes were complex, the reported results suggest that median field sizes are increasing due to technological advancements and changes to government policy, but may decrease where abrupt political changes affect the agricultural sector and where pastures are converted to arable land uses. In the limited sample considered, median field sizes increased from 45% (France) to 159% (Argentina) and decreased from 47% (Brazil) to 86% (Albania). These changes imply significant impacts on landscape spatial configuration and land use diversity with ecological and biogeochemical consequences. PMID:27669424

  13. A contemporary decennial examination of changing agricultural field sizes using Landsat time series data

    PubMed Central

    White, Emma V.

    2015-01-01

    Field size distributions and their changes have not been studied over large areas as field size change datasets are not available. This study quantifies agricultural field size changes in a consistent manner using Landsat satellite data that also provide geographic context for the observed decadal scale changes. Growing season cloud‐free Landsat 30 m resolution images acquired from 9 to 25 years apart were used to extract field object classifications at seven sites located by examination of a global agricultural yield map, agricultural production statistics, literature review, and analysis of the imagery in the US Landsat archive. High spatial resolution data were used to illustrate issues identifying small fields that are not reliably discernible at 30 m Landsat resolution. The predominant driver of field size change was attributed by literature review. Significant field size changes were driven by different factors, including technological advancements (Argentina and USA), government land use and agricultural policies (Malaysia, Brazil, France), and political changes (Albania and Zimbabwe). While observed local field size changes were complex, the reported results suggest that median field sizes are increasing due to technological advancements and changes to government policy, but may decrease where abrupt political changes affect the agricultural sector and where pastures are converted to arable land uses. In the limited sample considered, median field sizes increased from 45% (France) to 159% (Argentina) and decreased from 47% (Brazil) to 86% (Albania). These changes imply significant impacts on landscape spatial configuration and land use diversity with ecological and biogeochemical consequences.

  14. Mercury emissions from biomass burning in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Li, Mengmeng; Friedli, Hans R; Song, Yu; Chang, Di; Zhu, Lei

    2011-11-01

    Biomass burning covers open fires (forest and grassland fires, crop residue burning in fields, etc.) and biofuel combustion (crop residues and wood, etc., used as fuel). As a large agricultural country, China may produce large quantities of mercury emissions from biomass burning. A new mercury emission inventory in China is needed because previous studies reflected outdated biomass burning with coarse resolution. Moreover, these studies often adopted the emission factors (mass of emitted species per mass of biomass burned) measured in North America. In this study, the mercury emissions from biomass burning in China (excluding small islands in the South China Sea) were estimated, using recently measured mercury concentrations in various biomes in China as emission factors. Emissions from crop residues and fuelwood were estimated based on annual reports distributed by provincial government. Emissions from forest and grassland fires were calculated by combining moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area product with combustion efficiency (ratio of fuel consumption to total available fuels) considering fuel moisture. The average annual emission from biomass burning was 27 (range from 15.1 to 39.9) Mg/year. This inventory has high spatial resolution (1 km) and covers a long period (2000-2007), making it useful for air quality modeling.

  15. Thermal protective uniforms and hoods: impact of design modifications and water content on burn prevention in New York City firefighters: laboratory and field results

    PubMed Central

    Prezant, D; Malley, K; Barker, R; Guerth, C; Kelly, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine (1) the effectiveness of hoods in reducing head burns, (2) the impact of clothes worn under the protective outer uniform (modern = long sleeve shirt and long pants; modified modern = short sleeve T-shirt and short pants) on burns, and (3) whether water content (dry, damp or saturated) affects the level of thermal protection. Setting—Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY). Methods—Laboratory tests (fully dressed manikin) evaluated the different uniform and water conditions when exposed to an average 24 cal/cm2 heat flux, approximately 2250°F air temperature. FDNY field results compared (1) head burns during winters wearing the hood to winters without hood and (2) upper and lower extremity burns during summers wearing traditional, modern, and modified modern uniforms. Results—Laboratory tests showed that thermal protection was: (1) dramatically improved by the hood with protection increasing as water content increased and (2) not significantly different between modern and modified modern uniforms, regardless of water content. FDNY field results confirmed these tests showing (1) significant decreases in neck burns (by 54%), ear burns (by 60%), and head burn totals (by 46%) wearing the hood and (2) no significant differences in upper or lower extremity burns wearing modern compared with modified modern uniforms. Conclusions—Based on combined laboratory and field results, we strongly recommend the use of modern thermal protective hoods and the modified modern uniform. PMID:11565971

  16. Mapping Agricultural Fields in Sub-Saharan Africa with a Computer Vision Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debats, S. R.; Luo, D.; Estes, L. D.; Fuchs, T.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is an important focus for food security research, because it is experiencing unprecedented population growth, agricultural activities are largely dominated by smallholder production, and the region is already home to 25% of the world's undernourished. One of the greatest challenges to monitoring and improving food security in this region is obtaining an accurate accounting of the spatial distribution of agriculture. Households are the primary units of agricultural production in smallholder communities and typically rely on small fields of less than 2 hectares. Field sizes are directly related to household crop productivity, management choices, and adoption of new technologies. As population and agriculture expand, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the distribution of field sizes as well as how agricultural communities are spatially embedded in the landscape. In addition, household surveys, a common tool for tracking agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa, would greatly benefit from spatially explicit accounting of fields. Current gridded land cover data sets do not provide information on individual agricultural fields or the distribution of field sizes. Therefore, we employ cutting edge approaches from the field of computer vision to map fields across Sub-Saharan Africa, including semantic segmentation, discriminative classifiers, and automatic feature selection. Our approach aims to not only improve the binary classification accuracy of cropland, but also to isolate distinct fields, thereby capturing crucial information on size and geometry. Our research focuses on the development of descriptive features across scales to increase the accuracy and geographic range of our computer vision algorithm. Relevant data sets include high-resolution remote sensing imagery and Landsat (30-m) multi-spectral imagery. Training data for field boundaries is derived from hand-digitized data sets as well as crowdsourcing.

  17. A scale-up field experiment for the monitoring of a burning process using chemical, audio, and video sensors.

    PubMed

    Stavrakakis, P; Agapiou, A; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Statheropoulos, M; Pallis, G C; Pappa, A

    2014-01-01

    Fires are becoming more violent and frequent resulting in major economic losses and long-lasting effects on communities and ecosystems; thus, efficient fire monitoring is becoming a necessity. A novel triple multi-sensor approach was developed for monitoring and studying the burning of dry forest fuel in an open field scheduled experiment; chemical, optical, and acoustical sensors were combined to record the fire spread. The results of this integrated field campaign for real-time monitoring of the fire event are presented and discussed. Chemical analysis, despite its limitations, corresponded to the burning process with a minor time delay. Nevertheless, the evolution profile of CO2, CO, NO, and O2 were detected and monitored. The chemical monitoring of smoke components enabled the observing of the different fire phases (flaming, smoldering) based on the emissions identified in each phase. The analysis of fire acoustical signals presented accurate and timely response to the fire event. In the same content, the use of a thermographic camera, for monitoring the biomass burning, was also considerable (both profiles of the intensities of average gray and red component greater than 230) and presented similar promising potentials to audio results. Further work is needed towards integrating sensors signals for automation purposes leading to potential applications in real situations.

  18. Modeling of Movement of Field Gudgeon, Gnathopogon elongatus elongatus, in Agricultural Canals in Yatsu Paddy Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Takeshi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Mizutani, Masakazu; Mori, Atsushi; Watabe, Keiji

    It is important as quantitative information for making a decision of project sites for networking of water area, to predict reproductive process of fish population when consolidating fish-ways on points dividing fish habitat. To that end, it is necessary to predict the number of individuals migrating to new habitats. Hence, modeling of movement of individuals is necessary as a first step in population modeling. We constructed a mathematical model of movement of field gudgeon in agricultural canals, comparing with observed data obtained by our surveys. A unit time span of this model is 50 days. This model is able to consider existence of 2 types of movement, namely, individuals of sedentary type and individuals of ambulant type. Parameters of the model were decided based on observed data which correspond to 1 unit span. Next, moving distances of 6 individuals for 4 unit span were calculated using those parameters. A histogram of calculated values was similar to that of observed data which correspond to 4 unit span. The model is expected to provide an important immigration component to a population dynamics model which is currently under development. The population model is needed to predict population recovery processes where areas of paddy fields are joined in larger networks through construction of fish-ways.

  19. Topographic effects on denitrification in drained agricultural fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification is affected by soil moisture, while soil moisture can be affected by topography. Therefore, denitrification can be spatially correlated to topographic gradients. Three prior converted fields on the Delmarva Peninsula were sampled spatially for denitrification enzyme activity. The up...

  20. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In situ analysis of soil at an open burning/open detonation disposal facility: J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, L.; Cho, E.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-10-01

    Investigators have used a field-portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer to screen soils for a suite of metals indicative of the open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) activities that occurred at the J-Field site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The field XRF results were incorporated into a multiphase investigation of contaminants at the Toxic Burning Pits Area of Concern at J-Field. The authors determined that the field-portable XRF unit used for the study and the general concept of field XRF screening are invaluable tools for investigating an OB/OD site where intrusive sampling techniques could present unacceptable hazards to site workers.

  2. Solid Fuel Burning in Steady, Strained, Premixed Flow Fields: The Graphite/Air/Methane System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Wu, Ming-Shin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A detailed numerical investigation was conducted on the simultaneous burning of laminar premixed CH4/air flames and solid graphite in a stagnation flow configuration. The graphite and methane were chosen for this model, given that they are practical fuels and their chemical kinetics are considered as the most reliable ones among solid and hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. The simulation was performed by solving the quasi-one-dimensional equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species. The GRI 2.1 scheme was used for the gas-phase kinetics, while the heterogeneous kinetics were described by a six-step mechanism including stable and radical species. The effects of the graphite surface temperature, the gas-phase equivalence ratio, and the aerodynamic strain rate on the graphite burning rate and NO, production and destruction mechanisms were assessed. Results indicate that as the graphite temperature increases, its burning rate as well as the NO, concentration increase. Furthermore, it was found that by increasing the strain rate, the graphite burning rate increases as a result of the augmented supply of the gas-phase reactants towards the surface, while the NO, concentration decreases as a result of the reduced residence time. The effect of the equivalence ratio on both the graphite burning rate and NO, concentration was found to be non-monotonic and strongly dependent on the graphite temperature. Comparisons between results obtained for a graphite and a chemically inert surface revealed that the chemical activity of the graphite surface can result to the reduction of NO through reactions of the CH3, CH2, CH, and N radicals with NO.

  3. Pesticide Leaching from Agricultural Fields with Ridges and Furrows

    PubMed Central

    Boesten, Jos J. T. I.

    2010-01-01

    In the evaluation of the risk of pesticide leaching to groundwater, the soil surface is usually assumed to be level, although important crops like potato are grown on ridges. A fraction of the water from rainfall and sprinkler irrigation may flow along the soil surface from the ridges to the furrows, thus bringing about an extra load of water and pesticide on the furrow soil. A survey of the literature reveals that surface-runoff from ridges to furrows is a well-known phenomenon but that hardly any data are available on the quantities of water and pesticide involved. On the basis of a field experiment with additional sprinkler irrigation, computer simulations were carried out with the Pesticide Emission Assessment at Regional and Local scales model for separate ridge and furrow systems in a humic sandy potato field. Breakthrough curves of bromide ion (as a tracer for water flow) and carbofuran (as example pesticide) were calculated for 1-m depth in the field. Bromide ion leached comparatively fast from the furrow system, while leaching from the ridge system was slower showing a maximum concentration of about half of that for the furrow system. Carbofuran breakthrough from the furrow system began about a month after application and increased steadily to substantial concentrations. Because the transport time of carbofuran in the ridge soil was much longer, no breakthrough occurred in the growing season. The maximum concentration of carbofuran leaching from the ridge–furrow field was computed to be a factor of six times as high as that computed for the corresponding level field. The study shows that the risk of leaching of pesticides via the furrow soil can be substantially higher than that via the corresponding level field soil. PMID:21076668

  4. Pesticide Leaching from Agricultural Fields with Ridges and Furrows.

    PubMed

    Leistra, Minze; Boesten, Jos J T I

    2010-11-01

    In the evaluation of the risk of pesticide leaching to groundwater, the soil surface is usually assumed to be level, although important crops like potato are grown on ridges. A fraction of the water from rainfall and sprinkler irrigation may flow along the soil surface from the ridges to the furrows, thus bringing about an extra load of water and pesticide on the furrow soil. A survey of the literature reveals that surface-runoff from ridges to furrows is a well-known phenomenon but that hardly any data are available on the quantities of water and pesticide involved. On the basis of a field experiment with additional sprinkler irrigation, computer simulations were carried out with the Pesticide Emission Assessment at Regional and Local scales model for separate ridge and furrow systems in a humic sandy potato field. Breakthrough curves of bromide ion (as a tracer for water flow) and carbofuran (as example pesticide) were calculated for 1-m depth in the field. Bromide ion leached comparatively fast from the furrow system, while leaching from the ridge system was slower showing a maximum concentration of about half of that for the furrow system. Carbofuran breakthrough from the furrow system began about a month after application and increased steadily to substantial concentrations. Because the transport time of carbofuran in the ridge soil was much longer, no breakthrough occurred in the growing season. The maximum concentration of carbofuran leaching from the ridge-furrow field was computed to be a factor of six times as high as that computed for the corresponding level field. The study shows that the risk of leaching of pesticides via the furrow soil can be substantially higher than that via the corresponding level field soil. PMID:21076668

  5. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... hot objects or liquid, fire, friction, the sun, electricity, or certain chemicals. Each year, about a half- ... infant or elderly. the burn was caused by electricity, which can lead to “invisible” burns. Burns Burns ...

  6. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J.

    2013-07-15

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20–100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 × 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ∼50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  7. Infrared-temperature variability in a large agricultural field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Goettelman, R. C.; Leroy, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Dunnigan Agro-Meteorological Experiment airborne thermal scanner images of a large varying-terrain barley field are acquired and analyzed. Temperature variability that may occur within instantaneous fields of view (IFOV) is defined (coefficient of variation: standard deviation/mean temperature in degrees C), and the percentage of the area within various IFOV's within + or - 1, 2, 3, and 5 degrees of the mean is determined. With the exception of very rugged terrain, over 80% of the area within 4, 16, 65 and 258 ha cells was at temperatures within + or - 3 C of the mean cell temperature. Remote measurements of field temperature appeared to be slightly influenced by pixel size in the range 4 ha to 259 ha, and the area percentage within any pixel which contributes within + or - 1, 2, 3, and 5 degrees C of the mean, is nominally the same. In conclusion, no great advantage is found in utilizing a small IFOV instead of a large one for remote sensing of crop temperature.

  8. 7 CFR 29.6004 - Burn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burn. 29.6004 Section 29.6004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6004 Burn. The duration of combustion or length of time that a...

  9. The Impact of Landscape Complexity on Invertebrate Diversity in Edges and Fields in an Agricultural Area.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tracy R; Mahoney, Meredith J; Cashatt, Everett D; Noordijk, Jinze; de Snoo, Geert; Musters, C J M

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrate diversity is important for a multitude of ecosystem services and as a component of the larger ecological food web. A better understanding of the factors influencing invertebrate taxonomic richness and diversity at both local and landscape scales is important for conserving biodiversity within the agricultural landscape. The aim of this study was to determine if invertebrate richness and diversity in agricultural field interiors and edges in central Illinois, USA, were related to the complexity of the surrounding landscape. Our results show taxonomic richness and diversity in field edges is positively related to large scale landscape complexity, but the relationship is negative for field interiors. These unexpected results need further study.

  10. The Impact of Landscape Complexity on Invertebrate Diversity in Edges and Fields in an Agricultural Area

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Tracy R.; Mahoney, Meredith J.; Cashatt, Everett D.; Noordijk, Jinze; de Snoo, Geert; Musters, C. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrate diversity is important for a multitude of ecosystem services and as a component of the larger ecological food web. A better understanding of the factors influencing invertebrate taxonomic richness and diversity at both local and landscape scales is important for conserving biodiversity within the agricultural landscape. The aim of this study was to determine if invertebrate richness and diversity in agricultural field interiors and edges in central Illinois, USA, were related to the complexity of the surrounding landscape. Our results show taxonomic richness and diversity in field edges is positively related to large scale landscape complexity, but the relationship is negative for field interiors. These unexpected results need further study. PMID:26848691

  11. Biomass burning a driver for global change

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R. III; Cahoon, D.R. Jr.; Winstead, E.L.

    1995-03-01

    Recent research has identified another biospheric process that has instantaneous and longer term effects on the production of atmospheric gases: biomass burning. Biomass burning includes the burning of the world`s vegetation-forests, savannas. and agricultural lands, to clear the land and change its use. Only in the past decade have researchers realized the important contributions of biomass burning to the global budgets of many radiatively and chemically active gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide, tropospheric ozone, methyl chloride - and elemental carbon particulates. International field experiments and satellite data are yielding a clearer understanding of this important global source of atmospheric gases and particulates. It is seen that in addition to being a significant instantaneous global source of atmospheric gases and particulates, burning enhances the biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from the world`s soils. Biomass burning affects the reflectivity and emissivity of the Earth`s surface as well as the hydrological cycle by changing rates of land evaporation and water runoff. For these reasons, it appears that biomass burning is a significant driver of global change. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Aproaches for mitigation of greenhouse gas emission from agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, S.; Itoh, M.

    2009-12-01

    Percentage of atmospheric methane emitted form rice paddy is estimated at 60Tg/yr (20 - 100Tg/yr) which is near 10% of total global methane emission of 535Tg/yr (410 - 660Tg) (IPCC(1995), and which is near 30% of anthropogenic CH4 emission. Thus, mitigation of CH4 emission is required to be speed up. CH4 in paddy soil is emanated by the activities of anaerobic bacteria which is called methane producer through reduction of CO2 or decomposition of acetic acid, and it is transported to atmosphere through soil or paddy water surface. It is effective to control methane emission from rice paddy that period is prolonged on intermittent irrigation drainage, composted rice straw is incorporated as fertilizer instead of flesh one, or other. However, empirical approach of these kinds of experiments had not been sufficient because such a kind of experiment required significant times and efforts. In this study, we conducted demonstrative experiments to verify the effects of water management method differences in order to reduce CH4 emission from rice paddy at 9 experimental sites in 8 prefectures. In this, we used new gas analyzer which can measure CH4, CO2 and N2O at once developed by National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences (NIAES), Japan. In this report, we show the preliminary results in first year of this study. Nakaboshi (mid-season-drainage) is one of cultivation methods in rice paddy that surface water in paddy field is once drained for about 10 days and the field is maintained like upland field to give adequate stress to rice plant for better harvest qualities and yields. Our targeted evaluation was dependencies of Nakaboshi periods lengths and Nakaboshi periods to CH4 emission reduction amounts for total cultivation periods within harvest yield maintained. The longer length of Nakaboshi period was prolonged, the lesser emission amounts of CH4 decreased even after when Nakaboshi period lasted, as a whole. In some soil types, for example in Kagoshima

  13. Burned rice straw reduces the availability of clomazone to barnyardgrass.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Liu, Weiping; Sheng, G Daniel

    2008-03-25

    Field burning of crop residue is a common post-harvest practice to dispose of these agricultural by-products and for land clearing. Burned crop residues may effectively adsorb pesticides and thus influence their bioavailability in agricultural soils. The adsorption of clomazone by a soil amended with a burned rice straw (BRS) was measured. The availability of clomazone to barnyardgrass in the soil in the absence and presence of BRS was tested. The BRS was 1000-20,000 times more effective than soil in sorbing clomazone. The sorption of clomazone by soil increased with increasing BRS amount in the soil. In a bioassay, the injury of barnyardgrass 9 days after planting decreased with increasing BRS amount in soil indicating the effect of BRS on clomazone availability. Residual analyses showed higher concentrations of clomazone in soils receiving higher rates of the herbicide than in soils with lower application rates suggesting the adsorptive role of BRS. At typical application rate of clomazone (0.3 microg g(-1)), BRS amounts of 0.02 wt.% and higher caused an appreciable reduction to a complete loss in clomazone availability. Calculations suggest that field burning of rice straw may result in sufficiently high amounts (>0.02 wt.%) of BRS, and hence contribute to often experienced loss of pesticide availability in agricultural soils. Our results may be extended to field situations where other crop residues and vegetation are burned. Alternative management of crop residues may improve the bioavailability of pesticides in agricultural soils.

  14. Controlling pulse delay by light and low magnetic fields: slow light in emerald induced by transient spectral hole-burning.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Rajitha Papukutty; Riesen, Hans; Rebane, Aleksander

    2013-11-15

    Slow light based on transient spectral hole-burning is reported for emerald, Be(3)Al(2)Si(6)O(18):Cr(3+). Experiments were conducted in π polarization on the R(1)(± 3/2) line (E2 ← A(2)4) at 2.2 K in zero field and low magnetic fields B||c. The hole width was strongly dependent on B||c, and this allowed us to smoothly tune the pulse delay from 40 to 154 ns between zero field and B||c = 15.2 mT. The latter corresponds to a group velocity of 16 km/s. Slow light in conjunction with a linear filter theory can be used as a powerful and accurate technique in time-resolved spectroscopy, e.g., to determine spectral hole-widths as a function of time. PMID:24322070

  15. A Machine Learning Approach to Mapping Agricultural Fields Across Sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debats, S. R.; Fuchs, T. J.; Thompson, D. R.; Estes, L. D.; Evans, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Food production in sub-Saharan Africa is dominated by smallholder agriculture. Rainfed farming practices and the prevailing dryland conditions render crop yields vulnerable to increasing climatic variability. As a result, smallholder farmers are among the poorest and most food insecure groups among the region's population. Quantifying the distribution of smallholder agriculture across sub-Saharan Africa would greatly assist efforts to boost food security. Existing agricultural land cover data sets are limited to estimating the percentage of cropland within a coarse grid cell. The goal of this research is to develop a statistical machine learning algorithm to map individual agricultural fields, mirroring the accuracy of hand-digitization. For the algorithm, a random forest pixel-wise classifier learns by example from training data to distinguish between fields and non-fields. The algorithm then applies this training to classify previously unseen data. These classifications can then be smoothed into coherent regions corresponding to agricultural fields. Our training data set consists of hand-digitized boundaries of agricultural fields in South Africa, commissioned by its government in 2008. Working with 1 km x 1 km scenes across South Africa, the hand-digitized field boundaries are matched with satellite images extracted from Google Maps. To highlight different information contained within the images, several image processing filters are applied. The inclusion of Landsat images for additional training information is also explored. After training and testing the algorithm in South Africa, we aim to expand our mapping efforts across sub-Saharan Africa. Through Princeton's Mapping Africa project, crowdsourcing will produce additional training data sets of hand-digitized field boundaries in new areas of interest. This algorithm and the resulting data sets will provide previously unavailable information at an unprecedented level of detail on the largest and most

  16. Emissions from southeastern U.S. Grasslands and pine savannas: Comparison of aerial and ground field measurements with laboratory burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K.; Tabor, Dennis

    2015-06-01

    Emissions from prescribed burns of a managed longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forest and grass/savanna fields in western Florida were measured by simultaneous aerial and ground sampling. Results were compared with measurements made in an open burn laboratory test facility using biomass gathered from the same stands. Measurements included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM2.5), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The flaming phase (high modified combustion efficiency) was characterized by high levels of BC and BrC yet low levels of VOCs. In general, ground-based measurements of PM2.5, BC, and BrC reported marginally higher emission factors than those measured in the plume by aerostat (balloon)-lofted instruments. The optically-determined BC emission factor was approximately ten times higher than many previously reported results. Simultaneous BC and EC measurements showed that EC values were, on average, 42% lower than the BC values, lending uncertainty to the common use of EC measurements as a BC surrogate. PAH emission factors were indistinguishable across the sampling scenarios, while PCDDs/PCDFs saw a significant decline in the laboratory testing. Limited distinctions in particle-related emissions between aerial and ground measurements suggest sampling bias between these methods. Emission factor distinctions between laboratory burn simulations and field tests appear primarily related to lower combustion efficiencies in the latter, perhaps due to higher biomass moisture or surface wetness.

  17. Magnetic Field Structure and Activity of the He-burning Giant 37 Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkova, S.; Petit, P.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Aurière, M.; Wade, G. A.; Charbonnel, C.; Drake, N. A.

    2014-08-01

    We present the first magnetic map of the late-type giant 37 Com. The Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD) method and Zeeman Doppler Imaging (ZDI) inversion technique were applied. The chromospheric activity indicators Hα, S-index, Ca ii IRT and the radial velocity were also measured. The evolutionary status of the star has been studied on the basis of state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models and chemical abundance analysis. 37 Com appears to be in the core Helium-burning phase.

  18. Field-based study of connectivity in an agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lexartza-Artza, I.; Wainwright, J.

    2009-12-01

    Field-based studies of hydrological connectivity can provide context-specific knowledge that might both help understand dynamic complex systems and contribute to other synthetic or modelling approaches. The importance of such an understanding of catchment processes and also of the knowledge of catchment connections with water bodies and the changes of concentration with scale for Integrated Catchment Management has been increasingly emphasized. To provide a holistic understanding, approaches to the study of connectivity need to include both structural and functional aspects of the system and must consider the processes taking place within and across different temporal and spatial scales. A semi-quantitative nested approach has been used to investigate connectivity and study the interactions and feedbacks between the factors influencing transfer processes in the Ingbirchworth Catchment, in the uplands of the River Don, England. A series of reconnaissance techniques have been combined with monitoring of aspects such as rainfall, runoff, sediment transfer and soil-moisture distribution from plot to catchment scale and with consideration of linkages between land and water bodies. The temporal aspect has also been considered, with a special focus on the temporal distribution of events and the influence of longer term catchment changes such as those in land use and management practices. A variability of responses has been observed in relation to the characteristics of events, land use and scale of observation, with elements traditionally considered as limiting or enhancing connectivity responding differently under changing conditions. Sediment redistribution, reshaping of structure and consequent reinforcing loops can be observed across all land uses and landscape units, but the relevance it terms of effective connectivity of highly connected patches varies as the scale is increased. The knowledge acquired can contribute to recognise emerging processes significant for

  19. Sampling field heterogeneity at the heme of c-type cytochromes by spectral hole burning spectroscopy and electrostatic calculations.

    PubMed Central

    Laberge, M; Köhler, M; Vanderkooi, J M; Friedrich, J

    1999-01-01

    We report on a comparative investigation of the heme pocket fields of two Zn-substituted c-type cytochromes-namely yeast and horse heart cytochromes c-using a combination of hole burning Stark spectroscopy and electrostatic calculations. The spectral hole burning experiments are consistent with different pocket fields experienced at the hemes of the respective cytochromes. In the case of horse heart Zn-cytochrome c, two distinguishable electronic origins with different electrostatic properties are observed. The yeast species, on the other hand, displays a single electronic origin. Electrostatic calculations and graphics modeling using the linearized finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann equation performed at selected time intervals on nanosecond-molecular dynamics trajectories show that the hemes of the respective cytochromes sample different potentials as they explore conformational space. The electrostatic potentials generated by the protein matrix at the heme show different patterns in both cytochromes, and we suggest that the cytochromes differ by the number of "electrostatic substates" that they can sample, thus accounting for the different spectral populations observed in the two cytochromes. PMID:10585951

  20. Understanding the ecological background of rice agriculture on the Ningshao Plain during the Neolithic Age: pollen evidence from a buried paddy field at the Tianluoshan cultural site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhai; Zheng, Yunfei; Yu, Shiyong; Li, Yongxiang; Shen, Huadong

    2012-03-01

    The progressive rise of atmospheric CH4 level since 5 ka has been hypothesized to result from human agricultural activities that turned forested lands, which would otherwise be a carbon sink, into paddy fields. Increasing numbers of Neolithic cultural sites unearthed in coastal eastern China, providing unique opportunities to test this hypothesis. Here, we present detailed pollen data from a buried paddy field at Tianluoshan cultural site on the Ningshao Plain, eastern China, to reconstruct the ecological conditions associated with the establishment of paddy fields. Stratigraphic data, radiocarbon ages, and pollen analyses show that vegetation underwent six phases of evolution and paddy fields were developed from 7000 to 4200 cal. yr BP. We found no evidence of slash-and-burn agriculture at the study site. Together with no presence of the irrigation system, our pollen data suggest the paddy fields at this site originated from wetlands. Hence, our findings do not support the hypothesis that anthropogenic-induced deforestation play ed a significant role in the rise of the atmospheric CH4 rise since the middle Holocene.

  1. Bird use of agricultural fields under reduced and conventional tillage in the Texas Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    We conducted bird surveys in reduced-tillage and conventional tillage fields in spring, summer, fall, and winter from 1987 to 1991 in the Texas Panhandle. Eastern meadowlarks, longspurs, and savannah sparrows were more common in reduced-tillage (sorghum and wheat stubble) fields than in conventionally tilled (plowed) fields in at least 1 season. Other species also had patterns suggestive of greater abundance in reduced-tillage fields. Hornedlarks, which prefer habitat with sparse vegetation, were more abundant in plowed fields in all seasons except summer. Bird diversity was greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields in summer. Cover density and height were greater in reduced tillage fields in all seasons except spring. Cover density and height rather than cover composition (e.g.,grain stubble or live plants) seemed to be the important factors affecting bird distribution. Patterns of bird abundance between sorghum and wheat stubble fields also were dependent on cover. Herbicide use was not greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields. Reduced-tillage agriculture for sorghum and wheat farming should be encouraged in the southern Great Plains as a means of improving the attractiveness of agricultural land to many bird species.

  2. Comparing erosion rates in burnt forests and agricultural fields for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    A large part of northwestern Iberia is nowadays covered by commercial forest plantations of eucalypts and maritime pines, which have partly replaced traditional agricultural land-uses. The humid Mediterranean climate, with mild wet winters and warm dry summers, creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of frequent and recurrent forest fires. Erosion rates in recently burnt areas have been the subject of numerous studies; however, there is still a lack of information on their relevance when compared with agricultural erosion rates, impairing a comprehensive assessment of the role of forests for soil protection. This study focuses on Macieira de Alcoba, head-water catchment in the Caramulo Mountain Range, north-central Portugal, with a mixture of agricultural fields (mostly a rotation between winter pastures and summer cereals) on the lower slopes and forest plantations (mostly eucalypts) on the upper slopes. Agricultural erosion in this catchment has been monitored since 2010; a forest fire in 2011 presented an opportunity to compare post-fire and agricultural erosion rates at nearby sites with comparable soil and climatic conditions. Erosion rates were monitored between 2010 and 2013 by repeated surveys of visible erosion features and, in particular, by mapping and measuring rills and gullies after important rainfall events. During the 2011/2012 hydrological year, erosion rates in the burnt forest were two orders of magnitude above those in agricultural fields, amounting to 17.6 and. 0.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Rills were widespread in the burnt area, while in the agricultural area they were limited to a small number of fields with higher slope; these particular fields experienced an erosion rate of 2.3 Mg ha-1, still one order of magnitude lower than at the burnt forest site. The timing of the erosion features was also quite distinct for the burnt area and the agricultural fields. During the first nine months after the fire, rill formation was not observed in

  3. Simple, Low-Cost Data Collection Methods for Agricultural Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Richard T.; Winger, Marlon; Kitchen, Boyd

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes relatively simple and inexpensive methods for collecting data from agricultural field studies. Describes methods involving on-farm testing, crop yield measurement, quality evaluations, weed control effectiveness, plant nutrient status, and other measures. Contains 29 references illustrating how these methods were used to conduct…

  4. Anthropogenic effects on soil quality in ancient terraced agricultural fields of Chihuahua, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural soil quality was investigated in ancient field systems near Casas Grandes (also known as Paquimé), one of the largest and most complex prehistoric settlements in the North American Southwest. This research was completed as part of an interdisciplinary study of the anthropogenic ecology...

  5. 140° view of two agricultural fields with traces of irrigation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140° view of two agricultural fields with traces of irrigation ditches south of the lower holding pond. This negative forms a 360° composite panoramic when joined with AZ-2-75 and AZ-2-76. See AZ-2-86 for color version. - Tassi Ranch, Tassi Springs, Littlefield, Mohave County, AZ

  6. Definition of zones with different levels of productivity within an agricultural field using fuzzy modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. One method for the definition of zones with different levels of productivity is based on fuzzy indicator model. Fuzzy indicator model for identification of zones with different levels of productivit...

  7. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

    2008-01-01

    The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

  8. Californian demonstration and validation of automated agricultural field extraction from multi-temporal Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial distribution of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and the location and extent of fields is important to establish the area of land utilized for agricultural yield prediction, resource allocation, and for economic planning. To date, field objects have not been extracted from satellite data over large areas because of computational constraints and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. We present a fully automated computational methodology to extract agricultural fields from 30m Web Enabled Landsat data (WELD) time series and results for approximately 250,000 square kilometers (eleven 150 x 150 km WELD tiles) encompassing all the major agricultural areas of California. The extracted fields, including rectangular, circular, and irregularly shaped fields, are evaluated by comparison with manually interpreted Landsat field objects. Validation results are presented in terms of standard confusion matrix accuracy measures and also the degree of field object over-segmentation, under-segmentation, fragmentation and shape distortion. The apparent success of the presented field extraction methodology is due to several factors. First, the use of multi-temporal Landsat data, as opposed to single Landsat acquisitions, that enables crop rotations and inter-annual variability in the state of the vegetation to be accommodated for and provides more opportunities for cloud-free, non-missing and atmospherically uncontaminated surface observations. Second, the adoption of an object based approach, namely the variational region-based geometric active contour method that enables robust segmentation with only a small number of parameters and that requires no training data collection. Third, the use of a watershed algorithm to decompose connected segments belonging to multiple fields into coherent isolated field segments and a geometry based algorithm to detect and associate parts of

  9. Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic burning pits area at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-

  10. Automated Agricultural Field Extraction from Multi-temporal Web Enabled Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture has caused significant anthropogenic surface change. In many regions agricultural field sizes may be increasing to maximize yields and reduce costs resulting in decreased landscape spatial complexity and increased homogenization of land uses with potential for significant biogeochemical and ecological effects. To date, studies of the incidence, drivers and impacts of changing field sizes have not been undertaken over large areas because of computational constraints and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. The Landsat series of satellites provides near-global coverage, long term, and appropriate spatial resolution (30m) satellite data to document changing field sizes. The recent free availability of all the Landsat data in the U.S. Landsat archive now provides the opportunity to study field size changes in a global and consistent way. Commercial software can be used to extract fields from Landsat data but are inappropriate for large area application because they require considerable human interaction. This paper presents research to develop and validate an automated computational Geographic Object Based Image Analysis methodology to extract agricultural fields and derive field sizes from Web Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) (http://weld.cr.usgs.gov/). WELD weekly products (30m reflectance and brightness temperature) are classified into Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™) spectral categories and an edge intensity map and a map of the probability of each pixel being agricultural are derived from five years of 52 weeks of WELD and corresponding SIAM™ data. These data are fused to derive candidate agriculture field segments using a variational region-based geometric active contour model. Geometry-based algorithms are used to decompose connected segments belonging to multiple fields into coherent isolated field objects with a divide and conquer strategy to detect and merge partial circle

  11. Optical modeling of agricultural fields and rough-textured rock and mineral surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, G. H.; Vincent, R. K.; Horwitz, H. M.; Erickson, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Review was made of past models for describing the reflectance and/or emittance properties of agricultural/forestry and geological targets in an effort to select the best theoretical models. An extension of the six parameter Allen-Gayle-Richardson model was chosen as the agricultural plant canopy model. The model is used to predict the bidirectional reflectance of a field crop from known laboratory spectra of crop components and approximate plant geometry. The selected geological model is based on Mie theory and radiative transfer equations, and will assess the effect of textural variations of the spectral emittance of natural rock surfaces.

  12. Deriving a per-field land use and land cover map in an agricultural mosaic catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, B.; Bogner, C.; Poppenborg, P.; Martin, E.; Hoffmeister, M.; Jun, M.; Koellner, T.; Reineking, B.; Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Detailed data on land use and land cover constitute important information for Earth system models, environmental monitoring and ecosystem services research. Global land cover products are evolving rapidly; however, there is still a lack of information particularly for heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. We censused land use and land cover field by field in the agricultural mosaic catchment Haean in South Korea. We recorded the land cover types with additional information on agricultural practice. In this paper we introduce the data, their collection and the post-processing protocol. Furthermore, because it is important to quantitatively evaluate available land use and land cover products, we compared our data with the MODIS Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1). During the studied period, a large portion of dry fields was converted to perennial crops. Compared to our data, the forested area was underrepresented and the agricultural area overrepresented in MCD12Q1. In addition, linear landscape elements such as waterbodies were missing in the MODIS product due to its coarse spatial resolution. The data presented here can be useful for earth science and ecosystem services research. The data are available at the public repository Pangaea (doi:110.1594/PANGAEA.823677).

  13. A note on elevated total gaseous mercury concentrations downwind from an agriculture field during tilling.

    PubMed

    Bash, Jesse O; Miller, David R

    2007-12-15

    Elevated mercury concentrations were measured at the University of Connecticut's mercury forest flux tower during spring agricultural field operations on an adjacent corn field. Concentrations at the tower were elevated, a peak of 7.03 ng m(-3) over the background concentration of 1.74+/-0.26 ng m(-3), during times when the prevailing wind was from the direction of the corn field and during periods when the soil was disturbed by tilling. Strong deposition to the forest was recorded at the point of measurement when atmospheric mercury concentrations were elevated. The strongest deposition rate was a 1 hour maximum of -4011 ng m(-2) h(-1) following the initial peak in atmospheric concentrations, Analyses of the meteorological conditions and mercury content in agricultural soil, manure and the diesel consumed in the tilling operation indicate that the source of the mercury was from the agricultural tilling operations and it was advected over the tower enriching the atmospheric concentrations above the forest canopy leading to deposition. These results indicate that agriculture operations resulting in a disturbed soil surface may be a source of atmospheric mercury originating from the pool of mercury bound in the soil. This represents a previously undocumented source of mercury emissions resulting from anthropogenic activities.

  14. Methods for classification of agricultural fields in aerial sequences: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houkes, Zweitze; Chen, Haijun; Blacquiere, Jan-Friso

    1998-12-01

    A comparative study of a selection of classification methods for agricultural fields in sequences of aerial images is presented. The image sequences are acquired by an RGB-CCD video camera which is assumed to be on board of an airplane, moving linear over the scene. The objects in the scenes being considered are agricultural fields. The classes of agricultural fields to be distinguished are determined by the type of crop, e.g. potatoes, sugar beet, wheat, etc. In order to recognize and classify these fields obtained from the aerial sequences of images, a common approach is in the use of surface texture. Textural features are extracted from the images to effectively characterize the vegetation. Methods based on Circular Symmetric Auto-Regression, Co-Occurrence Matrix and Local Binary Patterns are selected for the comparative study. The experiments are carried out with image sequences taken from a scaled model of a landscape and a selection from the Brodatz set. A few training images are used to set up the model bases for the three methods. The methods are tested using the same regions from other images of the sequence, and other sequences of images of similar fields. Comparison fa the methods is based on the confusion matrix. Sensitivity to variations in flight direction, variations in altitude and luminance conditions are being considered.

  15. An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1996-06-01

    Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

  16. Does soil burn severity affect the post-fire runoff and interrill erosion response? A review based on meta-analysis of field rainfall simulation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, D. C. S.; Fernández, C.; Vega, J. A.; Keizer, J. J.

    2015-04-01

    Soil burn severity has been widely used to describe the impacts of fire on soils and is increasingly being recognised as a decisive factor controlling post-fire erosion rates. However, there is no unique definition of the term and the relationship between soil burn severity and post-fire hydrological and erosion response has not yet been fully established. The objective of this work was to review the existing literature on the role of soil burn severity on post-fire runoff and erosion ratios. To this end, a meta-analysis was carried out of the runoff and inter-rill erosion data from field rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's) that compared burnt and unburnt conditions. In this study, 109 individual observations were analysed that covered a wide geographical range, various types of land cover (forest, shrubland, and grassland) and two types of fire types (wildfire and prescribed fire). The effect size of the post-fire runoff and erosion response was determined for four key factors: (i) soil burn severity; (ii) time-since-fire; (iii) rainfall intensity; and (iv) bare soil cover. Statistical meta-analysis showed that fire occurrence had a significant effect on the hydrological and erosive response. However, this effect was only significantly higher with increasing soil burn severity for inter-rill erosion, and not for runoff. This study furthermore highlighted the incoherencies between existing burn severity classifications, and proposed an unambiguous classification.

  17. Long-term monitoring of nitrate transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-08-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is required to sustain most modern crop production, but it poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is essential for introducing water management actions on-field or off-field and producing an optimal differentiated N-regulation in future. This study strives to provide such knowledge by evaluating on 11 years of nitrate-N concentration measurements in drainage from three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha) representing approximately 71 % of the surface sediments in Denmark dominated by clay. The fields differ in their inherent hydrogeological field settings (e.g. soil-type, geology, climate, drainage and groundwater table) and the agricultural management of the fields (e.g. crop type, type of N fertilisers and agricultural practices). The evaluation revealed three types of clayey till fields characterised by: (i) low net precipitation, high concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term low intensity drainage at air temperatures often below 5 °C; (ii) medium net precipitation, medium concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term medium-intensity drainage at air temperatures often above 5 °C; and (iii) high net precipitation, low concentration of nitrate-N and long-term high intensity drainage at air temperatures above 5 °C. For each type, on-field water management actions, such as the selection of crop types and introduction of catch crops, appeared relevant, whereas off-field actions only seemed relevant for the latter two field types given the temperature-dependent reduction potential of nitrate off-field. This initial well-documented field-scale knowledge from fields

  18. Measuring ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills weathered under Arctic conditions: from laboratory studies to large-scale field experiments.

    PubMed

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan

    2011-08-01

    This paper compares the ignitability of Troll B crude oil weathered under simulated Arctic conditions (0%, 50% and 90% ice cover). The experiments were performed in different scales at SINTEF's laboratories in Trondheim, field research station on Svalbard and in broken ice (70-90% ice cover) in the Barents Sea. Samples from the weathering experiments were tested for ignitability using the same laboratory burning cell. The measured ignitability from the experiments in these different scales showed a good agreement for samples with similar weathering. The ice conditions clearly affected the weathering process, and 70% ice or more reduces the weathering and allows a longer time window for in situ burning. The results from the Barents Sea revealed that weathering and ignitability can vary within an oil slick. This field use of the burning cell demonstrated that it can be used as an operational tool to monitor the ignitability of oil spills.

  19. Deriving a per-field land use and land cover map in an agricultural mosaic catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, B.; Bogner, C.; Poppenborg, P.; Martin, E.; Hoffmeister, M.; Jun, M.; Koellner, T.; Reineking, B.; Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J.

    2014-04-01

    Detailed data on land use and land cover constitutes important information for Earth system models, environmental monitoring and ecosystem services research. Global land cover products are evolving rapidly, however, there is still a lack of information particularly for heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. We censused land use and land cover field by field in an agricultural mosaic catchment Haean, South Korea. We recorded the land cover types with additional information on agricultural practice and make this data available at the public repository Pangaea (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.823677). In this paper we introduce the data, its collection and the post-processing protocol. During the studied period, a large portion of dry fields was converted to perennial crops. A comparison between our dataset and MODIS Land Cover Type (MCD12Q1) suggested that the MODIS product was restricted in this area since it does not distinguish irrigated fields from general croplands. In addition, linear landscape elements such as water bodies were not detected in the MODIS product due to its coarse spatial resolution. The data presented here can be useful for earth science and ecosystem services research.

