Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural information systems

  1. Changes in Information Systems in Czech Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavik, Milan

    2004-01-01

    A study carried out in 1998 (reported in the Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 2003) of the information systems used by farmers in the Czech Republic to access information and advice was repeated in 2003. The research aim was to assess whether, and how, the systems had changed during these five years. The perceived importance of 10…

  2. Analysis And Assistant Planning System Ofregional Agricultural Economic Inform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jie; Zhang, Junfeng

    For the common problems existed in regional development and planning, we try to design a decision support system for assisting regional agricultural development and alignment as a decision-making tool for local government and decision maker. The analysis methods of forecast, comparative advantage, liner programming and statistical analysis are adopted. According to comparative advantage theory, the regional advantage can be determined by calculating and comparing yield advantage index (YAI), Scale advantage index (SAI), Complicated advantage index (CAI). Combining with GIS, agricultural data are presented as a form of graph such as area, bar and pie to uncover the principle and trend for decision-making which can't be found in data table. This system provides assistant decisions for agricultural structure adjustment, agro-forestry development and planning, and can be integrated to information technologies such as RS, AI and so on.

  3. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  4. Designing and Implementing a Computerized Information Management System for Employment Demand Data in Agriculture/Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Arthur L.; Cooper, Gloria S.

    Planning for educational programs in agriculture/agribusiness demands knowledge of future employment demand for various occupations. At present, a functional and comprehensive occupational information system for agriculture/agribusiness does not exist. Systems that do exist, such as the Occupational Information System (OIS) and the Dictionary of…

  5. Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    2006-01-01

    As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

  6. Research of Optimized Agricultural Information Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kui, Fang; Juan, Wang; Weiqiong, Bu

    The problems of information overload and resource disorientation which is caused by information explosion become more serious, especially for lots of farmers, who know little computer technologies. In order to provide information and knowledge conveniently, timely and efficiently to farmers, researchers do studies on recommendations system. In this paper, key technologies in recommender system are introduced. we provide a solution that construct a non-missing data user evaluation matrix through the clustering of the items. Addressing the differences in farmers' rating behavior, before making predictions, we normalize the user evaluation matrix.

  7. Designing a Model for Integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the Iranian Agricultural Research System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifzadeh, Aboulqasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholam Hossein; Sharifi, Mahnoosh

    2009-01-01

    Capacity Development is needed in the Iranian Agricultural System. Integrating Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the agricultural research system is an appropriate capacity development mechanism. The appropriate application of ICTs and information such as a National Agricultural Information System requires a systemically…

  8. Implementation of AN Agricultural Environmental Information System (aeis) for the Sanjiang Plain, Ne-China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Brocks, S.; Lenz-Wiedemann, V.; Miao, Y.; Jiang, R.; Chen, X.; Zhang, F.; Bareth, G.

    2012-07-01

    The Sino-German Project between the China Agricultural University and the University of Cologne, Germany, focuses on regional agro-ecosystem modelling. One major focus of the cooperation activity is the establishment of joint rice field experiment research in Jiansanjiang, located in the Sanjiang Plain (Heilongjiang Province, north-eastern part of China), to investigate the different agricultural practices and their impact on yield and environment. An additional task is to set-up an Agricultural Environmental Information System (AEIS) for the Sanjiang Plain (SJP), which covers more than 100 000 km2. Research groups from Geography (e.g. GIS & Remote Sensing) and Plant Nutrition (e.g. Precision Agriculture) are involved in the project. The major aim of the AEIS for the SJP is to provide information about (i) agriculture in the region, (ii) the impact of agricultural practices on the environment, and (iii) simulation scenarios for sustainable strategies. Consequently, the AEIS for the SJP provides information for decision support and therefore could be regarded as a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS), too. The investigation of agricultural and environmental issues has a spatial context, which requires the management, handling, and analysis of spatial data. The use of GIS enables the capture, storage, analysis and presentation of spatial data. Therefore, GIS is the major tool for the set-up of the AEIS for the SJP. This contribution presents the results of linking agricultural statistics with GIS to provide information about agriculture in the SJP and discusses the benefits of this method as well as the integration of methods to produce new data.

  9. An Interoperable, Agricultural Information System Based on Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Chiu, Long; Doraiswamy, Paul; Kempler, Steven; Liu, Zhong; Pham, Long; Rui, Hualan

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring global agricultural crop conditions during the growing season and estimating potential seasonal production are critically important for market development of US. agricultural products and for global food security. The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS), which will operationally provide satellite remote sensing data products (e.g., rainfall) and services. The data products will include crop condition and yield prediction maps, generated from a crop growth model with satellite data inputs, in collaboration with the USDA Agricultural Research Service. The AIS will enable the remote, interoperable access to distributed data, by using the GrADS-DODS Server (GDS) and by being compliant with Open GIS Consortium standards. Users will be able to download individual files, perform interactive online analysis, as well as receive operational data flows. AIS outputs will be integrated into existing operational decision support systems for global crop monitoring, such as those of the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service and the U.N. World Food Program.