  20. A mobile app for delivering in-field soil data for precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, John P.; Stojanovic, Vladeta; Falconer, Ruth E.

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade precision agriculture has grown from a concept to an emerging technology, largely due to the maturing of GPS and mobile mapping. We investigated methods for reliable delivery and display of appropriate and context aware in-field farm data on mobile devices by developing a prototype android mobile app. The 3D app was developed using OpenGL ES 2.0 and written in Java, using the Android Development Tools (ADT) SDK. The app is able to obtain GPS coordinates and automatically synchronise the view and load relevant data based on the user's location. The intended audience of the mobile app is farmers and agronomists. Apps are becoming an essential tool in an agricultural professional's arsenal however most existing apps are limited to 2D display of data even though the modern chips in mobile devices can support the display of 3D graphics at interactive rates using technologies such as webGL. This project investigated the use of games techniques in the delivery and 3D display of field data, recognising that this may be a departure from the way the field data is currently delivered and displayed to farmers and agronomists. Different interactive 3D visualisation methods presenting spatial and temporal variation in yield values were developed and tested. It is expected that this app can be used by farmers and agronomists to support decision making in the field of precision agriculture and this is a growing market in UK and Europe.

  1. Profiling Nematode Communities in Unmanaged Flowerbed and Agricultural Field Soils in Japan by DNA Barcode Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Morise, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Erika; Yoshimitsu, Shoko; Eki, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples) and 48 (field samples) isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs) were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds) in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs), indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis. PMID:23284767

  2. Profiling nematode communities in unmanaged flowerbed and agricultural field soils in Japan by DNA barcode sequencing.

    PubMed

    Morise, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Erika; Yoshimitsu, Shoko; Eki, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples) and 48 (field samples) isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs) were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds) in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs), indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis.

  3. Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields in developing countries - a review.

    PubMed

    Onwude, Daniel I; Abdulstter, Rafia; Gomes, Chandima; Hashim, Norhashila

    2016-09-01

    Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields often requires the application of modern technologies such as mechanical power, automation, control and robotics. These technologies are generally associated with relatively well developed economies. The application of these technologies in some developing countries in Africa and Asia is limited by factors such as technology compatibility with the environment, availability of resources to facilitate the technology adoption, cost of technology purchase, government policies, adequacy of technology and appropriateness in addressing the needs of the population. As a result, many of the available resources have been used inadequately by farmers, who continue to rely mostly on conventional means of agricultural production, using traditional tools and equipment in most cases. This has led to low productivity and high cost of production among others. Therefore this paper attempts to evaluate the application of present day technology and its limitations to the advancement of large-scale mechanisation in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Particular emphasis is given to a general understanding of the various levels of mechanisation, present day technology, its management and application to large-scale agricultural fields. This review also focuses on/gives emphasis to future outlook that will enable a gradual, evolutionary and sustainable technological change. The study concludes that large-scale-agricultural farm mechanisation for sustainable food production in Africa and Asia must be anchored on a coherent strategy based on the actual needs and priorities of the large-scale farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields in developing countries - a review.

    PubMed

    Onwude, Daniel I; Abdulstter, Rafia; Gomes, Chandima; Hashim, Norhashila

    2016-09-01

    Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields often requires the application of modern technologies such as mechanical power, automation, control and robotics. These technologies are generally associated with relatively well developed economies. The application of these technologies in some developing countries in Africa and Asia is limited by factors such as technology compatibility with the environment, availability of resources to facilitate the technology adoption, cost of technology purchase, government policies, adequacy of technology and appropriateness in addressing the needs of the population. As a result, many of the available resources have been used inadequately by farmers, who continue to rely mostly on conventional means of agricultural production, using traditional tools and equipment in most cases. This has led to low productivity and high cost of production among others. Therefore this paper attempts to evaluate the application of present day technology and its limitations to the advancement of large-scale mechanisation in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Particular emphasis is given to a general understanding of the various levels of mechanisation, present day technology, its management and application to large-scale agricultural fields. This review also focuses on/gives emphasis to future outlook that will enable a gradual, evolutionary and sustainable technological change. The study concludes that large-scale-agricultural farm mechanisation for sustainable food production in Africa and Asia must be anchored on a coherent strategy based on the actual needs and priorities of the large-scale farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26940194

  5. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  6. Integrated Modeling to Assess the Ecological and Air Quality Trade-offs of Agricultural Burning in the Flint Hills of Eastern Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, B. L.; Mckane, R.; Brookes, A.; Schumaker, N.; Papenfus, M.; Pettus, P.; Halama, J.; Powers, B.; Djang, K.; Groskinsky, B.; Grier, G.; Hawkins, A.; Tapp, J.; Watson, D.; Gross, T.; Goodin, D.; Mohler, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Flint Hills of eastern Kansas and northern Oklahoma is home to the largest remaining contiguous grassland prairie in the United States. Throughout the prairie, burning is a common practice used to preserve the prairie from encroachment of woody species such as eastern Red Cedar, and to enhance the quantity and quality of the grass grown for cattle grazing in the region. However, widespread annual burning in early spring has led to air quality exceedances and pollution impacts in urban areas such as Kansas City, Topeka, and Wichita. Our research effort focuses on developing a modelling environment that simulates the effects of burning in the Flint Hills using an integrated modeling system, including an eco-hydrological model, an air quality and dispersion model, an economic and health effects model, and a terrestrial-species model. Using this integrated system, we can model historical burning practices as well as hypothetical variations in timing and quantity of burns. Then, we can investigate the relative trade-offs between farm productivity, ecological effects, urban health effects, and habitat diversity for terrestrial species given different burning scenarios. The results from this systems approach will provide land managers with information about the relative trade-offs associated with burning considering multiple elements of sustainability throughout the Flint Hills.

  7. The Global Impact of Biomass Burning: An Interview with EPA's Robert Huggett

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevine, Joel S.

    1995-01-01

    The extent of biomass burning has increased significantly over the past 100 years because of human activities, and such burning is much more frequent and widespread than was previously believed. Biomass burning is now recognized as a significant global source of emissions, contributing as much as 40% of gross carbon dioxide and 38% of tropospheric ozone. Most of the world's burned biomass matter is from the savannas, and because two-thirds of the Earth's savannas are located in Africa, that continent is now recognized as the "burn center" of the planet. In the past few years the international scientific community has conducted field experiments using ground-based and airborne measurements in Africa, South America. and Siberia to better assess the global production of gases and particulates by biomass burning. Researchers are gathering this month in Williamsburg, VA, to discuss the results of these and other investigations at the Second Chapman Conference on Biomass Burning and Global Change, sponsored by the American Geophysical Union. The first international biomass burning conference, held in 1990, was attended by atmospheric chemists, climatologists, ecologists, forest and soil scientists, fire researchers, remote- sensins specialists, and environmental planners and managers from more than 25 countries.When we hear about biomass burning, we usually think of the burning of the worlds tropical forests for permanent land clearing. However, biomass burning serves a variety of land use changes, including the clearing of forests and savannas for agricultural and grazing use; shifting agriculture practices; the control of grass, weeds, and litter on agricultural and grazing lands; the elimination of stubble and waste on agricultural lands after the harvest; and the domestic use of biomass matter.

  8. Assessing field vulnerability to phosphorus loss in Beijing agricultural area using Revised Field Phosphorus Ranking Scheme.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Chen, Li-ding; Qi, Xin; Zhang, Xin-yu; Ma, Yan; Fu, Bo-jie

    2007-01-01

    Guanting Reservoir, one of the drinking water supply sources of Beijing, suffers from water eutrophication. It is mainly supplied by Guishui River. Thus, to investigate the reasons of phosphorus (P) loss and improve the P management strategies in Guishui River watershed are important for the safety of drinking water in this region. In this study, a Revised Field P Ranking Scheme (PRS) was developed to reflect the field vulnerability of P loss at the field scale based on the Field PRS. In this new scheme, six factors are included, and each one was assigned a relative weight and a determination method. The affecting factors were classified into transport factors and source factors, and, the standards of environmental quality on surface water and soil erosion classification and degradation of the China were used in this scheme. By the new scheme, thirty-four fields in the Guishui River were categorized as "low", "medium" or "high" potential for P loss into the runoff. The results showed that the P loss risks of orchard and vegetable fields were higher than that of corn and soybean fields. The source factors were the main factors to affect P loss from the study area. In the study area, controlling P input and improving P usage efficiency are critical to decrease P loss. Based on the results, it was suggested that more attention should be paid on the fields of vegetable and orchard since they have extremely high usage rate of P and high soil test of P. Compared with P surplus by field measurements, the Revised Field PRS was more suitable for reflecting the characteristics of fields, and had higher potential capacity to identify critical source areas of P loss than PRS. PMID:17966855

  9. A GPS Backpack System for Mapping Soil and Crop Parameters in Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, J. V.; Lebars, J. M.

    Farmers are having to gather increasing amounts of data on their soils and crops. Precision agriculture metre-by-metre is based on a knowledge of the spatial variation of soil and crop parameters across a field. The data has to be spatially located and GPS is an effective way of doing this. A backpack data logging system with GPS position tagging is described which has been designed to aid a fanner in the manual collection of data.

  10. Progress in the Understanding of Narrow Directional Scattering over Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmuller, U.; Santoro, M.; Mattia, F.; Balenzano, A.; Satalino, G.; Marzahn, P.; Fischer, G.; Ludwig, R.; Floury, N.

    2010-12-01

    Results achieved in a comprehensive study on directional microwave scattering over agricultural fields are presented. Major progress presented includes the much improved experimental evidence achieved and significant improvements in the understanding of the scatter phenomenon through the presented scatter model. Good progress is also made in the detection of directional scattering. It is concluded that directional scattering is relevant for applications and cannot just be ignored.

  11. Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa Description: This herringbone pattern of irrigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan (14.5N, 33.5E) was imaged with infrared film as part an experiment to compare the merits of color film versus color infrared film. Color film presents the image as it appears to the eye whereas color infrared film has an excellent haze penetration and vegetation definition capability. See color film image STS049-77-072 for a detailed scene description.

  12. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  13. Burns (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree burns damage the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema). Second degree burns damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema ...

  14. A new field method to characterise the runoff generation potential of burned hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Langhans, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The prediction of post fire runoff generation is critical for the estimation of post fire erosion processes and rates. Typical field measures for determining infiltration model parameters include ring infiltrometers, tension infiltrometers, rainfall simulators and natural runoff plots. However predicting the runoff generating potential of post-fire hillslopes is difficult due to the high spatial variability of soil properties relative to the size of the measurement method, the poorly understood relationship between water repellence and runoff generation, known scaling issues with all the above hydraulic measurements, and logistical limitations for measurements in remote environments. In this study we tested a new field method for characterizing surface runoff generation potential that overcomes these limitations and is quick, simple and cheap to apply in the field. The new field method involves the manual application of a 40mm depth of Brilliant Blue FCF food dye along a 10cm wide and 5m long transect along the contour under slightly-ponded conditions. After 24 hours the transect is excavated to a depth of 10cm and the percentage dyed area within the soil profile recorded manually. The dyed area is an index of infiltration potential of the soil during intense rainfall events, and captures both spatial variability and water repellence effects. The dye measurements were made adjacent to long term instrumented post fire rainfall-runoff plots on 7 contrasting soil types over a 6 month period, and the results show surprisingly strong correlations (r2 = 0.9) between the runoff-ratio from the plots and the dyed area. The results are used to develop an initial conceptual model that links the dye index with an infiltration model and parameters suited to burnt hillslopes. The capacity of this method to provide a simple, and reliable indicator of post fire runoff potential from different fire severities, soil types and treatments is explored in this presentation.

  15. Identifying Landscape Areas Prone to Generating Storm Runoff in Central New York Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, K.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be a leading cause of surface water degradation, especially in agricultural areas. In humid regions where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff, NPS pollution is generated where VSAs coincide with polluting activities. Mapping storm runoff risks could allow for more precise and informed targeting of NPS pollution mitigation practices in agricultural landscapes. Topographic wetness indices (TWI) provide good approximations of relative soil moisture patterns and relative storm runoff risks. Simulation models are typically used in conjunction with TWIs to quantify VSA behavior. In this study we use empirically derived relationships between TWI values, volumetric water content (VWC) and rainfall frequencies to develop runoff probability maps. Rainfall and soil VWC were measured across regionally representative agricultural areas in central New York over three years (2012-2015) to determine the volume of runoff generated from agricultural fields in the area. We assumed the threshold for storm runoff occurs when the combination of antecedent soil water and rainfall are sufficient to saturate the soil. We determined that approximately 50% of the storm runoff volume is generated from 10% of the land area during spring, summer, and autumn seasons, while the risk of storm runoff generation is higher in the spring and autumn seasons than in the summer for the same area of land.

  16. Distribution and Properties of Aerosol and Gas Phase Constituents within Biomass Burning Regional Haze in Brazil, 2012, during the Sambba (South American Biomass Burning Analysis) Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, E.; Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Trembath, J.; Szpek, K.; Langridge, J.; Brooke, J.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass Burning (BB) aerosols (BBA) impact upon weather, climate, ecosystems and human health at global and regional scales. Yet quantitative evaluation is impeded by a limited understanding of BB processes and a dearth of in-situ measurements. Thus large model uncertainties prevail, especially in data poor, intensive BB regions such as Brazil. Hence the timely nature of the SAMBBA campaign, utilizing aircraft (UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement BAe-146) and ground based observations out of Porto Velho in Sept-Oct 2012. This work utilizes aircraft measurements to characterize BB regional haze - the inhomogeneous accumulation of aged BBA capped within the boundary layer, present across swathes of Brazil. As context, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological climatologies are presented and compared to the synoptic conditions of 2012. Throughout the early flights an expansive area of elevated (>1) AOD persisted, although in transitioning toward the wet season, rain out and advection significantly reduced its spatial extent and magnitude in western regions of Brazil. Concurrent decreases in haze BBA concentrations (~50%) were observed from the aircraft measurements sampling in these deforested/forested areas. However, the relative vertical structure, composition, physical and optical properties remained similar. The lofted maxima in aerosol concentrations at ~1.5km, typically not captured in models, is potentially important for regional climate. Significant differences were observed, however, during flights over the eastern savannah-like regions of Brazil, which remained drier throughout. Here, haze BBA concentrations resembled those in the west prior to wash out, with the exception of high loadings of refractive black carbon. This acted to lower the single scattering albedo and alter the number size distribution. The observed haze BBA west-east split is also present at source and remains similar throughout fresh plume evolution, thus we conclude

  17. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J.

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  18. Emissions from Southeastern U.S. Grasslands and Pine Savannas: Comparison of Aerial and Ground Field Measurements with Laboratory Burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from prescribed burns of forest and grass stands in western Florida were measured by simultaneous aerial and ground sampling. Results were compared with biomass gathered from the same stands and tested in an open burn laboratory test facility. Measurements included pol...

  19. Field calibration of surface: a model of agricultural chemicals in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, D I

    1990-10-01

    Agricultural chemicals sporadically occur at detectable levels in the surface waters of intensively farmed watersheds. HSPF, a previously released model of agricultural chemicals in surface water, had been used to predict concentrations which were much higher (10 X) than those actually observed during monitoring studies. A new model, SURFACE, is described here which is much simpler than HSPF and gives better predictions of surface water concentrations. SURFACE uses PRZM, an EPA model, to calculate edge-of-field runoff losses and simple hydraulic routing algorithms to determine concentrations at the bottom of large river basins. In water systems sampled during 1985 and 1986, SURFACE predictions of annualized mean concentrations for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine and metolachlor were within 0.09 ppb half of the time.

  20. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Krupke, Christian H; Hunt, Greg J; Eitzer, Brian D; Andino, Gladys; Given, Krispn

    2012-01-01

    Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions) growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen) or by contact (soil/planter dust) is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed treatments.

  1. Multiple Routes of Pesticide Exposure for Honey Bees Living Near Agricultural Fields

    PubMed Central

    Krupke, Christian H.; Hunt, Greg J.; Eitzer, Brian D.; Andino, Gladys; Given, Krispn

    2012-01-01

    Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions) growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen) or by contact (soil/planter dust) is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed treatments. PMID

  2. Edge-of-field research to quantify the impacts of agricultural practices on water quality in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage is needed to sustain agricultural production to meet the demands of a growing global population, but it also transports nutrients from fields to surface water bodies. The State of Ohio is facing the tremendous challenge of maintaining agricultural production while protecting the environment...

  3. Dispersion characteristics and sinks for methyl bromide vapors downwind of treated agricultural fields

    SciTech Connect

    Seiber, J.N.; Woodrow, J.E.; Dowling, K.

    1995-12-31

    A study of methyl bromide volatilization and fate from a treated agricultural field was conducted in Monterey County, California, in 1994. Air concentrations were measured above and downwind from the field with the objective of comparing vertical and horizontal flux terms. Another objective was to compare observed downwind concentrations with those predicted by the Industrial Source Complex model, to begin the process of identifying potential sinks which might scavenge methyl bromide from the atmosphere. The final objective was to determine the limit of detection of our analytical method for airborne methyl bromide using field samples representing a wide range of concentrations. A description of the methods and results of the study will be presented, along with a discussion of data quality and interpretation.

  4. Occurrence of an herbicide-resistant plant trait in agricultural field margins.

    PubMed

    Gage, Karla L; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G; Young, Julie M; Matthews, Joseph L; Weller, Stephen C; Wilson, Robert G

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural environments allow study of evolutionary change in plants. An example of evolution within agroecological systems is the selection for resistance to the herbicide glyphosate within the weed, Conyza canadensis. Changes in survivorship and reproduction associated with the development of glyphosate resistance (GR) may impact fitness and influence the frequency of occurrence of the GR trait. We hypothesized that site characteristics and history would affect the occurrence of GR C. canadensis in field margins. We surveyed GR occurrence in field margins and asked whether there were correlations between GR occurrence and location, crop rotation, GR crop trait rotation, crop type, use of tillage, and the diversity of herbicides used. In a field experiment, we hypothesized that there would be no difference in fitness between GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) plants. We asked whether there were differences in survivorship, phenology, reproduction, and herbivory between 2 GR and 2 GS populations of C. canadensis in agrestal and ruderal habitats. We found that geographic location was an important factor in the occurrence of GR C. canadensis in field margins. Although not consistently associated with either glyphosate resistance or glyphosate susceptibility, there were differences in phenology, survivorship, and herbivory among biotypes of C. canadensis. We found equal or greater fitness in GR biotypes, compared to GS biotypes, and GR plants were present in field margins. Field margins or ruderal habitats may provide refugia for GR C. canadensis, allowing reproduction and further selection to occur as seeds recolonize the agrestal habitat. Agricultural practices may select for ecological changes that feed back into the evolution of plants in ruderal habitats. PMID:26445665

  5. Occurrence of an herbicide-resistant plant trait in agricultural field margins.

    PubMed

    Gage, Karla L; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G; Young, Julie M; Matthews, Joseph L; Weller, Stephen C; Wilson, Robert G

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural environments allow study of evolutionary change in plants. An example of evolution within agroecological systems is the selection for resistance to the herbicide glyphosate within the weed, Conyza canadensis. Changes in survivorship and reproduction associated with the development of glyphosate resistance (GR) may impact fitness and influence the frequency of occurrence of the GR trait. We hypothesized that site characteristics and history would affect the occurrence of GR C. canadensis in field margins. We surveyed GR occurrence in field margins and asked whether there were correlations between GR occurrence and location, crop rotation, GR crop trait rotation, crop type, use of tillage, and the diversity of herbicides used. In a field experiment, we hypothesized that there would be no difference in fitness between GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) plants. We asked whether there were differences in survivorship, phenology, reproduction, and herbivory between 2 GR and 2 GS populations of C. canadensis in agrestal and ruderal habitats. We found that geographic location was an important factor in the occurrence of GR C. canadensis in field margins. Although not consistently associated with either glyphosate resistance or glyphosate susceptibility, there were differences in phenology, survivorship, and herbivory among biotypes of C. canadensis. We found equal or greater fitness in GR biotypes, compared to GS biotypes, and GR plants were present in field margins. Field margins or ruderal habitats may provide refugia for GR C. canadensis, allowing reproduction and further selection to occur as seeds recolonize the agrestal habitat. Agricultural practices may select for ecological changes that feed back into the evolution of plants in ruderal habitats.

  6. Phosphorus adsorption and desorption potential of stream sediments and field soils in agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Sandra C; Nelson, Nathan O; Barnes, Philip L; Keane, Timothy D; Pierzynski, Gary M

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus release from stream sediments into water could increase P loads leaving agricultural watersheds and contribute to lag-time between implementation of best management practices and improvement in water quality. Improved understanding of P release from stream sediments can assist in setting water quality goals and designing stream monitoring programs. The objective of this study was to estimate the relative potential of sediments and soils to release P to stream water in two agricultural watersheds. Stream sediments were collected from banks, pools, riffles, and depositional features. Soils were sampled from wheat, row crop, pasture, and manure-amended fields. Sediments and soils were analyzed for equilibrium P concentration at zero net P sorption (EPC0), maximum P adsorption capacity (P(max)), anion exchange extractable P (P(lab)), and degree of P saturation. Dissolved reactive P (DRP) of stream water was monitored. Stream sediment EPC0 was similar to or less than EPC0 from field soils; however, P(lab) of stream sediments was three times less than field soils. Sediments were sandy and had low P(max) due to low oxalate-extractable Fe and Al, which could be explained by stream geomorphology. Manure-amended fields had the highest EPC0 and P(lab) due to continued inputs of manure-based P; however, conventionally fertilized fields also represented an important P source due to their vast extent. Stream water DRP was similar to EPC0 of sediments during base flow and similar to EPC0 of field soils during storm flow. These results indicate that sediments in these streams are a relatively minor P source. PMID:21488503

  7. Preparing students for higher education and careers in agriculture and related fields: An ethnography of an urban charter school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Kesha Atasha

    This study explored the preparation of students for higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields at an urban charter high school. The data were collected through interviews, observations, and field notes. The data were analyzed by qualitative methodology with phenomenology as the theoretical framework. Findings indicated that administrators thought it was important to incorporate agricultural science courses into urban school curricula. They stated that agricultural science courses gave urban students a different way of looking at science and helped to enhance the science and technology focus of the school. Further, agricultural science courses helped to break urban students' stereotypes about agriculture and helped to bring in more state funding for educational programs. However they thought that it was more challenging to teach agricultural science in urban versus rural schools and they focused more on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related careers. The students had mixed views about higher education and careers in agriculture. This was based on their limited knowledge and stereotypes about agricultural majors and career options. The students highlighted several key reasons why they chose to enroll in agricultural science courses. This included the benefits of dual science credits and the ability to earn an associate degree upon successful completion of their program. Students also loved science and appreciated the science intensive nature of the agricultural courses. Additionally, they thought that the agricultural science courses were better than the other optional courses. The results also showed that electronic media such as radio and TV had a negative impact on students' perceptions about higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  8. Integrated analysis of root microbiomes of soybean and wheat from agricultural fields

    PubMed Central

    Rascovan, Nicolás; Carbonetto, Belén; Perrig, Diego; Díaz, Marisa; Canciani, Wilter; Abalo, Matías; Alloati, Julieta; González-Anta, Gustavo; Vazquez, Martín P.

    2016-01-01

    Root associated bacteria are critical for plant growth and health. Understanding the composition and role of root microbiota is crucial toward agricultural practices that are less dependent on chemical fertilization, which has known negative effects on the environment and human health. Here we analyzed the root-associated microbiomes of soybean and wheat under agricultural field conditions. We took samples from 11 different production fields across a large geographic area. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to explore root microbial communities and also obtained 2,007 bacterial isolates from rhizospheres, which were tested for the presence of plant growth promoting (PGP) traits in-vitro. We observed that pH and nitrate content correlated with beta diversity variability of rhizospheric bacterial communities despite the variable field conditions. We described the dominant bacterial groups associated to roots from both crops at a large geographic scale and we found that a high proportion of them (60–70%) showed more than 97% similarity to bacteria from the isolated collection. Moreover, we observed that 55% of the screened isolates presented PGP activities in vitro. These results are a significant step forward in understanding crop-associated microbiomes and suggest that new directions can be taken to promote crop growth and health by modulating root microbiomes. PMID:27312589

  9. The Role Of Management Of The Field-Forest Boundary In Poland's Process Of Agricultural Restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woch, Franciszek; Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work described here has been to point to the relationships between the field-forest boundary and crop productivity as regards the present agrarian land-use structure in Poland, and to provide new opportunities for arranging the agrarian process and the spatial planning of the rural landscape in the context of the sustainable shaping of the field-forest boundary. Impacts of forests and woodlands on crop productivity have been assessed using available data from relevant Polish literature. An assessment of the plot-distribution pattern characterising farms in Poland was made on the basis of reference data from the Agency for the Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture. Finally, the possibility of afforestation of agricultural land has been evaluated within the existing legal framework, and on the basis of available data, with attention paid to the need to include organization of the field-forest boundary within the comprehensive management and planning of rural areas, and to preserve woody elements in patchy landscapes. This all creates an opportunity to test innovative approaches to integrated land use which combines the creation of public goods and local products based on participatory learning processes that bring in local stakeholders and decision-makers.

  10. Observation of soil moisture variability in agricultural and grassland field soils using a wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priesack, Eckart; Schuh, Max

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture dynamics is a key factor of energy and matter exchange between land surface and atmosphere. Therefore long-term observation of temporal and spatial soil moisture variability is important in studying impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems and their possible feedbacks to the atmosphere. Within the framework of the network of terrestrial environmental observatories TERENO we installed at the research farm Scheyern in soils of two fields (of ca. 5 ha size each) the SoilNet wireless sensor network (Biogena et al. 2010). The SoilNet in Scheyern consists of 94 sensor units, 45 for the agricultural field site and 49 for the grassland site. Each sensor unit comprises 6 SPADE sensors, two sensors placed at the depths 10, 30 and 50 cm. The SPADE sensor (sceme.de GmbH, Horn-Bad Meinberg Germany) consists of a TDT sensor to estimate volumetric soil water content from soil electrical permittivity by sending an electromagnetic signal and measuring its propagation time, which depends on the soil dielectric properties and hence on soil water content. Additionally the SPADE sensor contains a temperature sensor (DS18B20). First results obtained from the SoilNet measurements at both fields sites will be presented and discussed. The observed high temporal and spatial variability will be analysed and related to agricultural management and basic soil properties (bulk density, soil texture, organic matter content and soil hydraulic characteristics).

  11. Field experiments to evaluate nitrate-leaching from drained agriculturally used areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednorz, Denise; Tauchnitz, Nadine; Christen, Olaf; Rupp, Holger; Meissner, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural land use is one of the main sources for diffuse nitrogen (N) inputs into surface- and groundwater. To fulfill the objectives of the European water protection policy it is mandatory to optimize agricultural management and to adopt it to site specific conditions. N present in soil is dominated by organic N, and after mineralization inorganic plant available N, obtaining the components ammonia and nitrate (NO3-N). In the environment, NO3-N occurs as the negatively charged ion NO3- which is generally solved. Thus, NO3-N is the major N-species in waters, whereas its transport is directly influenced by the flow regime. In dependence of soil type and meteorological conditions, subsurface drainage was often installed to prevent water logged zones as a requirement for agricultural use. But drainage systems were often discussed as one of the main sources for NO3-N inputs into surface water due to temporary high discharge rates and short residence time of soil water resulting in limited conditions for NO3-N degradation via denitrification. In the study presented herein, two adjacent tile-drained agriculturally used areas with adjusted agronomic conditions but different soil properties were investigated regarding their flow regime and their N-kinetic from 11/1/2013 until 10/31/2015. Both fields obtained the same size and drainage network (drain depth 0.8 m, gab distance 10 m). Field I was influenced by confined groundwater conditions due to an alternating strata of sandy and loamy layers. Field II was impermeable from a depth of one meter, showing a backwater influenced flow regime. The temporal course of soil moisture (35, 60 and 85 cm depth), drain rate as well as ground- and backwater head was registered continuously at both sites. Furthermore NH4-N- and NO3-N-concentrations (cNO3-N) in each compartment were measured. The experimental results showed that field I revealed significantly lower discharged drain rates and NO3-N-loads (17.1 mm and 2.5 kg N

  12. Distribution of selenium in soils of agricultural fields, western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, Roger; Deverel, S.J.; Hatfield, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Soils from three agricultural fields in the Panoche Creek alluvial fan area in the western San Joaquin Valley, California, were analyzed for soluble, adsorbed, and total concentrations of selenium (Se) to assess the distribution and forms of Se in relation to the leaching of Se from soils. This assessment is needed to evaluate the importance of soil Se in affecting ground water concentrations. Soil samples were collected from three fields with drainage systems of different ages (6, 15, 1.5 yr) and different Se concentrations in drain water (58, 430, 3700 µg L−1, respectively). Concentrations of soluble Se and salinity were highest in soils from the field drained for 1.5 yr and lowest in the field drained for 6 yr. Of the total concentration of soil Se from all three fields, the proportion of adsorbed and soluble Se ranged from 1 to 11% and 2 > 0.68) in saturation extracts of soils sampled from below the water table. In contrast, most soluble salts and Se apparently have been leached from the unsaturated soils in the fields drained for 6 and 15 yr. For the leached soils, dissolution and precipitation of evaporite minerals containing Se may no longer control concentrations of soluble Se.

  13. Plot and Catchment Scale Hydrological Impacts of Agricultural Field Boundary Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Natural flood management aims to reduce downstream flow levels by delaying the movement of water through a catchment and increasing the amount of soil infiltration. Field boundary features such as hedgerows and dry stone walls are common features in the rural landscape. It is hypothesised that there presence could reduce runoff connectivity and change the soil moisture levels by altering the soil structure and porosity. The use of larger agricultural machinery has resulted in the removal of field boundaries and the subsequent increase in field sizes over the 20th Century. This change in the rural landscape is likely to have changed the partitioning of rainfall into runoff and the hydrological pathways throughout the catchment. However, the link between field boundaries and catchment scale flood risk has not yet been proven. We aim to address this need for evidence to support natural flood management by focussing on these widespread features in the rural landscape. Firstly, we quantify the change in the density of field boundaries over the past 120 years for the Skell catchment, Northern England using historical OS maps. The analysis has shown that field size has approximately doubled in the Skell catchment since 1892, due to the removal of field boundaries. Secondly, we assess the effect of field boundaries on local soil characteristics and hydrological processes through plot scale continuous monitoring of the hydrological processes along a 20m transect through the linear boundary features. For the summer period results show that soil moisture levels are lower immediately next to the hedgerow compared to distances greater than 1m from the hedgerow. Finally, we use this data to parameterise and validate a catchment scale hydrological model. The model is then applied to test the impact of a network of field boundaries on river flow extremes at the catchment scale.

  14. Distribution of selenium in soils of agricultural fields, western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, Roger; Deverel, S.J.; Hatfield, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Soils from three agricultural fields in the western San Joaquin Valley were analyzed for soluble, adsorbed, and total concentrations of selenium (Se) to assess the distribution and forms of Se, and the relation of the distribution and forms of Se to the leaching of Se from soils. Soil samples were collected in three fields with drainage systems of different ages (6, 15, 1.5 yr) and different Se concentrations in drain water (58, 430, 3700 micrograms/L respectively). Preliminary methods to determine total Se and estimate adsorbed Se were developed. Of the three fields, concentrations of soluble Se and salinity were highest in soils from the field drained for 1.5 yr and lowest in the field drained for 6 yr. The field drained for 1.5 yr also had the highest concentration of total Se in soil; a median of 1.2 microgram/gm. Of the total concentration of Se in soil from all three fields, the proportion of adsorbed Se and soluble Se ranged from 1 to 11% and < 1 to 63%, respectively. Most of the variance in soluble Se is explained by salinity ( r sq > 0.68) in saturation extracts of soils sampled from below the water table, reflecting evaporative concentration of Se and salinity. In contrast, most soluble salts and Se apparently have been leached from the unsaturated soils in the fields drained for 6 and 15 yr; therefore, the correlation was lower between Se and salinity in saturation extracts of those soils (r sq < 0.33). Among soils from all three fields, the ratio of Se to salinity in saturation extracts increased with increasing salinity. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Integrated modeling to assess the ecological and air quality trade-offs of agricultural burning in the Flint Hills of eastern Kansas

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Flint Hills of eastern Kansas and northern Oklahoma is home to the largest remaining contiguous grassland prairie in the United States. Throughout the prairie, burning is a common practice used to preserve the prairie from encroachment of woody species such as eastern Red Ced...

  16. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon–Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  17. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  18. On-farm bioremediation of dimethazone and trifluralin residues in runoff water from an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation is the use of living organisms, primarily microorganisms, to degrade environmental contaminants into less toxic forms. Nine biobeds (ground cavity filled with a mixture of composted organic matter, topsoil, and a surface grass) were established at Kentucky State University research farm (Franklin County, KY) to study the impact of this practice on reducing surface runoff water contamination by residues of dimethazone and trifluralin herbicides arising from an agricultural field. Biobed (biofilter) systems were installed at the bottom of the slope of specially designed runoff plots to examine herbicides retention and degradation before entering streams and rivers. In addition to biobed systems, three soil management practices: municipal sewage sludge (SS), SS mixed with yard waste compost (SS + YW), and no-mulch rototilled bare soil (NM used for comparison purposes) were used to monitor the impact of soil amendments on herbicide residues in soil following natural rainfall events. Organic amendments increased soil organic matter content and herbicide residues retained in soil following rainfall events. Biobeds installed in NM soil reduced dimethazone and trifluralin by 84 and 82%, respectively in runoff water that would have been transported down the land slope of agricultural fields and contaminated natural water resources. Biobeds installed in SS and SS+YW treatments reduced dimethazone by 65 and 46% and trifluralin by 52 and 79%, respectively. These findings indicated that biobeds are effective for treating dimethazone and trifluralin residues in runoff water.

  19. Gully evolution in field crops on vertic soils under conventional agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael; Mora, Jose; Gómez, Jose A.

    2015-04-01

    Gully erosion is a major process contributing to soil degradation on cultivated areas. Its effects are especially intense in farms under conventional agriculture characterised by the use of heavy machinery for land levelling and herbicides leading to the depletion of natural vegetation in valley locations. When the soil (e.g. vertic soils) and parent material conditions (e.g. soft erodible marls) are favourable to incision, gully features may present large dimensions, producing the loss of significant proportions of productive land. This study evaluates the evolution of several gully networks located in Córdoba (Spain) within the Campiña area (a rolling landscape on Miocene marls) with conventional agriculture and gully filling operations as the predominant farm practices. The area of the catchments ranged from 10 to 100 ha, they were covered by field crops (mostly bean, sunflower and wheat) on vertic soils. Firstly, we carried out a historical analysis of the gully development during the last six decades by aerial image interpretation. Secondly, a number of field surveys were conducted to characterise the evolution of the gully morphology in a period of five years (2010-2014). For this purpose, a range of measurement techniques were used: pole and tape, differential GPS and 3D photo-reconstruction. Finally, the influence of topography (slope and drainage area) on gully dimensions along the longitudinal profile was assessed.

  20. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination: field and experimental assessment of detoxification capabilities.

    PubMed

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara; Wiegand, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g(-1) dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica modified their responses to pesticides. In the field, activities of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus(®), 0.1 μg active ingredient epoxiconazole g(-1) dry soil, RoundUp Flash(®), 2.5 μg active ingredient glyphosate g(-1) dry soil, and their mixture), revealed that environmental pre-exposure accelerated activation of the detoxification enzyme sGST towards epoxiconazole. PMID:24874794

  1. Natural succession impeded by smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) in an abandoned agricultural field

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    In 1975, an abandoned agricultural field at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) that had been cultivated for more than 38 years, was seeded with smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium). Although these species are commonly planted in reclamation and roadside seed mixtures, few studies have documented their impact on the re-establishment of native plant communities. In 1994, species richness, cover, and biomass were sampled in the agricultural field and compared to the surrounding mixed-grass prairie at the Site. The agricultural field contained only 61 plant species (62% native), compared to 143 species (81% native) in the surrounding mixed-grass prairie. Community similarity based on species presence/absence was 0.47 (Sorensen coefficient of similarity). Basal vegetative cover was 11.2% in the agricultural field and 29.1% in the mixed-grass prairie. Smooth brome and intermediate wheatgrass accounted for 93% of the relative foliar cover and 96% of the biomass in the agricultural field. The aggressive nature of these two planted species has impeded the natural succession of the agricultural field to a more native prairie community. Studies of natural succession on abandoned fields and roads in northeastern Colorado have indicated that if left alone, fields would return to their native climax state in approximately 50 years and would be approaching their native state after 20--25 years. Based on the results of this study, this agricultural field may take more than 100 years to return to a native mixed-grass prairie state and it may never achieve a native state without human intervention.

  2. Passive microwave response to vegetation and soil moisture on agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B.; Bullock, Paul R.

    2014-10-01

    The SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active/Passive Validation Experiment) was carried out over the summer of 2012 in Manitoba, Canada. The goal of the project was to improve the accuracy of satellite based remote sensing of soil moisture. Data were gathered during a 42-day field campaign with surface measurements on 55 different agricultural fields in south-western Manitoba. The extended duration of the campaign, contrast in soil textures, and variety of crop types over the study region provided an excellent range of soil moisture and vegetation conditions. The study fields ranged from bare to fully vegetated, with volumetric soil moisture levels spanning almost 50%. Remotely sensed data were collected on 17 days by aircraft at 1.4 Ghz with a microwave radiometer at two different resolutions. Observed brightness temperatures from the radiometer showed a typical inverse relationship to the near simultaneous soil moisture measurements from the field. This study will focus on improving existing models for passive microwave retrieval of soil moisture using a more extensive data set of field-measured soil temperature, soil moisture and vegetation biomass from a wider range of crops than has been available in previous studies. The extensive ground data collected will allow for both a validation of the high-resolution passive soil moisture estimate, as well as an analysis on the effect of scaling to a lower resolution passive measurement.

  3. Meteorological and associated data collected over agricultural fields in Pinal County, Arizona, 1989 and 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Brown, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Data were collected at temporary meteorological stations installed in agricultural fields in Pinal County, Arizona, to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of point data and to examine how station location affects ground-based meteorological data and the resulting values of evapotranspiration calculated using remotely sensed multispectral data from satellites. Time-specific data were collected to correspond with satellite overpasses from April to October 1989, and June 27-28, 1990. Meteorological data consisting of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and net radiation were collected at each station during all periods of the project. Supplementary measurements of soil temperature, soil heat flux density, and surface or canopy temperature were obtained at some locations during certain periods of the project. Additional data include information on data-collection periods, station positions, instrumentation, sensor heights, and field dimensions. Other data, which correspond to the extensive field measurements made in con- junction with satellite overpasses in 1989 and 1990, include crop type, canopy cover, canopy height, irrigation, cultivation, and orientation of rows. Field boundaries and crop types were mapped in a 2- to 3-square-kilometer area surrounding each meteorological station. Field data are presented in tabular and graphic form. Meteorological and supplementary data are available, upon request, in digital form.

  4. Emergent insect production in post-harvest flooded agricultural fields used by waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Richard C.; Blumenshine, Steven C.; Yee, Julie; Fleskes, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    California’s Tulare Lake Basin (TLB) is one of the most important waterbird areas in North America even though most wetlands there have been converted to cropland. To guide management programs promoting waterbird beneficial agriculture, which includes flooding fields between growing periods, we measured emergence rates of insects, an important waterbird food, in three crop types (tomato, wheat, alfalfa) in the TLB relative to water depth and days flooded during August–October, 2003 and 2004. We used corrected Akaike’s Information Criterion values to compare a set of models that accounted for our repeated measured data. The best model included crop type and crop type interacting with days flooded and depth flooded. Emergence rates (mg m−2 day−1) were greater in tomato than wheat or alfalfa fields, increased with days flooded in alfalfa and tomato but not wheat fields, and increased with water depth in alfalfa and wheat but not tomato fields. To investigate the relationship between the range of diel water temperatures and insect emergence rates, we rearedChironomus dilutus larvae in environmental chambers under high (15–32°C) and low fluctuation (20–26°C) temperature regimes that were associated with shallow and deep (respectively) sampling sites in our fields. Larval survival (4×) and biomass (2×) were greater in the low thermal fluctuation treatment suggesting that deeply flooded areas would support greater insect production.

  5. Impact of crop field burning and mountains on heavy haze in the North China Plain: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xin; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Feng, Tian; Li, Nan; Zhao, Suyu; Tian, Jie; Li, Guohui; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    With the provincial statistical data and crop field burning (CFB) activities captured by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), we extracted a detailed CFB emission inventory in the North China Plain (NCP). The WRF-CHEM model was applied to investigate the impact of CFB on air pollution during the period from 6 to 12 October 2014, corresponding to a heavy haze incident with high concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm). The WRF-CHEM model generally performed well in simulating the surface species concentrations of PM2.5, O3 and NO2 compared to the observations; in addition, it reasonably reproduced the observed temporal variations of wind speed, wind direction and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH). It was found that the CFB that occurred in southern NCP (SNCP) had a significant effect on PM2.5 concentrations locally, causing a maximum of 34 % PM2.5 increase. Under continuous southerly wind conditions, the CFB pollution plume went through a long-range transport to northern NCP (NNCP; with several mega cities, including Beijing, the capital city of China), where few CFBs occurred, resulting in a maximum of 32 % PM2.5 increase. As a result, the heavy haze in Beijing was enhanced by the CFB, which occurred in SNCP. Mountains also play significant roles in enhancing the PM2.5 pollution in NNCP through the blocking effect. The mountains blocked and redirected the airflows, causing the pollutant accumulations along the foothills of mountains. This study suggests that the prohibition of CFB should be strict not only in or around Beijing, but also on the ulterior crop growth areas of SNCP. PM2.5 emissions in SNCP should be significantly limited in order to reduce the occurrences of heavy haze events in the NNCP region.

  6. Scaling preferential flow processes in agricultural soils affected by tillage and trafficking at the field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves

    2016-04-01

    There is an accumulation of experimental evidences that agricultural soils, at least the top horizons affected by tillage practices, are not homogeneous and present a structure that is strongly dependent on farming practices like tillage and trafficking. Soil tillage and trafficking can create compacted zones in the soil with hydraulic properties and porosity which are different from those of the non-compacted zones. This spatial variability can strongly influence transport processes and initiate preferential flow. Two or three dimensional models can be used to account for spatial variability created by agricultural practices, but such models need a detailed assessment of spatial heterogeneity which can be rather impractical to provide. This logically raises the question whether and how one dimensional model may be designed and used to account for the within-field spatial variability in soil structure created by agricultural practices. Preferential flow (dual-permeability) modelling performed with HYDRUS-1D will be confronted to classical modelling based on the Richards and convection-dispersion equations using HYDRUS-2D taking into account the various soil heterogeneities created by agricultural practices. Our goal is to derive one set of equivalent 1D soil hydraulic parameters from 2D simulations which accounts for soil heterogeneities created by agricultural operations. A field experiment was carried out in two phases: infiltration and redistribution on a plot by uniform sprinkle irrigation with water or bromide solution. Prior to the field experiment the soil structure of the tilled layer was determined along the face of a large trench perpendicular to the tillage direction (0.7 m depth and 3.1 m wide). Thirty TDR probes and tensiometers were installed in different soil structural zones (Δ compacted soil and Γ macroporous soil) which ensured soil water monitoring throughout the experiment. A map of bromide was constructed from small core samples (4 cm diam

  7. Effects of topography and soil properties on recharge at two sites in an agricultural field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Healy, R.W.; Landon, M.K.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted from 1992 to 1995 to estimate ground water recharge rates at two sites located within a 2.7-hectare agricultural field. The field lies in a sand plain setting in central Minnesota and is cropped continuously in field corn. The sites are located at a topographically high (upland) site and a topographically low (lowland) site in an effort to quantify the effects of depression focusing of recharge. Three site-specific methods were used to estimate recharge rates: well hydrograph analysis, chlorofluorocarbon age dating, and an unsaturated zone water balance. All three recharge methods indicated that recharge rates at the lowland site (annual average of all methods of 29 cm) exceeded those at the upland site (annual average of 18 cm). On an annual basis, estimates by the individual methods ranged from 12 to 44 percent of precipitation at the upland site and from 21 to 83 percent at the lowland site. The difference in recharge rates between the sites is primarily attributed to depression focusing of surface water runon at the lowland site. However, two other factors were also important: the presence of thin lamellae at the upland site, and coarser textured soils below a depth of 1.5 m at the lowland site.

  8. Atmospheric pollutant emission factors from open burning of agricultural and forest biomass by wind tunnel simulations. Volume 2. Results, cereal crop residues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Williams, R.B.; Goronea, M.; Abd-el-Fattah, H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutant emission factors were determined by wind tunnel simulations of spreading and pile fires for 8 different types of fuel including barley, rice and wheat straw, corn stove, almond and walnut tree prunings, and Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine slash. Emission factors were determined for each fuel for CO, NO, NOx, SO2, total hydrocarbons, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, total sulfur, CO2, particulate matter, volatile organic matter (VOC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Elemental compositions of particulate matter were determined by size category. Bulk aerosol absorption coefficients were determined from light transmission measurements through filter samples. Emission rates were correlated against burning conditions and fuel compositions. Factors affecting the burning rates and emission factors included inlet air temperature, loading rate, and wind speed. Vol. 2 contains data from cereal straws and stovers.

  9. Long-term comparison of energy flux calculation methods over an agricultural field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolle, O.

    1996-05-01

    Since March 1990 micrometeorological measurements were carried out over an agricultural field with varying land use (wheat, barley, sunflowers, mustard) using a profile mast and an energy balance mast with an eddy correlation system for the sensible heat flux. Soil temperature, soil heat flux, soil moisture and precipitation were measured as well. Long-term measurements allow statistical analysis of the energy fluxes and comparisons of different methods for their calculation (eddy correlation, flux profile, Bowen ratio and the residual method). For the sensible heat flux a good agreement was found using these different methods after applying all necessary corrections. The latent heat flux shows greater deviations in the daily cycle between the flux profile method and the residual method due to the shape of the humidity profiles which often and especially at night show a maximum at heights between 1 m and 4 m, even if the soil is free of vegetation. This could be a consequence of the patchiness of the agricultural area, the position of the station on top of a hillock or high water absorption of the soil, respectively. The residual method seems to give more reliable results for the actual evapotranspiration than the flux profile method or the Bowen ratio method if an eddy correlation system is used to determine the sensible heat flux. Differences in the soil heat flux measured with heat flux plates and determined using the profiles of soil temperature and soil moisture can be explained by the heat flux plates being a disturbance to the soil matrix.

  10. Monitoring soil moisture dynamics via ground-penetrating radar survey of agriculture fields after irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muro, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is possible to examine the quality of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a measure of soil moisture content in the shallow vadose zone, where roots are most abundant and water conservation best management practices are critical in active agricultural fields. By analyzing temporal samplings of 100 Mhz reflection profiles and common-midpoint (CMP) soundings over a full growing season, the variability of vertical soil moisture distribution directly after irrigation events are characterized throughout the lifecycle of a production crop. Reflection profiles produce high-resolution travel time data and summed results of CMP sounding data provide sampling depth estimates for the weak, but coherent reflections amid strong point scatterers. The high ratio of clay in the soil limits the resolution of downward propagation of infiltrating moisture after irrigation; synthetic data analysis compared against soil moisture lysimeter logs throughout the profile allow identification of the discrete soil moisture content variation in the measured GPR data. The nature of short duration irrigation events, evapotranspiration, and drainage behavior in relation to root depths observed in the GPR temporal data allow further examination and comparison with the variable saturation model HYDRUS-1D. After retrieving soil hydraulic properties derived from laboratory measured soil samples and simplified assumptions about boundary conditions, the project aims to achieve good agreement between simulated and measured soil moisture profiles without the need for excessive model calibration for GPR-derived soil moisture estimates in an agricultural setting.

  11. Mycotoxins in the environment: I. Production and emission from an agricultural test field.

    PubMed

    Schenzel, Judith; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-12-18

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites that are naturally produced by fungi which infest and contaminate agricultural crops and commodities (e.g., small grain cereals, fruits, vegetables, and organic soil material). Although these compounds have extensively been studied in food and feed, only little is known about their environmental fate. Therefore, we investigated over nearly two years the occurrence of various mycotoxins in a field cropped with winter wheat of the variety Levis, which was artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp., as well as their emission via drainage water. Mycotoxins were regularly quantified in whole wheat plants (0.1-133 mg/kg(dry weight), for deoxynivalenol), and drainage water samples (0.8 ng/L to 1.14 μg/L, for deoxynivalenol). From the mycotoxins quantified in wheat (3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-X, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, beauvericin, and zearalenone), only the more hydrophilic ones or those prevailing at high concentrations were detected in drainage water. Of the total amounts produced in wheat plants (min: 2.3; max: 292 g/ha/y), 0.5-354 mg/ha/y, i.e. 0.002-0.12%, were emitted via drainage water. Hence, these compounds add to the complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic micropollutants particularly in small rural water bodies, receiving mainly runoff from agricultural areas. PMID:23145781

  12. Mycotoxins in the environment: I. Production and emission from an agricultural test field.

    PubMed

    Schenzel, Judith; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-12-18

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites that are naturally produced by fungi which infest and contaminate agricultural crops and commodities (e.g., small grain cereals, fruits, vegetables, and organic soil material). Although these compounds have extensively been studied in food and feed, only little is known about their environmental fate. Therefore, we investigated over nearly two years the occurrence of various mycotoxins in a field cropped with winter wheat of the variety Levis, which was artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp., as well as their emission via drainage water. Mycotoxins were regularly quantified in whole wheat plants (0.1-133 mg/kg(dry weight), for deoxynivalenol), and drainage water samples (0.8 ng/L to 1.14 μg/L, for deoxynivalenol). From the mycotoxins quantified in wheat (3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-X, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, beauvericin, and zearalenone), only the more hydrophilic ones or those prevailing at high concentrations were detected in drainage water. Of the total amounts produced in wheat plants (min: 2.3; max: 292 g/ha/y), 0.5-354 mg/ha/y, i.e. 0.002-0.12%, were emitted via drainage water. Hence, these compounds add to the complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic micropollutants particularly in small rural water bodies, receiving mainly runoff from agricultural areas.

  13. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation.

  14. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. PMID:26998602

  15. Slash-and-burn farmers: villains or victims?

    PubMed

    Rambo, T

    1990-01-01

    Slash and burn farmers in southeast Asia are blamed for deforestation and are considered backward or ignorant. Efforts have been made by agricultural development experts to urge farmers to switch to fixed field methods. Slash and burn methods are used in upland areas with steep slopes, low soil fertility, and unpredictable natural hazards in order to allow survival in an environment made difficult for cultivation by other methods. Slash and burn farmers may be stable or migratory and use rotational or pioneering methods. Rotational methods involve clearing and burning a new plot every year, and then allowing regeneration of forest for 10-20 years. When population density is 40/square km, this method does not degrade the environment. Pioneering involves clearance of primary forest, cultivation for several years until soil fertility is destroyed, and then replacement with low productivity "imperata cylindrica grass." Pioneering tends to cause long-term environmental degradation. Humid tropic soils tend toward infertility, and in many areas of southeast Asia the soils are nutrient-poor and acidic. Ash from burning also reduces soil acidity. In northeast Thailand, 454 kg of calcium are released from burning one hectare of mature forest. The advantages are affordable natural fertilization and freedom from technical experts and imported spare parts. Frequent rotation also helps to expand the crops and provide disease protection. Population densities, competition for scarce resources, and social and economic pressures make the slash and burn technique inappropriate. As yet unavailable alternative farming techniques are needed which take advantage of slash and burn benefits. Slash and burn farmers are victims of deforestation even though they may appear to be the villains. PMID:12283382

  16. Pretreatment of agriculture field water for improving membrane flux during pesticide removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Romil; Saha, N. K.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2016-09-01

    Pretreatment of feed water to improve membrane flux during filtration of agriculture field water containing substituted phenyl urea pesticide diuron has been reported. Laboratory-made reverse osmosis membrane was used for filtration. Preliminary experiments were conducted with model solution containing natural organic matter extracted from commercial humic acids, divalent ions Ca2+, Mg2+. Membrane fouling was characterized by pure water flux decline, change in membrane hydrophilicity and infrared spectroscopy. Natural organic matter present in field water causes severe membrane fouling. The presence of divalent cations further aggravated fouling. Use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and polyacrylic acids (PAA) in feed resulted in the decrease in membrane fouling. Pretreatment of field water is a must if it is contaminated with micro-organism having membrane fouling potential. Feed water pretreatment and use of PAA restricted membrane fouling to 16 % after 60 h of filtration. Membrane permeate flux decline was maximum at the first 12 h and thereafter remained steady at around 45-46 lm-2h-1 till the end of 60 h. Diuron rejection remained consistently greater than 93 % throughout the experiment. Diuron rejection was found to be unaffected by membrane fouling.

  17. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    PubMed Central

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  18. Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to map soil parameters in tilled agricultural fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.; Reeves, James B.; Lang, Megan W.; Oesterling, Robert A.; Delwiche, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Soil hyperspectral reflectance imagery was obtained for six tilled (soil) agricultural fields using an airborne imaging spectrometer (400–2450 nm, ~10 nm resolution, 2.5 m spatial resolution). Surface soil samples (n = 315) were analyzed for carbon content, particle size distribution, and 15 agronomically important elements (Mehlich-III extraction). When partial least squares (PLS) regression of imagery-derived reflectance spectra was used to predict analyte concentrations, 13 of the 19 analytes were predicted with R2 > 0.50, including carbon (0.65), aluminum (0.76), iron (0.75), and silt content (0.79). Comparison of 15 spectral math preprocessing treatments showed that a simple first derivative worked well for nearly all analytes. The resulting PLS factors were exported as a vector of coefficients and used to calculate predicted maps of soil properties for each field. Image smoothing with a 3 × 3 low-pass filter prior to spectral data extraction improved prediction accuracy. The resulting raster maps showed variation associated with topographic factors, indicating the effect of soil redistribution and moisture regime on in-field spatial variability. High-resolution maps of soil analyte concentrations can be used to improve precision environmental management of farmlands.

  19. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production.

    PubMed

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-12-23

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  20. Export of radioactive cesium from agricultural fields under simulated rainfall in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; Suka, Yuma; Sakai, Masaru; Nanko, Kazuki; Yen, Jui-Hung; Watanabe, Hirozumi

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of rainfall on runoff, soil erosion and consequently on the discharge of radioactive cesium in agricultural fields in Fukushima prefecture using a rainfall simulator. Simulated heavy rainfalls (50 mm h(-1)) generated significant runoff and soil erosion. The average concentration of radioactive cesium (the sum of (134)Cs and (137)Cs) in the runoff sediments was ∼3500 Bq kg(-1) dry soil, more than double the concentrations measured in the field soils which should be considered in studies using the (137)Cs loss to estimate long-term soil erosion. However, the estimated mass of cesium discharged through one runoff event was less than 2% of the cesium inventory in the field. This suggested that cesium discharge via soil erosion is not a significant factor in reducing the radioactivity of contaminated soils in Fukushima prefecture. However, the eroded sediment carrying radioactive cesium will deposit into the river systems and potentially pose a radioactivity risk for aquatic living organisms.

  1. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production.

    PubMed

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  2. Field Evaluation of Preferential Flow in Agricultural Soil of the Mississippi Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Rose, C. E.; Coupe, R.

    2009-12-01

    In the Bogue Phalia basin in the Delta region of northwestern Mississippi, as in many farmed areas, intensive use of agricultural chemicals raises water quality concerns. The soils are fine textured and often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall. There is extensive surface cracking during extended dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into irrigation ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Deep percolation below the root zone has been considered to be minimal in this area; however, unsaturated zone processes, including the effects of a declining water table, are not well understood, and there are few measured unsaturated zone data relevant to deep percolation. In this study we assessed solute transport mechanisms within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field by performing a 2-m ring infiltration experiment. Ponding continued for 67 hours using bromide and rhodamine tracers and subsurface instruments for measuring soil-water content, matric pressure, and solution sampling. Water percolated rapidly below the pond reaching 1 m depth in as little as 30 minutes, indicating preferential flow through the root zone, possibly related to shrink/swell features. Extensive lateral flow of water at shallow depths was apparent as the surface wetted outward to several meters from the pond in all directions with some evidence of preferentiality along slope toward the drainage ditch. Deeper lateral flow was detected at solution samplers 3 m from the pond edge at 5 m depth within a few weeks. Tracer was not detected in the unsaturated zone below 5 m however; the tracer was detected at the water table 12 m below land surface within 10 weeks of the experiment with concentrations increasing over a period of 10 months. A tracer mass balance also suggests the possibility for deep preferential transport of agricultural chemicals within the Bogue Phalia basin.

  3. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation.

  4. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation. PMID:26641333

  5. [Ocular burns].

    PubMed

    Merle, H; Gérard, M; Schrage, N

    2008-09-01

    Ocular or thermal burns account for 7.7%-18% of ocular trauma. The majority of victims are young. The burns occur in the setting of accidents at work or in the home, or during a physical attack. Chemical burns by strong acids or bases are responsible for the most serious injuries. Associated with the destruction of limbal stem cells, they present as recurrent epithelial ulcerations, chronic stromal ulcers, deep stromal revascularization, conjunctival overlap, or even corneal perforation. The initial clinical exam is sometimes difficult to perform in the presence of burning symptoms. Nevertheless, it enables the physician to classify the injury, establish a prognosis, and most importantly, guide the therapeutic management. The Roper-Hall modification of the Hughes classification system is the most widely utilized, broken down into stages based on the size of the stromal opacity and the extent of possible limbal ischemia. This classification is now favorably supplemented by those proposed by Dua and Wagoner, which are based on the extent of the limbal stem cell deficiency. The prognosis of the more serious forms of ocular burns has markedly improved over the last decade because of a better understanding of the physiology of the corneal epithelium. Surgical techniques aimed at restoring the destroyed limbal stem cells have altered the prognosis of severe corneal burns. In order to decrease the incidence of burns, prevention, particularly in industry, is essential. PMID:18971859

  6. Identifying diffused nitrate sources in a stream in an agricultural field using a dual isotopic approach.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jingtao; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; He, Liansheng; Liu, Hongliang; Dai, Xuanli; Yu, Yijun

    2014-06-15

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) pollution is a severe problem in aquatic systems in Taihu Lake Basin in China. A dual isotope approach (δ(15)NNO3(-) and δ(18)ONO3(-)) was applied to identify diffused NO3(-) inputs in a stream in an agricultural field at the basin in 2013. The site-specific isotopic characteristics of five NO3(-) sources (atmospheric deposition, AD; NO3(-) derived from soil organic matter nitrification, NS; NO3(-) derived from chemical fertilizer nitrification, NF; groundwater, GW; and manure and sewage, M&S) were identified. NO3(-) concentrations in the stream during the rainy season [mean±standard deviation (SD)=2.5±0.4mg/L] were lower than those during the dry season (mean±SD=4.0±0.5mg/L), whereas the δ(18)ONO3(-) values during the rainy season (mean±SD=+12.3±3.6‰) were higher than those during the dry season (mean±SD=+0.9±1.9‰). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that mixing with atmospheric NO3(-) resulted in the high δ(18)O values during the rainy season, whereas NS and M&S were the dominant NO3(-) sources during the dry season. A Bayesian model was used to determine the contribution of each NO3(-) source to total stream NO3(-). Results showed that reduced N nitrification in soil zones (including soil organic matter and fertilizer) was the main NO3(-) source throughout the year. M&S contributed more NO3(-) during the dry season (22.4%) than during the rainy season (17.8%). AD generated substantial amounts of NO3(-) in May (18.4%), June (29.8%), and July (24.5%). With the assessment of temporal variation of diffused NO3(-) sources in agricultural field, improved agricultural management practices can be implemented to protect the water resource and avoid further water quality deterioration in Taihu Lake Basin. PMID:24686140

  7. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly

  8. Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

  9. Agricultural non-point source pollution in the Western Coal Field region of Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, J.D.; Sendlein, L.V.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    As part of a general plan to characterize the extent of agricultural non-point source pollution in the different physiographic regions of Kentucky, two sites located in the Western Coal Field Physiographic provinces representing farmland drained by field tiles were chosen for ground water monitoring. These two sites are similar geologically, but the levels of Nitrate-N have proven to be drastically different between the two areas. A total of 24 wells and 3 lysimeters were installed at the two sites in three nested areas. Although both study sites are located in lowland valleys in fine grained lacustrine deposits, the materials at the Hopkins County site are slightly coarser grained. The wells in Hopkins County, with the exception of the two in the riparian zone, yield water consistently and substantially higher in Nitrate-N than wells in Daviess County. The Nitrate-N levels regularly hover near or exceed the EPA limit in Hopkins County, whereas the levels in Daviess County are near and in most cases far below the 0.53 ppm background level for the region. Pesticide concentrations are minor in both areas with small spikes of contamination noted in shallow wells shortly after application. The concentration of both the pesticides and the Nitrate-N drops off quickly with depth in both counties yielding relatively clean water below the lacustrine deposits.

  10. N-C isotopic investigation of a zeolite-amended agricultural field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Giacomo; Natali, Claudio; Faccini, Barbara; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Bianchini, Gianluca; Coltorti, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a C and N isotopic investigation in the soil-plant system of the ZeoLIFE project experimental field have been carried out. Since many years, natural and NH4-enriched zeolites have been used as soil amendant in agricultural context in order to reduce N losses, increase NUE (Nitrogen Use Efficiency) and crop yield. Nevertheless up to now there are no studies that, using the stable isotopes approach, highlighted the interaction between zeolites and plants in agricultural systems. The main aims of this study is to verify if natural zeolites amendment can enhance chemical fertilization efficiency and if N transfer from NH4-enriched zeolites to plants really occurs. Plants grown following traditional cultivation methods (with no zeolite addition) and plants grown on soils amended with natural and NH4-enriched zeolites (the latter obtained after mixing with pig-slurry with a very high 15N) were compared for two cultivation cycles (maize and wheat). As widely known, plants grown under conventional farming systems (use of chemical fertilizers as urea) and plants grown under organic farming can be discriminated by the isotopic signatures of plant tissues. For both years the main results of the study reveals that plants grown on plots amended with natural zeolites generally have their nitrogen isotopic signature more similar to that of the chemical fertilizers employed during the cultivation with respect to the plants cultivated in the non-amended plot. This suggests an enhanced N uptake by the plant from this specific N source with respect to the non-amended plot. On the other hand, plants grown on NH4-enriched zeolites registered a higher 15N, approaching the pig-slurry isotopic signature, confirming that this material can constitute an N pool for plants at least for two cultivation cycles. The distinct agricultural practices seem to be reflected in the plant physiology as recorded by the carbon discrimination factor (13C) which generally increases

  11. Field and Wind Tunnel Comparison of Four Aerosol Samplers Using Agricultural Dusts

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Stephen J.; Nakatsu, Jason; Tillery, Marvin; Keefe, Thomas; Mehaffy, John; Thorne, Peter S.; Donham, Kelley; Nonnenmann, Matthew; Golla, Vijay; O'shaughnessy, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Occupational lung disease is a significant problem among agricultural workers exposed to organic dusts. Measurements of exposure in agricultural environments in the USA have traditionally been conducted using 37-mm closed-face cassettes (CFCs) and respirable Cyclones. Inhalable aerosol samplers offer significant improvement for dose estimation studies to reduce respiratory disease. The goals of this study were to determine correction factors between the inhalable samplers (IOM and Button) and the CFC and Cyclone for dusts sampled in livestock buildings and to determine whether these factors vary among livestock types. Determination of these correction factors will allow comparison between inhalable measurements and historical measurements. Ten sets of samples were collected in swine, chicken, turkey, and dairy facilities in both Colorado and Iowa. Pairs of each sampling device were attached to the front and back of a rotating mannequin. Laboratory studies using a still-air chamber and a wind tunnel provided information regarding the effect of wind speed on sampler performance. Overall, the IOM had the lowest coefficient of variation (best precision) and was least affected by changes in wind speed. The performance of the Button was negatively impacted in poultry environments where larger (feather) particulates clogged the holes in the initial screen. The CFC/IOM ratios are important for comparisons between newer and older studies. Wind speed and dust type were both important factors affecting ratios. Based on the field studies (Table 6), a ratio of 0.56 is suggested as a conversion factor for the CFC/IOM (average for all environments because of no statistical difference). Suggested conversion factors for the Button/IOM are swine (0.57), chicken (0.80), turkey (0.53), and dairy (0.67). Any attempt to apply a conversion factor between the Cyclone and inhalable samplers is not recommended. PMID:19443852

  12. Field-Scale Soil Moisture Observations in Irrigated Agriculture Fields Using the Cosmic-ray Neutron Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, T. E.; Avery, W. A.; Finkenbiner, C. E.; Wang, T.; Brocca, L.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 40% of global food production comes from irrigated agriculture. With the increasing demand for food even greater pressures will be placed on water resources within these systems. In this work we aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at the field-scale (~500 m) using the newly developed cosmic-ray neutron rover near Waco, NE. Here we mapped soil moisture of 144 quarter section fields (a mix of maize, soybean, and natural areas) each week during the 2014 growing season (May to September). The 11 x11 km study domain also contained 3 stationary cosmic-ray neutron probes for independent validation of the rover surveys. Basic statistical analysis of the domain indicated a strong inverted parabolic relationship between the mean and variance of soil moisture. The relationship between the mean and higher order moments were not as strong. Geostatistical analysis indicated the range of the soil moisture semi-variogram was significantly shorter during periods of heavy irrigation as compared to non-irrigated periods. Scaling analysis indicated strong power law behavior between the variance of soil moisture and averaging area with minimal dependence of mean soil moisture on the slope of the power law function. Statistical relationships derived from the rover dataset offer a novel set of observations that will be useful in: 1) calibrating and validating land surface models, 2) calibrating and validating crop models, 3) soil moisture covariance estimates for statistical downscaling of remote sensing products such as SMOS and SMAP, and 4) provide center-pivot scale mean soil moisture data for optimal irrigation timing and volume amounts.

  13. Zero-field splitting of the ground and excited triplet states of 2-naphthylphenylcarbene studied by hole-burning on triplet-triplet fluorescence excitation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozankiewicz, B.; Bernard, J.; Migirdicyan, E.; Orrit, M.; Platz, M. S.

    1995-11-01

    Spectral holes were burned in the two main lines of the triplet-triplet 0-0 fluorescence excitation spectrum of 2-napththylphenylcarbene in n-hexane at 1.8 K. For the line assigned to pseudo-E/trans conformer, the central hole at the frequency of burning light has several narrow components separated by 0.3 ± 0.05 and 1.0 ± 0.1 GHz and a satellite doublet line on the low energy side, 14.5 ± 0.5 and 15.5 ± 0.5 GHz away. For the line assigned to the psuedo-Z/cis conformer, the central hole is accompanied by holes burned on the low energy side, 0.8 ± 0.1, 5.2 ± 0.1, 11.9 ± 0.1 and 16.2 ± 0.1 GHz away. The hole-burning pattern is explained by a model taking into account the zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the ground T 0 and excited T 1 triplet states as well as the selectivity of excitation relaxation by the intersystem crossing channel. Analysis provides information about the ZFS parameters of the T 1 state. For the pseudo-E/trans 2-NPC they are: D0 = 0.47 ± 0.02 cm -1, E0 = 0.017 ± 0.003 cm -1, D1 = 0.038 ± 0.003 cm -1 and E1 = 0.005 ± 0.001 cm -1.

  14. Improving Agricultural Drought Monitoring in East Africa with Unbiased Rainfall Fields and Detailed Land Surface Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Yatheendradas, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Michaelsen, J.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring drought is particularly challenging within rainfed agricultural and pastoral systems, where it can serve the greatest need. Such locations often have sparse or non-existent ground based measurements of precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture. For more effective drought monitoring with limited hydroclimate observations, we simulate land surface states using the Community Noah Land Surface Model forced with different merged rainfall products inside a Land Information System (LIS). Using model outputs we will answer the questions: How sensitive are soil moisture and ET fields to differences in rainfall forcing and model physics? What are acceptable drought-specific tradeoffs between near-real time availability and skill of rainfall data? Preliminary results with the African Rainfall Estimation Algorithm Version 2 (RFE2.0) outperformed global products, suggesting that sub-global rainfall estimates are the way forward for regional drought monitoring. Specifically, the Noah model forced with RFE2.0 better resolved the heterogeneous patterns in crop stress than the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) operational Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) model. To further investigate the improvement in drought monitoring while maintaining timeliness, we unbias (using Africa specific climatology) the precipitation products from CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), and RFE2.0. The skill (relative accuracy) and reliability (average agreement) of the unbiased rainfall are calculated against an unbiased precipitation product augmented with station data from Ethiopia and Kenya. Soil moisture and ET fields from Noah are compared to the operational FEWS NET WRSI, soil water anomaly index, and the World Food Program’s Crop and Food Security Assessment Mission reports. We anticipate that the unbiased rainfall fields will improve the accuracy, spatio-temporal resolution, and

  15. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy - First part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Errico, Alessandro; Guastini, Enrico; Trucchi, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental field plant whose aim is the study and modeling of water circulation in a terraced slope together with its influence on the stability of the retaining dry stone walls. The pilot plant is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy) where both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt dry stone retaining walls are present. The intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and walls. The research is developed within a bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. First Part A first/preliminary field survey was carried out in order to estimate the hydraulic and mechanical soil characteristics. Field saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements with the Simplified Falling Head (SFH) method on a terrace along an alignment were performed. Infiltrometer tests with a double ring device and soil texture determinations with both fine particle-size and skeleton fraction distributions were also performed. The Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). A reference portion of a dry stone wall will be also monitored. Lateral earth pressure at backfill-retaining wall interface (compared to temperature and air pressure measured values), backfill volumetric water content (both in saturated and unsaturated states) and ground-water level are measured. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  16. Linking field observations, Landsat and MODIS data to estimate agricultural change in European Russia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beurs, K. M.; Ioffe, G.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural reform has been one of the most important anthropogenic change processes in European Russia that has been unfolding since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most vivid side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. Currently, Russia is transitioning into a country with an internal "archipelago" of islands of productive agriculture around cities embedded in a matrix of unproductive, abandoned lands. This heterogeneous spatial pattern is mainly driven by depopulation of the least favorable parts of the countryside, where "least favorable" is a function of fertility, remoteness, and their interaction. In this work we provide a satellite, GIS and field based overview of the current agricultural developments in Russia and look beyond the unstable period immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We apply Landsat images in one of Russia's oblasts to create a detailed land cover map. We then use a logistic model to link the Landsat land cover map with the inter-annual variability in key phenological parameters calculated from MODIS to derive the percent of cropland per 500m MODIS pixel. By evaluating the phenological characteristics of the MODIS curves for each year we determine whether a pixel was actually cropped or left fallow. A comparison of satellite-estimated cropped areas with regional statistics (by rayon) revealed that the satellite estimates are highly correlated with the regional statistics for both arable lands and successfully cropped areas. We use the crop maps to determine the number of times a particular area was cropped between 2002 and 2009 by summing all the years with crops per pixel. This variable provides a good indication about the intensification and de-intensification of the Russian croplands over the last decade. We have visited several rural areas in Russia and we link the satellite data with information acquired through field interviews

  17. Implementation of a segmentation method for agricultural fields in aerial sequences of images based on CSAR model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haijun; Houkes, Zweitze

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, a segmentation method for agricultural fields in aerial sequences of images based on the Circular Symmetri Auto-Regressive (CSAR) model is presented. The image sequences assumed to be acquired by a video camera (RGB-CCD system) from an aeroplane, which moves linearly over the scene. The objects in the scenes being considered in this paper, are agricultural fields. The classes of agricultural fields to be distinguished are determined by the type of crop, e.g. potatoes sugar beet, wheat, etc. In order to recognize and classify these fields from aerial sequence of images, a reliable segmentatio is required. Here texture features are used for segmentation. The implementation of segmentation for agricultural fields in aerial sequences of images is based on CSAR model in texture analysis. By comparing the estimated parameters of CSAR model from different area in an image, the characteristics and the class of a texture may be determined. The paper describes the segmentation method and its evaluation through experiments. Based on segmentation results, classification for surface texture of vegetation from aerial sequences of images is realized.

  18. Maize production and land degradation: a Portuguese agriculture field case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Pato, João V.; Moreira, Pedro M.; Valério, Luís M.; Guilherme, Rosa; Casau, Fernando J.; Santos, Daniela; Keizer, Jacob J.; Ferreira, António J. D.

    2016-04-01

    While food security is a main challenge faced by human kind, intensive agriculture often leads to soil degradation which then can threaten productivity. Maize is one of the most important crops across the world, with 869 million tons produced worldwide in 2012/2013 (IGC 2015), of which 929.5 thousand tons in Portugal (INE 2014). In Portugal, maize is sown in April/May and harvest occurs generally in October. Conventional maize production requires high inputs of water and fertilizers to achieve higher yields. As Portuguese farmers are typically rather old (on average, 63 years) and typically have a low education level (INE 2014), sustainability of their land management practises is often not a principal concern. This could explain why, in 2009, only 4% of the Portuguese temporary crops were under no-tillage, why only 8% of the farmers performed soil analyses in the previous three years, and why many soils have a low organic matter content (INE 2014). Nonetheless, sustainable land management practices are generally accepted to be the key to reducing agricultural soil degradation, preventing water pollution, and assuring long-term crop production objectives and food security. Sustainable land management should therefore not only be a concern for policy makers but also for farmers, since land degradation will have negative repercussions on the productivity, thus, on their economical income. This paper aims to assess the impact of maize production on soil properties. The study focusses on an 8 ha maize field located in central Portugal, with a Mediterranean climate on a gently sloping terrain (<3%) and with a soil classified as Eutric Fluvisol. On the field, several experiments were carried out with different maize varieties as well as with different fertilizers (solid, liquid and both). Centre pivot irrigation was largely used. Data is available from 2003, and concerns crop yield, fertilization and irrigation practices, as well as soil properties assessed through

  19. Nitrate leaching to shallow groundwater systems from agricultural fields with different management practices.

    PubMed

    Nila Rekha, P; Kanwar, R S; Nayak, A K; Hoang, C K; Pederson, C H

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring the concentration of NO(3)-N from agricultural fields to the subsurface and shallow ground water resources have received considerable interest worldwide, since agriculture has been identified as a major source of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) pollution of groundwater systems in intensively farmed watersheds. A study was conducted to quantify the impact of two tillage practices viz. chisel plow (CP) and no till (NT) with liquid swine manure application on nitrate leaching to the shallow ground water system under corn-soybean production system. This study is part of the long-term field experiments conducted at Iowa State University using completely randomized block design. The NO(3)-N concentrations in the shallow ground water were monitored at three depths viz., a network of subsurface drains at a depth of 1.2 m and piezometers at depths of 1.8 m and 2.4 m. Results of this study showed that the average NO(3)-N concentration during the study period was 16.1 mg l(-1), 14.4 mg l(-1) and 11.8 mg l(-1) at 1.2 m, 1.8 m and 2.4 m depths, respectively implying significant amount of NO(3)-N leaching past the subsurface drain depth of 1.2 m into the shallow groundwater but the NO(3)-N concentration decreases with the depth. The NO(3)-N concentrations in shallow groundwater were significantly higher under the chisel plow system in comparison with the no till method of tillage. Fall application of liquid swine manure caused more leaching in comparison with the spring application. Higher NO(3)-N concentration was observed under corn in comparison with the soybean plots. An in-depth analysis of the data showed a definite relationship between the NO(3)-N concentration in subsurface drain water at a depth of 1.2 m and shallow groundwater at depths of 1.8 m and 2.4 m depths.

  20. Noncrop flowering plants restore top-down herbivore control in agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Oliver; Pfiffner, Lukas; Schied, Johannes; Willareth, Martin; Leimgruber, Andrea; Luka, Henryk; Traugott, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Herbivore populations are regulated by bottom-up control through food availability and quality and by top-down control through natural enemies. Intensive agricultural monocultures provide abundant food to specialized herbivores and at the same time negatively impact natural enemies because monocultures are depauperate in carbohydrate food sources required by many natural enemies. As a consequence, herbivores are released from both types of control. Diversifying intensive cropping systems with flowering plants that provide nutritional resources to natural enemies may enhance top-down control and contribute to natural herbivore regulation. We analyzed how noncrop flowering plants planted as "companion plants" inside cabbage (Brassica oleracea) fields and as margins along the fields affect the plant-herbivore-parasitoid-predator food web. We combined molecular analyses quantifying parasitism of herbivore eggs and larvae with molecular predator gut content analysis and a comprehensive predator community assessment. Planting cornflowers (Centaurea cynanus), which have been shown to attract and selectively benefit Microplitis mediator, a larval parasitoid of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae, between the cabbage heads shifted the balance between trophic levels. Companion plants significantly increased parasitism of herbivores by larval parasitoids and predation on herbivore eggs. They furthermore significantly affected predator species richness. These effects were present despite the different treatments being close relative to the parasitoids' mobility. These findings demonstrate that habitat manipulation can restore top-down herbivore control in intensive crops if the right resources are added. This is important because increased natural control reduces the need for pesticide input in intensive agricultural settings, with cascading positive effects on general biodiversity and the environment. Companion plants thus increase biodiversity both directly, by introducing

  1. Atmospheric pollutant emission factors from open burning of agricultural and forest biomass by wind tunnel simulations. Volume 3. Results, wood fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Williams, R.B.; Goronea, M.; Abd-el-Fattah, H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutant emission factors were determined by wind tunnel simulations of spreading and pile fires for 8 different types of fuel including barley, rice and wheat straw, corn stover, almond and walnut tree prunings, and Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine slash. Emission factors were determined for each fuel for CO, NO, NOx, SO2, total hydrocarbons, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, total sulfur, CO2, particulate matter, volatile organic matter (VOC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined from light transmission measurements through filter samples. Emission rate were correlated against burning conditions and fuel compositions. Factors affecting the buring rates and emission factors included inlet air temperature, loading rate, and wind speed. Volume 3 contains data from wood fuels.

  2. Mixing state, composition, and sources of fine aerosol particles in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the influence of agricultural biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. J.; Chen, S. R.; Xu, Y. S.; Guo, X. C.; Sun, Y. L.; Yang, X. Y.; Wang, Z. F.; Zhao, X. D.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-09-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to obtain morphology, size, composition, and mixing state of background fine particles with diameter less than 1 μm in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) during 15 September to 15 October 2013. Individual aerosol particles mainly contained secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA-sulfate and nitrate) and organics during clean periods (PM2.5: particles less than 2.5 μg m-3). The presence of KCl-NaCl associated with organics and an increase of soot particles suggest that an intense biomass burning event caused the highest PM2.5 concentrations (> 30 μg m-3) during the study. A large number fraction of the fly ash-containing particles (21.73 %) suggests that coal combustion emissions in the QTP significantly contributed to air pollutants at the median pollution level (PM2.5: 10-30 μg m-3). We concluded that emissions from biomass burning and from coal combustion both constantly contribute to anthropogenic particles in the QTP atmosphere. Based on size distributions of individual particles in different pollution levels, we found that gas condensation on existing particles is an important chemical process for the formation of SIA with organic coating. TEM observations show that refractory aerosols (e.g., soot, fly ash, and visible organic particles) likely adhere to the surface of SIA particles larger than 200 nm due to coagulation. Organic coating and soot on surface of the aged particles likely influence their hygroscopic and optical properties in the QTP, respectively. To our knowledge, this study reports the first microscopic analysis of fine particles in the background QTP air.

  3. Inorganic nitrogen inventory in a lowland heterogeneous agricultural field: implications for groundwater quality monitoring and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrocicco, M.; Colombani, N.; Faccini, B.; Di Giuseppe, D.; Coltorti, M.

    2012-04-01

    The inorganic nitrogen leaching from agriculture can have a severe and long-lasting effect on groundwater quality and it can also affect surface water quality since the contaminated groundwater can be discharged into drains in reclaimed lowland territories, like in the Po river delta. These lands lye below the actual sea level, thus they are continuously drained by pumping stations which collect the water from a capillary distributed network of channels and ditches. A complicating factor in understanding and quantify the effective leaching of nitrogen from agricultural fertilizers is the background ammonium presence in the sub-soils, due to peat layers, which provide a natural source of organic nitrogen slowly mineralized into ammonium. This implies that the geochemical inventory of ammonium-bearing sediments in peaty soils and sediments has an important control for the future development of groundwater quality in these areas. To estimate the mass of inorganic nitrogen present within the unsaturated zone below agricultural fields, a 6 ha wide site was characterized with high resolution core depth profiles. Cores were analyzed for inorganic nitrogen content (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) and for bromide, used as nonreactive tracer. The soils and sediments within the site are highly heterogeneous, since many sedimentological environments overlapped during the last few centuries, creating vertical and lateral facies heteropies. These facies heteropies were reconstructed in a GIS environment via grain size analysis, soil organic matter content and detailed stratigraphic logs. The vertical distribution of inorganic nitrogen species is nitrate prevalent in the first meter of soil, where oxic condition prevailed (also induced by tillage and drains); ammonium is the major nitrogen species from 1 to 4 m below ground level. Where buried sandy sediments (paleochannels) are present beneath 1 m below ground level, nitrate can penetrate slightly deeper in the unsaturated zone

  4. Nanotechnologies in agriculture and food - an overview of different fields of application, risk assessment and public perception.

    PubMed

    Grobe, Antje; Rissanen, Mikko E

    2012-12-01

    Nanomaterials in agriculture and food are key issues of public and regulatory interest. Over the past ten years, patents for nanotechnological applications in the field of food and agriculture have become abundant. Uncertainty prevails however regarding their current development status and presence in the consumer market. Thus, the discussion on nanotechnologies in the food sector with its specific public perception of benefits and risks and the patterns of communication are becoming similar to the debate on genetically modified organisms. The food industry's silence in communication increased mistrust of consumer organisations and policy makers. The article discusses the background of the current regulatory debates, starting with the EU recommendation for defining nanomaterials, provides an overview of possible fields of application in agriculture and food industries and discusses risk assessment and the public debate on benefits and risks. Communicative recommendations are directed at researchers, the food industry and regulators in order to increase trust both in stakeholders, risk management and regulatory processes.

  5. Spatial probability of soil water repellency in an abandoned agricultural field in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Water repellency is a natural soil property with implications on infiltration, erosion and plant growth. It depends on soil texture, type and amount of organic matter, fungi, microorganisms, and vegetation cover (Doerr et al., 2000). Human activities as agriculture can have implications on soil water repellency (SWR) due tillage and addition of organic compounds and fertilizers (Blanco-Canqui and Lal, 2009; Gonzalez-Penaloza et al., 2012). It is also assumed that SWR has a high small-scale variability (Doerr et al., 2000). The aim of this work is to study the spatial probability of SWR in an abandoned field testing several geostatistical methods, Organic Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK), Indicator Kriging (IK), Probability Kriging (PK) and Disjunctive Kriging (DK). The study area it is located near Vilnius urban area at (54 49' N, 25 22', 104 masl) in Lithuania (Pereira and Oliva, 2013). It was designed a experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m). Inside this area it was measured SWR was measured every 50 cm using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) (Wessel, 1998). A total of 105 points were measured. The probability of SWR was classified in 0 (No probability) to 1 (High probability). The methods accuracy was assessed with the cross validation method. The best interpolation method was the one with the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results showed that the most accurate probability method was SK (RMSE=0.436), followed by DK (RMSE=0.437), IK (RMSE=0.448), PK (RMSE=0.452) and OK (RMSE=0.537). Significant differences were identified among probability tests (Kruskal-Wallis test =199.7597 p<0.001). On average the probability of SWR was high with the OK (0.58±0.08) followed by PK (0.49±0.18), SK (0.32±0.16), DK (0.32±0.15) and IK (0.31±0.16). The most accurate probability methods predicted a lower probability of SWR in the studied plot. The spatial distribution of SWR was different according to the tested technique. Simple Kriging, DK, IK and PK methods

  6. Development of a field worthy sensor system to monitor gaseous nitrogen transfer from agricultural cropland

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer accounts for 25 to 33% of the energy requirements in modern crop agriculture in the world today. Energy input for the manufacture of these N fertilizers is in the range of 460 [times] 10[sup 12] Btu per year. Unfortunately, for some N sources up to 70% of this energy in the form of NK can be lost through improper application techniques and poor N management strategies. Anhydrous NH[sub 3] may be lost to the atmosphere during and after placement due to soil conditions placement. Measurement of volatile N is difficult, especially under field conditions. A precise and convenient method of measuring gaseous NH[sub 3] near and above the soil surface is prerequisite to the development and evaluation of altemative fertilizer management strategies and application techniques which can reduce the potential for significant loss. Recent advances in integrated-optic (IO) based sensing offers the potential of measuring low levels of NH[sub 3] loss from a cropping system in the range of 100 ppB. The integrated design of an IO system allows for a more durable device that can be mass produced at low cost. Under Phase I of this project, two IO devices were designed and tested: an absorption device using an oxazine dye as a waveguide coating and an interferometric device using an anilinium salt as a waveguide coating.

  7. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  8. Estimation of decay rates for fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens in agricultural field-applied manure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field-applied manure is an important source of pathogenic exposure in surface water bodies for humans and ecological receptors. We analyzed the persistence and decay of fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens from three sources (cattle, poultry, swine) for agricultural f...

  9. COMPARISON OF THE POPULATIONS OF COMMON WOOD-NYMPH BUTTERFLIES IN BURNED PRAIRIE, UNBURNED PRAIRIE AND OLD FIELD GRASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Walton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Common wood-nymph butterfl ies are found throughout the United States and Canada. However, not much is known about how they overwinter or their preferences for particular grasses and habitats. In this study, the impact of prairie management plans on the abundance of the wood-nymph population was assessed, as well as the preference of these butterfl ies for areas with native or non-native grasses. The abundance of common wood-nymph butterfl ies was determined using Pollard walks; more common wood-nymph butterfl ies were found in the European grasses than were found in the burned and unburned prairie sites. The majority of the vegetation at each of the three sites was identifi ed and documented. Using a 1 X 3 ANOVA analysis, it was determined there were signifi cantly more butterfl ies in the European grasses than in the burned and unburned prairie sites (p < 0.0005). There was no signifi cant difference between the burned and unburned treatments of the prairie on the common wood-nymph population. A multiple variable linear regression model described the effect of temperature and wind speed on the number of observed common wood-nymph butterfl ies per hour (p = 0.026). These preliminary results need to be supplemented with future studies. Quadrat analysis of the vegetation from all three sites should be done to search for a correlation between common wood-nymph butterfl y abundance per hour and the specifi c types or quantity of vegetation at each site. The effect of vegetation height and density on the observer’s visual fi eld should also be assessed.