  10. The Development of a Web-service-based On-demand Global Agriculture Drought Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, M.; Di, L.; Han, W.; Yagci, A.; Peng, C.

    2011-12-01

    The growing demand on detailed and accurate assessments of agriculture drought from local to global scales has made drought monitoring and forecasting a hot research topic in recent years. However, many challenges in this area still remain. One of such challenges is to how to let world-wide decision makers obtain accurate and timely drought information. Current agriculture drought information systems in the world are limited in many aspects, such as only regional or country level coverage, very coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, no on-demand drought information product generation and download services, no online analysis tools, no interoperability with other systems, and ineffective agriculture drought monitoring and forecasting. Leveraging the latest advances in geospatial Web service, interoperability and cyber-infrastructure technologies and the availability of near real-time global remote sensing data, we aims at providing a solution to those problems by building an open, interoperable, standard-compliant, and Web-service-based global agriculture drought monitoring and forecasting system (GADMFS) (http://gis.csiss.gmu.edu/GADMFS/). GADMFS will provide world-wide users with timely, on-demand, and ready-to-use agricultural drought data and information products as well as improved global agriculture drought monitoring, prediction and analysis services. For the monitoring purpose, the system lively links to near real-time satellite remote sensing data sources from NASA and NOAA and relies on drought related remotely sensed physical and biophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and drought-related vegetation indices (VIs, e.g., NDVI) to provide the current conditions of global agricultural drought at high resolutions (up to 500m spatial and daily temporal) to world-wide users on demand. For drought prediction, the system utilizes a neural network based modeling algorithm, trained with current and historic vegetation-based and climate-based drought index

  11. Information Management in Agricultural Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaha, E. K.

    1985-01-01

    Main problems in dissemination of agricultural research results, provision of library and documentation services, development of person-to-person communication and communication of information to decision-makers, farmers, and other end-users are outlined and suggestions for improvements are offered. International information systems are described…

  12. Identifying populations potentially exposed to agricultural pesticides using remote sensing and a Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.H.; Nuckols, J.R.; Weigel, S. J.; Cantor, K.P.; Miller, Roger S.

    2000-01-01

    Pesticides used in agriculture may cause adverse health effects among the population living near agricultural areas. However, identifying the populations most likely to be exposed is difficult. We conducted a feasibility study to determine whether satellite imagery could be used to reconstruct historical crop patterns. We used historical Farm Service Agency records as a source of ground reference data to classify a late summer 1984 satellite image into crop species in a three-county area in south central Nebraska. Residences from a population-based epidemiologic study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were located on the crop maps using a geographic information system (GIS). Corn, soybeans, sorghum, and alfalfa were the major crops grown in the study area. Eighty-five percent of residences could be located, and of these 22% had one of the four major crops within 500 m of the residence, an intermediate distance for the range of drift effects from pesticides applied in agriculture. We determined the proximity of residences to specific crop species and calculated crop-specific probabilities of pesticide use based on available data. This feasibility study demonstrated that remote sensing data and historical records on crop location can be used to create historical crop maps. The crop pesticides that were likely to have been applied can be estimated when information about crop-specific pesticide use is available. Using a GIS, zones of potential exposure to agricultural pesticides and proximity measures can be determined for residences in a study.

  13. Participatory geographic information systems for agricultural water management scenario development: A Tanzanian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinderby, Steve; Bruin, Annemarieke de; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Kongo, Victor; Barron, Jennie

    One of the keys to environmental management is to understand the impact and interaction of people with natural resources as a means to improve human welfare and the consequent environmental sustainability for future generations. In terms of water management one of the on-going challenges is to assess what impact interventions in agriculture, and in particularly different irrigation strategies, will have on livelihoods and water resources in the landscape. Whilst global and national policy provide the overall vision of desired outcomes for environmental management, agricultural development and water use strategies they are often presented with local challenges to embed these policies in the reality on the ground, with different stakeholder groups. The concept that government agencies, advocacy organizations, and private citizens should work together to identify mutually acceptable solutions to environmental and water resource issues is increasing in prominence. Participatory spatial engagement techniques linked to geographic information systems (commonly termed participatory GIS (PGIS)) offers one solution to facilitate such stakeholder dialogues in an efficient and consultative manner. In the context of agricultural water management multi-scale PGIS techniques have recently been piloted as part of the ‘Agricultural Water Management Solutions’ project to investigate the current use and dependencies of water by small-holder farmers a watershed in Tanzania. The piloted approach then developed PGIS scenarios describing the effects on livelihoods and water resources in the watershed when introducing different management technologies. These relatively rapid PGIS multi-scale methods show promise for assessing current and possible future agriculture water management technologies in terms of their bio-physical and socio-economic impacts at the watershed scale. The paper discusses the development of the methodology in the context of improved water management decision