  10. Global biomass burning. Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of atmospheric gases and, as such, may contribute to global climate changes. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The chapters in this volume include the following topics: remote sensing of biomass burning from space;geographical distribution of burning; combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; impacts of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions. A total of 1428 references are cited for the 63 chapters. Individual chapters are indexed separately for the data bases.

  11. Seasonal OVOC fluxes from an agricultural field planted with sugar beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custer, T. G.; Schade, G. W.

    2005-12-01

    Although agricultural crops are generally not strong isoprenoid emitters, they do emit a variety of other atmospherically significant species collectively known as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), such as methanol, acetaldehyde, or various hexenal and hexenol compounds. Many OVOCs have longer atmospheric lifetimes than isoprenoid compounds and can affect the atmosphere's oxidative potential at higher elevations and far from sources. We performed selected OVOC flux measurements for select species above an agricultural field planted with sugar beets ( B. vulgaris) in northern Germany in 2004 to better understand the magnitude and controls over these OVOC emissions. Virtual disjunct eddy covariance was used to measure fluxes beginning immediately following seeding and continuing until past harvest. A commercial PTR-MS provided mixing ratios of methanol (m/z 33), acetaldehyde (m/z 45), acetone (m/z 59), and the sum of the isoprene oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone (m/z 71) while 3D wind velocities were measured using a Gill R3 sonic anemometer. Here, we compare the fluxes of methanol and acetone over the growth cycle of sugar beet to plant development as measured by the leaf area index. Methanol fluxes ranged from approximately -0.05 to 0.15 mg C m-2 h-1 (mixing ratios from ~1 to 15 ppbv) and showed a clear diurnal cycle after the sugar beets established a significant leaf area. Acetone fluxes ranged from approximately -0.2 to 0.2 mg C m-2 h-1 (mixing ratios from ~0.2 to 3 ppb). Higher specific emissions were found during earlier growth stages. Methanol flux correlated strongly with latent heat flux (or alternatively, with canopy conductance derived from the latent heat flux), while acetone flux did not. Acetone flux was small compared to methanol flux and sugar beet is likely not a significant acetone emitter. Weekly measurements of soil OVOC exchange using a flux chamber showed that the soil may have contributed significantly to the overall flux values

  12. Long-term impact of precision agriculture on a farmer’s field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Targeting management practices and inputs with precision agriculture has high potential to meet some of the grand challenges of sustainability in the coming century. Although potential is high, few studies have documented long-term effects of precision agriculture on crop production and environmenta...

  13. Integrating stand and soil properties to understand foliar nutrient dynamics during forest succession following slash-and-burn agriculture in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Eben N; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Asner, Gregory P; Soriano, Marlene; Field, Christopher B; de Souza, Harrison Ramos; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Adams, Rachel I; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Giles, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Secondary forests cover large areas of the tropics and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. During secondary forest succession, simultaneous changes occur among stand structural attributes, soil properties, and species composition. Most studies classify tree species into categories based on their regeneration requirements. We use a high-resolution secondary forest chronosequence to assign trees to a continuous gradient in species successional status assigned according to their distribution across the chronosequence. Species successional status, not stand age or differences in stand structure or soil properties, was found to be the best predictor of leaf trait variation. Foliar δ(13)C had a significant positive relationship with species successional status, indicating changes in foliar physiology related to growth and competitive strategy, but was not correlated with stand age, whereas soil δ(13)C dynamics were largely constrained by plant species composition. Foliar δ(15)N had a significant negative correlation with both stand age and species successional status, - most likely resulting from a large initial biomass-burning enrichment in soil (15)N and (13)C and not closure of the nitrogen cycle. Foliar %C was neither correlated with stand age nor species successional status but was found to display significant phylogenetic signal. Results from this study are relevant to understanding the dynamics of tree species growth and competition during forest succession and highlight possibilities of, and potentially confounding signals affecting, the utility of leaf traits to understand community and species dynamics during secondary forest succession. PMID:24516525

  14. Integrating Stand and Soil Properties to Understand Foliar Nutrient Dynamics during Forest Succession Following Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Broadbent, Eben N.; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Soriano, Marlene; Field, Christopher B.; de Souza, Harrison Ramos; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Adams, Rachel I.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Giles, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Secondary forests cover large areas of the tropics and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. During secondary forest succession, simultaneous changes occur among stand structural attributes, soil properties, and species composition. Most studies classify tree species into categories based on their regeneration requirements. We use a high-resolution secondary forest chronosequence to assign trees to a continuous gradient in species successional status assigned according to their distribution across the chronosequence. Species successional status, not stand age or differences in stand structure or soil properties, was found to be the best predictor of leaf trait variation. Foliar δ13C had a significant positive relationship with species successional status, indicating changes in foliar physiology related to growth and competitive strategy, but was not correlated with stand age, whereas soil δ13C dynamics were largely constrained by plant species composition. Foliar δ15N had a significant negative correlation with both stand age and species successional status, – most likely resulting from a large initial biomass-burning enrichment in soil 15N and 13C and not closure of the nitrogen cycle. Foliar %C was neither correlated with stand age nor species successional status but was found to display significant phylogenetic signal. Results from this study are relevant to understanding the dynamics of tree species growth and competition during forest succession and highlight possibilities of, and potentially confounding signals affecting, the utility of leaf traits to understand community and species dynamics during secondary forest succession. PMID:24516525

  15. Integrating stand and soil properties to understand foliar nutrient dynamics during forest succession following slash-and-burn agriculture in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Eben N; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Asner, Gregory P; Soriano, Marlene; Field, Christopher B; de Souza, Harrison Ramos; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Adams, Rachel I; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Giles, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Secondary forests cover large areas of the tropics and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. During secondary forest succession, simultaneous changes occur among stand structural attributes, soil properties, and species composition. Most studies classify tree species into categories based on their regeneration requirements. We use a high-resolution secondary forest chronosequence to assign trees to a continuous gradient in species successional status assigned according to their distribution across the chronosequence. Species successional status, not stand age or differences in stand structure or soil properties, was found to be the best predictor of leaf trait variation. Foliar δ(13)C had a significant positive relationship with species successional status, indicating changes in foliar physiology related to growth and competitive strategy, but was not correlated with stand age, whereas soil δ(13)C dynamics were largely constrained by plant species composition. Foliar δ(15)N had a significant negative correlation with both stand age and species successional status, - most likely resulting from a large initial biomass-burning enrichment in soil (15)N and (13)C and not closure of the nitrogen cycle. Foliar %C was neither correlated with stand age nor species successional status but was found to display significant phylogenetic signal. Results from this study are relevant to understanding the dynamics of tree species growth and competition during forest succession and highlight possibilities of, and potentially confounding signals affecting, the utility of leaf traits to understand community and species dynamics during secondary forest succession.

  16. Estimation of spatially distributed surface energy fluxes using remotely-sensed data for agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melesse, Assefa M.; Nangia, Vijay

    2005-09-01

    ). The flux estimation procedure from the SEBAL-TSEB model was useful and applicable to agricultural fields.

  17. Burning Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed Burns isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it makes sense…

  18. Changes in water budgets and sediment yields from a hypothetical agricultural field as a function of landscape and management characteristics--A unit field modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Crop agriculture occupies 13 percent of the conterminous United States. Agricultural management practices, such as crop and tillage types, affect the hydrologic flow paths through the landscape. Some agricultural practices, such as drainage and irrigation, create entirely new hydrologic flow paths upon the landscapes where they are implemented. These hydrologic changes can affect the magnitude and partitioning of water budgets and sediment erosion. Given the wide degree of variability amongst agricultural settings, changes in the magnitudes of hydrologic flow paths and sediment erosion induced by agricultural management practices commonly are difficult to characterize, quantify, and compare using only field observations. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used to simulate two landscape characteristics (slope and soil texture) and three agricultural management practices (land cover/crop type, tillage type, and selected agricultural land management practices) to evaluate their effects on the water budgets of and sediment yield from agricultural lands. An array of sixty-eight 60-year simulations were run, each representing a distinct natural or agricultural scenario with various slopes, soil textures, crop or land cover types, tillage types, and select agricultural management practices on an isolated 16.2-hectare field. Simulations were made to represent two common agricultural climate regimes: arid with sprinkler irrigation and humid. These climate regimes were constructed with actual climate and irrigation data. The results of these simulations demonstrate the magnitudes of potential changes in water budgets and sediment yields from lands as a result of landscape characteristics and agricultural practices adopted on them. These simulations showed that variations in landscape characteristics, such as slope and soil type, had appreciable effects on water budgets and sediment yields. As slopes increased, sediment yields increased in both the arid and

  19. Effects of microelements on soil nematode assemblages seven years after contaminating an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Péter; Bakonyi, Gábor; Bongers, Tom; Kádár, Imre; Fábián, Miklós; Kiss, István

    2004-03-29

    Long-term effects of Cd, Cr, Cu, Se and Zn were studied 7 years after artificially contaminating plots of an agricultural field on a calcareous chernozem soil. Effects of three to four different contamination levels (originally 10, 30, 90 and 270 mg kg(-1)) were studied. Nematode density was significantly reduced by 90 and 270 mg kg(-1) Se as well as by 270 mg kg(-1) Cr, while 90 and 270 mg kg(-1) Se also reduced nematode generic richness. Maturity Index values (calculated for c-p 2-5 nematodes) consistently decreased with increasing Cr and Se concentration and to a lesser extent in Zn plots as well. Structure Index showed decreasing trends in increasing Cr, Se and (to a lesser extent) in Zn treatments, while in Cd it shows a moderate increase. Distribution of c-p groups was negatively affected by the increasing Cr and Se concentration, while in Zn plots, this decrease was not significant. Response of feeding groups to pollutions was similar to other parameters: Cr and Se caused significant changes toward the loss of variability. The proportion of the most sensitive omnivorous and predatory nematodes decreased clearly as a consequence of Cr and Se treatments. Zn pollution also resulted in a slight decrease in this group, while Cd caused an increase. Nematode diversity profiles showed a significant decrease in the plots of increased Cr and Se concentrations, while increased concentrations of Cu and Zn resulted in ambiguous effects. Besides providing evidence on the harmful effects of Cr and Se on a soil nematode assemblage, our results suggest that simultaneous analysis of Maturity Index, Structure Index and diversity profiles provide a promising tool in nematological indication of soil pollution.

  20. Effect of biomass burning, convective venting, and transport on tropospheric ozone over the Indian Ocean: Reunion Island field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randriambelo, Tantely; Baray, Jean-Luc; Baldy, Serge

    2000-05-01

    Relationships between vertical distribution of tropospheric ozone at Reunion Island (21°S-55°E), satellite (NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer) observations of fires, smoke plumes, and convective events in southeastern Africa and Madagascar, and analyses of meteorological situations (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) are presented. This study is based on 7 years (1992 to 1999) of 2-monthly PTU-O3 radiosoundings at Reunion. Results show, for the first time, that during 1995 tropospheric ozone content rose above average and that this year should be set apart as atypical. Stratospheric contributions are also ruled out using an identification method based on considerations of ozone, humidity, vertical stability, and meteorological conditions. The seasonal variation of ozone profiles during typical years and without the stratospheric contribution suggests that ozone contamination from biomass burning is a maximum during October in the whole free troposphere. During August, before the deep convection period, but already within the fire period, only the middle troposphere is contaminated by ozone inputs. By contrast, through November to December, well within the deep convection period, all the higher troposphere is contaminated. The comprehensive study of the observations in 1993, taken as a typical year, highlights the roles of convection and transport in contamination of remote oceanic regions. August contamination of the middle troposphere by about 70 ppbv of ozone is contrasted to October enhancement of the whole free troposphere by about 100 ppbv of ozone after the spreading of deep convective events. Fire satellite data further indicate that column integrated contamination level mainly depends on biomass burning intensity. Through August to October the fourfold increase of ozone concentration is comparable with the fivefold augmentation of fires. The redistribution of ozone with altitude depends on the convection intensity near source

  1. A case study of aerosol depletion in a biomass burning plume over Eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, J. E.; Drummond, J. R.; Griffin, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Waugh, D. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Parrington, M.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Walker, K. A.; Chisholm, L.; Duck, T. J.; Hopper, J. T.; Blanchard, Y.; Gibson, M. D.; Curry, K. R.; Sakamoto, K. M.; Lesins, G.; Dan, L.; Kliever, J.; Saha, A.

    2014-02-01

    We present measurements of a long range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ~24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present observing network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.

  2. A case study of aerosol scavenging in a biomass burning plume over eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, J. E.; Drummond, J. R.; Griffin, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Waugh, D. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Parrington, M.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Walker, K. A.; Chisholm, L.; Duck, T. J.; Hopper, J. T.; Blanchard, Y.; Gibson, M. D.; Curry, K. R.; Sakamoto, K. M.; Lesins, G.; Dan, L.; Kliever, J.; Saha, A.

    2014-08-01

    We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event, but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long-range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ~ 24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present observing network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.

  3. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits

  4. Assessment of biomass burning emissions and their impacts on urban and regional PM2.5: a Georgia case study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Di; Hu, Yongtao; Wang, Yuhang; Boylan, James W; Zheng, Mei; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-01-15

    Biomass burning is a major and growing contributor to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Such impacts (especially individual impacts from each burning source) are quantified using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model, a chemical transport model (CTM). Given the sensitivity of CTM results to uncertain emission inputs, simulations were conducted using three biomass burning inventories. Shortcomings in the burning emissions were also evaluated by comparing simulations with observations and results from a receptor model. Model performance improved significantly with the updated emissions and speciation profiles based on recent measurements for biomass burning: mean fractional bias is reduced from 22% to 4% for elemental carbon and from 18% to 12% for organic matter; mean fractional error is reduced from 59% to 50% for elemental carbon and from 55% to 49% for organic matter. Quantified impacts of biomass burning on PM2.5 during January, March, May, and July 2002 are 3.0, 5.1, 0.8, and 0.3 microg m(-3) domainwide on average, with more than 80% of such impacts being from primary emissions. Impacts of prescribed burning dominate biomass burning impacts, contributing about 55% and 80% of PM2.5 in January and March, respectively, followed by land clearing and agriculture field burning. Significant impacts of wildfires in May and residential wood combustion in fireplaces and woodstoves in January are also found.

  5. Iron coated sand/glauconite filters for phosphorus removal from artificially drained agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandermoere, Stany; De Neve, Stefaan

    2016-04-01

    Flanders (Belgium) is confronted with reactive phosphorus concentrations in streams and lakes which are three to four times higher than the 0.1 ppm P limit set by the Water Framework Directive. Much of the excessive P input in surface waters is derived from agriculture. Direct P input from artificially drained fields (short-circuiting the buffering capacity of the subsoil) is suspected to be one of the major sources. We aim to develop simple and cheap filters that can be directly installed in the field to reduce P concentration from the drain water. Here we report on the performance of such filters tested at lab scale. As starting materials for the P filter, iron coated sand and acid pre-treated glauconite were used. These materials, both rich in Fe, were mixed in ratios of 75/25, 65/35, 50/50 and 0/100 (iron coated sand/glauconite ratio based on weight basis) and filled in plastic tubes. A screening experiment using the constant head method with a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 1 ppm P showed that all four types of mixtures reduced the P concentration in the outflowing water to almost zero, and that the 75/25, 65/35 and 0/100 mixtures had a sufficiently large hydraulic conductivity of 0.9 to 6.0 cm/min, while the hydraulic conductivity of the 50/50 mixture was too low (< 0.4 cm/min). In a second experiment the iron coated sand and acid pre-treated glauconite were mixed in ratios of 75/25, 65/35 and 0/100 and filled in the same plastic tubes as in the first experiment. Subsequently a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 1 ppm P was passed through the filters over several days, in amounts equivalent to half of the yearly water volume passing through the drains. This experiment firstly showed that in all cases the hydraulic conductivity fluctuated strongly: it decreased from 4.0-6.0 cm/min to 2.0-1.5 cm/min for the 75/25 filter, and to values < 0.4 cm/min for the 65/35 filter, whereas it increased from 0.8 to 1.4 cm/min for the 0/100 filter. Secondly, we observed a

  6. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  7. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  8. Mitigation of dimethazone residues in soil and runoff water from agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2011-01-01

    Dimethazone, also known as clomazone [2-[(2-chlorophenyl) methyl]- 4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxaolidinone] is a pre-emergent nonionic herbicide commonly used in agriculture. A field study was conducted on a silty-loam soil of 10 % slope to monitor off-site movement and persistence of dimethazone in soil under three management practices. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using stainless steel metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and yard waste (YW) compost (MSS+YW) at 15 t acre⁻¹ on dry weight basis, six plots were mixed with MSS at 15 t acre⁻¹, and six unamended plots (NM) were used for comparison purposes. The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) monitor the dissipation and half-life (T₁/₂) of dimethazone in soil under three management practices; (ii) determine the concentration of dimethazone residues in runoff and infiltration water following natural rainfall events; and (iii) assess the impact of soil amendments on the transport of NO₃, NH₄, and P into surface and subsurface water. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometery (GC/MS) analyses of soil extracts indicated the presence of ion fragments at m/z 125 and 204 that can be used for identification of dimethazone residues. Intitial deposits of dimethazone varied from 1.3 μg g⁻¹ dry native soil to 3.2 and 11.8 μg g⁻¹ dry soil in MSS and MSS+YW amended soil, respectively. Decline of dimethazone residues in the top 15 cm native soil and soil incorporated with amendments revealed half-life (T₁/₂) values of 18.8, 25.1, and 43.0 days in MSS+YW, MSS, and NM treatments, respectively. Addition of MSS+YW mix and MSS alone to native soil increased water infiltration, lowering surface runoff water volume and dimethazone residues in runoff following natural rainfall events.

  9. The fate and transport of the Cry1Ab protein in an agricultural field and laboratory aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Strain, Katherine E; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Genetically engineered crops expressing insecticidal crystalline proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were commercialized almost two decades ago as a means to manage agricultural pests. The Bt proteins are highly specific and only lethal upon ingestion, limiting the scope of toxicity to target insects. However, concern of exposure to non-target organisms and negative public perceptions regarding Bt crops has caused controversy surrounding their use. The objective of this research was to monitor the fate and transport of a Bt protein, Cry1Ab, in a large-scale agricultural field containing maize expressing the Cry1Ab protein and a non-Bt near isoline, and in aquatic microcosms. The highest environmental concentrations of the Cry1Ab protein were found in runoff water and sediment, up to 130ngL(-1) and 143ngg(-1) dry weight, respectively, with the Cry1Ab protein detected in both Bt and non-Bt maize fields. As surface runoff and residual crop debris can transport Bt proteins to waterways adjacent to agricultural fields, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the potential fate of the Cry1Ab protein under different conditions. The results showed that sediment type and temperature can influence the degradation of the Cry1Ab protein in an aquatic system and that the Cry1Ab protein can persist for up to two months. Although Cry1Ab protein concentrations measured in the field soil indicate little exposure to terrestrial organisms, the consistent input of Bt-contaminated runoff and crop debris into agricultural waterways is relevant to understanding potential consequences to aquatic species. PMID:25828252

  10. Soil hydrological and soil property changes resulting from termite activity on agricultural fields in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettrop, I.; Cammeraat, L. H.; Verbeeten, E.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are important ecosystem-engineers in subtropical and tropical regions. The effect of termite activity affecting soil infiltration is well documented in the Sahelian region. Most studies find increased infiltration rates on surfaces that are affected by termite activity in comparison to crusted areas showing non-termite presence. Crusted agricultural fields in the Sanmatenga region in Burkina Faso with clear termite activity were compared to control fields without visual ground dwelling termite activity. Fine scale rainfall simulations were carried out on crusted termite affected and control sites. Furthermore soil moisture change, bulk density, soil organic matter as well as general soil characteristics were studied. The top soils in the study area were strongly crusted (structural crust) after the summer rainfall and harvest of millet. They have a loamy sand texture underlain by a shallow sandy loam Bt horizon. The initial soil moisture conditions were significantly higher on the termite plots when compared to control sites. It was found that the amount of runoff produced on the termite plots was significantly higher, and also the volumetric soil moisture content after the experiments was significantly lower if compared to the control plots. Bulk density showed no difference whereas soil organic matter was significantly higher under termite affected areas, in comparison to the control plots. Lab tests showed no significant difference in hydrophobic behavior of the topsoil and crust material. Micro and macro-structural properties of the topsoil did not differ significantly between the termite sites and the control sites. The texture of the top 5 cm of the soil was also found to be not significantly different. The infiltration results are contradictory to the general literature, which reports increased infiltration rates after prolonged termite activity although mostly under different initial conditions. The number of nest entrances was clearly higher in

  11. Intake of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Gothankar, S; Iongwai, P S; Kharbuli, B; War, S A; Puranik, V D

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides ²³²Th, ²³⁸U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6-15.5 and 2.0-5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th were 2.0 μg d⁻¹ (25 mBq d⁻¹) and 3.4 μg d⁻¹ (14 mBq d⁻¹) is comparable with reported range 0.5-5.0 μg d⁻¹ and 0.15-3.5 μg d⁻¹ respectively for the Asian population.

  12. Intake of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Gothankar, S; Iongwai, P S; Kharbuli, B; War, S A; Puranik, V D

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides ²³²Th, ²³⁸U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6-15.5 and 2.0-5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th were 2.0 μg d⁻¹ (25 mBq d⁻¹) and 3.4 μg d⁻¹ (14 mBq d⁻¹) is comparable with reported range 0.5-5.0 μg d⁻¹ and 0.15-3.5 μg d⁻¹ respectively for the Asian population. PMID:22036151

  13. The consequences of global biomass burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Global biomass burning encompasses forest burning for land clearing, the annual burning of grasslands, the annual burning of agricultural stubble and waste after harvests, and the burning of wood as fuel. These activities generate CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, CO, H2, NO, NH3, and CH3Cl; of these, CO, CH4 and the hydrocarbons, and NO, are involved in the photochemical production of tropospheric O3, while NO is transformed to NO2 and then to nitric acid, which falls as acid rain. Biomass burning is also a major source of atmospheric particulates and aerosols which affect the transmission of incoming solar radiation and outgoing IR radiation through the atmosphere, with significant climatic effects.

  14. Global biomass burning - Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    On a global scale, the total biomass consumed by annual burning is about 8680 million tons of dry material; the estimated total biomass consumed by the burning of savanna grasslands, at 3690 million tons/year, exceeds all other biomass burning (BMB) components. These components encompass agricultural wastes burning, forest burning, and fuel wood burning. BMB is not restricted to the tropics, and is largely anthropogenic. Satellite measurements indicate significantly increased tropospheric concentrations of CO and ozone associated with BMB. BMB significantly enhances the microbial production and emission of NO(x) from soils, and of methane from wetlands.

  15. Barriers to the Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture on Rented Land: An Examination of Contesting Social Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    While over half of the cropland in the United States is rented, interest in land tenancy within sociological circles has been sporadic at best. In light of the prevalence of rented land in agriculture--particularly in the Midwest--it is vital that further research be conducted to investigate the effect that the rental relationship has upon the…

  16. The Impact of Crop, Pest, and Agricultural Management Practices on Mycotoxin Contamination of Field Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by several fungal genera which occur in a wide variety of agricultural commodities worldwide. Health issues and economic losses due to mycotoxin contamination occur at all stages of the food and feed production process. Mycotoxigenic fungi...

  17. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 3434 - List of Agriculture-Related Fields

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Environmental Studies 03.0104, Environmental Science 03.0199, Natural Resources Conservation and Research, Other... 01.0307, Horse Husbandry/Equine Science and Management 01.0308, Agroecology and Sustainable... Communication/Journalism 01.0899, Agricultural Public Services, Other 01.0901, Animal Sciences, General...

  18. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 3434 - List of Agriculture-Related Fields

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Environmental Studies 03.0104, Environmental Science 03.0199, Natural Resources Conservation and Research, Other... 01.0307, Horse Husbandry/Equine Science and Management 01.0308, Agroecology and Sustainable... Communication/Journalism 01.0899, Agricultural Public Services, Other 01.0901, Animal Sciences, General...

  19. Using lidar to characterize particles from point and diffuse sources in an agricultural field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides the means to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of particulate emissions from agricultural activities. Aglite is a three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system built at the Energy Dynamics Laboratory (EDL) to measure the spati...

  20. Validating a high-resolution digital soil map for precision agriculture across multiple fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) for precision agriculture (PA) management is aimed at developing models that predict soil properties or classes using legacy soil data, sensors, and environmental covariates. The utility of DSM for PA is based on its ability to provide useful spatial soil information for o...

  1. Celtic field agriculture and Early Anthropogenic Environmental change in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, NW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Sanden, Germaine; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico

    2016-04-01

    The field of Archaeology remains focused on historical issues while underexploring its potential contribution on currently existing societal problems, e.g. climate change. The aim of this paper is to show the relevance of archeological studies for the research of the 'human species as a significant moving agent' in terms of the changing natural environment during a much earlier time frame. This research is based on the study area of the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region in the Netherlands and Belgium and exhibits the period from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Roman period. This period is characterized by the widespread introduction and use of an agricultural system, often referred to as the Celtic Field system that served as one of the most modifying systems in terms of anthropogenic-environmental change during this period. Emphasis in this research is given to results generated by the use of the remote sensing technology, LiDAR. New information is reported considering a correlation between singular field size and the overall surface of the agricultural complexes and secondly, the presentation of newly identified Celtic field systems in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region are presented. The study of the dynamics of the Celtic Field agricultural system provides evidence for a significant anthropogenic footprint on the natural environment due to land cover dominance, soil degeneration, increased soil acidification and forest clearance. Soil exhaustion forced the inhabitants to re-establish their relationship with the landscape in terms of fundamental changes in the habitation pattern and the agrarian exploitations of the land.

  2. Forecasting the Feasibility of Implementing Isolation Perimeters Between GM and non-GM Maize Fields Under Agricultural Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devos, Yann; Cougnon, Mathias; Thas, Olivier; De Clercq, Eva M.; Cordemans, Karl; Reheul, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    Although spatially isolating genetically modified (GM) maize fields from non-GM maize fields is a robust on-farm strategy to keep the adventitious presence of GM material in the harvests of neighboring non-GM maize fields due to cross-fertilizations below established labeling thresholds (and thus to ensure the spatial co-existence between maize cropping systems), the practical implementation of isolation perimeters attracted little research efforts. In this study, the feasibility of implementing isolation perimeters around GM maize fields is investigated. Using Geographic Information System datasets and Monte Carlo simulations, various scenarios differing in shares and spatial distributions of GM maize were tested for various isolation perimeters in six agricultural areas in Flanders. Factors that affect the feasibility of implementing isolation perimeters are discussed.

  3. Establishing sustainable international burn missions: lessons from India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anup; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra F; Sinha, Indranil; Watkins, James F; Magee, William P; Persing, John A

    2013-07-01

    Burns constitute a significant portion of the worldwide disability adjusted life years by compromising form and function. Through the field's numerous reconstructive techniques, plastic surgery can treat many of these deficiencies stemming from burn injuries. We describe the steps necessary to establish international burn missions including realizing synergies among nonprofits and academic plastic surgery centers to restore form and function to burn patients.

  4. Vesicant burns.

    PubMed

    Mellor, S G; Rice, P; Cooper, G J

    1991-01-01

    (1) Of the 120,000 victims of sulphur mustard gas in World War I there were only 2-3% fatalities, and few long term effects. (2) The interactions of sulphur mustard with the skin are complete within a few minutes of exposure. Once the victim has been decontaminated there is no risk to the attendant and there is no active agent in the blister fluid. (3) The rate of wound healing is slow for sulphur mustard burns, but in general the wounds heal satisfactorily. (4) There is no specific therapy for poisoning by sulphur mustard.

  5. Selection of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes by female northern pintails wintering in Tulare Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Jarvis, Robert L.; Gilmer, David S.

    2003-01-01

    Habitat selection and use are measures of relative importance of habitats to wildlife and necessary information for effective wildlife conservation. To measure the relative impor- tance of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes to northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering in Tulare Basin (TB), California, we radiotagged female pintails during late August-early October, 1991-1993 in TB and other San Joaquin Valley areas and deter- mined use and selection of these TB landscapes through March each year. Availability of landscape and field types in TB changed within and among years. Pintail use and selec- tion (based upon use-to-availability log ratios) of landscape and field types differed among seasons, years, and diel periods. Fields flooded after harvest and before planting (i.e., pre-irrigated) were the most available, used, and selected landscape type before the hunting season (Prehunt). Safflower was the most available, used, and-except in 1993, when pre-irrigated fallow was available-selected pre-irrigated field type during Prehunt. Pre-irrigated barley-wheat received 19-22% of use before hunting season, but selection varied greatly among years and diel periods. During and after hunting season, managed marsh was the most available, used, and, along with floodwater areas, selected landscape type; pre-irrigated cotton and alfalfa were the least selected field types and accounted for <13% of pintail use. Agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds, sewage treatment ponds, and reservoirs accounted for 42-48% of flooded landscape available but were lit- tle used and least selected. Exodus of pintails from TB coincided with drying of pre-irri- gated fallow, safflower, and barley-wheat fields early in winter, indicating that preferred habitats were lacking in TB during late winter. Agriculture conservation programs could improve TB for pintails by increasing flooding of fallow and harvested safflower and grain fields. Conservation of remaining wetlands should

  6. Formation of iron oxides in soils developed under natural fires and slash-and-burn based agriculture in a monsoonal climate (Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender Koch, C.; Borggaard, O. K.; Gafur, A.

    2005-11-01

    Fire-induced mineral transformations have been investigated in composite mineral grains separated from the coarse sand fractions (400-2,000 μm) from Ultisols developed in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (Bangladesh). Magnetic and colour based separation (into light brown, dark red, and magnetic, dark red classes) were used to select the grains that were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Aluminium substituted goethite (α-FeOOH) dominates the light brown particles. Fire transform the goethite into a poorly crystalline hematite (α-Fe2O3) dominating in the dark red particles. In the dark red, magnetic grains a recrystallized hematite dominates, but small amounts of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) are also present. The latter is indicated by comparing the line intensities in spectra measurement with and without an external magnetic field.

  7. Fuel Preheat Effects on Soot-Field Structure in Laminar Gas Jet Diffusion Flames Burning in 0-g and 1-g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konsur, Bogdan; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Griffin, Devon W.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation conducted at the 2.2-s drop tower of the NASA Lewis Research Center is presented to quantify the influence of moderate fuel preheat on soot-field structure within 0-g laminar gas jet diffusion flames. Parallel work in 1-g is also presented to delineate the effect of elevated fuel temperatures on soot-field structure in buoyant flames. The experimental methodology implements jet diffusion flames of nitrogen-diluted acetylene fuel burning in quiescent air at atmospheric pressure. Fuel preheat of approximately 100 K in the 0-g laminar jet diffusion flames is found to reduce soot loadings in the annular region, but causes an increase in soot volume fractions at the centerline. In addition, fuel preheat reduces the radial extent of the soot field in 0-g. In 1-g, the same fuel preheat levels have a more moderated influence on soot loadings in the annular region, but are also seen to enhance soot concentrations near the axis low in the flame. The increased soot loadings near the flame centerline, as caused by fuel preheat, are consistent with the hypothesis that preheat levels of approximately 100 K enhance fuel pyrolysis rates. The results show that the growth stage of particles transported along the soot annulus is shortened both in 1-g and 0-g when elevated fuel temperatures are used.

  8. Field Studies Show That In Situ Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for East African Agriculture Are Less Than IPCC Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelster, D.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Rufino, M.; Rosenstock, T. S.; Wanyama, G.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems are thought to comprise a large portion of total emissions from the continent, however these estimates have been calculated using emission factors (EF) from other regions due to the lack of field studies in Africa, which results in large uncertainties for these estimates. Field measurements from western Kenya calculating emissions over a year in 59 different sites found that GHG emissions from typical smallholder farms ranged from 2.8 to 15.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1, -6.0 to 2.4 kg CH4-C ha-1 and -0.1 to 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1, and were not affected by management intensity. The lack of a response in N2O emissions to N fertilization suggests that the EF currently used in national inventories overestimates N2O emissions from typical smallholder agriculture. Another study measuring N2O and CH4 emissions from manure deposited by grazing cattle found that the N2O EF ranged from 0.1 to 0.2%, while the CH4 EF ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 Kg CH4-C per 173 kg animal. These suggest that the current IPCC EF overestimate agricultural soil and manure GHG emissions for Kenya, and likely for much of East Africa.

  9. Human pharmaceuticals, hormones, and personal care product ingredients in runoff from agricultural fields irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Joel A; Soliman, Mary; Suffet, I H Mel

    2005-03-01

    Irrigation of crops with treated wastewater has the potential to introduce effluent-derived organic microcontaminants into surface waters through agricultural runoff. To determine whether compounds indicative of the presence of treated effluent in irrigation water could be identified in agricultural runoff, surface runoff samples collected from effluent-irrigated and rain-fed cultivated fields were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organic compounds. A variety of compounds was identified that appeared to be associated with irrigation with treated wastewater. These compounds included human pharmaceuticals (e.g., carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, carisoprodol), personal care product ingredients (e.g., insect repellent, polycyclic musks), and alkyl phosphate flame retardant chemicals. Most of these compounds appear not to have been previously reported in agricultural runoff. These compounds were present at concentrations below the few published aquatic toxicology data available; however, their potential to elicit more subtle effects in aquatic organisms cannot be excluded. None of these compounds were detected by broad-spectrum analysis in samples from the same fields during runoff-producing rain events.

  10. Biological and Agricultural Studies on Application of Discharge Plasma and Electromagnetic Fields 5. Effects of High Electric Fields on Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaka, Katsuo

    The biological effects of extremely low frequency electric fields on animals are reviewed with emphasis on studies of the nervous system, behavior, endocrinology, and blood chemistry. First, this paper provides a histrical overview of studies on the electric field effects initiated in Russia and the United States mainly regarding electric utility workers in high voltage substations and transmission lines. Then, the possible mechanisms of electric field effects are explained using the functions of surface electric fields and induced currents in biological objects. The real mechanisms have not yet been identified. The thresholds of electric field perception levels for rats, baboons, and humans are introduced and compared. The experimental results concerning the depression of melatonin secretion in rats exposed to electric fields are described.

  11. Product amount and quality monitoring in agricultural fields with remote sensing satellite and radio-control helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei

    Product amount and quality monitoring in agricultural fields with remote sensing satellite and radio-control helicopter is proposed. In particular, tealeaves and rice crop quality and amoujnt monitorings are peoposed as examples. Nitrogen rich tealeaves tasts good. Therefore, quality of tealeaves can be estimated with nitrogen content which is related with near infrared reflectance of the tealeves in concern. Also, rice crop quality depends on protein content in rice grain which is related to near infrared reflectance of rice leaves. Therefore, product quality can be estimated with observation of near infrared reflectance of the leaves in concern. Near infared reflectance is provided by near infrared radiometers onboard remote sensing satellites and by near infrared cameras onboard radio-control helicopter. This monitoring system is applicable to the other agricultural plant products. Through monitoring near ingfrared reflectance, it is possible to estimate quality as well as product amount.

  12. Nitrate-nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios for identification of nitrate sources and dominant nitrogen cycle processes in a tile-drained dryland agricultural field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural systems are a leading source of reactive nitrogen to aquatic and atmospheric ecosystems. Natural d15Nnitrate and d18Onitrate are used to identify the dominant nitrogen cycle processes and sources of NO3- leached from a tile-drained, dryland agricultural field. Tile-drain water discharge...

  13. Application of ERTS-1 imagery in the fields of geology, agriculture, forestry, and hydrology to selected test sites in Iran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebtehadj, K.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary study of the ERTS-1 imagery coverage of Iran, commenced on October 26, 1972. All of the images were carefully examined, and a photomosaic covering approximately ninety-five per cent of the country was prepared. A number of images of selected areas were studied in detail. In the field of geology, a number of large scale faults were identified, which do not figure on geological maps. Furthermore, a preliminary study was carried out on the recent sediments, their possible sources, and origin. A limited number of geological work maps were prepared as well. In the fields of agriculture and forestry, studies based on color composite prints of certain areas were undertaken, with a purpose of identifying potential arable areas. Investigations in the field of water resources resulted in the discovery of a number of small lakes, and streams. Furthermore, fluctuations of the water level in some lakes were observed.

  14. 3D Cloud Radiative Effects on Aerosol Optical Thickness Retrievals in Cumulus Cloud Fields in the Biomass Burning Region in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Guo-Yong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol amount in clear regions of a cloudy atmosphere is a critical parameter in studying the interaction between aerosols and clouds. Since the global cloud cover is about 50%, cloudy scenes are often encountered in any satellite images. Aerosols are more or less transparent, while clouds are extremely reflective in the visible spectrum of solar radiation. The radiative transfer in clear-cloudy condition is highly three- dimensional (3D). This paper focuses on estimating the 3D effects on aerosol optical thickness retrievals using Monte Carlo simulations. An ASTER image of cumulus cloud fields in the biomass burning region in Brazil is simulated in this study. The MODIS products (i-e., cloud optical thickness, particle effective radius, cloud top pressure, surface reflectance, etc.) are used to construct the cloud property and surface reflectance fields. To estimate the cloud 3-D effects, we assume a plane-parallel stratification of aerosol properties in the 60 km x 60 km ASTER image. The simulated solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere is compared with plane-parallel calculations. Furthermore, the 3D cloud radiative effects on aerosol optical thickness retrieval are estimated.

  15. Modelling Water Flow, Heat Transport, Soil Freezing and Thawing, and Snow Processes in a Clayey, Subsurface Drained Agricultural Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsta, L.; Turunen, M.; Koivusalo, H. J.; Paasonen-Kivekäs, M.; Karvonen, T.; Taskinen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Simulation of hydrological processes for the purposes of agricultural water management and protection in boreal environment requires description of winter time processes, including heat transport, soil freezing and thawing, and snow accumulation and melt. Finland is located north of the latitude of 60 degrees and has one third to one fourth of the total agricultural land area (2.3 milj. ha) on clay soils (> 30% of clay). Most of the clayey fields are subsurface drained to provide efficient drainage and to enable heavy machines to operate on the fields as soon as possible after the spring snowmelt. Generation of drainflow and surface runoff in cultivated fields leads to nutrient and sediment load, which forms the major share of the total load reaching surface waters at the national level. Water, suspended sediment, and soluble nutrients on clayey field surface are conveyed through the soil profile to the subsurface drains via macropore pathways as the clayey soil matrix is almost impermeable. The objective of the study was to develop the missing winter related processes into the FLUSH model, including soil heat transport, snow pack simulation and the effects of soil freezing and thawing on the soil hydraulic conductivity. FLUSH is an open source (MIT license), distributed, process-based model designed to simulate surface runoff and drainflow in clayey, subsurface drained agricultural fields. 2-D overland flow is described with the diffuse wave approximation of the Saint Venant equations and 3-D subsurface flow with a dual-permeability model. Both macropores and soil matrix are simulated with the Richards equation. Soil heat transport is described with a modified 3-D convection-diffusion equation. Runoff and groundwater data was available from different periods from January 1994 to April 1999 measured in a clayey, subsurface drained field section (3.6 ha) in southern Finland. Soil temperature data was collected in two locations (to a depth of 0.8 m) next to the

  16. Interactively Improving Agricultural Field Mapping in Sub-Saharan Africa with Crowd-Sourcing and Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debats, S. R.; Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    As satellite imagery becomes increasingly available, management of large image databases becomes more important for efficient image processing. We have developed a computer vision-based classification algorithm to distinguish smallholder agricultural land cover in Sub-Saharan Africa, using a group of high-resolution images from South Africa as a case study. For supervised classification, smallholder agriculture, with ambiguous patterns of small, irregular fields, requires a wide range of training data samples to adequately describe the variability in appearance. We employ crowd-sourcing to obtain new training data to expand the geographic range of our algorithm. A crowd-sourcing user is asked to hand-digitize the boundaries of agricultural fields in an assigned 1 km2 image. Yet random assignment of images to users could result in a highly redundant training data set with limited discriminative power. Furthermore, larger training data sets require a greater number of users to hand-digitize fields, which increases costs through crowd-sourcing engines like Amazon Mechanical Turk, as well as longer algorithm training times, which increases computing costs. Therefore, we employ an active learning approach to interactively select the most informative images to be hand-digitized for training data by crowd-sourcing users, based on changes in algorithm accuracy. We investigate the use of various image similarity measures used in content-based image retrieval systems, which quantify the distance, such as Euclidean distance or Manhattan distance, between a variety of extracted feature spaces to determine how similar the content of two images are. We determine the minimum training data set needed to maximize algorithm accuracy, as well as automate the selection of additional training images to classify a new target image that expands the geographic range of our algorithm.

  17. Biodiversity in Organic Farmland - How Does Landscape Context Influence Species Diversity in Organic Vs. Conventional Agricultural Fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seufert, V.; Wood, S.; Reid, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Rhemtulla, J.; Ramankutty, N.

    2014-12-01

    The most important current driver of biodiversity loss is the conversion of natural habitats for human land uses, mostly for the purpose of food production. However, by causing this biodiversity loss, food production is eroding the very same ecosystem services (e.g. pollination and soil fertility) that it depends on. We therefore need to adopt more wildlife-friendly agricultural practices that can contribute to preserving biodiversity. Organic farming has been shown to typically host higher biodiversity than conventional farming. But how is the biodiversity benefit of organic management dependent on the landscape context farms are situated in? To implement organic farming as an effective means for protecting biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem services we need to understand better under what conditions organic management is most beneficial for species. We conducted a meta-analysis of the literature to answer this question, compiling the most comprehensive database to date of studies that monitored biodiversity in organic vs. conventional fields. We also collected information about the landscape surrounding these fields from remote sensing products. Our database consists of 348 study sites across North America and Europe. Our analysis shows that organic management can improve biodiversity in agricultural fields substantially. It is especially effective at preserving biodiversity in homogeneous landscapes that are structurally simplified and dominated by either cropland or pasture. In heterogeneous landscapes conventional agriculture might instead already hold high biodiversity, and organic management does not appear to provide as much of a benefit for species richness as in simplified landscapes. Our results suggest that strategies to maintain biodiversity-dependent ecosystem services should include a combination of pristine natural habitats, wildlife-friendly farming systems like organic farming, and high-yielding conventional systems, interspersed in structurally

  18. Effects of agricultural fungicides on microorganisms associated with floral nectar: susceptibility assays and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Bartlewicz, Jacek; Pozo, María I; Honnay, Olivier; Lievens, Bart; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides have become an inseparable element of agricultural intensification. While the direct impact of pesticides on non-target organisms, such as pollinators, has recently received much attention, less consideration has been given to the microorganisms that are associated with them. Specialist yeasts and bacteria are known to commonly inhabit floral nectar and change its chemical characteristics in numerous ways, possibly influencing pollinator attraction. In this study, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of nectar yeasts Metschnikowia gruessi, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Candida bombi to six widely used agricultural fungicides (prothioconazole, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin, fenamidone, boscalid, and fluopyram). Next, a commercial antifungal mixture containing tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin was applied to natural populations of the plant Linaria vulgaris and the occurrence, abundance, and diversity of nectar-inhabiting yeasts and bacteria was compared between treated and untreated plants. The results showed that prothioconazole and tebuconazole were highly toxic to nectar yeasts, inhibiting their growth at concentrations varying between 0.06 and 0.5 mg/L. Azoxystrobin, fenamidone, boscalid, and fluopyram on the other hand exhibited considerably lower toxicity, inhibiting yeast growth at concentrations between 1 and 32 mg/L or in many cases not inhibiting microbial growth at all. The application of the antifungal mixture in natural plant populations resulted in a significant decrease in the occurrence and abundance of yeasts in individual flowers, but this did not translate into noticeable changes in bacterial incidence and abundance. Yeast and bacterial species richness and distribution did not also differ between treated and untreated plants. We conclude that the application of fungicides may have negative effects on the abundance of nectar yeasts in floral nectar. The consequences of these effects on plant pollination processes in agricultural

  19. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  20. Field Measurement on the Emissions of PM, OC, EC and PAHs from Indoor Crop Straw Burning in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Siye; Shen, Guofeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Xue, Miao; Xie, Han; Lin, Pengchuan; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Field measurements were conducted to measure emission factors of particulate matter (EFPM), organic carbon (EFOC), elemental carbon (EFEC), 28 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EF28pPAHs), and 4 oxygenated PAHs (EF4oPAHs) for four types of crop straws burnt in two stoves with similar structure but different ages. The average EFPM, EFOC, EFEC, EF28pPAHs, and EF4oPAHs were 9.1±5.7 (1.8 – 22 as range), 2.6±2.9 (0.30 – 12), 1.1±1.2 (0.086 – 5.5), 0.26±0.19 (0.076 – 0.96), 0.011±0.14 (1.3×10−4 – 0.063) g/kg, respectively. Much high EF28pPAHs was observed in field compared with the laboratory derived EFs and significant difference in EF28pPAHs was identified among different crop residues, indicating considerable underestimation when laboratory derived EFs were used in the inventory. The field measured EFPM, EFOC, and EFEC were significantly affected by stove age and the EFs of carbonaceous particles for the 15-year old stove were approximately 2.5 times of those for the 1-year old stove. PMID:24012787

  1. Spatial variability of soil magnetic susceptibility in an agricultural field located in Eastern Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) have been used to characterize soil properties. It gives an indirect information about heavy metals content and degree of human impacts on soil contamination derived from atmospheric pollution (Girault et al., 2011). This method is inexpensive in relation to chemical analysis and very useful to track soil pollution, since several toxic components deposited on soil surface are rich in particulates produced by oxidation processes (Boyko et al., 2004; Morton-Bernea et al., 2009). Thus, identify the spatial distribution of MS is of major importance, since can give an indirect information of high metals content (Dankoub et al., 2012). This allows also to distinguish the pedogenic and technogenic origin magnetic signal. For example Ukraine chernozems contain fine-grained oxidized magnetite and maghemite of pedogenic origin formed by weathering of the parent material (Jeleńska et al., 2004). However, to a correct understanding of variables distribution, the identification of the most accurate interpolation method is fundamental for a better interpretation of map information (Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this work is to study the spatial variability of soil MS in an agricultural fields located in the Tcherkascy Tishki area (50.11°N, 36.43 °E, 162 m a.s.l), Ukraine. Soil MS was measured in 77 sampling points in a north facing slope. To estimate the best interpolation method, several interpolation methods were tested, as inverse distance to a weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2, Global Polynomial (GP), radial basis functions - spline with tension (SPT), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquatratic (MTQ), inverse multiquatratic (IMTQ), and thin plate spline (TPS) - and some geostatistical methods as, ordinary kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK), used in previous works (Pereira et al., 2014). On average, the soil MS of the studied plot had 686

  2. Spatial variability of soil magnetic susceptibility in an agricultural field located in Eastern Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) have been used to characterize soil properties. It gives an indirect information about heavy metals content and degree of human impacts on soil contamination derived from atmospheric pollution (Girault et al., 2011). This method is inexpensive in relation to chemical analysis and very useful to track soil pollution, since several toxic components deposited on soil surface are rich in particulates produced by oxidation processes (Boyko et al., 2004; Morton-Bernea et al., 2009). Thus, identify the spatial distribution of MS is of major importance, since can give an indirect information of high metals content (Dankoub et al., 2012). This allows also to distinguish the pedogenic and technogenic origin magnetic signal. For example Ukraine chernozems contain fine-grained oxidized magnetite and maghemite of pedogenic origin formed by weathering of the parent material (Jeleńska et al., 2004). However, to a correct understanding of variables distribution, the identification of the most accurate interpolation method is fundamental for a better interpretation of map information (Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this work is to study the spatial variability of soil MS in an agricultural fields located in the Tcherkascy Tishki area (50.11°N, 36.43 °E, 162 m a.s.l), Ukraine. Soil MS was measured in 77 sampling points in a north facing slope. To estimate the best interpolation method, several interpolation methods were tested, as inverse distance to a weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2, Global Polynomial (GP), radial basis functions - spline with tension (SPT), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquatratic (MTQ), inverse multiquatratic (IMTQ), and thin plate spline (TPS) - and some geostatistical methods as, ordinary kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK), used in previous works (Pereira et al., 2014). On average, the soil MS of the studied plot had 686

  3. Game-based mass casualty burn training.

    PubMed

    Kurenov, Sergei N; Cance, William W; Noel, Ben; Mozingo, David W

    2009-01-01

    An interactive, video game-based training module, Burn Center, was developed to simulate the real-life emergency events of a mass casualty disaster scenario, involving in 40 victims.The game contains two components - triage and resuscitation. The goal of the triage game is to correctly stabilize, sort, tag and transport burn victims during a mass casualty event at a busy theme park. After complete the triage component, the player will then take on the role of a burn care provider, balancing the clinical needs of multiple burn patients through a 36-hour resuscitation period, using familiar computer-simulated hospital devices. Once complete, players of Burn Center will come away with applicable skills and knowledge of burn care, for both field triage and initial resuscitation of the burn patients. PMID:19377134

  4. Utility of thermal image sharpening for monitoring field-scale evapotranspiration over rainfed and irrigated agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, Nurit; Kustas, William P.; Anderson, Martha C.; Li, Fuqin; Colaizzi, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The utility of a thermal image sharpening algorithm (TsHARP) in providing fine resolution land surface temperature data to a Two-Source-Model for mapping evapotranspiration (ET) was examined over two agricultural regions in the U.S. One site is in a rainfed corn and soybean production region in central Iowa. The other lies within the Texas High Plains, an irrigated agricultural area. It is concluded that in the absence of fine (sub-field scale) resolution thermal data, TsHARP provides an important tool for monitoring ET over rainfed agricultural areas. In contrast, over irrigated regions, TsHARP applied to kilometer-resolution thermal imagery is unable to provide accurate fine resolution land surface temperature due to significant sub-pixel moisture variations that are not captured in the sharpening procedure. Consequently, reliable estimation of ET and crop stress requires thermal imagery acquired at high spatial resolution, resolving the dominant length-scales of moisture variability present within the landscape.

  5. Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, LI; Sedlacek, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) was conducted to obtain a better understanding of how aerosols generated from biomass fires affect the atmosphere and climate. It is estimated that 40% of carbonaceous aerosol produced originates from biomass burning—enough to affect regional and global climate. Several biomass-burning studies have focused on tropical climates; however, few campaigns have been conducted within the United States, where millions of acres are burned each year, trending to higher values and greater climate impacts because of droughts in the West. Using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF), the BBOP deployed the Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft over smoke plumes from active wildfire and agricultural burns to help identify the impact of these events and how impacts evolve with time. BBOP was one of very few studies that targeted the near-field time evolution of aerosols and aimed to obtain a process-level understanding of the large changes that occur within a few hours of atmospheric processing.

  6. Field evaluation of willow under short rotation coppice for phytomanagement of metal-polluted agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Van Slycken, Stijn; Witters, Nele; Meiresonne, Linda; Meers, Erik; Ruttens, Ann; Van Peteghem, Pierre; Weyens, Nele; Tack, Filip M G; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2013-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) of willow and poplar might be a promising phytoremediation option since it uses fast growing, high biomass producing tree species with often a sufficient metal uptake. This study evaluates growth, metal uptake and extraction potentials of eight willow clones (Belders, Belgisch Rood, Christina, Inger, Jorr, Loden, Tora and Zwarte Driebast) on a metal-contaminated agricultural soil, with total cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations of 6.5 +/- 0.8 and 377 +/- 69 mg kg(-1) soil, respectively. Although, during the first cycle, on average generally low productivity levels (3.7 ton DM (dry matter) ha(-1) y(-1)) were obtained on this sandy soil, certain clones exhibited quite acceptable productivity levels (e.g. Zwarte Driebast 12.5 ton DM ha(-1) y(-1)). Even at low biomass productivity levels, SRC of willow showed promising removal potentials of 72 g Cd and 2.0 kg Zn ha(-1) y(-1), which is much higher than e.g. energy maize or rapeseed grown on the same soil Cd and Zn removal can be increased by 40% if leaves are harvested as well. Nevertheless, nowadays the wood price remains the most critical factor in order to implement SRC as an acceptable, economically feasible alternative crop on metal-contaminated agricultural soils.

  7. Influence of a riparian wetland on nitrate and herbicides exported from an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Angier, Jonathan T; McCarty, Gregory W; Rice, Clifford P; Bialek, Krystyna

    2002-07-17

    Agrochemicals are a major source of nonpoint pollution. Forested corridors along stream channels (riparian zones) are thought to be potential sites for removal of agricultural contaminants from ground and surface waters. First-order riparian wetlands are reputed to be especially effective at groundwater remediation. The study site is a fairly typical (for eastern Maryland) small, first-order stream in an agricultural watershed. Preferential flow supplies most of the stream water within the riparian headwater wetland. This upstream area also contains the highest average stream N and pesticide loads in the entire first-order riparian system. Zones of active groundwater emergence onto the surface display high concentrations of nitrate throughout the soil profile and in the exfiltrating water, whereas inactive areas (where there is no visible upwelling) show rapid attenuation of nitrate with decreasing depths. Atrazine degradation products appear to penetrate more readily through the most active upwelling zones, and there is a correlation between zones of high nitrate and high atrazine metabolite levels. Deethylatrazine/atrazine ratios (DAR) seem to indicate that stream flow is dominated by ground water and that much of the ground water may have reached the stream via preferential flow. Remediative processes appear to be very complex, heterogeneous, and variable in these systems, so additional research is needed before effective formulation and application of riparian zone initiatives and guidelines can be accomplished.

  8. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  9. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  10. Phosphorus Transport at the Field Scale by Monitoring Groundwater and Interflow Discharge in Hydrologically Sensitive Areas in Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Lopez, F.; Geohring, L.; Steenhuis, T.

    2004-05-01

    Quantification of nonpoint source of phosphorus losses through agricultural land is important because hydrologically active areas can significantly affect water quality. In this study we examined phosphorus concentration and phosphorus losses from hydrologically sensitive areas and upland areas located in valley soils in the Cannosville basin in Catskill Mountains. Phosphorus concentrations as low as 0.01 - 0.02 mg/L in water increase the algael bloom in lakes and reservoirs and the Cannosville basin is currently restricted to 0.02mg/L. We measured grab surface water samples taken along the creeks to study the phosphorus concentration in the sub-superficial runoff that drains water from the surrounding hills. Also we installed two different transects of piezometers, one line upstream and one line downstream, to study the role of the groundwater component and its effect in the hydrologically sensitive areas. We generally found low phosphorus concentration in the grab surface water samples and the groundwater samples taken in the piezometers. Sampling during the highest creek flow has resulted in the highest concentrations, generally near 0.05 mg/L of dissolved reactive phosphorus. These concentrations were slightly higher than the concentrations in most of the wells, which were around 0.03 mg/L. Sampling is ongoing to determine the effects snow melt contributions. Results will be presented to show the seasonal effects of phosphorus in the hydrologically sensitive areas.

  11. Towards the Development of a Smart Flying Sensor: Illustration in the Field of Precision Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Andres; Murcia, Harold; Copot, Cosmin; De Keyser, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Sensing is an important element to quantify productivity, product quality and to make decisions. Applications, such as mapping, surveillance, exploration and precision agriculture, require a reliable platform for remote sensing. This paper presents the first steps towards the development of a smart flying sensor based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The concept of smart remote sensing is illustrated and its performance tested for the task of mapping the volume of grain inside a trailer during forage harvesting. Novelty lies in: (1) the development of a position-estimation method with time delay compensation based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and image processing; (2) a method to build a 3D map using information obtained from a regular camera; and (3) the design and implementation of a path-following control algorithm using model predictive control (MPC). Experimental results on a lab-scale system validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. PMID:26184205

  12. Towards the Development of a Smart Flying Sensor: Illustration in the Field of Precision Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Andres; Murcia, Harold; Copot, Cosmin; De Keyser, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Sensing is an important element to quantify productivity, product quality and to make decisions. Applications, such as mapping, surveillance, exploration and precision agriculture, require a reliable platform for remote sensing. This paper presents the first steps towards the development of a smart flying sensor based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The concept of smart remote sensing is illustrated and its performance tested for the task of mapping the volume of grain inside a trailer during forage harvesting. Novelty lies in: (1) the development of a position-estimation method with time delay compensation based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and image processing; (2) a method to build a 3D map using information obtained from a regular camera; and (3) the design and implementation of a path-following control algorithm using model predictive control (MPC). Experimental results on a lab-scale system validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. PMID:26184205

  13. A persistent scatterer interpolation for retrieving accurate ground deformation over InSAR-decorrelated agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingyi; Zebker, Howard A.; Knight, Rosemary

    2015-11-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a radar remote sensing technique for measuring surface deformation to millimeter-level accuracy at meter-scale resolution. Obtaining accurate deformation measurements in agricultural regions is difficult because the signal is often decorrelated due to vegetation growth. We present here a new algorithm for retrieving InSAR deformation measurements over areas with severe vegetation decorrelation using adaptive phase interpolation between persistent scatterer (PS) pixels, those points at which surface scattering properties do not change much over time and thus decorrelation artifacts are minimal. We apply this algorithm to L-band ALOS interferograms acquired over the San Luis Valley, Colorado, and the Tulare Basin, California. In both areas, the pumping of groundwater for irrigation results in deformation of the land that can be detected using InSAR. We show that the PS-based algorithm can significantly reduce the artifacts due to vegetation decorrelation while preserving the deformation signature.

  14. Towards the Development of a Smart Flying Sensor: Illustration in the Field of Precision Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Andres; Murcia, Harold; Copot, Cosmin; De Keyser, Robin

    2015-07-10

    Sensing is an important element to quantify productivity, product quality and to make decisions. Applications, such as mapping, surveillance, exploration and precision agriculture, require a reliable platform for remote sensing. This paper presents the first steps towards the development of a smart flying sensor based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The concept of smart remote sensing is illustrated and its performance tested for the task of mapping the volume of grain inside a trailer during forage harvesting. Novelty lies in: (1) the development of a position-estimation method with time delay compensation based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and image processing; (2) a method to build a 3D map using information obtained from a regular camera; and (3) the design and implementation of a path-following control algorithm using model predictive control (MPC). Experimental results on a lab-scale system validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  15. Natural establishment of woody species on abandoned agricultural fields in the lower Mississippi Valley: first- and second-year results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; McCoy, J.W.; Keeland, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    The natural establishment of woody seedlings on abandoned agricultural fields was investigated at sites in Louisiana and Mississippi. Series of disked and undisked plots originating at forest edges and oriented in cardinal directions were established on fields at each site. During the firest 2 years, seedling recruitment was dominated by sweetgum, sugarberry, and elms at both sites. Seedling establishment was strongly affected by direction from mature forest and disking, and to a slightly lesser degree by distance from mature forest. Slightly under half of the variation in seedling numbers per plot was explained by the effects of direction, distance, and disking, indicating that other factors also may play an important role in seedling recruitment.

  16. Investigating summer flow paths in a Dutch agricultural field using high frequency direct measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsman, J. R.; Waterloo, M. J.; Groen, M. M. A.; Groen, J.; Stuyfzand, P. J.

    2014-11-01

    The search for management strategies to cope with projected water scarcity and water quality deterioration calls for a better understanding of the complex interaction between groundwater and surface water in agricultural catchments. We separately measured flow routes to tile drains and an agricultural ditch in a deep polder in the coastal region of the Netherlands, characterized by exfiltration of brackish regional groundwater flow and intake of diverted river water for irrigation and water quality improvement purposes. We simultaneously measured discharge, electrical conductivity and temperature of these separate flow routes at hourly frequencies, disclosing the complex and time-varying patterns and origins of tile drain and ditch exfiltration. Tile drainage could be characterized as a shallow flow system, showing a non-linear response to groundwater level changes. Tile drainage was fed primarily by meteoric water, but still transported the majority (80%) of groundwater-derived salt to surface water. In contrast, deep brackish groundwater exfiltrating directly in the ditch responded linearly to groundwater level variations and is part of a regional groundwater flow system. We could explain the observed salinity of exfiltrating drain and ditch water from the interaction between the fast-responding pressure distribution in the subsurface that determined groundwater flow paths (wave celerity), and the slow-responding groundwater salinity distribution (water velocity). We found water demand for maintaining water levels and diluting salinity through flushing to greatly exceed the actual sprinkling demand. Counterintuitively, flushing demand was found to be largest during precipitation events, suggesting the possibility of water savings by operational flushing control.

  17. Assessment of soil redistribution rates by (137)Cs and (210)Pbex in a typical Malagasy agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Rabesiranana, N; Rasolonirina, M; Solonjara, A F; Ravoson, H N; Raoelina Andriambololona; Mabit, L

    2016-02-01

    Soil degradation processes affect more than one-third of the Malagasy territory and are considered as the major environmental threat impacting the natural resources of the island. This innovative study reports about a pioneer test and use of radio-isotopic techniques (i.e. Cs-137 and Pb-210ex) under Madagascar agroclimatic condition to evaluate soil erosion magnitude. This preliminary investigation has been conducted in a small agricultural field situated in the eastern central highland of Madagascar, 40 km East from Antananarivo. Both anthropogenic Cs-137 and geogenic Pb-210 soil tracers provided similar results highlighting soil erosion rates reaching locally 18 t ha(-1) yr(-1,) a level almost two times higher than the sustainable soil loss rate under Madagascar agroclimatic condition. The sediment delivery ratio established with both radiotracers was above 80% indicating that most of the mobilized sediment exits the field. Assessing soil erosion rate through fallout radionuclides in Madagascar is a first step towards an efficient land and water resource management policy to optimise the effectiveness of future agricultural soil conservation practices. PMID:26691498

  18. Assessment of soil redistribution rates by (137)Cs and (210)Pbex in a typical Malagasy agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Rabesiranana, N; Rasolonirina, M; Solonjara, A F; Ravoson, H N; Raoelina Andriambololona; Mabit, L

    2016-02-01

    Soil degradation processes affect more than one-third of the Malagasy territory and are considered as the major environmental threat impacting the natural resources of the island. This innovative study reports about a pioneer test and use of radio-isotopic techniques (i.e. Cs-137 and Pb-210ex) under Madagascar agroclimatic condition to evaluate soil erosion magnitude. This preliminary investigation has been conducted in a small agricultural field situated in the eastern central highland of Madagascar, 40 km East from Antananarivo. Both anthropogenic Cs-137 and geogenic Pb-210 soil tracers provided similar results highlighting soil erosion rates reaching locally 18 t ha(-1) yr(-1,) a level almost two times higher than the sustainable soil loss rate under Madagascar agroclimatic condition. The sediment delivery ratio established with both radiotracers was above 80% indicating that most of the mobilized sediment exits the field. Assessing soil erosion rate through fallout radionuclides in Madagascar is a first step towards an efficient land and water resource management policy to optimise the effectiveness of future agricultural soil conservation practices.

  19. Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field, and laboratory sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems are reviewed. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to the spectral properties of crops and soils are addressed.

  20. Waterfowl density on agricultural fields managed to retain water in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Nelms, C.O.

    1999-01-01

    Managed water on private and public land provides habitat for wintering waterfowl in the Mississippi Valley, where flood control projects have reduced the area of natural flooding. We compared waterfowl densities on rice, soybean, and moist-soil fields under cooperative agreements to retain water from 1 November through 28 February in Arkansas and Mississippi and assessed temporal changes in waterfowl density during winter in 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. Fields flooded earlier in Arkansas, but retained water later in Mississippi. Over winter, waterfowl densities decreased in Arkansas and increased in Mississippi. Densities of waterfowl, including mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), the most abundant species observed, were greatest on moist-soil fields. However, soybean fields had the greatest densities of northern shoveler (Spatula clypeata).

  1. Predation by carabid beetles on the invasive slug Arion vulgaris in an agricultural semi-field experiment.

    PubMed

    Pianezzola, E; Roth, S; Hatteland, B A

    2013-04-01

    Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon 1855 is one of the most important invasive species in Europe, affecting both biodiversity and agriculture. The species is spreading in many parts of Europe, inflicting severe damage to horticultural plants and cultivated crops partly due to a lack of satisfactory and effective management solutions. Molluscicides have traditionally been used to manage slug densities, although the effects are variable and some have severe side-effects on other biota. Thus, there is a need to explore potential alternatives such as biological control. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is the only biological agent that has been applied commercially so far. However, other biological control agents such as carabid beetles have also been found to be promising. In addition, some carabid species have been shown to feed on A. vulgaris in the field as well as in the laboratory. Two species in particular have been found to be important predators of A. vulgaris, and these species are also common in agricultural environments: Pterostichus melanarius and Carabus nemoralis. This study is the first to use semi-field experiments in a strawberry field, manipulating densities, to investigate how P. melanarius and C. nemoralis affect densities of A. vulgaris eggs and juveniles, respectively. Gut contents of C. nemoralis were analysed using multiplex PCR methods to detect DNA of juvenile slugs. Results show that both P. melanarius and C. nemoralis significantly affect densities of slug eggs and juvenile slugs under semi-field conditions and that C. nemoralis seems to prefer slugs smaller than one gram. Carabus nemoralis seems to be especially promising in reducing densities of A. vulgaris, and future studies should investigate the potential of using this species as a biological control agent.

  2. Enhancement of the Initial Growth Rate of Agricultural Plants by Using Static Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung C; Mason, Alex; Im, Wooseok

    2016-01-01

    Electronic devices and high-voltage wires induce magnetic fields. A magnetic field of 1,300-2,500 Gauss (0.2 Tesla) was applied to Petri dishes containing seeds of Garden Balsam (Impatiens balsamina), Mizuna (Brassica rapa var. japonica), Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), and Mescluns (Lepidium sativum). We applied magnets under the culture dish. During the 4 days of application, we observed that the stem and root length increased. The group subjected to magnetic field treatment (n = 10) showed a 1.4 times faster rate of growth compared with the control group (n = 11) in a total of 8 days (p <0.0005). This rate is 20% higher than that reported in previous studies. The tubulin complex lines did not have connecting points, but connecting points occur upon the application of magnets. This shows complete difference from the control, which means abnormal arrangements. However, the exact cause remains unclear. These results of growth enhancement of applying magnets suggest that it is possible to enhance the growth rate, increase productivity, or control the speed of germination of plants by applying static magnetic fields. Also, magnetic fields can cause physiological changes in plant cells and can induce growth. Therefore, stimulation with a magnetic field can have possible effects that are similar to those of chemical fertilizers, which means that the use of fertilizers can be avoided.

  3. Enhancement of the Initial Growth Rate of Agricultural Plants by Using Static Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung C; Mason, Alex; Im, Wooseok

    2016-01-01

    Electronic devices and high-voltage wires induce magnetic fields. A magnetic field of 1,300-2,500 Gauss (0.2 Tesla) was applied to Petri dishes containing seeds of Garden Balsam (Impatiens balsamina), Mizuna (Brassica rapa var. japonica), Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), and Mescluns (Lepidium sativum). We applied magnets under the culture dish. During the 4 days of application, we observed that the stem and root length increased. The group subjected to magnetic field treatment (n = 10) showed a 1.4 times faster rate of growth compared with the control group (n = 11) in a total of 8 days (p <0.0005). This rate is 20% higher than that reported in previous studies. The tubulin complex lines did not have connecting points, but connecting points occur upon the application of magnets. This shows complete difference from the control, which means abnormal arrangements. However, the exact cause remains unclear. These results of growth enhancement of applying magnets suggest that it is possible to enhance the growth rate, increase productivity, or control the speed of germination of plants by applying static magnetic fields. Also, magnetic fields can cause physiological changes in plant cells and can induce growth. Therefore, stimulation with a magnetic field can have possible effects that are similar to those of chemical fertilizers, which means that the use of fertilizers can be avoided. PMID:27500712

  4. Simulations of the Neutral-beam-induced Rotation, Radial Electric Field, and Flow Shearing Rate in Next-step Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    R.V. Budny

    2002-08-13

    Toroidal rotation of plasmas in present tokamaks is beneficial for increasing the stability to wall-induced MHD and appears to reduce the anomalous transport associated with micro-turbulence. This paper calculates the toroidal rotation expected from neutral-beam injection in the proposed FIRE and ITER-FEAT tokamak reactors. Self-consistent burning plasmas for these tokamaks have been constructed using the TRANSP plasma analysis code. Neutral-beam injection has been proposed for FIRE and ITER-FEAT. The neutral-beam-induced torques are computed, and assumptions for the anomalous transport of toroidal angular momentum are used to calculate the toroidal rotation profiles. The central Mach numbers are about 3-8%. The ratio of the rotation speed to the Alfvin speed is less than 1%. Assuming neoclassical poloidal rotation and force balance, the radial electric field and flow shearing rate are calculated. Peak shearing rates near the outboard edge are in the 10-100 krad/s range.

  5. New directional archeomagnetic data of burned cave sediments from Switzerland and geomagnetic field variations in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapper, K. L.; Donadini, F.; Mauvilly, M.; Panovska, S.; Hirt, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents new directional archeomagnetic data from nine Meso-/Neolithic fireplaces, sampled in a cave shelter, at Arconciel, in western Switzerland. Rock magnetic measurements indicate a homogenous magnetic mineralogy in all fireplaces, with magnetite as the main magnetic carrier. The remanent magnetization is stable and generally shows one characteristic directional component. Nine new directions, which were obtained from Arconciel, are combined with 356 other archeomagnetic data from a circular area with a radius of 700 km around this site, to obtain a penalized least square spline fit for the past 9000 yr. We found in general good agreement with other local compilations, such as the Balkan curve, the regional SCHA.DIF.8k model and with lake sediments from UK, Fennoscandia and Switzerland. Nevertheless, a time lag of several centuries is observed for a declination maximum between the archeomagnetic spline fit and the other European data records around 5900 BC. This time lag is also observed in the Swiss lake sediment record; therefore we interpret this shift as a local feature of the Earth's magnetic field.

  6. Neutral-beam-injection fueling for a small, D-3He burning, field-reversed-configuration reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttolph, Michael; Stotler, Daren; Cohen, Samuel

    2013-10-01

    Rocket propulsion powered by the D-3He fusion reaction in a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) has been proposed for a variety of solar-system missions. Two key unique features of this concept are a relatively small, 25-cm-radius, plasma core and a relatively thick (10 cm), dense (1e14 cm3), and cool (100 eV electron temperature) scrape-off layer (SOL). The SOL contains the heated propellant - likely hydrogen, deuterium or helium - and also fusion reaction products at a lower density (ca. 1e12 cm-3). A critical design question is the refueling of the fusion reactants. A moderate energy neutral-beam method is considered. It must be able to penetrate the SOL without significant losses but must be stopped in the core. DEGAS 2, a Monte-Carlo code designed to model neutral transport, was implemented to simulate beam-plasma interactions including ionization and charge exchange of the neutral beam's helium-3 and deuterium atoms by impact in the SOL and core plasma with thermal plasma constituents and fusion reaction products. Operational methods to alleviate the effects deleterious reactions such as deuterium charge-exchange in the SOL are described.

  7. Patient safety measures in burn care: do National reporting systems accurately reflect quality of burn care?

    PubMed

    Mandell, Samuel P; Robinson, Ellen F; Cooper, Claudette L; Klein, Matthew B; Gibran, Nicole S

    2010-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been placed on quality of care metrics and patient safety. Groups such as the University Health-System Consortium (UHC) collect and review patient safety data, monitor healthcare facilities, and often report data using mortality and complication rates as outcomes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the UHC database to determine if it differentiates quality of care across burn centers. We reviewed UHC clinical database (CDB) fields and available data from 2006 to 2008 for the burn product line. Based on the September 2008 American Burn Association (ABA) list of verified burn centers, we categorized centers as American Burn Association-verified burn centers, self-identified burn centers, and other centers that are not burn units but admit some burn patients. We compared total burn admissions, risk pool, complication rates, and mortality rates. Overall mortality was compared between the UHC and National Burn Repository. The UHC CDB provides fields for number of admissions, % intensive care unit admission, risk pool, length of stay, complication profiles, and mortality index. The overall numbers of burn patients in the database for the study period included 17,740 patients admitted to verified burn centers (mean 631 admissions/burn center/yr or per 2 years), 10,834 for self-identified burn centers (mean 437 admissions/burn center/yr or per 2 years), and 1,487 for other centers (mean 11.5 admissions/burn center/yr or per 2 years). Reported complication rates for verified burn centers (21.6%), self-identified burn centers (21.3%), and others (20%) were similar. Mortality rates were highest for self-identified burn centers (3.06%), less for verified centers (2.88%), and lowest for other centers (0.74%). However, these outcomes data may be misleading, because the risk pool criteria do not include burn-specific risk factors, and the inability to adjust for injury severity prevents rigorous comparison across centers. Databases such as the

  8. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    PubMed

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306 U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7 mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2 days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48 h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up.

  9. Hydrological and erosion processes in terraced agricultural fields: observations from a wet Mediterranean region in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Rodriguez-Blanco, María Luz; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Oliveira Alves Coelho, Celeste; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Traditional agriculture in the mountainous humid regions of the northwestern Iberian peninsula has relied on terraces for soil retention. In the last decades, a strong afforestation (in many cases with commercial species) has led to the appearance of large forest areas coexisting with traditional agricultural landscapes. Soil erosion research in this region has therefore focused on the impact of forest management practices and associated disturbances such as wildfires. However, there has been little research on the impacts of traditional terracing practices on erosion, and therefore it has been difficult to connect forest research with the wider issue of sediment connectivity in this complex agroforestry landscape. This work tried to address this research gap by monitoring an agricultural terrace in the Caramulo mountains, northern Portugal, during two years. The field site is located in a humid Mediterranean climate region, with c. 1500 mm/y rainfall, overlaying granite bedrock; agricultural practices are a traditional rotation between winter pasture and summer (irrigated) corn cultivation. During this period, the soil properties of the terrace were characterized, and there was a continuous monitoring of rainfall, soil moisture and surface runoff at the outlet, as well as 1 or 2-weekly collections of runoff to measure sediment yield. Occasional measurements of vegetation cover and erosion features (rills) within the plot were also made. Preliminary results indicate that runoff generation occurred mostly due to saturation-excess, possibly linked with the accumulation of groundwater in the lower layers of the soil. After one of the largest events, there was a clear inflow of runoff from outside the terrace, through either the irrigation network linking all terraces or by resurfacing of groundwater. Sediment yield was linked with runoff, but sediment concentration was linked with vegetation cover and was highest during the early stages of pasture growth. However

  10. Long-term monitoring of nitrate-N transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is necessary to sustain most modern crop production, but poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is imperative if there is to be differentiated N-regulation in future. This study describes nitrate-N leaching to drainage based on coherent monitoring of nitrate-N concentrations, the climate, the groundwater table and crop-specific parameters obtained over eleven years (2001-2011) at three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha). The monitoring results showed significant field differences in nitrate-N transport to drainage. Not only were these caused by periods of bare soil after short-season crops and N-fixing crops (pea), which have been shown to generate high nitrate-N concentrations in drainage, but by the hydrogeological field conditions that were shown to be the controlling factor of nitrate-N transport to drainage. The fields had the following characteristics: (A) the lowest mass transport (13 kg N ha-1) and fertiliser input had short-term and low-intensity drainage with the highest nitrate-N concentrations detected, representing 40% of net precipitation (226 mm) combined with low air temperatures, (B) the medium mass transport (14 kg N ha-1) had medium-term and medium-intensity drainage, representing 42% of net precipitation (471 mm) combined with periods of both low and higher air temperatures, (C) the highest mass transport (19 kg N ha-1) had long-term drainage, representing 68% of net precipitation (617 mm), but had the highest potential for in-situ soil denitrification and post-treatment (e.g. constructed wetlands) due to long periods with both high water

  11. Intensive field measurements of nitrous oxide emissions from a tropical agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crill, P. M.; Keller, M.; Weitz, A.; Grauel, B.; Veldkamp, E.

    2000-03-01

    The amount of nitrous oxide (N2O) continues to increase in the atmosphere. Agricultural use of nitrogen fertilizers in the tropics is thought to be an important source of atmospheric N2O. High frequency, highly precise measurements of the N2O flux were made with an automated system deployed in N fertilized and unfertilized agricultural plots of papaya and corn in Costa Rica for an entire corn crop growth to harvest cycle. N2O fluxes were as high as 64 ng N-N2O cm-2 h-1 from fertilized versus 12 ng N-N2O cm-2 h-1 from unfertilized corn and 28 ng N-N2O cm-2 h-1 from fertilized versus 4.6 ng N-N2O cm-2 h-1 from unfertilized papaya. Fertilized corn released more N2O than fertilized papaya over the 125 days of the crop cycle, 1.83 kg N ha-1 versus 1.37 kg N ha-1. This represents a loss as N2O of 1.1 and 0.9% of the total N applied as ammonium nitrate to the corn and papaya, respectively. As has often been observed, N2O fluxes were highly variable. The fastest rates of emission were associated with fertilization and high soil moisture. A diurnal cycle in the fluxes was not evident probably due to the minimal day/night temperature fluctuations. Each chamber was measured between 509 and 523 times over the course of the experiment. This allows us to evaluate the effect on constructed mean fluxes of lowered sampling frequencies. Sampling each collar about once a day throughout the crop cycle (25% of the data set) could result in a calculated mean flux from any individual chamber that can vary by as much as 20% even though the calculated mean would probably be within 10% of the mean of the complete data set. The uncertainty increases very rapidly at lower sampling frequencies. For example, if only 10% of the data set were used which would be the equivalent of sampling every other day, a very high sampling frequency in terms of manual measurements, the calculated mean flux could vary by as much as 40% or more at any given site.

  12. Infrared-temperature variability in a large agricultural field. [Dunnigan, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Goettelman, R. C.; Leroy, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The combined effect of water carved gullies, varying soil color, moisture state of the soil and crop, nonuniform phenology, and bare spots was measured for commercially grown barley planted on varying terrain. For all but the most rugged terrain, over 80% of the area within 4, 16, 65, and 259 ha cells was at temperatures within 3 C of the mean cell temperature. The result of using relatively small, 4 ha instantaneous field of views for remote sensing applications is that either the worst or the best of conditions is often observed. There appears to be no great advantage in utilizing a small instantaneous field of view instead of a large one for remote sensing of crop canopy temperatures. The two alternatives for design purposes are then either a very high spatial resolution, of the order of a meter or so, where the field is very accurately temperature mapped, or a low resolution, where the actual size seems to make little difference.

  13. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Vanzyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    Polarimetric signatures from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert show systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright 'spokes', which seems to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripple on the relatively vegetationless fields. A Late Pleistocene/Holocene sand bar deposit, which can be identified in the radar images, is probably responsible for the failure of three fields to match the age sequence patterns in roughness and peak shift.

  14. Operation of agricultural test fields for study of stressed crops by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toler, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A test site for the study of winter wheat development and collection of ERTS data was established in September of 1973. The test site is a 10 mile square area located 12.5 miles west of Amarillo, Texas on Interstate Hwy. 40, in Randall and Potter counties. The center of the area is the Southwestern Great Plains Research Center at Bushland, Texas. Within the test area all wheat fields were identified by ground truth and designated irrigated or dryland. The fields in the test area other than wheat were identified as to pasture or the crop that was grown. A ground truth area of hard red winter wheat was established west of Hale Center, Texas. Maps showing the location of winter wheat fields in excess of 40 acres in size within a 10 mile radius were supplied NASA. Satellite data was collected for this test site (ERTS-1).

  15. Field tracer investigation of unsaturated zone flow paths and mechanisms in agricultural soils of northwestern Mississippi, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Kim S.; Nimmo, John R.; Rose, Claire E.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    SummaryIn many farmed areas, intensive application of agricultural chemicals and withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation have led to water quality and supply issues. Unsaturated-zone processes, including preferential flow, play a major role in these effects but are not well understood. In the Bogue Phalia basin, an intensely agricultural area in the Delta region of northwestern Mississippi, the fine-textured soils often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall as well as extensive surface cracking during prolonged dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into drainage ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Downward flow of water below the root zone is considered minimal; regional groundwater models predict only 5% or less of precipitation recharges the heavily used alluvial aquifer. In this study transport mechanisms within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field were assessed by performing a 2-m ring infiltration test with tracers and subsurface monitoring instruments. Seven months after tracer application, 48 continuous cores were collected for tracer extraction to define the extent of water movement and quantify preferential flow using a mass-balance approach. Vertical water movement was rapid below the pond indicating the importance of vertical preferential flow paths in the shallow unsaturated zone, especially to depths where agricultural disturbance occurs. Lateral flow of water at shallow depths was extensive and spatially non-uniform, reaching up to 10 m from the pond within 2 months. Within 1 month, the wetting front reached a textural boundary at 4-5 m between the fine-textured soil and sandy alluvium, now a potential capillary barrier which, prior to extensive irrigation withdrawals, was below the water table. Within 10 weeks, tracer was detectable at the water table which is presently about 12 m below land surface. Results indicate that 43% of percolation may be through

  16. Field tracer investigation of unsaturated zone flow paths and mechanisms in agricultural soils of northwestern Mississippi, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, K.S.; Nimmo, J.R.; Rose, C.E.; Coupe, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    In many farmed areas, intensive application of agricultural chemicals and withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation have led to water quality and supply issues. Unsaturated-zone processes, including preferential flow, play a major role in these effects but are not well understood. In the Bogue Phalia basin, an intensely agricultural area in the Delta region of northwestern Mississippi, the fine-textured soils often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall as well as extensive surface cracking during prolonged dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into drainage ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Downward flow of water below the root zone is considered minimal; regional groundwater models predict only 5% or less of precipitation recharges the heavily used alluvial aquifer. In this study transport mechanisms within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field were assessed by performing a 2-m ring infiltration test with tracers and subsurface monitoring instruments. Seven months after tracer application, 48 continuous cores were collected for tracer extraction to define the extent of water movement and quantify preferential flow using a mass-balance approach. Vertical water movement was rapid below the pond indicating the importance of vertical preferential flow paths in the shallow unsaturated zone, especially to depths where agricultural disturbance occurs. Lateral flow of water at shallow depths was extensive and spatially non-uniform, reaching up to 10. m from the pond within 2. months. Within 1. month, the wetting front reached a textural boundary at 4-5. m between the fine-textured soil and sandy alluvium, now a potential capillary barrier which, prior to extensive irrigation withdrawals, was below the water table. Within 10. weeks, tracer was detectable at the water table which is presently about 12. m below land surface. Results indicate that 43% of percolation may be through

  17. Standardization of doctoral study in agricultural and extension education: is the field of study mature enough for achievement of the optimum degree of order?

    PubMed

    Briers, G E; Lindner, J R; Shinn, G C; Wingenbach, G W; Baker, M T

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and extension education--or some derivative name--is a field of study leading to the doctoral degree in universities around the world. Is there are body of knowledge or a taxonomy of the knowledge--e.g., a knowledge domain--that one should possess with a doctorate in agricultural and extension education? The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the work of researchers who attempted to define the field of study, with a taxonomy comprising the knowledge domains (standards) and knowledge objects--structured interrelated sets of data, knowledge, and wisdom--of the field of study. Doctoral study in agricultural and extension education needs a document that provides for rules and guidelines--rules and guidelines that in turn provide for common and repeated use--all leading to achievement of an optimum degree of order in the context of academic, scholarly, and professional practice in agricultural and extension education. Thus, one would know in broad categories the knowledge, skills, and abilities possessed by one who holds a doctoral degree in agricultural and extension education. That is, there would exist a standard for doctoral degrees in agricultural and extension education. A content analysis of three previous attempts to categorize knowledge in agricultural and extension education served as the primary technique to create a new taxonomy--or to confirm an existing taxonomy--for doctoral study in agricultural and extension education. The following coalesced as nine essential knowledge domains for a doctorate in agricultural and extension education: (1) history, philosophy, ethics, and policy; (2) agricultural/rural development; (3) organizational development and change management; (4) planning, needs assessment, and evaluation; (5) learning theory; (6) curriculum development and instructional design; (7) teaching methods and delivery strategies; (8) research methods and tools; and, (9) scholarship and communications.

  18. Comparison of equations used for estimating agricultural crop evapotranspiration with field research

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.W.; Johns, E.L.; Frevert, D.K.

    1983-10-01

    Research data on alfalfa water use and related yields were obtained for 10 sites in the Western United States. Similar research data was obtained for corn at eight sites. Four different types of research studies were available: lysimeter, line source sprinkler, stress plots, and farm yield. Research alfalfa yields and corresponding ET (evapotranspiration) were assumed to be 20 percent greater than field attained yields and ET, based on experience. Similarly, corn research yields and ET were assumed to be 10 percent greater than field attained yields and ET. Yield versus ET relationships were derived from the available research data.

  19. Rapid field assessment of RO desalination of brackish agricultural drainage water.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John; Rahardianto, Anditya; Gu, Han; Uchymiak, Michal; Bartman, Alex; Hedrick, Marcos; Lara, David; Cooper, Jim; Faria, Jose; Christofides, Panagiotis D; Cohen, Yoram

    2013-05-15

    Rapid field evaluation of RO feed filtration requirements, selection of effective antiscalant type and dose, and estimation of suitable scale-free RO recovery level were demonstrated using a novel approach based on direct observation of mineral scaling and flux decline measurements, utilizing an automated Membrane Monitor (MeMo). The MeMo, operated in a stand-alone single-pass desalting mode, enabled rapid assessment of the adequacy of feed filtration by enabling direct observation of particulate deposition on the membrane surface. The diagnostic field study with RO feed water of high mineral scaling propensity revealed (via direct MeMo observation) that suspended particulates (even for feed water of turbidity <1 NTU) could serve as seeds for promoting surface crystal nucleation. With feed filtration optimized, a suitable maximum RO water recovery, with complete mineral scale suppression facilitated by an effective antiscalant dose, can be systematically and directly identified (via MeMo) in the field for a given feed water quality. Scale-free operating conditions, determined via standalone MeMo rapid diagnostic tests, were shown to be applicable to spiral-would RO system as validated via both flux decline measurements and ex-situ RO plant membrane scale monitoring. It was shown that the present approach is suitable for rapid field assessment of RO operability and it is particularly advantageous when evaluating water sources of composition that may vary both temporally and across the regions of interest. PMID:23538039

  20. Multi-scale satellite assessment of water availability and agricultural drought: from field to global scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses a multi-scale remote sensing modeling system that fuses flux assessments generated with TIR imagery collected by multiple satellite platforms to estimate daily surface fluxes from field to global scales. The Landsat series of polar orbiting systems has collected TIR imagery at 6...

  1. Quantifying variability in field scale evapotranspiration measurements in an irrigated agricultural region under advection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares the evapotranspiration (ET) measurements from eddy covariance, lysimetry, and water balance using a network of neutron probe sensors and investigates the role of within-field variability in the vegetation density in explaining the differences among the ET estimates from the vario...

  2. Rapid field assessment of RO desalination of brackish agricultural drainage water.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John; Rahardianto, Anditya; Gu, Han; Uchymiak, Michal; Bartman, Alex; Hedrick, Marcos; Lara, David; Cooper, Jim; Faria, Jose; Christofides, Panagiotis D; Cohen, Yoram

    2013-05-15

    Rapid field evaluation of RO feed filtration requirements, selection of effective antiscalant type and dose, and estimation of suitable scale-free RO recovery level were demonstrated using a novel approach based on direct observation of mineral scaling and flux decline measurements, utilizing an automated Membrane Monitor (MeMo). The MeMo, operated in a stand-alone single-pass desalting mode, enabled rapid assessment of the adequacy of feed filtration by enabling direct observation of particulate deposition on the membrane surface. The diagnostic field study with RO feed water of high mineral scaling propensity revealed (via direct MeMo observation) that suspended particulates (even for feed water of turbidity <1 NTU) could serve as seeds for promoting surface crystal nucleation. With feed filtration optimized, a suitable maximum RO water recovery, with complete mineral scale suppression facilitated by an effective antiscalant dose, can be systematically and directly identified (via MeMo) in the field for a given feed water quality. Scale-free operating conditions, determined via standalone MeMo rapid diagnostic tests, were shown to be applicable to spiral-would RO system as validated via both flux decline measurements and ex-situ RO plant membrane scale monitoring. It was shown that the present approach is suitable for rapid field assessment of RO operability and it is particularly advantageous when evaluating water sources of composition that may vary both temporally and across the regions of interest.

  3. Simulation of water balance in a clayey, subsurface drained agricultural field with three-dimensional FLUSH model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsta, Lassi; Karvonen, Tuomo; Koivusalo, Harri; Paasonen-Kivekäs, Maija; Taskinen, Antti

    2013-01-01

    SummaryWater flow is a key component in the evaluation of soil erosion and nutrient loads from agricultural fields. Field cultivation is the main non-point pollution source threatening water quality of surface waters in Nordic and many other countries. Few models exist that can describe key hydrological processes in clayey soils, i.e. overland flow, preferential flow in macropores and soil shrinkage and swelling. A new three-dimensional (3-D) distributed numerical model called FLUSH is introduced in this study to simulate these processes. FLUSH describes overland flow with the diffuse wave simplification of the Saint Venant equations and subsurface flow with a dual-permeability approach using the Richards equation in both macropore and matrix pore systems. A method based on the pentadiagonal matrix algorithm solves flow in both macropore and matrix systems directly in a column of cells in the computational grid. Flow between the columns is solved with iteration accelerated with OpenMP parallelisation. The model validity is tested with data from a 3-D analytical model and a clayey subsurface drained agricultural field in southern Finland. According to the simulation results, over 99% of the drainflow originated from the macropore system and drainflow started in some cases within the same hour when precipitation started indicating preferential flow in the profile. The moisture content of the clay soil had a profound effect on runoff distribution between surface runoff and drainflow. In summer, when the soil was dry and cracked, drainflow dominated the total runoff, while in autumn, when the shrinkage crack network had swollen shut, surface runoff fraction clearly increased. Observed differences in surface runoff fraction before and after tillage indicated that the operation decreased hydraulic conductivity of the profile.

  4. Seasonal Dynamics in Runoff Generation, Flowpaths and Phosphorus Mobilization From Reduced-till Agricultural Fields in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; van Esbroeck, C.; Brunke, R.; McKague, K.

    2014-12-01

    Reduced tillage systems used in agriculture have been shown to decrease losses of particulate phosphorus (P), but may increase the risk of dissolved P transport in some landscapes. Most of our knowledge of P losses from agricultural systems is based on observations made during the frost-free season and little is known about winter processes. Given the magnitude of the spring freshet in many regions, it is important to characterize P dynamics during this period. Discharge and P transport in overland flow and subsurface (tile) drainage were monitored at three reduced-till fields in southern Ontario, Canada for 18 months to (1) quantify runoff and P loads from fields; (2) characterize seasonality in the relative contributions of tile drainage and overland flow to runoff and P loads, and (3) demonstrate variable responses among different event types. Transport pathways were active throughout the non-growing season (NGS) and this period accounted for the majority of annual P loads over the study period. Drainage tiles were the dominant hydrologic pathway from fields throughout the study period, but were a small source of P when compared to P loss in overland flow. Overland flow was predominantly observed during winter thaws when ground frost was present. However, the magnitude and speciation of P losses during individual winter events were variable, and, were governed by a combination of antecedent conditions and precipitation characteristics. Given the importance of the NGS to annual P losses, we suggest that management steps should be taken to minimize the risk of losses during this period.

  5. Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex.

    PubMed

    Benmansour, M; Mabit, L; Nouira, A; Moussadek, R; Bouksirate, H; Duchemin, M; Benkdad, A

    2013-01-01

    In Morocco land degradation - mainly caused by soil erosion - is one of the most serious agroenvironmental threats encountered. However, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion. The study site investigated was an agricultural field located in Marchouch (6°42' W, 33° 47' N) at 68 km south east from Rabat. This work demonstrates the potential of the combined use of (137)Cs, (210)Pb(ex) as radioisotopic soil tracers to estimate mid and long term erosion and deposition rates under Mediterranean agricultural areas. The net soil erosion rates obtained were comparable, 14.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 12.1 ha(-1) yr(-1) for (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) respectively, resulting in a similar sediment delivery ratio of about 92%. Soil redistribution patterns of the study field were established using a simple spatialisation approach. The resulting maps generated by the use of both radionuclides were similar, indicating that the soil erosion processes has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. Over the previous 10 year period, the additional results provided by the test of the prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of magnitude. Based on the (137)Cs dataset established, the contribution of the tillage erosion impact has been evaluated with the Mass Balance Model 3 and compared to the result obtained with the Mass Balance Model 2. The findings highlighted that water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field, tillage erosion under the experimental condition being the main translocation process within the site without a significant and major impact on the net erosion.

  6. Effects of agricultural practices on greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from corn fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, D.; Wang, J.; Jima, T.; Dennis, S.; Stockert, C.; Smart, D.; Bhattarai, S.; Brown, K.; Sammis, T.; Reddy, C.

    2012-12-01

    The United States is, by far, the largest producer of corn (Zea mays L.) in the world. Recent increases in fertilizer cost and concerns over global climate change have farmers and others interested in more efficient fertilization management and greenhouse gas emissions reductions. To seek the best management practices, we conducted field experiments during the 2012 growing season at Tennessee State University Agricultural Research and Demonstration Center in Nashville, TN. Six treatments were applied including regular URAN application [2 times], multiple URAN applications [4 times], denitrification inhibitor with regular URAN application, and chicken litter plus regular URAN application in no-tilled plots, and URAN application plus bio-char in tilled plots, all compared to regular URAN application in conventional tilled plots. Each treatment was replicated six times (blocks). We measured N2O, CO2 and CH4 emissions using a closed chamber method after rainfall events, fertilizer applications or every two weeks whichever was shorter. Corresponding soil NH4+-N and NO3--N, soil temperature and moisture were also measured during the gas sampling. Plant physiology and growth were measured about every two weeks. While preliminary results indicate that N2O and CO2 fluxes were significantly influenced by the agricultural practices on some days, particularly after rainfall events, CH4 flux was not influenced by the treatments during most of the days. Plots with bio-char showed significantly lower N2O emissions. We also measured N2O flux in a commercial corn field using the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique to ground verify the chamber based N2O emissions at the field scale. Results obtained with the EC technique seem comparable with the chamber method.

  7. Aquatic Insect Emergence in Post-Harvest Flooded Agricultural Fields in the Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, R. C.; Blumenshine, S.; Fleskes, J.

    2005-05-01

    California's Southern San Joaquin Valley is one of the most important waterbird areas in North America, but has suffered a disproportionate loss of wetlands when compared to other California regions. This project analyzes the habitat value of post-harvest flooded cropland by measuring the emergence of aquatic insects across multiple crop types. Aquatic insect emergence was sampled from post-harvest flooded fields of four crop types (alfalfa, corn, tomato, wheat), August-October, 2003-2004. Emergence was measured using traps deployed with a stratified random distribution to sample between and within field variation. Emergence rate and emergent biomass was significantly higher in flooded tomato fields. Results from corn fields indicate that flooding depth was correlated (r=0.095) with both diel temperature fluctuation and emergence rate. Chironomus dilutus larvae were grown in environmental chambers, under two thermal treatments with the same mean but different amplitudes (high: 15°-32°C, low: 20°-26°C) to investigate thermal fluctuation effects on survival and biomass. Larval survival (4x) and biomass (2x) were significantly greater in the low versus high temperature fluctuation treatment. This research has the potential to affect agricultural management throughout the 12,600 km2 region, increase aquatic insect production and aid in the recovery of declining bird populations.

  8. Reclassified Cropland Active Fire and Burned Area Detections by the MODIS 1 km Sensor in Canadian Provinces by land cover type, 2001 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, T. F.; Ernst, C. L.; McCarty, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    , and Alberta are the leading sources for Cropland burned area detections. Field research conducted during April of 2011 in the Peace River Agricultural Area in British Columbia and Alberta revealed that cropland identified by the MODIS 1 km Land Cover Product appeared to be undergoing land-use conversion. Scrubland and mixed forest tree lines are being cleared to create more field space during the winter months. However, these woody brush piles are burned in the middle of fallow fields and as such are detected as Cropland burnings. From this analysis of fire activity in Canadian provinces we can identify the major land cover sources of burn and provide an in-depth look at cropland burning's temporal and spatial patterns over the last decade based on data from the MODIS sensor.

  9. Modelling field scale water partitioning using on-site observations in sub-Saharan rainfed agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makurira, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2009-08-01

    Smallholder rainfed farming systems generally realise sub-optimal crop yields which are largely attributed to dry spell occurrences during crop growth stages. However, with improved farming practices, it seems possible to significantly increase yield levels even with little and highly variable rainfall. The presented results follow research conducted in the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where gross rainfall amounts to less than 400 mm/season which is insufficient to support staple food crops (e.g. maize). Alternative cultivation techniques such as runoff harvesting and in-field micro-storage structures are compared. These techniques aim to reduce soil and nutrient loss from the field but, more importantly, promote in-field infiltration and water retention. Water balance components have been observed in order to study water partitioning processes under different cultivation techniques. Based on rainfall, soil evaporation, transpiration, runoff and soil moisture measurements, a water balance model has been developed to simulate soil moisture variations over the growing season. It appears that about 50% of the diverted water leaves the root zone through deep percolation. Modelling shows that during the field trials the average productive transpiration flow ranged between 1.1-1.4 mm d-1 in the trial plots compared to 0.7-1.0 mm d-1 under traditional tillage practice. Productive transpiration processes accounted for 23-29% while losses to deep percolation accounted for 33-48% of the available water. Conclusions from the research are that the innovations tested are effective in enhancing soil moisture retention at field scale and that diversions allow crop growth moisture conditions to be attained with early rains. It is also concluded that there is more scope for efficient utilisation of the diverted runoff water if storage structures could be installed to regulate water flow to the root zone when required.

  10. Testing the Need for Replication of Eddy Covariance Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurements over Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, A. M.; Amiro, B. D.; Gervais, M.

    2015-12-01

    The eddy covariance method directly measures carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes for long periods of time and with footprints up to hundreds of meters in size. Any ecosystem process that alters how gases and energy move between the atmosphere and soil/vegetation can affect these fluxes. Eddy covariance is vulnerable to systematic errors and uncertainy, particular through relying on assumptions about surface characteristics. Additionally, spatial variation within a site can cause more uncertainty in these measurements and lack of replication in many eddy covariance studies makes statistical analysis of carbon fluxes challenging. We tested if there are significant differences between co-located and simultaneous CO2 flux measurements over a uniform crop surface, and if the differences increase if we measure different flux footprint areas over the same field. During the summer of 2014, three matched instrumented 2.5-m high towers were co-located and then periodically separated by moving at 50 m intervals along a north-south transect on an alfalfa/trefoil field and a spring wheat field in Southern Manitoba, Canada to compare CO­2 fluxes. Georeferenced leaf area index measurements were taken in 50 m grid of each field to establish uniformity of the source/sink within a footprint. Diurnal differences of similar magnitude in the CO2 ­fluxes were found in both the co-located experiment and the spatially separated intervals. Despite rigorous calibration during the experiment, some differences were caused by the measurement systems rather than by variation within the field. Interpretation of the spatial variation in leaf area index is being used to determine the contribution caused by difference in source/sink contributions to the flux footprint areas when the towers were spatially separated.

  11. 3-D modeling of water balance and soil erosion in a clayey subsurface drained agricultural field in boreal climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, M.; Warsta, L.; Koivusalo, H. J.; Paasonen-Kivekäs, M.; Nurminen, J.; Myllys, M.; Alakukku, L.; Äijö, H.; Puustinen, M.

    2012-12-01

    Fluxes of nutrients and other substances from cultivated fields cause eutrophication and deterioration of water quality in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. In order to develop effective strategies to control the environmental impacts of crop cultivation, it is crucial to identify the main transport pathways and the effects of different water management methods on the loads. Reduction of sediment loads is essential since sediment particles typically carry nutrients (especially sorbed phosphorus) and other potentially harmful substances, e.g. pesticides, from the fields to the adjacent surface waters. The novel part of this study was the investigation of suspended sediment transport in soil macropores to the subsurface drains and to the deep groundwater. We applied a 3-D distributed dual-permeability model (FLUSH) using a dataset collected from a subsurface drained, clayey agricultural field (15 ha) to holistically assess water balance, soil erosion and sediment transport from the field to an adjacent stream. The data set included five years of hydrological and water quality measurements from four intensively monitored field sections with different soil properties, topography, drainage systems (drain spacing and drain depth), drain installation methods (trenchless and trench drainage) and drain envelope materials (gravel and fiber). The 3-D model allowed us to quantify how soil erosion and sediment transport differed between the field sections within the field area. The simulations were conducted during snow- and frost-free periods. The simulation results include closure of water balance of the cultivated field, distribution of soil erosion and sediment transport within the field area and the effects of different subsurface drainage systems on sediment loads. The 3-D dual-permeability subsurface flow model was able to reproduce the measured drainflows and sediment fluxes in the clayey field and according to the simulations over 90% of drainflow waters were conveyed to

  12. Rainwater lens dynamics and mixing between infiltrating rainwater and upward saline groundwater seepage beneath a tile-drained agricultural field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Louw, P. G. B.; Eeman, S.; Oude Essink, G. H. P.; Vermue, E.; Post, V. E. A.

    2013-09-01

    Thin rainwater lenses (RW-lenses) near the land surface are often the only source of freshwater in agricultural areas with regionally-extensive brackish to saline groundwater. The seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of these lenses are poorly known. Here this knowledge gap is addressed by investigating the transient flow and mixing processes in RW-lenses beneath two tile-drained agricultural fields in the Netherlands. Evidence of RW-lens dynamics was systematically collected by monthly ground- and soil water sampling, in combination with daily observations of water table elevation, drain tile discharge and drain water salinity. Based on these data, and numerical modeling of the key lens characteristics, a conceptual model of seasonal lens dynamics is presented. It is found that variations in the position of the mixing zone and mixing zone salinities are small and vary on a seasonal timescale, which is attributed to the slow transient oscillatory flow regime in the deepest part of the lens. The flow and mixing processes are faster near the water table, which responds to recharge and evapotranspiration at a timescale less than a day. Variations of drain tile discharge and drain water salinity are also very dynamic as they respond to individual rain events. Salinities of soil water can become significantly higher than in the groundwater. This is attributed to the combined effect of capillary rise of saline groundwater during dry periods and incomplete flushing by infiltrating freshwater due to preferential flow through cracks in the soil. The results of this study are the key to understanding the potential impact of future climate change and to designing effective mitigating measures such as adapting tile-drainage systems to ensure the future availability of freshwater for agriculture.

  13. Modelling field scale water partitioning using on-site observations in sub-Saharan rainfed agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makurira, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2010-04-01

    Smallholder rainfed farming systems generally realise sub-optimal crop yields which are largely attributed to dry spell occurrences during crop growth stages. However, through the introduction of appropriate farming practices, it is possible to substantially increase yield levels even with little and highly variable rainfall. The presented results follow research conducted in the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where gross rainfall amounts to less than 400 mm/season which is insufficient to support staple food crops (e.g. maize). The yields from farming system innovations (SIs), which are basically alternative cultivation techniques, are compared against traditional farming practices. The SIs tested in this research are runoff harvesting used in combination with in-field trenches and soil bunds (fanya juus). These SIs aim to reduce soil and nutrient loss from the field and, more importantly, promote in-field infiltration and water retention. Water balance components have been observed in order to study water partitioning processes for the "with" and "without" SI scenarios. Based on rainfall, soil evaporation, transpiration, runoff and soil moisture measurements, a water balance model has been developed to simulate soil moisture variations over the growing season. Simulation results show that, during the field trials, the average productive transpiration flow ranged between 1.1-1.4 mm d-1 in the trial plots compared to 0.7-1.0 mm d-1 under traditional tillage practice. Productive transpiration processes accounted for 23-29% while losses to deep percolation accounted for 33-48% of the available water. The field system has been successfully modelled using the spreadsheet-based water balance 1-D model. Conclusions from the research are that the SIs that were tested are effective in enhancing soil moisture retention at field scale and that diversions allow crop growth moisture conditions to be attained with early rains. From the partitioning analysis, it is also

  14. Prehistoric Agriculture and Soil Fertility on Lava Flows in Northern Arizona, USA: Results from the San Francisco Volcanic Field REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadman, E.; Anderson, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    The San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona is home to ~600 cinder cones, the youngest of which is Sunset Crater (erupted ~AD 1100). This study documents trends in available phosphate and nitrate content with time, testing whether lowered soil pH from the addition of Sunset cinders increased soil fertility and became a factor in Anasazi agricultural success. Soil fertility is examined both before and after Sunset's eruption in soils of different ages that have developed from eolian deposition on top of lava flows. An increase in phosphate and nitrate levels following acidification would suggest that the presence of Sunset cinders brought the soils to the optimal pH for mobilization of these nutrients. The combined effects of the cinder layer retaining nutrients and water, wetter climates, and increases in phosphate and nitrate (both limiting nutrients for plant growth), would have contributed to Anasazi agricultural success after Sunset's eruption. Samples for this study were taken from eolian-derived soils of different ages atop lava flows in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. OSL data from these soils on Strawberry and SP Craters' lava flows yielded age estimates of ~12.3 ka (Strawberry) and ~32.7 ka (SP), on which a soil chronosequence was based. Results from the chronosequence supported these OSL ages, indicating that soils on the SP flow are older than those on the Strawberry flow. Field descriptions, Harden Development Indices, particle size analysis, and nutrient content analysis were used for this aspect of the project. An experimental acid wash method will be used to simulate the addition of Sunset's acidic cinders, and will yield data for phosphate and nitrate content after Sunset erupted. Preliminary results indicate that phosphate and nitrate accumulate in upper, eolian-derived horizons (Av, Bw) and in more deeply buried carbonate horizons (Bk). Higher concentrations of phosphate and nitrate were found in older (SP) soils than younger

  15. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy – Second part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Cassiani, Giorgio; Romano, Nunzio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  16. Evaluation of the effects of varying moisture contents on microwave thermal emissions from agriculture fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H. H. K.

    1980-01-01

    Three tasks related to soil moisture sensing at microwave wavelengths were undertaken: (1) analysis of data at L, X and K sub 21 band wavelengths over bare and vegetated fields from the 1975 NASA sponsored flight experiment over Phoenix, Arizona; (2) modeling of vegetation canopy at microwave wavelengths taking into consideration both absorption and volume scattering effects; and (3) investigation of overall atmospheric effects at microwave wavelengths that can affect soil moisture retrieval. Data for both bare and vegetated fields are found to agree well with theoretical estimates. It is observed that the retrieval of surface and near surface soil moisture information is feasible through multi-spectral and multi-temporal analysis. It is also established that at long wavelengths, which are optimal for surface sensing, atmospheric effects are generally minimal. At shorter wavelengths, which are optimal for atmosheric retrieval, the background surface properties are also established.

  17. Exposure to sulfosulfuron in agricultural drainage ditches: field monitoring and scenario-based modelling.

    PubMed

    Brown, Colin D; Dubus, Igor G; Fogg, Paul; Spirlet, Marie; Gustin, Christophe

    2004-08-01

    Field monitoring and scenario-based modelling were used to assess exposure of small ditches in the UK to the herbicide sulfosulfuron following transport via field drains. A site in central England on a high pH, clay soil was treated with sulfosulfuron, and concentrations were monitored in the single drain outfall and in the receiving ditch 1 km downstream. Drainflow in the nine months following application totalled 283 mm. Pesticide lost in the first 12.5 mm of flow was 99% of the total loading to drains (0.5% of applied). Significant dilution was observed in the receiving ditch and quantifiable residues were only detected in one sample (0.06 microg litre(-1)). The MACRO model was evaluated against the field data with minimal calibration. The parameterisation over-estimated the importance of macropore flow at the site. As a consequence, the maximum concentration in drainflow (2.3 microg litre(-1)) and the total loading to drains (0.76 g) were over-estimated by factors of 2.4 and 5, respectively. MACRO was then used to simulate long-term fate of the herbicide for each of 20 environmental scenarios. Resulting estimates for concentrations of sulfosulfuron in a receiving ditch were weighted according to the prevalence of each scenario to produce a probability distribution of daily exposure. PMID:15307668

  18. Remote sensing for precision agriculture: Within-field spatial variability analysis and mapping with aerial digital multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalapillai, Sreekala

    2000-10-01

    Advances in remote sensing technology and biological sensors provided the motivation for this study on the applications of aerial multispectral remote sensing in precision agriculture. The feasibility of using high-resolution multispectral remote sensing for precision farming applications such as soil type delineation, identification of crop nitrogen levels, and modeling and mapping of weed density distribution and yield potential within a crop field was explored in this study. Some of the issues such as image calibration for variable lighting conditions and soil background influence were also addressed. Intensity normalization and band ratio methods were found to be adequate image calibration methods to compensate for variable illumination and soil background influence. Several within-field variability factors such as growth stage, field conditions, nutrient availability, crop cultivar, and plant population were found to be dominant in different periods. Unsupervised clustering of color infrared (CIR) image of a field soil was able to identify soil mapping units with an average accuracy of 76%. Spectral reflectance from a crop field was highly correlated to the chlorophyll reading. A regression model developed to predict nitrogen stress in corn identified nitrogen-stressed areas from nitrogen-sufficient areas with a high accuracy (R2 = 0.93). Weed density was highly correlated to the spectral reflectance from a field. One month after planting was found to be a good time to map spatial weed density. The optimum range of resolution for weed mapping was 4 m to 4.5 m for the remote sensing system and the experimental field used in this study. Analysis of spatial yield with respect to spectral reflectance showed that the visible and NIR reflectance were negatively correlated to yield and crop population in heavily weed-infested areas. The yield potential was highly correlated to image indices, especially to normalized brightness. The ANN model developed for one of the

  19. [Treatment strategies of sequelae following burn wound].

    PubMed

    Qiao, L; Huan, J N

    2016-01-01

    Burn patients are facing not only their physical recovery but also some complex problems caused by the injury, including pruritus, sleep disorders, pain, and psychological disorders. These problems may bring about challenges for survivors and burn treatment team members who work with them. The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding and knowledge of these occult problems for clinicians in this field.

  20. Controls on Nitrogen Fluxes from Agricultural Fields: Differing Conclusions Based on Choice of Sensitivity Analysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, T.; Matson, P.; Lobell, D.

    2006-12-01

    Sensitivity analyses (SA) of biogeochemical and agricultural models are often used to identify the importance of input variables for variance in model outputs, such as crop yield or nitrate leaching. Identification of these factors can aid in prioritizing efforts in research or decision support. Many types of sensitivity analyses are available, ranging from simple One-At-A-Time (OAT) screening exercises to more complex local and global variance-based methods (see Saltelli et al 2004). The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the type of SA on factor prioritization in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico using the Water and Nitrogen Management Model (WNMM; Chen et al 2005). WNMM, a coupled plant-growth - biogeochemistry simulation model, was calibrated to reproduce crop growth, soil moisture, and gaseous N emission dynamics in experimental plots of irrigated wheat in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico from 1994-1997. Three types of SA were carried out using 16 input variables, including parameters related to weather, soil properties and crop management. Methods used for SA were local OAT, Monte Carlo (MC), and a global variance-based method (orthogonal input; OI). Results of the SA were based on typical interpretations used for each test: maximum absolute ratio of variation (MAROV) for OAT analyses; first- and second-order regressions for MC analyses; and a total effects index for OI. The three most important factors identified by MC and OI methods were generally in agreement, although the order of importance was not always consistent and there was little agreement for variables of less importance. OAT over-estimated the importance of two factors (planting date and pH) for many outputs. The biggest differences between the OAT results and those from MC and OI were likely due to the inability of OAT methods to account for non-linearity (eg. pH and ammonia volatilization), interactions among variables (eg. pH and timing of fertilization) and an over-reliance on baseline

  1. Nitrate transport and fluxes during storm-event discharge from a 12 ha tile-drained dryland agricultural field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, C. J.; Keller, C. K.; Brooks, E. S.; Smith, J. L.; Orr, C. H.; Evans, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Tile drains shortcut natural soil hydrology and decrease the capacity of soils to buffer water and nutrient fluxes during storm events. Previous research at the Cook Agronomy Farm near Pullman, WA. found seasonal patterns for nutrient and water fluxes, larger during the winter and smaller during the summer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects storm events have on tile-drain water and nutrient fluxes from a dryland agricultural field. Our first hypothesis is that winter storm events activate shallow soil-water flow paths, resulting in rapid transport of precipitation and younger soil pore-water through the tile-drain system. These storm-event flow paths result in a decrease in tile-drain water electrical conductivity from a baseline of approximately 260 μS/cm to as low as 20 μS/ cm. Data suggest that storm events increase hydraulic conductivities in the upper profile as soil approaches saturation, increasing the contributions of relatively young soil water and possibly current storm-event precipitation to tile-drain discharge. Our second hypothesis is that the observed increase in discharge during storm events does not decrease nitrate concentrations in discharged water, because the storm-event flow paths also transport additional nitrate from the upper soil profile through the tile-drain system. If this hypothesis is correct, during storm events nitrate fluxes should increase, indicating rapid mobilization and potential flushing of soil nutrients through the vadose zone and tile-drain. If nitrate fluxes remain constant during storm events, then decreased tile-drain nitrate concentrations may be caused by the addition of low-nitrate or nitrate-free water. This would suggest that the nitrate leached from the system is present at the depth of the tile-drain and is not transported from near the soil surface to the tile-drain during storm-events, indicating flushing of soil nutrients from the rooting zone is not occurring at these temporal scales

  2. Experimental monitoring and numerical study of pesticide (carbofuran) transfer in an agricultural soil at a field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmimou, Abderrahim; Maslouhi, Abdellatif; Tamoh, Karim; Candela, Lucila

    2014-09-01

    We studied the transport of a pesticide at field scale, namely carbofuran molecule, which is known for its high mobility, especially in sandy soils with high hydraulic conductivity and low organic matter. To add to our knowledge of the future of this high-mobility molecule in this type of soils, we developed a mechanistic numerical model allowing the simulation of hydric and solute transfers (bromide and carbofuran) in the soil. We carried out this study in an agricultural plot in the region of Mnasra in Morocco. Confrontation of the measured and simulated values allowed the calibration of the parameters of hydric transfer and carbofuran. The developed model accurately reproduces the measured values. Despite a weak irrigation and precipitation regime, carbofuran was practically leached beyond the root zone. Prospective simulations show that under a more important irrigation regime, carbofuran reaches a 100-cm depth, whereas it does not exceed 60 cm under a deficit regime.

  3. Temporal variability of colloidal material in agricultural storm runoff from managed grassland using flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Gimbert, Laura J; Worsfold, Paul J

    2009-12-25

    This paper reports the use of flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) to determine the temporal variability of colloidal (<1mum) particle size distributions in agricultural runoff waters in a small managed catchment in SW England during storm events. Three storm events of varying intensity were captured and the colloidal material in the runoff analysed by FlFFF. The technique had sufficient sensitivity to determine directly the changing colloidal profile over the 0.08-1.0mum size range in the runoff waters during these storm events. Rainfall, total phosphorus and suspended solids in the bulk runoff samples were also determined throughout one storm and showed significant correlation (P<0.01) with the amount of colloidal material. Whilst there are some uncertainties in the resolution and absolute calibration of the FlFFF profiles, the technique has considerable potential for the quantification of colloidal material in storm runoff waters. PMID:19577239

  4. Influences of suspended particles on the runoff of pesticides from an agricultural field at Askim, SE-Norway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Riise, G; Lundekvam, H; Mulder, J; Haugen, L E

    2004-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to study the loss of particles from agricultural fields, and the role of suspended particles in carrying pesticides in surface runoff and drainage water. Propiconazole, a widely used fungicide was applied to experimental fields located at Askim, SE-Norway. Samples from surface runoff and drainage water were collected and analyzed for sediment mass, pesticides, particulate and dissolved organic carbon through a whole year. The surface soil and the runoff material were characterized by its particle size distribution, organic carbon content in size fractions and its ability to bind propiconazole. The results show that (1) particle runoff mostly occurred during the rainfall event shortly after harrowing in autumn. The highest particle concentration observed in the surface runoff water was 4600 mg l(-1), and in the drainage water 1130 mg l(-1); (2) the erosion of surface soil is size selective. The runoff sediment contained finer particle/aggregates rich in organic matter compared to its original surface soil; (3) the distribution coefficient (Kd) of propiconazole was significantly higher in the runoff sediment than in the parent soil. According to our calculation, particle-bound propiconazole can represent up to 23% of the total amount of propiconazole in a water sample with a sediment concentration of 7600 mg l(-1), which will significantly influence the transport behavior of the pesticide.

  5. Thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    PubMed

    Verdejo, José; Ginocchio, Rosanna; Sauvé, Sébastien; Salgado, Eduardo; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    It has been argued that the identification of the phytotoxic metal thresholds in soil should be based on field-collected soil rather than on artificially-contaminated soils. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation because of mixed contamination and unavoidable covariance of metal contamination with other soil properties that affect plant growth. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in topsoils of 27 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed emergence and early growth (21 days) tests (OECD 208 and ISO 11269-2) with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The total Cu content in soils was the best predictor of plant growth and shoot Cu concentrations, while soluble Cu and pCu(2+) did not well correlate with these biological responses. The effects of Pb, Zn, and As on plant responses were not significant, suggesting that Cu is a metal of prime concern for plant growth in soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile. The effects of soil nutrient availability and shoot nutrient concentrations on ryegrass response were not significant. It was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 of total Cu in the soil of 327 mg kg(-1), 735 mg kg(-1) and 1144 mg kg(-1), respectively, using the shoot length as a response variable. However, the derived 95% confidence intervals for EC10, EC25 and EC50 values of total soil Cu were wide, and thus not allowing a robust assessment of metal toxicity for agricultural crops, based on total soil Cu concentrations. Thus, plant tests might need to be performed for metal toxicity assessment. This study suggests shoot length of ryegrass as a robust response variable for metal toxicity assessment in contaminated soils with different nutrient availability.

  6. Thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    PubMed

    Verdejo, José; Ginocchio, Rosanna; Sauvé, Sébastien; Salgado, Eduardo; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    It has been argued that the identification of the phytotoxic metal thresholds in soil should be based on field-collected soil rather than on artificially-contaminated soils. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation because of mixed contamination and unavoidable covariance of metal contamination with other soil properties that affect plant growth. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in topsoils of 27 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed emergence and early growth (21 days) tests (OECD 208 and ISO 11269-2) with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The total Cu content in soils was the best predictor of plant growth and shoot Cu concentrations, while soluble Cu and pCu(2+) did not well correlate with these biological responses. The effects of Pb, Zn, and As on plant responses were not significant, suggesting that Cu is a metal of prime concern for plant growth in soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile. The effects of soil nutrient availability and shoot nutrient concentrations on ryegrass response were not significant. It was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 of total Cu in the soil of 327 mg kg(-1), 735 mg kg(-1) and 1144 mg kg(-1), respectively, using the shoot length as a response variable. However, the derived 95% confidence intervals for EC10, EC25 and EC50 values of total soil Cu were wide, and thus not allowing a robust assessment of metal toxicity for agricultural crops, based on total soil Cu concentrations. Thus, plant tests might need to be performed for metal toxicity assessment. This study suggests shoot length of ryegrass as a robust response variable for metal toxicity assessment in contaminated soils with different nutrient availability. PMID:26233921

  7. Estimation of spatio-temporal variability of soil water content in agricultural fields with ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijewardana, Y. G. N. S.; Galagedara, L. W.

    2010-09-01

    SummaryEfficient water management, crop yield variability estimation and prediction of contaminant transport require some measurement of soil water content variation through time and space. This study focused on the estimation of spatio-temporal variability of volumetric soil water content ( θ v) in raised bed agricultural fields using ground penetrating radar (GPR), comparison of GPR method with gravimetric sampling data and development of 2D maps of θ v. The GPR system (pulse EKKO Pro) with 200 MHz antennas was used to collect data on approximately 1.0 m wide and 13.0 m long raised beds of about 0.1 m height cultivated with vegetables. Transillumination Zero Offset Profile (Trans ZOP) and Transillumination Multiple Offset Gather (Trans MOG) GPR survey modes which are classically used as borehole GPR method were employed as a surface GPR method. In each of these survey modes, the direct ground wave travel time was measured. The θ v at each Trans ZOP and Trans MOG location was calculated by first converting the electromagnetic (EM) wave velocity into soil dielectric permittivity and then to θ v using a standard empirical relationship. The results revealed that the spatio-temporal variability of θ v in raised bed agricultural fields could be estimated using the Trans ZOP and Trans MOG GPR survey modes. The GPR estimated θ v and gravimetrically measured soil water content ( θ g) were not significantly different ( P = 0.272). The correlation coefficient was 0.87, the root mean square error was 0.0184 m 3/m 3 and the average error was 0.20% between the two methods. The Trans MOG survey data allowed us to create plan view maps (2D) of the θ v variation which could not be obtained from the Trans ZOP data. No statistical difference ( P = 0.053) was found between the Trans ZOP and average Trans MOG values.

  8. Building Development, Food and Population Issues in the Field of Agriculture with Rural Development in the Arab Countries (16-21 January 1993). Panel discussion (seminar).

    PubMed

    Morcos, M E

    1993-01-01

    The UN Organization for Food and Agriculture bureau held a panel discussion during January 16-21, 1993, to stress the importance of the joint relation between population issues, food, and nutrition in the fields of agriculture and rural development. Policymakers and individuals responsible for activities and programs on population, food, nutrition, and rural development in Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, Yemen, and Sudan participated in the seminar. The seminar was also attended by academic institutions and participants from the ministries of agriculture and health, the National Population Council, and the committees of the countries involved. Synopses of panel proceedings are presented.

  9. Controlling factors of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions at the field-scale in an agricultural slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilain, Guillaume; Garnier, Josette; Tallec, Gaëlle; Tournebize, Julien; Cellier, Pierre; Flipo, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural practices widely contribute to the atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration increase and are the major source of N2O which account for 24% of the global annual emission (IPCC, 2007). Soil nitrification and denitrification are the microbial processes responsible for the production of N2O, which also depends on soil characteristics and management. Besides their control by various factors, such as climate, soil conditions and management (content of NO3- and NH4+, soil water content, presence of degradable organic material…), the role of topography is less known although it can play an important role on N2O emissions (Izaurralde et al., 2004). Due to the scarcity of data on N2O direct vs. indirect emission rate from agriculture in the Seine Basin (Garnier et al., 2009), one of the objectives of the study conducted here was to determine the N2O emission rates of the various land use representative for the Seine Basin, in order to better assess the direct N2O emissions, and to explore controlling factor such as meteorology, topography, soil properties and crop successions. The main objective of this study was at the same time to characterize N2O fluxes variability along a transect from an agricultural plateau to a river and to analyze the influence of landscape position on these emissions. We conducted this study in the Orgeval catchment (Seine basin, France; between 48°47' and 48°55' N, and 03°00' and 03°55' E) from May 2008 to August 2009 on two agricultural fields cropped with wheat, barley, oats, corn. N2O fluxes were monitored from weekly to bimonthly using static manual chambers placed along the chosen transect in five different landscape positions from the plateau to the River. This study has shown that soil moisture (expressed as Water Filled Pore Space) and NO3- soil concentrations explained most of the N2O flux variability during the sampling period. Most of N2O was emitted directly after N fertilization application during a relatively

  10. Atmospheric ammonia emissions from agricultural waste combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, David S.; Atkins, D. H. F.

    1994-02-01

    Measurements of ammonia and ammonium aerosol were made during straw and stubble burning experiments in the field. Factors were determined for the calculation of emissions of ammonia and ammonium ion, from this source, in the United Kingdom between 1981 and 1992. Emissions of NHx from straw burning were calculated to be equivalent to approximately 20 ktonnes N yr-1 in 1981 and have declined to 3.3 ktonnes N yr-1 in 1991 as a result of changes in agricultural practices in response to impending U.K. legislation. The fraction of total plant nitrogen released as NHx was estimated to be between approximately 40 and 80%. Emissions of ammonia from straw and stubble burning over a 6—8 week period over which this typically occurs were calculated to be 27% of the total U.K. emissions over the equivalent period in 1981 and 7% in 1991. We have identified straw and stubble burning as another source of ammonia currently not accounted for in European and North American emission inventories; these focus almost exclusively on emissions from animal sources.

  11. Measurements of the effectiveness of conservation agriculture at the field scale using radioisotopic techniques and runoff plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabit, L.; Klik, A.; Toloza, A.; Benmansour, M.; Geisler, A.; Gerstmann, U. C.

    2009-04-01

    Growing evidence of the cost of soil erosion on agricultural land and off site impact of associated processes has emphasized the needs for quantitative assessment of erosion rates to develop and assess erosion control technology and to allocate conservation resources and development of conservation regulation, policies and programmes. Our main study goal was to assess the magnitude of deposition rates using Fallout Radionuclides ‘FRNs' (137-Cs and 210-Pb) and the mid-term (13 years) erosion rates using conventional runoff plot measurements in a small agricultural watershed under conventional and conservation tillage practices. The tillage treatments were conventional tillage system (CT), mechanical plough to 30 cm depth (the most common tillage system within the watershed); conservation tillage (CS) with cover crops during winter; and direct seeding (DS) no tillage with cover crops during winter. The experimental design - located in Mistelbach watershed 60 km north of Vienna/Austria - consists of one 3-metre-wide and 15-metre-long runoff plot (silt loam - slope of 14%) for each tillage system (CT, CS and DS) with the plots placed in the upper part of an agricultural field. 76 soil samples were collected to evaluate the initial fallout of 137-Cs and 210-Pb in a small forested area close to the experimental field, along a systematic multi-grid design,. In the sedimentation area of the watershed and down slope the agricultural field, 2 additional soil profiles were collected to 1 m depth. All soil samples were air dried, sieved to 2mm and analysed for their 137-Cs and 210-Pb contents using gamma detector. The main results and conclusion can be summarised as following: i) The initial 137-Cs fallout as measured in the 76 forested soil samples ranged from 1123 to 3354 Bq/m2 for an average of 1954 Bq/m2 with a coefficient of variation of 20.4 %. ii) Long-term erosion measurements (1994-2006) from runoff plots located in the upper part of the agricultural field just up

  12. Clinical forensic evidence in burns: rescuer burns.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Gopal, Kirun; Ramnani, Sunil

    2006-12-01

    In the literature no systematic study is available on rescuer burn for victims of burn injury. This is a retrospective study of nine patients (five admitted and four outpatients) were treated in this hospital as rescuer burns in 3.5 years. All nine patients were males. Average age of the patient treated on outpatient basis was 47 years (ranging between 44 and 52) and total burn area ranged for 1-4%. Average age of the five patients treated on inpatient basis was 32.6 years (ranging between 30 and 34). The total burn area ranged from 14.5 to 38%. During the period of study, in addition to nine rescuer burns, one patient sustained burn before the rescue attempt due to the victim hugging the rescuer. Based on the study of patterns of burn, these patients were found to have three grades of burn injury: Grade 1--upper extremity involvement only. (A) only one upper extremity involvement, (B) both upper extremities involvement, Grade 2--upper extremity/extremities and face involvement, Grade 3--upper extremity/extremities, face-neck, adjacent chest and lower extremity involvement. PMID:17011132

  13. Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of biosolids to an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Topp, Edward; Monteiro, Sara C; Beck, Andrew; Coelho, Bonnie Ball; Boxall, Alistair B A; Duenk, Peter W; Kleywegt, Sonya; Lapen, David R; Payne, Michael; Sabourin, Lyne; Li, Hongxia; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2008-06-15

    Municipal biosolids are a source of nutrients for crop production. Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to minimize the risk of contamination of adjacent water resources with chemical or microbial agents that are of public or environmental health concern. In this field study, we applied biosolids slurry at a commercial rate using either subsurface injection or broadcast application followed by incorporation. Precipitation was simulated at 1, 3, 7, 22, 36 and 266 days post-application on 2 m(2) microplots to evaluate surface runoff of 9 model pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan. In runoff from the injected plots, concentrations of the model PPCPs were generally below the limits of quantitation. In contrast, in the broadcast application treatment, the concentrations of atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan on the day following application ranged from 70-1477 ng L(-1) in runoff and generally declined thereafter with first order kinetics. The total mass of PPCPs mobilized in surface runoff per m(2) of the field ranged from 0.63 microg for atenolol to 21.1 microg for ibuprofen. For ibuprofen and acetaminophen, concentrations in runoff first decreased and then increased, suggesting that these drugs were initially chemically or physically sequestered in the biosolids slurry, and subsequently released in the soil. Carbamazepine and triclosan were detected at low concentrations in a runoff event 266 days after broadcast application. Overall, this study showed that injection of biosolids slurry below the soil surface could effectively eliminate surface runoff of PPCPs. PMID:18377955

  14. Multi-frequency SAR data for soil surface moisture estimation over agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zribi, Mehrez; Baghdadi, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a crucial role in the continental water cycle, in particular through its influence on the distribution of precipitation between surface runoff and infiltration, which is the main driver behind most hydrological and geomorphologic processes. Although there is now a good understanding of soil hydrodynamics and water transfer in porous media, the development of reliable techniques allowing field heterogeneities to be fully analyzed in space and time remains a key issue. In recent decades, various inversion models have been proposed for the retrieval of surface parameters (mainly soil moisture and surface roughness) from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) high resolution measurements. The proposed techniques depend particularly on two instrumental parameters: the radar system's spatial resolution and the number of configurations measured during satellite acquisitions (mainly incidence angle and polarization). In this paper, our objective is to illustrate different applications of SAR data to estimate soil moisture over bare soil and vegetation cover areas (wheat, olive groves, meadows ...). Potential of very high resolution data, with the availability of TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed constellations is also discussed. This study is based on different experimental campaigns organized over different sites in humid and semi-arid regions. Ground measurements (soil moisture, soil roughness, vegetation description) over test fields were carried out simultaneously to SAR measurements. Effect of vegetation attenuation on radar signal is considered through a synergy with optical remote sensing. Soil moisture precision for all proposed applications is generally ranged between 3 and 5% of volumetric moisture. These methodologies are developed in the context of the preparation for having a high soil moisture operational product, with SENTINEL and/or the other planned constellations. After an analysis of radar data sensitivity (C and X bands) to surface parameters

  15. Nitrogen Cycle Modeling: a Mechanistic Estimate of N-losses From Agricultural Fields Over the Seasonal Time Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, F.; Gu, C.; Venterea, R.; Riley, W.; Oldenburg, C.

    2007-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen and production of NO, N2O, and CO2 gas and NO2- and NO3- ions in nutrient-enriched agricultural fields is mediated by soil microbial activity, the hydrological cycle, plant dynamics, and climatic forcing. Understanding how NO, N2O, CO2 gases and NO2- and NO3- ions are released from agricultural fields to the environment is a key factor in controlling the green-house effect and water contamination, and assumes ever greater importance in view of the foreseen increase in biofuel, food, and fiber production. To address these issues we have developed a mechanistic model (TOUGHREACT-N) for various nitrification and denitrification pathways, multiple microbial biomass dynamics, heat and water flows, and various chemical reactions at local and kinetic equilibrium. The soil column is represented in a 1D framework, with hydraulic properties described by a water tension-saturation model. Biotic and abiotic reactions are assumed to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, while a consortium of several micro-organismal strains is assumed to follow multiple Monod growth kinetics accounting for electron donor, electron acceptor, and inhibitor concentrations. Water flow is modeled with the Darcy-Richards equation, while nutrient transport is modeled by Fickian advective and diffusive processes in both gaseous and liquid phases. Heat flow is modeled with the Fourier equation. Plant dynamics is taken into account by coupling TOUGHREACT-N with CERES to determine water and nutrient uptake, and soil carbon accumulation. TOUGHREACT-N was calibrated against field measurements to assess pathways of N losses following fertilization. A good agreement between field observations and model predictions was found. We identified two dominant time scales in the system response that depended on plants dynamics. Before plants have substantial impact on soil nutrients and moisture content, N losses are characterized by rapid increases as a function of water application

  16. Nutrient uptake by agricultural crops from biochar-amended soils: results from two field experiments in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karer, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Kloss, Stefanie; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    The use of biochar as soil amendment is considered as a promising agricultural soil management technique, combining carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvements. These expectations are largely founded on positive experiences with biochar applications to impoverished or degraded tropical soils. The validity of these results for soils in temperate climates needs confirmation from field experiments with typical soils representative for intensive agricultural production areas. Frequently biochar is mixed with other organic additives like compost. As these two materials interact with each other and each one may vary considerably in its basic characteristics, it is difficult to attribute the effects of the combined additive to one of its components and to a specific physico-chemical parameter. Therefore investigations of the amendment efficacy require the study of the pure components to characterize their specific behavior in soil. This is especially important for adsorption behavior of biochar for macro- and micronutrients because in soil there are multiple nutrient sinks that compete with plant roots for vital elements. Therefore this contribution presents results from a field amendment study with pure biochar that had the objective to characterize the macro- and microelement uptake of crops from different soils in two typical Austrian areas of agricultural production. At two locations in North and South-East Austria, two identical field experiments on different soils (Chernozem and Cambisol) were installed in 2011 with varying biochar additions (0, 30 and 90 t/ha) and two nitrogen levels. The biochar was a product from slow pyrolysis of wood (SC Romchar SRL). During the installation of the experiments, the biochar fraction of <2 mm was mixed with surface soil to a depth of 15 cm in plots of 33 m2 each (n=4). Barley (at the Chernozem soil) and maize (at the Cambisol) were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. The highest crop yields at both

  17. Instantaneous and daily values of the surface energy balance over agricultural fields using remote sensing and a reference field in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Jackson, R. D.; Gay, L.W.; Duell, L.F.W.; Kunkel, K.E.; Matthias, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperature and reflectance in the visible and near infrared wavebands along with ancilliary meteorological data provide the capability of computing three of the four surface energy balance components (i.e., net radiation, soil heat flux, and sensible heat flux) at different spatial and temporal scales. As a result, under nonadvective conditions, this enables the estimation of the remaining term (i.e., the latent heat flux). One of the practical applications with this approach is to produce evapotranspiration (ET) maps for agricultural regions which consist of an array of fields containing different crops at varying stages of growth and soil moisture conditions. Such a situation exists in the semiarid southwest at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center, south of Phoenix. For one day (14 June 1987), surface temperature and reflectance measurements from an aircraft 150 m above ground level (agl) were acquired over fields from zero to nearly full cover at four times between 1000 MST and 1130 MST. The diurnal pattern of the surface energy balance was measured over four fields, which included alfalfa at 60% cover, furrowed cotton at 20% and 30% cover, and partially plowed what stubble. Instantaneous and daily values of ET were estimated for a representative area around each flux site with an energy balance model that relies on a reference ET. This reference value was determined with remotely sensed data and several meteorological inputs. The reference ET was adjusted to account for the different surface conditions in the other fields using only remotely sensed variables. A comparison with the flux measurements suggests the model has difficulties with partial canopy conditions, especially related to the estimation of the sensible heat flux. The resulting errors for instantaneous ET were on the order of 100 W m-2 and for daily values of order 2 mm day-1. These findings suggest future research should involve development of methods to

  18. Keeping agricultural soil out of rivers: evidence of sediment and nutrient accumulation within field wetlands in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ockenden, Mary C; Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben; Stoate, Chris

    2014-03-15

    Intensification of agriculture has resulted in increased soil degradation and erosion, with associated pollution of surface waters. Small field wetlands, constructed along runoff pathways, offer one option for slowing down and storing runoff in order to allow more time for sedimentation and for nutrients to be taken up by plants or micro-organisms. This paper describes research to provide quantitative evidence for the effectiveness of small field wetlands in the UK landscape. Ten wetlands were built on four farms in Cumbria and Leicestershire, UK. Annual surveys of sediment and nutrient accumulation in 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicated that most sediment was trapped at a sandy site (70 tonnes over 3 years), compared to a silty site (40 tonnes over 3 years) and a clay site (2 tonnes over 3 years). The timing of rainfall was more important than total annual rainfall for sediment accumulation, with most sediment transported in a few intense rainfall events, especially when these coincided with bare soil or poor crop cover. Nutrient concentration within sediments was inversely related to median particle size, but the total mass of nutrients trapped was dependent on the total mass of sediment trapped. Ratios of nutrient elements in the wetland sediments were consistent between sites, despite different catchment characteristics across the individual wetlands. The nutrient value of sediment collected from the wetlands was similar to that of soil in the surrounding fields; dredged sediment was considered to have value as soil replacement but not as fertiliser. Overall, small field wetlands can make a valuable contribution to keeping soil out of rivers.

  19. Keeping agricultural soil out of rivers: evidence of sediment and nutrient accumulation within field wetlands in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ockenden, Mary C; Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben; Stoate, Chris

    2014-03-15

    Intensification of agriculture has resulted in increased soil degradation and erosion, with associated pollution of surface waters. Small field wetlands, constructed along runoff pathways, offer one option for slowing down and storing runoff in order to allow more time for sedimentation and for nutrients to be taken up by plants or micro-organisms. This paper describes research to provide quantitative evidence for the effectiveness of small field wetlands in the UK landscape. Ten wetlands were built on four farms in Cumbria and Leicestershire, UK. Annual surveys of sediment and nutrient accumulation in 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicated that most sediment was trapped at a sandy site (70 tonnes over 3 years), compared to a silty site (40 tonnes over 3 years) and a clay site (2 tonnes over 3 years). The timing of rainfall was more important than total annual rainfall for sediment accumulation, with most sediment transported in a few intense rainfall events, especially when these coincided with bare soil or poor crop cover. Nutrient concentration within sediments was inversely related to median particle size, but the total mass of nutrients trapped was dependent on the total mass of sediment trapped. Ratios of nutrient elements in the wetland sediments were consistent between sites, despite different catchment characteristics across the individual wetlands. The nutrient value of sediment collected from the wetlands was similar to that of soil in the surrounding fields; dredged sediment was considered to have value as soil replacement but not as fertiliser. Overall, small field wetlands can make a valuable contribution to keeping soil out of rivers. PMID:24509365

  20. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter E; Nybroe, Ole; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed

    2014-11-01

    Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly increased bacterial community tolerance to Cu was observed for soils amended with organic waste fertilizers and was positively correlated with total soil Cu. However, metal speciation and whole-cell bacterial biosensor analysis demonstrated that the observed PICT responses could be explained entirely by Cu speciation and bioavailability artifacts during Leu-PICT detection. Hence, the agricultural application of urban wastes (sewage sludge or composted municipal waste) simulating more than 100 years of use did not result in sufficient accumulation of Cu to select for Cu resistance. Our findings also have implications for previously published PICT field studies and demonstrate that stringent PICT detection criteria are needed for field identification of specific toxicants.

  1. Southeast U.S. burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Human beings were responsible for most of 12,000 forest fires in the southeastern United States that burned for 10 days in late October and early November 1987. 910 km2, mostly hardwood forest, were destroyed in the fires, with arson and carelessness as the primary causes, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.Measured in monetary terms, the toll was more than $40 million in resource and property damage. While the amount of forest burned did not rival the 3390 km2 lost to fires in the western United States last summer, the human impact was severe in the southeast and all along the East Coast. Favorable winds blew smoke from the southern and central Appalachians as far north as New England and as far east as Delaware, and cool fall air close to the ground prevented the smoke from rising, thickening the air in many northeastern cities on November 8 and 9.

  2. Leaching of glyphosate and amino-methylphosphonic acid from Danish agricultural field sites.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Jeanne; Olsen, Preben; Ullum, Marlene; Grant, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Pesticide leaching is an important process with respect to contamination risk to the aquatic environment. The risk of leaching was thus evaluated for glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) and its degradation product AMPA (amino-methylphosphonic acid) under field conditions at one sandy and two loamy sites. Over a 2-yr period, tile-drainage water, ground water, and soil water were sampled and analyzed for pesticides. At a sandy site, the strong soil sorption capacity and lack of macropores seemed to prevent leaching of both glyphosate and AMPA. At one loamy site, which received low precipitation with little intensity, the residence time within the root zone seemed sufficient to prevent leaching of glyphosate, probably due to degradation and sorption. Minor leaching of AMPA was observed at this site, although the concentration was generally low, being on the order of 0.05 microg L(-1) or less. At another loamy site, however, glyphosate and AMPA leached from the root zone into the tile drains (1 m below ground surface [BGS]) in average concentrations exceeding 0.1 microg L(-1), which is the EU threshold value for drinking water. The leaching of glyphosate was mainly governed by pronounced macropore flow occurring within the first months after application. AMPA was frequently detected more than 1.5 yr after application, thus indicating a minor release and limited degradation capacity within the soil. Leaching has so far been confined to the depth of the tile drains, and the pesticides have rarely been detected in monitoring screens located at lower depths. This study suggests that as both glyphosate and AMPA can leach through structured soils, they thereby pose a potential risk to the aquatic environment.

  3. Field-based evidence for consistent responses of bacterial communities to copper contamination in two contrasting agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Ma, Yi-Bing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Wang, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yu-Rong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Copper contamination on China's arable land could pose severe economic, ecological and healthy consequences in the coming decades. As the drivers in maintaining ecosystem functioning, the responses of soil microorganisms to long-term copper contamination in different soil ecosystems are still debated. This study investigated the impacts of copper gradients on soil bacterial communities in two agricultural fields with contrasting soil properties. Our results revealed consistent reduction in soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) with increasing copper levels in both soils, coupled by significant declines in bacterial abundance in most cases. Despite of contrasting bacterial community structures between the two soils, the bacterial diversity in the copper-contaminated soils showed considerably decreasing patterns when copper levels elevated. High-throughput sequencing revealed copper selection for major bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi were highly sensitive to copper. The thresholds that bacterial communities changed sharply were 800 and 200 added copper mg kg−1 in the fluvo-aquic soil and red soil, respectively, which were similar to the toxicity thresholds (EC50 values) characterized by SMBC. Structural equation model (SEM) analysis ascertained that the shifts of bacterial community composition and diversity were closely related with the changes of SMBC in both soils. Our results provide field-based evidence that copper contamination exhibits consistently negative impacts on soil bacterial communities, and the shifts of bacterial communities could have largely determined the variations of the microbial biomass. PMID:25699026

  4. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  5. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can get burned by heat, fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity, chemicals or hot or boiling water. There ... skin. The burned area will be sensitive to sunlight for up to one year, so you should ...

  6. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... common among older children. 5 6 7 8 • Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and ... Feldman KW, Schaller RT, Feldman JA, McMillon M. Tap water scald burns in children. Pediatrics. 1978; 62(1): ...

  7. American Burn Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Activities Educational Resources Prevention Posters Awards FAQs Burn Awareness Week About IAC Accomplishments IAC Members IAC ... About Verification Verification Step by Step ACS Resources Burn Chapter Verification Criteria - Effective 1/1/2017 New! ...

  8. Pediatric Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    Children have unique physiologic, physical, psychological, and social needs compared with adults. Although adhering to the basic tenets of burn resuscitation, resuscitation of the burned child should be modified based on the child's age, physiology, and response to injury. This article outlines the unique characteristics of burned children and describes the fundamental principles of pediatric burn resuscitation in terms of airway, circulatory, neurologic, and cutaneous injury management. PMID:27600126

  9. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Although maize is the second most important crop worldwide, and the most important C4 crop, no study on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) has yet been conducted on this crop at ecosystem scale and over a whole growing season. This has led to large uncertainties in cropland BVOC emission estimations. This paper seeks to fill this gap by presenting, for the first time, BVOC fluxes measured in a maize field at ecosystem scale (using the disjunct eddy covariance by mass scanning technique) over a whole growing season in Belgium. The maize field emitted mainly methanol, although exchanges were bi-directional. The second most exchanged compound was acetic acid, which was taken up mainly in the growing season. Bi-directional exchanges of acetaldehyde, acetone and other oxygenated VOCs also occurred, whereas the terpenes, benzene and toluene exchanges were small, albeit significant. Surprisingly, BVOC exchanges were of the same order of magnitude on bare soil and on well developed vegetation, suggesting that soil is a major BVOC reservoir in agricultural ecosystems. Quantitatively, the maize BVOC emissions observed were lower than those reported in other maize, crops and grasses studies. The standard emission factors (SEFs) estimated in this study (231 ± 19 µg m-2 h-1 for methanol, 8 ± 5 µg m-2 h-1 for isoprene and 4 ± 6 µg m-2 h-1 for monoterpenes) were also much lower than those currently used by models for C4 crops, particularly for terpenes. These results suggest that maize fields are small BVOC exchangers in north-western Europe, with a lower BVOC emission impact than that modelled for growing C4 crops in this part of the world. They also reveal the high variability in BVOC exchanges across world regions for maize and suggest that SEFs should be estimated for each region separately.

  10. Effects of agricultural tillage practise on green house gas balance of an arable soil in a long term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, Jean Charles; Schilling, Rolf; Ruth, Bernhard; Fuss, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Soils are an important part of the global carbon cycle. A large proportion of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is released from soils, though carbon sequestration occurs. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of soils are also believed to contribute significantly to the green house effect as well as the stratospheric ozone depletion. An important source of N2O emissions is denitrification of nitrate from nitrogen fertilized soils. Although it is desirable to minimize these emissions while maintaining high crop yields it is still poorly understood how green house gas emissions may be steered by agricultural management practise, i.e. tillage and fertilization systems . In an ongoing long term field experiment at the research farm Scheyern, Bavaria, a arable field with one homogenous soil formation was transformed into plots in a randomized design 14 years ago. Since then, they are managed using conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) as well as low and high fertilization. A conventional crop rotation is maintained on the field. Starting 2007, CO2 and N2O emissions were monitored continuously for 2.5 years. Furthermore water content, temperature and redox potential were measured in-situ as they are major factors on microbial activity and denitrification. Soil was sampled from the Ap horizons of the plots about twice a month and extracts from these soil samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). According to the results soil density and hydrology are clearly affected by tillage practise. DOC is more affected by tillage while concentration of nitrogen species is controlled mainly by fertilization. There are distinct differences in redox potential between CT and NT plots with CT plots having more anaerobic periods. CO2 and N2O emissions exhibit a clear seasonal pattern and are affected by both tillage system and fertilization

  11. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide emissions and their soil-related determining factors in an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Junta; Sawamoto, Takuji; Oe, Taku; Kusa, Kanako; Yamakawa, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Kazunori; Naganawa, Takahiko; Inubushi, Kazuyuki; Hatano, Ryusuke; Kosaki, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate spatial variability of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and to elucidate their determining factors on a field-scale basis, N2O fluxes and various soil properties were evaluated in a 100- x 100-m onion (Allium cepa L.) field. Nitrous oxide fluxes were determined by a closed chamber method from the one-hundred 10- x 10-m plots. Physical (e.g., bulk density and water content), chemical (e.g., total N and pH), and biological (e.g., microbial biomass C and N) properties were determined from surface soil samples (0-0.1 m) of each plot. Geostatistical analysis was performed to examine spatial variability of both N2O fluxes and soil properties. Multivariate analysis was also conducted to elucidate relationships between soil properties and observed fluxes. Nitrous oxide fluxes were highly variable (average 331 microg N m(-2) h(-1), CV 217%) and were log-normally distributed. Log-transformed N2O fluxes had moderate spatial dependence with a range of >75 m. High N2O fluxes were observed at sites with relatively low elevation. Multivariate analysis indicated that an organic matter factor and a pH factor of the principal component analysis were the main soil-related determining factors of log-transformed N2O fluxes. By combining multivariate analysis with geostatistics, a map of predicted N2O fluxes closely matched the spatial pattern of measured fluxes. The regression equation based on the soil properties explained 56% of the spatially structured variation of the log-transformed N2O fluxes. Site-specific management to regulate organic matter content and water status of a soil could be a promising means of reducing N2O emissions from agricultural fields. PMID:14674518

  12. Demonstration and validation of automated agricultural field extraction from multi-temporal Landsat data for the majority of United States harvested cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and the location and extent of fields is important to establish the area of land utilized for agricultural yield prediction, resource allocation, and for economic planning, and may be indicative of the degree of agricultural capital investment, mechanization, and labor intensity. To date, field objects have not been extracted from satellite data over large areas because of computational constraints, the complexity of the extraction task, and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. A recently published automated methodology to extract agricultural crop fields from weekly 30 m Web Enabled Landsat data (WELD) time series was refined and applied to 14 states that cover 70% of harvested U.S. cropland (USDA 2012 Census). The methodology was applied to 2010 combined weekly Landsat 5 and 7 WELD data. The field extraction and quantitative validation results are presented for the following 14 states: Iowa, North Dakota, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Texas, South Dakota, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, Wisconsin, Oklahoma and Michigan (sorted by area of harvested cropland). These states include the top 11 U.S states by harvested cropland area. Implications and recommendations for systematic application to global coverage Landsat data are discussed.

  13. Learn Not To Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the "Learn Not to Burn Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and burn prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight burn prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and…

  14. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  15. Workplace-related burns.

    PubMed

    Mian, M A H; Mullins, R F; Alam, B; Brandigi, C; Friedman, B C; Shaver, J R; Hassan, Z

    2011-06-30

    Introduction. The key element of a safe workplace for employees is the maintenance of fire safety. Thermal, chemical, and electrical burns are common types of burns at the workplace. This study assessed the epidemiology of work-related burn injuries on the basis of the workers treated in a regional burn centre. Methods. Two years' retrospective data (2005-2006) from the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons of the Joseph M. Still Burn Center at Doctors Hospital in Augusta, Georgia, were collected and analysed. Results. During the time period studied, 2510 adult patients with acute burns were admitted; 384 cases (15%) were work-related. The average age of the patients was 37 yr (range, 15-72 yr). Males constituted the majority (90%) of workrelated burn injury admissions. The racial distribution was in accordance with the Centre's admission census. Industrial plant explosions accounted for the highest number of work-related burns and, relatively, a significant number of patients had chemical burns. The average length of hospital stay was 5.54 days. Only three patients did not have health insurance and four patients (1%) died. Conclusion. Burn injuries at the workplace predominantly occur among young male workers, and the study has shown that chemical burns are relatively frequent. This study functions as the basis for the evaluation of work-related burns and identification of the causes of these injuries to formulate adequate safety measures, especially for young, male employees working with chemicals.

  16. Chemical burn or reaction

    MedlinePlus

    Burn from chemicals ... in contact with the toxic substance Rash , blisters , burns on the skin Unconsciousness or other states of ... Make sure the cause of the burn has been removed. Try not to come ... yourself. If the chemical is dry, brush off any excess. Avoid ...

  17. High-resolution mapping of biomass burning emissions in tropical regions across three continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning emissions from open vegetation fires (forest fires, savanna fires, agricultural waste burning), human waste and biofuel combustion contain large amounts of trace gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and aerosols (BC and OC), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate . With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and ground-based observation data, and spatial variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution emissions inventory for biomass burning in tropical regions across three continents in 2010. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from open vegetation burning are estimated from burned areas, fuel loads, combustion factors, and emission factors. Burned areas were derived from MODIS MCD64A1 burned area product, fuel loads were mapped from biomass density data sets for herbaceous and tree-covered land based on satellite and ground-based observation data. To account for spatial heterogeneity in combustion factors, global fractional tree cover (MOD44B) and vegetation cover maps (MCD12Q1) were introduced to estimate the combustion factors in different regions by using their relationship with tree cover under less than 40%, between 40-60% and above 60% conditions. For emission factors, the average values for each fuel type from field measurements are used. In addition to biomass burning from open vegetation fires, the emissions from human waste (residential and dump) burning and biofuel burning in 2010 were also estimated for 76 countries in tropical regions across the three continents and then allocated into each pixel with 1 km grid based on the population density (Gridded Population of the World v3). Our total estimates for the tropical regions across the three continents in 2010 were 17744.5 Tg CO2, 730.3 Tg CO, 32.0 Tg CH4, 31.6 Tg NOx, 119.2 Tg NMOC, 6.3 Tg SO2, 9.8 NH3 Tg, 81.8 Tg PM2.5, 48.0 Tg OC, and 5.7 Tg BC, respectively. Open

  18. Fate of synthetic musks in a domestic wastewater treatment plant and in an agricultural field amended with biosolids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Jun; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2006-06-15

    Synthetic musks are widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care products, and they enter domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through discharges into municipal sewage systems. Samples of aqueous sewage and biosolids collected from the Peterborough Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Ontario, Canada were analyzed for 11 synthetic musk compounds using GC/MS. The results showed that 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, 173.1+/-43.4 ng/L) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN, 41.6+/-15.8 ng/L) were the dominant fragrances in sewage, but other polycyclic musks and nitro musks were present at lower concentrations. The concentrations of HHCB and AHTN in the aqueous phase of the sewage were highly correlated with both BOD5 and TOC. The overall removal efficiency of synthetic musks from the aqueous sewage in the WWTP ranged from 43.3% to 56.9%, but removal occurred mainly by partitioning into the biosolids. Based on a mass balance model, the daily input and output of HHCB and AHTN in the Peterborough WWTP were 47 g and 46 g, respectively. In an agricultural field amended with biosolids from the Peterborough WWTP, HHCB and AHTN were detected in soil immediately after application at mean concentrations of 1.0 and 1.3 mug/kg, respectively, but concentrations declined relatively rapidly over the next 6 weeks, post-application.

  19. A finite element model for simulating runoff and soil erosion from mechanically treated agricultural lands: 2. Field validation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharda, V. N.; Singh, Sita Ram; Sastry, G.; Dhruvanarayana, V. V.

    1994-07-01

    The finite element model for simulation of runoff and soil erosion as developed by Sharda and Singh (this issue) is evaluated using data collected from agricultural land treated with major mechanical soil and water conservation measures, namely, contour bunding, graded bunding, bench terracing, and conservation bench terracing. The simulated and experimentally realized hydrographs and soil loss values are in reasonably good agreement for various measures. Probable reasons for discrepancies between the predicted and observed values are discussed. The model has the potential of being used on a single storm or a continuous basis provided the soil, crop, and climatic parameters are precisely known or estimated for a given location and for the period under consideration. The model logically simulates the effects of flow, topographic, soil, and crop parameters such as antecedent moisture level, roughness coefficient, saturated hydraulic conductivity, slope, depth of impoundment, size of outlet, longitudinal slope of the channel, vertical interval, and cropping management factor. The model is found to be quite sensitive to changes in roughness coefficient, rainfall excess rate, and cover management factor, and hence these parameters need to be assessed carefully in the field. The general applicability of the model as a planning tool for soil conservation measures and the scope for future development are also discussed.

  20. Development of a field worthy sensor system to monitor gaseous nitrogen transfer from agricultural cropland. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer accounts for 25 to 33% of the energy requirements in modern crop agriculture in the world today. Energy input for the manufacture of these N fertilizers is in the range of 460 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu per year. Unfortunately, for some N sources up to 70% of this energy in the form of NK can be lost through improper application techniques and poor N management strategies. Anhydrous NH{sub 3} may be lost to the atmosphere during and after placement due to soil conditions placement. Measurement of volatile N is difficult, especially under field conditions. A precise and convenient method of measuring gaseous NH{sub 3} near and above the soil surface is prerequisite to the development and evaluation of altemative fertilizer management strategies and application techniques which can reduce the potential for significant loss. Recent advances in integrated-optic (IO) based sensing offers the potential of measuring low levels of NH{sub 3} loss from a cropping system in the range of 100 ppB. The integrated design of an IO system allows for a more durable device that can be mass produced at low cost. Under Phase I of this project, two IO devices were designed and tested: an absorption device using an oxazine dye as a waveguide coating and an interferometric device using an anilinium salt as a waveguide coating.

  1. Spatiotemporal characterization of soil moisture fields in agricultural areas using cosmic-ray neutron probes and data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Trenton; Wang, Tiejun

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 40% of global food production comes from irrigated agriculture. With the increasing demand for food even greater pressures will be placed on water resources within these systems. In this work we aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at the field-scale (~500 m) using the newly developed cosmic-ray neutron rover near Waco, NE USA. Here we mapped soil moisture of 144 quarter section fields (a mix of maize, soybean, and natural areas) each week during the 2014 growing season (May to September). The 12 by 12 km study domain also contained three stationary cosmic-ray neutron probes for independent validation of the rover surveys. Basic statistical analysis of the domain indicated a strong relationship between the mean and variance of soil moisture at several averaging scales. The relationships between the mean and higher order moments were not significant. Scaling analysis indicated strong power law behavior between the variance of soil moisture and averaging area with minimal dependence of mean soil moisture on the slope of the power law function. In addition, we combined the data from the three stationary cosmic-ray neutron probes and mobile surveys using linear regression to derive a daily soil moisture product at 1, 3, and 12 km spatial resolutions for the entire growing season. The statistical relationships derived from the rover dataset offer a novel set of observations that will be useful in: 1) calibrating and validating land surface models, 2) calibrating and validating crop models, 3) soil moisture covariance estimates for statistical downscaling of remote sensing products such as SMOS and SMAP, and 4) provide daily center-pivot scale mean soil moisture data for optimal irrigation timing and volume amounts.

  2. Polyoxyethylene Tallow Amine, a Glyphosate Formulation Adjuvant: Soil Adsorption Characteristics, Degradation Profile, and Occurrence on Selected Soils from Agricultural Fields in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, and Missouri.

    PubMed

    Tush, Daniel; Meyer, Michael T

    2016-06-01

    Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is an inert ingredient added to formulations of glyphosate, the most widely applied agricultural herbicide. POEA has been shown to have toxic effects to some aquatic organisms making the potential transport of POEA from the application site into the environment an important concern. This study characterized the adsorption of POEA to soils and assessed its occurrence and homologue distribution in agricultural soils from six states. Adsorption experiments of POEA to selected soils showed that POEA adsorbed much stronger than glyphosate; calcium chloride increased the binding of POEA; and the binding of POEA was stronger in low pH conditions. POEA was detected on a soil sample from an agricultural field near Lawrence, Kansas, but with a loss of homologues that contain alkenes. POEA was also detected on soil samples collected between February and early March from corn and soybean fields from ten different sites in five other states (Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Mississippi). This is the first study to characterize the adsorption of POEA to soil, the potential widespread occurrence of POEA on agricultural soils, and the persistence of the POEA homologues on agricultural soils into the following growing season. PMID:27163278

  3. Vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil profile in a seasonally waterlogging agriculture field in Eastern Ganges Basin.

    PubMed

    Rajmohan, N; Prathapar, S A; Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and water is a serious concern due to their persistence and toxicity. This study investigated the vertical distribution of heavy metals, possible sources and their relation with soil texture in a soil profile from seasonally waterlogged agriculture fields of Eastern Ganges basin. Fifteen samples were collected at ~0.90-m interval during drilling of 13.11 mbgl and analysed for physical parameters (moisture content and grain size parameters: sand, silt, clay ratio) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd). The average metal content was in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Cd. Vertical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni shows more or less similar trends, and clay zone records high concentration of heavy metals. The enrichment of heavy metals in clay zone with alkaline pH strongly implies that the heavy metal distributions in the study site are effectively regulated by soil texture and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. Correlation coefficient analysis indicates that most of the metals correlate with Fe, Mn and soil texture (clay and silt). Soil quality assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). The enrichment factor values were ranged between 0.66 (Mn) and 2.34 (Co) for the studied metals, and the contamination factor values varied between 0.79 (Mn) and 2.55 (Co). Results suggest that the elements such as Cu and Co are categorized as moderate to moderately severe contamination, which are further confirmed by I(geo) values (0.69 for Cu and 0.78 for Co). The concentration of Ni exceeded the effects-range median values, and the biological adverse effect of this metal is 87%. The average concentration of heavy metals was compared with published data such as concentration of heavy metals in Ganga River sediments, Ganga Delta sediments and upper continental crust (UCC

  4. Vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil profile in a seasonally waterlogging agriculture field in Eastern Ganges Basin.

    PubMed

    Rajmohan, N; Prathapar, S A; Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and water is a serious concern due to their persistence and toxicity. This study investigated the vertical distribution of heavy metals, possible sources and their relation with soil texture in a soil profile from seasonally waterlogged agriculture fields of Eastern Ganges basin. Fifteen samples were collected at ~0.90-m interval during drilling of 13.11 mbgl and analysed for physical parameters (moisture content and grain size parameters: sand, silt, clay ratio) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd). The average metal content was in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Cd. Vertical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni shows more or less similar trends, and clay zone records high concentration of heavy metals. The enrichment of heavy metals in clay zone with alkaline pH strongly implies that the heavy metal distributions in the study site are effectively regulated by soil texture and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. Correlation coefficient analysis indicates that most of the metals correlate with Fe, Mn and soil texture (clay and silt). Soil quality assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). The enrichment factor values were ranged between 0.66 (Mn) and 2.34 (Co) for the studied metals, and the contamination factor values varied between 0.79 (Mn) and 2.55 (Co). Results suggest that the elements such as Cu and Co are categorized as moderate to moderately severe contamination, which are further confirmed by I(geo) values (0.69 for Cu and 0.78 for Co). The concentration of Ni exceeded the effects-range median values, and the biological adverse effect of this metal is 87%. The average concentration of heavy metals was compared with published data such as concentration of heavy metals in Ganga River sediments, Ganga Delta sediments and upper continental crust (UCC

  5. Vertical Distribution and Columnar Optical Properties of Springtime Biomass-Burning Aerosols over Northern Indochina during the 7-SEAS/BASELInE field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N. H.; Wang, S. H.; Welton, E. J.; Holben, B. N.; Tsay, S. C.; Giles, D. M.; Stewart, S. A.; Janjai, S.; Anh, N. X.; Hsiao, T. C.; Chen, W. N.; Lin, T. H.; Buntoung, S.; Chantara, S.; Wiriya, W.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the aerosol optical properties and vertical distributions in major biomass-burning emission area of northern Indochina were investigated using ground-based remote sensing (i.e., four Sun-sky radiometers and one lidar) during the Seven South East Asian Studies/Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles & Interactions Experiment conducted during spring 2014. Despite the high spatial variability of the aerosol optical depth (AOD; which at 500 nm ranged from 0.75 to 1.37 depending on the site), the temporal variation of the daily AOD demonstrated a consistent pattern among the observed sites, suggesting the presence of widespread smoke haze over the region. Smoke particles were characterized as small (Ångström exponent at 440-870 nm of 1.72 and fine mode fraction of 0.96), strongly absorbing (single-scattering albedo at 440 nm of 0.88), mixture of black and brown carbon particles (absorption Ångström exponent at 440-870 nm of 1.5) suspended within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Smoke plumes driven by the PBL dynamics in the mountainous region reached as high as 5 km above sea level; these plumes subsequently spread out by westerly winds over northern Vietnam, southern China, and the neighboring South China Sea. Moreover, the analysis of diurnal variability of aerosol loading and optical properties as well as vertical profile in relation to PBL development, fire intensity, and aerosol mixing showed that various sites exhibited different variability based on meteorological conditions, fuel type, site elevation, and proximity to biomass-burning sources. These local factors influence the aerosol characteristics in the region and distinguish northern Indochina smoke from other biomass-burning regions in the world.

  6. Comparison of chemical characteristics of 495 biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the ARCTAS/CARB-2008 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecobian, A.; Liu, Z.; Hennigan, C. J.; Huey, L. G.; Jimenez, J. L.; Cubison, M. J.; Vay, S.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Liao, J.; Knapp, D. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Kürten, A.; Crounse, J. D.; St. Clair, J.; Wang, Y.; Weber, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    This paper compares measurements of gaseous and particulate emissions from a wide range of biomass-burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the three phases of the ARCTAS-2008 experiment: ARCTAS-A, based out of Fairbanks, Alaska, USA (3 April to 19 April 2008); ARCTAS-B based out of Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada (29 June to 13 July 2008); and ARCTAS-CARB, based out of Palmdale, California, USA (18 June to 24 June 2008). Approximately 500 smoke plumes from biomass burning emissions that varied in age from minutes to days were segregated by fire source region and urban emission influences. The normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMR) of gaseous (carbon dioxide, acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide, toluene, benzene, methane, oxides of nitrogen and ozone) and fine aerosol particulate components (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, chloride, organic aerosols and water soluble organic carbon) of these plumes were compared. A detailed statistical analysis of the different plume categories for different gaseous and aerosol species is presented in this paper. The comparison of NEMR values showed that CH4 concentrations were higher in air-masses that were influenced by urban emissions. Fresh biomass burning plumes mixed with urban emissions showed a higher degree of oxidative processing in comparison with fresh biomass burning only plumes. This was evident in higher concentrations of inorganic aerosol components such as sulfate, nitrate and ammonium, but not reflected in the organic components. Lower NOx NEMRs combined with high sulfate, nitrate and ammonium NEMRs in aerosols of plumes subject to long-range transport, when comparing all plume categories, provided evidence of advanced processing of these plumes.

  7. Burn Injury and Explosions: An Australian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Increasingly (but not exclusively), terrorist activity and the use of explosive devices have enjoyed the focus of the global media. This paper aims to bring a range of issues to attention, to highlight how burn injuries are sustained in such incidents and why burn injuries (and thus burn disasters) are so complicated to manage. Materials and Methods: The author's experience with burn injury caused during explosions and his involvement in burn disaster situations has been summarized to form the basis of the article. This has been expanded upon with discussion points which provide a strategy for planning for such events and by a broad sample of the literature. Results: Several strategies are suggested to facilitate planning for burn disasters and to illustrate to those not directly involved why forward planning is pivotal to success when these incidents occur. Conclusions: Disasters generating large numbers of burn-injured are relatively frequent. Explosive devices are widespread in their use both in military and increasingly in civilian fields. Encompassing a large range of aetiologies, geographical sites, populations, and resources; burn disaster management is difficult and planning essential. PMID:19834533

  8. Thresholds of arsenic toxicity to Eisenia fetida in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Víctor; Mondaca, Pedro; Verdejo, José; Sauvé, Sébastien; Gaete, Hernán; Celis-Diez, Juan L; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Several previous studies highlighted the importance of using field-collected soils-and not artificially-contaminated soils-for ecotoxicity tests. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation of results, due to the presence of various contaminants and unavoidable differences in the physicochemical properties of the tested soils. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of metal toxicity in topsoils of 24 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed standardized earthworm reproduction tests (OECD 222 and ISO 11268-2) with Eisenia fetida. Total soil concentrations of Cu, As, Zn, and Pb were in the ranges of 82-1295 mg kg(-1), 7-41 mg kg(-1), 86-345 mg kg(-1), and 25-97 mg kg(-1), respectively. In order to differentiate between the effects of different metals, we used regression analysis between soil metal concentrations and earthworm responses, as well as between metal concentrations in earthworm tissues and earthworm responses. Based on regression analysis, we concluded that As was a metal of prime concern for Eisenia fetida in soils affected by Cu mining activities, while Cu exhibited a secondary effect. In contrast, the effects of Zn and Pb were not significant. Soil electrical conductivity was another significant contributor to reproduction toxicity in the studied soils, forcing its integration in the interpretation of the results. By using soils with electrical conductivity ≤ 0.29 dS m(-1) (which corresponds to EC50 of salt toxicity to Eisenia fetida), it was possible to isolate the effect of soil salinity on earthworm reproduction. Despite the confounding effects of Cu, it was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 values for total soil As at 8 mg kg(-1), 14 mg kg(-1) and 22 mg kg(-1), respectively, for the response of the cocoon production. However, it was not possible to determine these threshold values for juvenile production. Likewise, we were able to

  9. Thresholds of arsenic toxicity to Eisenia fetida in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Víctor; Mondaca, Pedro; Verdejo, José; Sauvé, Sébastien; Gaete, Hernán; Celis-Diez, Juan L; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Several previous studies highlighted the importance of using field-collected soils-and not artificially-contaminated soils-for ecotoxicity tests. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation of results, due to the presence of various contaminants and unavoidable differences in the physicochemical properties of the tested soils. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of metal toxicity in topsoils of 24 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed standardized earthworm reproduction tests (OECD 222 and ISO 11268-2) with Eisenia fetida. Total soil concentrations of Cu, As, Zn, and Pb were in the ranges of 82-1295 mg kg(-1), 7-41 mg kg(-1), 86-345 mg kg(-1), and 25-97 mg kg(-1), respectively. In order to differentiate between the effects of different metals, we used regression analysis between soil metal concentrations and earthworm responses, as well as between metal concentrations in earthworm tissues and earthworm responses. Based on regression analysis, we concluded that As was a metal of prime concern for Eisenia fetida in soils affected by Cu mining activities, while Cu exhibited a secondary effect. In contrast, the effects of Zn and Pb were not significant. Soil electrical conductivity was another significant contributor to reproduction toxicity in the studied soils, forcing its integration in the interpretation of the results. By using soils with electrical conductivity ≤ 0.29 dS m(-1) (which corresponds to EC50 of salt toxicity to Eisenia fetida), it was possible to isolate the effect of soil salinity on earthworm reproduction. Despite the confounding effects of Cu, it was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 values for total soil As at 8 mg kg(-1), 14 mg kg(-1) and 22 mg kg(-1), respectively, for the response of the cocoon production. However, it was not possible to determine these threshold values for juvenile production. Likewise, we were able to

  10. Dual-permeability modeling of preferential bromide leaching from a tile-drained glacial till agricultural field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Horst H.; Maximilian Köhne, J.

    2004-04-01

    A tile-drained agricultural field can be regarded as a 'field-scale' lysimeter that may be used to study soil water and chemical transport under relatively natural conditions. Tile discharge and effluent bromide concentrations measured in a previous field tracer experiment for a structured clayey loam at Bokhorst, Northern Germany, indicated strong preferential flow. Simulation using single domain HYDRUS numerical flow and transport model could nevertheless explain water outflow, however, completely failed to describe tile-drain leaching patterns of the conservative tracer. The objective of this paper was to analyze whether the nonequilibrium-type dual-permeability model concept could better capture soil structure related principle mechanisms of preferential leaching in the unsaturated soil at that study site. The dual-permeability model (DUAL) describes for soil matrix and fracture pore systems Darcian flow with coupled Richards' equations and convective-dispersive (CD) solute transport with coupled CD equations. The hydraulic parameters of the dual-permeability model were obtained from standard soil hydraulic measurements by adopting a bimodal fitting procedure, whereas transport parameters were inferred from soil column tracer experiments and geometrical transfer term parameters were derived using qualitative soil structure descriptions. The hydraulic conductivity Ka in the inter-domain water transfer term and the effective diffusion coefficient Da in the solute mass transfer term were calibrated by comparing simulated with measured tile flow and effluent concentrations. The DUAL approach described water flow similarly well as the single-domain model. Bromide concentrations in the tile effluent could be approximated with DUAL when decreasing the Ka and Da values by three orders of magnitude compared with the values of the soil matrix domain. The dual-permeability approach seems to reflect nonequilibrium transport mechanisms at this structured soil since it not

  11. Short-term temporal and spatial variability of soil hydrophobicity in an abandoned agriculture field in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Burguet, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a natural property of soils. Among other factors, SWR depends on soil moisture, mineralogy, texture, pH, organic matter, aggregate stability, fungal and microbiological activity and plant cover. It has implications on plant growth, superficial and subsurface hydrology and soil erosion. It is well known that SWR is temporarily, increasing when soils are dry and decreasing when moist. In agriculture, soil micro-topography is very heterogeneous with implications on surface water distribution and wettability. Normally, SWR studies are focused on large interval time (e.g, monthly or seasonally). The objective of this work is the study of SWR in a temporal scale and its variability in an abandoned agriculture field in Lithuania. An experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m) was designed in a flat area. Inside this plot SWR was measured in the field, placing three droplets of water on the soil surface and counting the time that takes to infiltrate. A total of 105 sampling points were measured per sampling period. Soil water repellency was measured after a period of 14 days without rainfall and in the seven consequent weeks (one measurement per week between 28th May and 07th of July 2012). The results showed that in this small plot, SWR was observed in the first (May 28), third and fourth measurements (08th of June and 16th). It was observed an increasing of the percentage of hydrophobic points (Water Drop Penetration Test ≥5 seconds) between the first and the fourth measurement, decreasing thereafter. Significant differences of SWR were observed among all periods (F=78.32, p<0.0001). The coefficient of variation (CV%) changed strikingly, 361.10 % (8th of May), 151.78 % (01st of June), 83.77% (08th of June), 125.87% (16th of June), 0.45 (22nd of June), 121%(31st of June) and 67.13% (7th of July). The correlation between the mean SWR and the CV% is 0.75, p<0.05. The changes were attributed to different soil moisture conditions. The differences

  12. Anthropogenic and geogenic Cd, Hg, Pb and Se sources of contamination in a brackish aquifer below agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrocicco, Micòl; Colombani, Nicolò; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Faccini, Barbara; Ferretti, Giacomo; Coltorti, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater quality is often threatened by industrial, agricultural and land use practices (anthropogenic input). In deltaic areas is however difficult to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic inorganic contaminants pollution, since these phenomena can influence each other and often display a seasonal cycling. The effect of geogenic groundwater ionic strength (>10 g/l) on the mobility of trace elements like Cd, Hg, Pb and Se was studied in combination with the anthropogenic sources of these elements (fertilizers) in a shallow aquifer. The site is located in the Po river plain (Northern Italy) in an agricultural field belonging to a reclaimed deltaic environment, near Codigoro town. It is 6 ha wide and is drained by a subsurface drainage system made of PVC tile drains with a slope of 3‰, which provides gravity drainage towards two ditches that in turn discharge in a main channel. The whole area has been intensively cultivated with cereal rotation since 1960, mainly using synthetic urea as nitrogen fertilizer at an average rate of 180 kg-N/ha/y and pig slurry at an average rate of 60 kg-N/ha/y. The sediments were analyzed for major and trace elements via XRF, while major ions in groundwater were analyzed via IC and trace elements via ICP-MS. Three monitoring wells, with an inner diameter of 2 cm and screened down to 4 m below ground level, were set up in the field and sampled every four month from 2012 to 2014. The use of intensive depth profiles with resolution of 0.5 m in three different locations, gave insights into groundwater and sediment matrix interactions. To characterize the anthropogenic inputs synthetic urea and pig slurry were analyzed for trace elements via ICP-MS. The synthetic urea is a weak source of Cd and Hg (~1 ppb), while Se and Pb are found below detection limits. The pig slurry is a much stronger source of Se (~19 ppb) and Pb (~23 ppb) and a weak source of Cd (~3 ppb) and Hg (~2 ppb). Although, the mass loading rate pig slurry is

  13. A comparison of rating and dating techniques to estimate the threat of soil erosion to archaeological monuments under agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, Maud; Huisman, Hans; Schoorl, Jeroen; Reimann, Tony; Temme, Arnaud; Wallinga, Jakob; de Kort, Jan-Willem; van der Heiden, Menno; van Os, Bertil; van Egmond, Fenny; Ketteren, Michael

    2015-04-01

    For the protection of Dutch archaeological sites against degradation, the TOPsites project is investigating the rate, extent and mitigation of the most important processes involved. One of these processes is soil translocation or soil redistribution. For many Dutch archaeological sites the actual extent and rate of soil erosion is not yet known. In this study different techniques for dating and estimating rates have been compared on three archaeological sites on tilled fields with gentle slopes: (multi-temporal LiDar, profiles and spatial distribution of 137Cs, anthropogenic Pb, and 239+240Pu, and moreover OSL. In addition, the added value of the combination of several of these techniques together will be evaluated. Preliminary results show evidence for colluvium formation (deposition) on two of the sites. Lead contents in a buried soil on one of these sites suggest a subrecent to recent date. 137Cs profiles and spatial mapping, however, do not show clear evidence for recent erosion or re-deposition patterns. These first results suggest that in these agricultural settings with typical Dutch gentle slopes, erosion may only occur in rare, catastrophic, events with local high erosion and re-deposition rates instead of a more or less continuous process with lower rates. Consequently, the impact of ploughing might be limited to mixing of the plough layer, while the effect of damaging soil translocation, for these selected archaeological sites, seems less important. Forthcoming analysis and results of Pu and OSL will provide enough data for further discussion and possible falsification of these preliminary conclusions.

  14. Emission factors from aerial and ground measurements of field and laboratory forest burns in the southeastern US: PM2.5, black and brown carbon, VOC, and PCDD/PCDF.

    PubMed

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K

    2013-08-01

    Aerial- and ground-sampled emissions from three prescribed forest burns in the southeastern U.S. were compared to emissions from laboratory open burn tests using biomass from the same locations. A comprehensive array of emissions, including PM2.5, black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were sampled using ground-based and aerostat-lofted platforms for determination of emission factors. The PM2.5 emission factors ranged from 14 to 47 g/kg biomass, up to three times higher than previously published studies. The biomass type was the primary determinant of PM2.5, rather than whether the emission sample was gathered from the laboratory or the field and from aerial- or ground-based sampling. The BC and BrC emission factors ranged from 1.2 to 2.1 g/kg biomass and 1.0 to 1.4 g/kg biomass, respectively. A decrease in BC and BrC emission factors with decreased combustion efficiency was found from both field and laboratory data. VOC emission factors increased with decreased combustion efficiency. No apparent differences in averaged emission factors were observed between the field and laboratory for BC, BrC, and VOCs. The average PCDD/PCDF emission factors ranged from 0.06 to 4.6 ng TEQ/kg biomass.

  15. Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.

    PubMed

    Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

    2013-07-01

    Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals.

  16. Burns and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  17. Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.

    PubMed

    Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

    2013-07-01

    Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350

  18. 'Therapeutic' burns (Maqua).

    PubMed

    Baruchin, A M

    1984-12-01

    Cauterization of the skin by a red-hot iron, a pinch of hot cinder or a burning coal, is a form of 'treatment' used by lay healers in some parts of Africa and the Middle East. The burns are limited to small circular areas, and are usually full-thickness skin loss. Most frequently, the patients do not seek medical treatment and the burns heal by secondary intention. Sometimes, however, disastrous complications such as infectious osteomyelitis, septicaemia and death may occur.

  19. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  20. Pediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Kung, Theodore A; Gosain, Arun K

    2008-07-01

    Despite major advances in the area of burn management, burn injury continues to be a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Facial burns in particular are devastating to the affected child and result in numerous physical and psychosocial sequelae. Although many of the principles of adult burn management can be applied to a pediatric patient with facial burns, the surgeon must be cognizant of several important differences. Facial burns and subsequent scar formation can drastically affect the growth potential of a child's face. Structures such as the nose and teeth may become deformed due to abnormal external forces caused by contractures. Serious complications such as occlusion amblyopia and microstomia must be anticipated and urgently addressed to avert permanent consequences, whereas other reconstructive procedures can be delayed until scar maturation occurs. Furthermore, because young children are actively developing the concept of self, severe facial burns can alter a child's sense of identity and place the child at high risk for future emotional and psychologic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction of burn wounds should proceed only after thorough planning and may involve a variety of skin graft, flap, and tissue expansion techniques. The most favorable outcome is achieved when facial resurfacing is performed with respect to the aesthetic units of the face. Children with facial burns remain a considerable challenge to their caregivers, and these patients require long-term care by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and therapists to optimize functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes. PMID:18650717

  1. Fire regimes and potential bioenergy loss from agricultural lands in the Indo-Gangetic Plains.

    PubMed

    Vadrevu, Krishna; Lasko, Kristofer

    2015-01-15

    Agricultural fires in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) are a major cause of air pollution. In this study, we evaluate fire regimes and quantify the potential of agricultural residues in generating bioenergy that otherwise are subject to burning by local farmers in the region. For characterizing the fire regimes, we used MODIS satellite datasets in conjunction with IRS-AWiFS classified data. We collected crop statistical data for area, production, and yield for 31 different crops and mapped the bioenergy potential of agricultural residues. We also tested the MODIS net primary production (NPP) dataset potential for crop yield estimation and thereby bioenergy calculations. Results from land use-fire analysis suggested that 88.13% of fires occurred in agricultural areas. Relatively more fires and burnt areas were recorded during the winter rice residue burning season than the summer wheat residue burning season. Monte Carlo analysis suggested that nearly 16.5 Tg of crop residues are burned at 60% probability. MODIS NPP data could explain 62% of variation in field-level crop yield estimates. Our analysis revealed that in the IGP nearly 73.28 Tg of crop residue biomass is available for recycling. The energy equivalent from these residues is estimated to be 1110.77 PJ. From the residues, the biogas potential production is estimated to be 1165.1098 million m(3), the electric power potential at 20% efficiency is estimated at 61698.9 kWh, and the total bioethanol production potential at 21.0 billion liters. Results also highlight geographic locations of bioenergy resources in the IGP useful for energy planning. Controlling agricultural residue burning and promoting the bioenergy sector is an attractive "win-win" strategy in the IGP.

  2. Vertical Chlorophyll Canopy Structure Affects the Remote Sensing Based Predictability of LAI, Chlorophyll and Leaf Nitrogen in Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boegh, E.; Houborg, R.; Bienkowski, J.; Braban, C. F.; Dalgaard, T.; van Dijk, N.; Dragosits, U.; Holmes, E.; Magliulo, V.; Schelde, K.; Di Tommasi, P.; Vitale, L.; Theobald, M.; Cellier, P.; Sutton, M.

    2012-12-01

    Leaf nitrogen and leaf surface area influence the exchange of gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and they play a significant role in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and water. Remote sensing can be used to estimate leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content (CHL) and leaf nitrogen (N), but methods are often developed using plot-scale data and not verified over extended regions characterized by variations in environmental boundary conditions (soil, atmosphere) and canopy structures. Estimation of N can be indirect due to its association with CHL, however N is also included in pigments such as carotenoids and anthocyanin which have different spectral signatures than CHL. Photosynthesis optimization theory suggests that plants will distribute their N resources in proportion to the light gradient within the canopy. Such vertical variation in CHL and N complicates the evaluation of remote sensing-based methods. Typically remote sensing studies measure CHL of the upper leaf, which is then multiplied by the green LAI to represent canopy chlorophyll content, or random sampling is used. In this study, field measurements and high spatial resolution (10-20 m) remote sensing images acquired from the HRG and HRVIR sensors aboard the SPOT satellites were used to assess the predictability of LAI, CHL and N in five European agricultural landscapes located in Denmark, Scotland (United Kingdom), Poland, The Netherlands and Italy . All satellite images were atmospherically using the 6SV1 model with atmospheric inputs estimated by MODIS and AIRS data. Five spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were calculated (the Normalized Difference Vegetation index, the Simple Ratio, the Enhanced Vegetation Index-2, the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and the green Chlorophyll Index), and an image-based inverse canopy radiative transfer modelling system, REGFLEC (REGularized canopy reFLECtance) was applied to each of the five European landscapes. While the

  3. The burning question: does burning before flooding lower methyl mercury production and bioaccumulation?

    PubMed

    Mailman, Mariah; Bodaly, R A Drew

    2006-09-01

    Production of methyl mercury (MeHg) is elevated in new hydroelectric reservoirs because organic carbon stimulates methylation of inorganic mercury (Hg) stored in the terrestrial system. This can cause adverse health in fish and in organisms that eat fish. We expected that burning vegetation before flooding would decrease the amount of Hg and organic carbon and thereby lower MeHg production. We conducted a replicated field experiment to investigate the effects of burning vegetation and soil before flooding on MeHg production and bioaccumulation. Vegetation and soil were added to mesocosms in the following combinations: unburned vegetation and unburned soil (Fresh treatments), burned vegetation and unburned soil (Partial Burn treatments), and burned vegetation and burned soil (Complete Burn treatments). Controls had no added vegetation or soil. During combustion with propane torches, a large percentage of the total Hg (THg) and MeHg was lost from vegetation and soil. THg and MeHg concentrations were highest in the surface water of Fresh treatments, lower in Partial Burn treatments and lowest in Complete Burn treatments and controls. Differences in concentrations of MeHg in biota were consistent among treatments, but did not follow aqueous concentrations. On the final sample date, MeHg concentrations in biota of Controls and Partial Burn treatments were greater than in Complete Burn and Fresh treatments. The lack of relationship between MeHg in biota and MeHg in water may have been due to modification of the bioavailability of MeHg by dissolved organic matter as the ratios of MeHg in biota to water were inversely correlated with concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Although burning before flooding decreased MeHg concentrations in the water, it did not lower MeHg accumulation in the lower food web.

  4. The burning question: does burning before flooding lower methyl mercury production and bioaccumulation?

    PubMed

    Mailman, Mariah; Bodaly, R A Drew

    2006-09-01

    Production of methyl mercury (MeHg) is elevated in new hydroelectric reservoirs because organic carbon stimulates methylation of inorganic mercury (Hg) stored in the terrestrial system. This can cause adverse health in fish and in organisms that eat fish. We expected that burning vegetation before flooding would decrease the amount of Hg and organic carbon and thereby lower MeHg production. We conducted a replicated field experiment to investigate the effects of burning vegetation and soil before flooding on MeHg production and bioaccumulation. Vegetation and soil were added to mesocosms in the following combinations: unburned vegetation and unburned soil (Fresh treatments), burned vegetation and unburned soil (Partial Burn treatments), and burned vegetation and burned soil (Complete Burn treatments). Controls had no added vegetation or soil. During combustion with propane torches, a large percentage of the total Hg (THg) and MeHg was lost from vegetation and soil. THg and MeHg concentrations were highest in the surface water of Fresh treatments, lower in Partial Burn treatments and lowest in Complete Burn treatments and controls. Differences in concentrations of MeHg in biota were consistent among treatments, but did not follow aqueous concentrations. On the final sample date, MeHg concentrations in biota of Controls and Partial Burn treatments were greater than in Complete Burn and Fresh treatments. The lack of relationship between MeHg in biota and MeHg in water may have been due to modification of the bioavailability of MeHg by dissolved organic matter as the ratios of MeHg in biota to water were inversely correlated with concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Although burning before flooding decreased MeHg concentrations in the water, it did not lower MeHg accumulation in the lower food web. PMID:16263153

  5. Evaluation of burn injuries related to liquefied petroleum gas.

    PubMed

    Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2014-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a fuel that is widely used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. LPG is also commonly used in restaurants, industries, and cars; however, the home continues to be the main site for accidents. In Turkey, the increased usage of LPG as a cooking or heating fuel has resulted in many burn injuries from LPG mishaps. Between January 2000 and June 2011, 56 LPG-burned patients were compared with 112 flame-burned patients. There were no significant differences with respect to the mean age, sex, hospitalization time, and mortality in both groups. In the LPG-caused burn cases, 41 burns (73.2%) occurred at home, seven (12.5) were work-related mishaps, and eight (14.3) were associated with car accidents. The majority of the LPG burns (82%, 46 patients) resulted from a gas leak, and 18% of them were related to the failure to close LPG tubes in the patients' kitchens (10 patients). Burns to the face and neck (82 vs 67%, P = .039) and upper (62 vs 23%, P = .000) and lower (70 vs 45%, P = .002) extremities were significantly higher in LPG-caused burn cases than flame-burned cases. General awareness regarding the risk of LPG and first aid for burns appears to be lacking. The LPG delivery system should be standardized throughout countries that widely use LPG.

  6. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  7. Biomass burning fuel consumption dynamics in the tropics and subtropics assessed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, Niels; van der Werf, Guido R.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; van Leeuwen, Thijs T.; Wooster, Martin J.; Lehmann, Caroline E. R.

    2016-06-01

    Africa, although this effect might have been partially driven by the presence of grazers in Africa or differences in landscape management. Finally, land management in the form of deforestation and agriculture also considerably affected fuel consumption regionally. We conclude that combining FRP and burned-area estimates, calibrated against field measurements, is a promising approach in deriving quantitative estimates of fuel consumption. Satellite-derived fuel consumption estimates may both challenge our current understanding of spatiotemporal fuel consumption dynamics and serve as reference datasets to improve biogeochemical modelling approaches. Future field studies especially designed to validate satellite-based products, or airborne remote sensing, may further improve confidence in the absolute fuel consumption estimates which are quickly becoming the weakest link in fire emission estimates.

  8. Agricultural Aircraft for Site-Specific Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a convenient platform to aid in precision agriculture, in which pesticide, fertilizer or other field inputs are applied only where they are needed. This saves on chemical and farm resources, and reduces environmental loading. Remote sensing is used to spot areas of the ...

  9. Drivers of nitrogen dynamics in ecologically based agriculture revealed by long-term, high-frequency field measurements.

    PubMed

    Finney, Denise M; Eckert, Sara E; Kaye, Jason P

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from agriculture impacts ecosystems worldwide. One strategy to mitigate these losses, ecologically based nutrient management (ENM), seeks to recouple carbon (C) and N cycles to reduce environmental losses and supply N to cash crops. However, our capacity to apply ENM is limited by a lack of field-based high-resolution data on N dynamics in actual production contexts. We used data from a five-year study of organic cropping systems to investigate soil inorganic N (SIN) variability and nitrate (NO3-) leaching in ENM. Four production systems initiated in 2007 and 2008 in central Pennsylvania varied in crop rotation, timing and intensity of tillage, inclusion of fallow periods, and N inputs. Extractable SIN was measured fortnightly from March through November throughout the experiment, and NO3- N concentration below the rooting zone was sampled with lysimeters during the first year of the 2008 start. We used recursive partitioning models to assess the importance of management and environmental factors to SIN variability and NO3- leaching and identify interactions between influential variables. Air temperature and tillage were the most important drivers of SIN across systems. The highest SIN concentrations occurred when the average air temperature three weeks prior to measurement was above 21 degrees C. Above this temperature and within 109 days of moldboard plowing, average SIN concentrations were 22.1 mg N/kg soil; 109 days or more past plowing average SIN dropped to 7.7 mg N/kg soil. Other drivers of SIN dynamics were N available from manure and cover crops. Highest average leachate NO3- N concentrations (15.2 ppm) occurred in fall and winter when SIN was above 4.9 mg/kg six weeks prior to leachate collection. Late season tillage operations leading to elevated SIN and leachate NO3- N concentrations were a strategy to reduce weeds while meeting consumer demand for organic products. Thus, while tillage that incorporates organic N inputs preceding cash

  10. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Maize is the most important C4 crop worldwide. It is also the second most important crop worldwide (C3 and C4 mixed), and is a dominant crop in some world regions. Therefore, it can potentially influence local climate and air quality through its exchanges of gases with the atmosphere. Among others, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are known to influence the atmospheric composition and thereby modify greenhouse gases lifetime and pollutant formation in the atmosphere. However, so far, only two studies have dealt with BVOC exchanges from maize. Moreover, these studies were conducted on a limited range of meteorological and phenological conditions, so that the knowledge of BVOC exchanges by this crop remains poor. Here, we present the first BVOC measurement campaign performed at ecosystem-scale on a maize field during a whole growing season. It was carried out in the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (LTO), an ICOS site. BVOC fluxes were measured by the disjunct by mass-scanning eddy covariance technique with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer for BVOC mixing ratios measurements. Outstanding results are (i) BVOC exchanges from soil were as important as BVOC exchanges from maize itself; (ii) BVOC exchanges observed on our site were much lower than exchanges observed by other maize studies, even under normalized temperature and light conditions, (iii) they were also lower than those observed on other crops grown in Europe. Lastly (iv), BVOC exchanges observed on our site under standard environmental conditions, i.e., standard emission factors SEF, were much lower than those currently considered by BVOC exchange up-scaling models. From those observations, we deduced that (i) soil BVOC exchanges should be better understood and should be incorporated in terrestrial BVOC exchanges models, and that (ii) SEF for the C4 crop plant functional type cannot be evaluated at global scale but should be determined for each important agronomic and pedo-climatic region

  11. Drivers of nitrogen dynamics in ecologically based agriculture revealed by long-term, high-frequency field measurements.

    PubMed

    Finney, Denise M; Eckert, Sara E; Kaye, Jason P

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from agriculture impacts ecosystems worldwide. One strategy to mitigate these losses, ecologically based nutrient management (ENM), seeks to recouple carbon (C) and N cycles to reduce environmental losses and supply N to cash crops. However, our capacity to apply ENM is limited by a lack of field-based high-resolution data on N dynamics in actual production contexts. We used data from a five-year study of organic cropping systems to investigate soil inorganic N (SIN) variability and nitrate (NO3-) leaching in ENM. Four production systems initiated in 2007 and 2008 in central Pennsylvania varied in crop rotation, timing and intensity of tillage, inclusion of fallow periods, and N inputs. Extractable SIN was measured fortnightly from March through November throughout the experiment, and NO3- N concentration below the rooting zone was sampled with lysimeters during the first year of the 2008 start. We used recursive partitioning models to assess the importance of management and environmental factors to SIN variability and NO3- leaching and identify interactions between influential variables. Air temperature and tillage were the most important drivers of SIN across systems. The highest SIN concentrations occurred when the average air temperature three weeks prior to measurement was above 21 degrees C. Above this temperature and within 109 days of moldboard plowing, average SIN concentrations were 22.1 mg N/kg soil; 109 days or more past plowing average SIN dropped to 7.7 mg N/kg soil. Other drivers of SIN dynamics were N available from manure and cover crops. Highest average leachate NO3- N concentrations (15.2 ppm) occurred in fall and winter when SIN was above 4.9 mg/kg six weeks prior to leachate collection. Late season tillage operations leading to elevated SIN and leachate NO3- N concentrations were a strategy to reduce weeds while meeting consumer demand for organic products. Thus, while tillage that incorporates organic N inputs preceding cash

  12. Solid fuel burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Good, L.D.

    1982-07-13

    A solid fuel burning stove includes a firebox having an insulated bottom chamber in which fuel is burned. The bottom chamber includes an insulated bottom surface and walls which provides for heat retention when fuel is burn therein thereby creating high temperatures. The bottom chamber of the firebox is divided from a top chamber by a horizontally extending baffle which directs flow of exhaust gases from the bottom to the top of the firebox. The exhaust gases are burned in the top portion of the firebox by means of the heat generated within the lower chamber and the introduction of fresh combustion air. This fresh combustion air is drawn in through an orificed pipe extending along the length of the firebox. After the gases are burned in the top portion of the stove, they are communicated to a heat saver including an inverted v-shaped flow diverter which reduces the velocity of the exiting gases and provides for greater recovery of heat therefrom. The stove in accordance with the invention provides for a two-stage burning process wherein solid fuel is burned in the first stage and the volatile gases released by the fuel are burned in the second stage. In this way, the fuel is consumed in a most efficient manner.

  13. Critical issues in burn care.

    PubMed

    Holmes, James H

    2008-01-01

    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation.

  14. Critical issues in burn care.

    PubMed

    Holmes, James H

    2008-01-01

    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation. PMID:18997561

  15. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K A; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, S G; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284

  16. Hand chemical burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  17. Gunpowder-related burns.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Monzonis, A; Benito-Ruiz, J; Baena-Montilla, P; Mena-Yago, A; de la Cruz-Ferrer, L I

    1992-04-01

    Gunpowder misuse is a frequent cause of burn injury in our area. The injuries are mostly minor lesions which may be treated on an outpatient basis, the more serious injuries need surgical treatment. Experience of the management of these burns is reported by reviewing 123 clinical charts of patients admitted between 1983 and 1990. The most frequent victims are teenage males who are involved mainly in accidents in the street. The most serious burns followed work-related accidents, with a fatal outcome in 47 per cent of the patients. The serious burns are usually deep dermal or full skin thickness. A common pattern affects groins, genitalia, hypogastrium and hands, and are produced when fireworks ignite in the pockets of the patient's trousers. The management of these lesions does not differ from burns caused by other agents, although attention should be paid to the presence of associated lesions, chiefly to eyes, ears and hands, due to the shockwave and shrapnel. PMID:1590935

  18. Gunpowder-related burns.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Monzonis, A; Benito-Ruiz, J; Baena-Montilla, P; Mena-Yago, A; de la Cruz-Ferrer, L I

    1992-04-01

    Gunpowder misuse is a frequent cause of burn injury in our area. The injuries are mostly minor lesions which may be treated on an outpatient basis, the more serious injuries need surgical treatment. Experience of the management of these burns is reported by reviewing 123 clinical charts of patients admitted between 1983 and 1990. The most frequent victims are teenage males who are involved mainly in accidents in the street. The most serious burns followed work-related accidents, with a fatal outcome in 47 per cent of the patients. The serious burns are usually deep dermal or full skin thickness. A common pattern affects groins, genitalia, hypogastrium and hands, and are produced when fireworks ignite in the pockets of the patient's trousers. The management of these lesions does not differ from burns caused by other agents, although attention should be paid to the presence of associated lesions, chiefly to eyes, ears and hands, due to the shockwave and shrapnel.

  19. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamala, KA; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, SG; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284

  20. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  1. GEM-AQ Simulation of Transport of Biomass Burning Emissions into the Arctic in April 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupu, A.; O'Neill, N. T.; Kaminski, J. W.; Toyota, K.; McConnell, J. C.; Saha, A.; Sofiev, M.

    2009-12-01

    The early fire season of 2008 in northern Asia (forest fires in eastern Siberia and agricultural burning in Kazakhstan) resulted in a large amount of pyrogenic species being transported into the Arctic atmosphere. Biomass burning plumes were encountered during ARCTAS mission flights out of Fairbanks, Alaska, and observed at ground stations in the high Arctic. To simulate these events, we used the Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality model (GEM-AQ), a global, tropospheric chemistry, general circulation model based on the global multiscale model developed by the Meteorological Service of Canada for operational weather forecasting. GEM-AQ includes a size-resolved multi-component aerosol module. Fire emissions with daily temporal resolution were generated from MODIS active fire products. The model output is compared with trace gases measured during the spring deployment of the ARCTAS field campaign, with vertical lidar profiles and spectral sunphotometer data acquired over different pan-Arctic stations, and with MODIS products over the Arctic.

  2. Hole burning with pressure and electric field: A window on the electronic structure and energy transfer dynamics of bacterial antenna complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.M.

    1999-02-12

    Light-harvesting (LH) complexes of cyclic (C{sub n}) symmetry from photosynthetic bacteria are studied using absorption and high pressure- and Stark-hole burning spectroscopies. The B800 absorption band of LH2 is inhomogeneously broadened while the B850 band of LH2 and the B875 band of the LH1 complex exhibit significant homogeneous broadening due to ultra-fast inter-exciton level relaxation. The B800{r_arrow}B850 energy transfer rate of ({approximately}2 ps){sup {minus}1} as determined by hole burning and femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopies, is weakly dependent on pressure and temperature, both of which significantly affect the B800-B850 energy gap. The resilience is theoretically explained in terms of a modified Foerster theory with the spectral overlap provided by the B800 fluorescence origin band and weak vibronic absorption bands of B850. Possible explanations for the additional sub-picosecond relaxation channel of B800 observed with excitation on the blue side of B800 are given. Data from pressure and temperature dependent studies show that the B800 and B850 bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules are weakly and strongly excitonically coupled, respectively, which is consistent with the X-ray structure of LH2. The B875 BChl a molecules are also strongly coupled. It is concluded that electron-exchange, in addition to electrostatic interactions, is important for understanding the strong coupling of the B850 and B875 rings. The large linear pressure shifts of {approximately}{minus}0.6 cm{sup {minus}1}/MPa associated with B850 and B875 can serve as important benchmarks for electronic structure calculations.

  3. Field performance in an agricultural setting of a wireless temperature monitoring system based on a low-cost infrared sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous measurement of plant canopy temperature is useful in both research and production agriculture settings. Industrial-quality infrared thermometers which are often used for measurement of canopy temperatures, while reliable, are not always cost effective. For this study a relatively low-cost...

  4. Field test results for nitrogen removal by the constructed wetland component of an agricultural water recycling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water recycling systems that can provide economic and environmental benefits. A constructed wetland is a main component of WRSIS, and an important function of this constructed wetland is drainage water treatment of nitrog...

  5. Dynamics of soil carbon, nitrogen and soil respiration in farmer’s field with conservation agriculture Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The years of intensive tillage in many countries, including Cambodia, have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources that could threaten the future of agricultural production and sustainability worldwide. Long-term tillage system and site-specific crop management can affect chang...

  6. Evaluation of the negative impacts of exposure to agricultural ditch water in fishes using streamside bioassays and field biomarkers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use in regions of the Midwest is dominated by crop agriculture that depends on ditch drainage systems for maximum productivity. Many drainage networks comprise headwater streams that have been degraded by alteration of habitat and by introduction of agrichemicals. Understanding the relative i...

  7. Use of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches to decrease pesticide transport from tomato and alfalfa fields in California: runoff toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to investigate the potential of vegetated drainage ditches for mitigating the impact of agricultural irrigation runoff on downstream aquatic ecosystems. Water column toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was measured for ...

  8. Acceleration of Enzymatic conversion of Agricultural Waste Biomass into Bio-fuels by Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most critical stages of conversion of agricultural waste biomass into biofuels employs hydrolysis reactions between highly specific enzymes and matching substrates (e.g. corn stover cellulose with cellulase) that produce soluble sugars, which then could be converted into ethanol. Despite ...

  9. Effect of Tillage and Non-tillage Agricultural Practice on Nitrogen Losses as NO and N2O in Tropical Corn Fields at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquina, S.; Rojas, A.; Donoso, L.; Rasse, R.; Giuliante, A.; Corona, O.; Perez, T.

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of agricultural practices on NO and N2O emissions from corn fields at Northern Guárico, one of Venezuelan largest cereal production regions. Historically, the most common agricultural practice in these regions has been mono cropping. Tillage (T) and non-tillage (NT) of soils represent approximately 30 and 70% of the planted area, respectively. Comparative studies of the nitrogen losses associated with these agricultural practices are not available for these regions. This study was conducted at the farm "Tierra Nueva", Guárico State (9° 23' 33'' N, 66° 38' 30'' W) in two corn fields under tillage and non-tillage agricultural practice during the growing season (June-August 2006). A dry tropical forest, the primary ecosystem of the region, was evaluated for the same period of time. The corn and the forest fields were adjacent; therefore, they were exposed to the same meteorological conditions. The mean annual precipitation of the area is 622±97.3 mm (last 5 years). The soils are Vertisols (Typic Haplusterts). Nutrient soil concentrations (as nitrate and ammonium), water soil content and pH soil were measured in the fields for the same period of time. Soils were fertilized and planted simultaneously by a planting machine provided with a furrow opener where the fertilizer and seeds are incorporated between 0-10 cm depths. Tillage soils were fertilized on June 1st 2006 with 65 kgN/ha of NPK (13:18:16/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl), whereas non-tillage soils were fertilized the next day with 56 kgN/ha of NPK (12:25:12/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl). Second fertilization of both fields was done thirty-seven days later by broadcast adding 58 kgN/ha approximately, using nitrophosphate as fertilizer (NP 33-3: 33% N total; 16.7% N- NO3- and 16.6% N- NH4+). In general, NO and N2O soil emissions from both corn fields increased after fertilization events, and depend on water soil content and nutrient soil concentration. N2O soil emissions were 11 and 9 times larger in

  10. Burn wound management.

    PubMed

    Davies, M R; Rode, H; Cywes, S; van der Riet, R L

    1981-01-01

    In this chapter the local therapy for burns is discussed. Between 400 and 500 children with burns are treated every year at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town, but in only 10% of them do the burns affect over 20% of the body surface. These latter patients are treated in special rooms equipped for intensive therapy. Open and closed methods of treatment for burns used in addition to early excision are compared. The first aim is early skin cover for areas with skin loss preserving as much function as possible and achieving the best possible cosmetic result. Local therapy must be atraumatic to prevent extension of the skin lesion. Bacterial contamination must be prevented as far as possible by keeping the wound clean. Emergency treatment and the course of wound healing up to the third week after the injury using the appropriate dressings are described. Early excision until the fifth day after the accident should be used mainly for burns of the hand, deep second degree burns of up to 10% of the body surface, deep second degree burns over the joints and deep second degree burns of the neck. It must be admitted that the depth of the burn can only be definitely estimated between the seventh and tenth day after the accident. If no autografts are available homografts or grafts from animals are used. The age of the patient, associated injuries, associated diseases and the extent of the burn all play a role in determining the prognosis. Furthermore endogenous bacterial infections, absorption of local therapeutic agents and the state of the surrounding skin do also influence the healing process. Finally the various local therapeutic agents like sulphamylon, silver sulphadiazine and betadine are discussed. A 0.05% solution of silver nitrate is also active against gram-negative infections. Skin transplants are disinfected with a solution containing one third 0.25% acetic acid, one third 3% cent hydrogen peroxide and one third saline. Hydrogen peroxide

  11. Burn injury in children.

    PubMed

    Zámecníková, I; Stĕtinský, J; Tymonová, J; Kadlcík, M

    2005-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the data files of 580 child patients up to 15 years of age who were hospitalized at the Burn Center of the FNsP Hospital in Ostrava in the years 1999 - 2003. The authors focused on mechanisms of burn injury in relation to the age of a child as well as extent, depth, localization, and local treatment of the injury. The data file was divided to four age groups: up to two years of age, 2 - 5 years of age, 5 - 10 years of age, and 10 - 15 years of age. As regards the mechanisms of injury, the authors have analyzed scalding by hot liquids, burns due to contact with a hot object, burns due to electric current, explosion, and injury caused by burning clothing. Injury by scalding prevails to a very significant degree in the youngest children. In the second age group the incidence of burn following contact with hot objects increases, as does the percentage of children injured by burning of clothing in children aged 5 - 10. The older children have increased prevalence of injuries caused by explosions. The greatest average extent of an injury is from burning of clothing. Most of the areas are burned deeply, localized in more areas of the body, and almost half of the cases required surgical intervention. Scalding comes second in terms of average extent of an injury. More than half of the injured areas are superficial, and areas of injury are different in the individual age groups. We addressed about a fifth of the cases surgically. The explosion of combustible materials caused a smaller extent of injury, on average, taking third place. The injuries were predominantly superficial, most commonly involving the head, trunk, and upper extremities. In none of the cases it was necessary for us to operate. Burn injuries caused by contact with hot objects are of a smaller extent. More than half of the burned areas are deep, localized most commonly in the upper extremities. Surgical intervention was necessary in more than half the cases. In terms of average

  12. Stable isotopes in nitrous oxide emitted from tropical rain forest soils and agricultural fields: Implications for the global atmospheric nitrous oxide budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Tibisay Josefina

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and is the primary source of NOx in the stratosphere. Large uncertainties exist in the global N2O budget, mainly due to the high uncertainty associated with source estimates. Recently, stable isotopes of 15N and 18O have been proposed as a tool to better constrain the N2O global budget. This thesis develops analytical methods for constraining and measuring stable isotopes in N2O emitted from soils and reports initial investigations of N2O isotopes from the largest sources in the global N2O budget: tropical rain forest soils and agricultural fields. We found significant differences in the isotopic composition of N 2O emitted from tropical rain forest soils and fertilized agricultural fields. Differences were largest for 15N. Emission-weighted δ 15N-N2O were -26 +/- 2.5‰ s.d., n = 3 (Costa Rican forest), -6.6 +/- 11.3‰ s.d. n = 14 (Brazilian forest) and -36.7 +/- 9.2‰ s.d. n = 19 (Mexican agricultural field and Costa Rican Papaya plantation). We attribute the large range in δ 15N from tropical rain forests, where denitrification is the main source of N2O, to differences in the degree of N2O to N2 reduction. We attribute the very light δ15N values in fertilized agricultural fields to the enhanced nitrogen availability in the soils which facilitates higher fractionation between substrates and products. Similarly, in the Brazilian tropical forest lighter δ 15N-N2O from a local area of enhanced emission is attributed to locally more abundant N- substrate in that particular soil site. If the increase of N2O in the troposphere over the past 100 years is attributable to increased use of N fertilizer, and assuming that light δ 15N- N2O isotopic values are associated with agricultural practices, we expect the δ15N-N2O in the troposphere to have decreased since pre-industrial times. Theoretically, comparison of 15N and 18O signature of emitted N2O with precursors species (NO3 -, NH4+, H2O and O 2) should uniquely

  13. Studying the spatial variability of Cr in agricultural field using both particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E.; Crestana, Sílvio; Artaxo, Paulo; Martins, JoséV.; Armelin, Maria JoséA.

    1996-04-01

    In the field of soil physics, a technique which permits a non-destructive, accurate and fast elemental analysis with a minimum of sample preparation effort is often desired. Although trace elements are minor components of the solid phase, they play an important role in soil fertility. Cr is of nutritional importance because it is a required element in human and animal nutrition. The immobility of Cr may be responsible for an inadequate Cr supply to plants. This work not only demonstrates the suitability of PIXE as a fast and non-destructive technique, useful to measure Cr content in soil samples, but also outlines a study of spatial variability of that element in agricultural field. To demonstrate the capability of the method soil samples were collected in a 5000 m 2 agricultural field. The soil samples were analyzed using both PIXE and INAA techniques. Besides, a Fourier interpolation technique was used to verify the distribution of Cr along of the sampled field. INAA was carried out by means of the γ-ray emitted by 51Cr(320 keV). Results show that there is a good linear relationship between the elemental concentration of Cr obtained using those techniques, i.e. a correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.82 was achieved.

  14. Radiocesium and radioiodine in soil particles agitated by agricultural practices: field observation after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, N; Eguchi, S; Fujiwara, H; Hayashi, K; Tsukada, H

    2012-05-15

    Three weeks after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, we determined the activity concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in atmospheric dust fugitively resuspended from soil particles due to soil surface perturbation by agricultural practices. The atmospheric concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs increased because of the agitation of soil particles by a hammer-knife mower and a rotary tiller. Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of the soil surface of Andosols. For dust particles smaller than 10 μm, the resuspension factors of radiocesium during the operation of agricultural equipment were 16-times higher than those under background condition. Before tillage, most of the radionuclides accumulated within a few cm of the soil surface. Tillage diluted their concentration in the uppermost soil layer.

  15. Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. Spatial modelling of organic carbon in burned mountain soils using hyperspectral images, field datasets and NiR spectroscopy (Cantabrian Range; NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Susana; Peón, Juanjose; Recondo, Carmen; Calleja, Javier

    2014-05-01

    In the North-West of the Cantabrian Range (north of Spain) the climate is oceanic and vegetation cover is continuous. Nevertheless, in the western part of the territory fires are very common, although small in size; their recurrence affects severely to soil properties. Soil organic matter is seriously affected by fires and suffers changes in stock, composition and distribution. In former researches stocks of oxidizable organic carbon increases in these burnt soils (32 Mg/ha in non-burned in front of 90 Mg/ha of oxidizable carbon measured in burned forest soils); however, biochart compounds, which are typically produced by fires, have not been found in all the fire-affected soils. In order to perfect a cartographic technique to identify areas with increases in soil carbon stocks caused by historical fire management we try to test a technique to transfer spectral calibrated model of soil organic carbon to hyperspectral images (AHS sensor). Total (TOC) and oxidizable carbon (OC) were measured in a population of 89 soil samples. OC mean was 19, 48 with STD 10,32. The samples were scanning with VNIR-SWIR spectrometer (350-2500nm) and chemometric model of OC was calibrated with very high level of adjust (R2 0,85) using Unscrambler 10.3. In order to transfer the chemiometric model to the hyperspectral images the model was recalculated using only the wavelengths present in the hyperspectral images (AHS sensor with cannels in 0,43-1,03;1,55-1,75;1,99-2,54 and 3,3-5,4nm of wavelengths). The most highlighting result was the increase in the adjust of model (R2 0,89) when the wavelengths were restricted between 2200 to 2400 nm. The model was regionalized to a large area using Arc Map 10 and crossing validate with RMSE 10. Finally, in order to analyze the influence of the relief in the OC landscape pattern the slope steepness was considered. Digital Terrain Model with 10m of resolution was used. Those areas with long, steep hillsides covered with heaths have lower amounts of OC

  17. Atmospheric Effects of Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2000-01-01

    Biomass fires are both natural and anthropogenic in origin. The natural trigger is lightning, which leads to mid- and high-latitude fires and episodes of smoke and pollution associated with them. Lightning is also prominent in tropical regions when the dry season gives way to the wet season and lightning in convective systems ignites dry vegetation. Atmospheric consequences of biomass fires are complex. When considering the impacts of fires for a given ecosystem, inputs of fires must be compared to other process that emit trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. Other processes include industrial activity, fires for household purposes and biogenic sources which may themselves interact with fires. That is, fires may promote or restrict biogenic processes. Several books have presented various aspects of fire interactions with atmospheric chemistry and a cross-disciplinary review of a 1992 fire-oriented experiment appears in SAFARI: The Role of southern African Fires in Atmospheric and Ecological Environments. The IGAC/BIBEX core activity (see acronyms at end of Chapter) has sponsored field campaigns that integrate multiple aspects of fires ground-based measurements with an ecological perspective, atmospheric measurements with chemical and meteorological components, and remote sensing. This Chapter presents two aspects of biomass fires and the environment. Namely, the relationship between biomass burning and ozone is described, starting with a brief description of the chemical reactions involved and illustrative measurements and interpretation. Second, because of the need to observe biomass burning and its consequences globally, a summary of remote sensing approaches to the study of fires and trace gases is given. Examples in this Chapter are restricted to tropical burning for matters of brevity and because most burning activity globally is within this zone.

  18. Infrared imaging of burn wounds to determine burn depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargroder, Andrew G.; Davidson, James E., Sr.; Luther, Donald G.; Head, Jonathan F.

    1999-07-01

    Determination of burn wound depth is at present left to the surgeons visual examination. Many burn wounds are obviously, by visual inspection, superficial 2 degree burns or true 3 degree burns. However, those burn wounds that fall between the obvious depth burns are difficult to assess visually, and therefore wound depth determination often requires waiting 5 to 7 days postburn. Initially, 10 burn patients underwent IR imaging at various times during the evaluation of their burn wounds. These patients were followed to either healing or skin grafting. The IR images were then reviewed to determine their accuracy in determining the depth of the wound. IR imaging of burn wounds with focal plane staring array midrange IR systems appears promising in determination of burn depth one to two days postburn. This will allow clinical decision regarding operative or nonoperative intervention to be made earlier, thus decreasing hospital stays and time to healing.

  19. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  20. Management of burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

    2013-10-01

    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery.

  1. Burns (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... you drowsy, or in bed. Don't use fireworks or sparklers. Bathroom Set the thermostat on your ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Fireworks Safety First Aid: Burns First Aid: Sunburn Sun ...

  2. Minor burns - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... put a thin layer of ointment, such as petroleum jelly or aloe vera, on the burn. The ... is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation ...

  3. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  4. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

  5. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  6. Accidental burns during surgery.

    PubMed

    Demir, Erhan; O'Dey, Dan Mon; Pallua, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to increase awareness of intraoperative burns during standard procedures, to discuss their possible causes and warning signs and to provide recommendations for prevention and procedures to follow after their occurrence. A total of 19 patients associated with intraoperative burn accidents were treated surgically and analyzed after a mean follow-up of 5 +/- 3.5 months. Review included retrospective patient chart analysis, clinical examination, and technical device and equipment testing. A total of 15 patients recently underwent cardiac surgery, and 4 pediatric patients recovered after standard surgical procedures. A total of 15 patients had superficial and 4 presented with deep dermal or full-thickness burns. The average injured TBSA was 2.1 +/- 1% (range, 0.5-4%). Delay between primary surgery and consultation of plastic surgeons was 4.5 +/- 3.4 days. A total of 44% required surgery, including débridment, skin grafting or musculocutaneous gluteus maximus flaps, and the remaining patients were treated conservatively. Successful durable soft-tissue coverage of the burn region was achieved in 18 patients, and 1 patient died after a course of pneumonia. Technical analysis demonstrated one malfunctioning electrosurgical device, one incorrect positioned neutral electrode, three incidents occurred after moisture under the negative electrode, eight burns occurred during surgery while fluid or blood created alternate current pathways, five accidents were chemical burns after skin preparation with Betadine solution, and in one case, the cause was not clear. The surgical team should pay more attention to the probability of burns during surgery. Early patient examination and immediate involvement of plastic and burn surgeons may prevent further complications or ease handling after the occurrence.

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