  14. Connecting Marginal Rice Farmers to Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems in Vietnam Uplands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castella, Jean-Christophe; Slaats, Joep; Quang, Dang Dinh; Geay, Francois; Van Linh, Nguyen; Tho, Pham Thi Hanh

    2006-01-01

    In Vietnam, agricultural extension has contributed to rural development and poverty alleviation over the past two decades of agricultural decollectivization, but it was not very effective in reducing disparities within farmer communities. The study examined how better interactions of extension services with other agencies and information sources…

  15. Data Processing: Status of Agriculture's Electronic Dissemination of Information System. Fact Sheet for the Chairman, Subcommittee on Government Information, Justice, and Agriculture, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Written in response to a request to review the implementation of the Department of Agriculture's Electronic Dissemination of Information (EDI) system, this fact sheet discusses the performance of the contractor operating the system and the role of EDI in the Department of Agriculture's overall public dissemination activities. A letter from the…

  16. Modeling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Using a Geographic Information System Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Lisa A.; Greene, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients, is the leading source of water-quality impacts to surface waters in North America. The overall goal of this study was to develop geographic information system (GIS) protocols to facilitate the spatial and temporal modeling of changes in soils, hydrology, and land-cover change at the watershed scale. In the first part of this article, we describe the use of GIS to spatially integrate watershed scale data on soil erodibility, land use, and runoff for the assessment of potential source areas within an intensively agricultural watershed. The agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) model was used in the Muddy Creek, Ontario, watershed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in decreasing sediment and nutrient [phosphorus (P)] pollution. This analysis was accompanied by the measurement of water-quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, hardness, alkalinity, and turbidity) as well as sediment and P loadings to the creek. Practices aimed at increasing year-round soil cover would be most effective in decreasing sediment and P losses in this watershed. In the second part of this article, we describe a method for characterizing land-cover change in a dynamic urban fringe watershed. The GIS method we developed for the Blackberry Creek, Illinois, watershed will allow us to better account for temporal changes in land use, specifically corn and soybean cover, on an annual basis and to improve on the modeling of watershed processes shown for the Muddy Creek watershed. Our model can be used at different levels of planning with minimal data preprocessing, easily accessible data, and adjustable output scales.

  17. Challenges of agricultural monitoring: integration of the Open Farm Management Information System into GEOSS and Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řezník, T.; Kepka, M.; Charvát, K.; Charvát, K., Jr.; Horáková, S.; Lukas, V.

    2016-04-01

    From a global perspective, agriculture is the single largest user of freshwater resources, each country using an average of 70% of all its surface water supplies. An essential proportion of agricultural water is recycled back to surface water and/or groundwater. Agriculture and water pollution is therefore the subject of (inter)national legislation, such as the Clean Water Act in the United States of America, the European Water Framework Directive, and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution. Regular monitoring by means of sensor networks is needed in order to provide evidence of water pollution in agriculture. This paper describes the benefits of, and open issues stemming from, regular sensor monitoring provided by an Open Farm Management Information System. Emphasis is placed on descriptions of the processes and functionalities available to users, the underlying open data model, and definitions of open and lightweight application programming interfaces for the efficient management of collected (spatial) data. The presented Open Farm Management Information System has already been successfully registered under Phase 8 of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture Implementation Pilot in order to support the wide variety of demands that are primarily aimed at agriculture pollution monitoring. The final part of the paper deals with the integration of the Open Farm Management Information System into the Digital Earth framework.

  18. Research, Education, and Economics Information System: An Engine for Strategic Planning and Information Policy Development at the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes the implementation of a strategic information policy audit as a key component in the development of the Research, Education, and Economics Information System (REEIS) at the Department of Agriculture that helps analyze the organization's infrastructure. Discusses the process as a generalized systems model for organizational research.…

  19. Agricultural land cover mapping in the context of a geographically referenced digital information system. [Carroll, Macon, and Gentry Counties, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The introduction of soil map information to the land cover mapping process can improve discrimination of land cover types and reduce confusion among crop types that may be caused by soil-specific management practices and background reflectance characteristics. Multiple dates of LANDSAT MSS digital were analyzed for three study areas in northern Missouri to produce cover types for major agricultural land cover classes. Digital data bases were then developed by adding ancillary data such as digitized soil and transportation network information to the LANDSAT-derived cover type map. Procedures were developed to manipulate the data base parameters to extract information applicable to user requirements. An agricultural information system combining such data can be used to determine the productive capacity of land to grow crops, fertilizer needs, chemical weed control rates, irrigation suitability, and trafficability of soil for planting.

  20. Survey of the World Agricultural Documentation Services, Draft; Prepared on Behalf of the FAO Panel of Experts on "AGRIS" (International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buntrock, H.

    The purpose of the survey was: (1) to evaluate existing agricultural information services and (2) to propose possible frameworks for an improved world-wide agricultural information service. The principal statistical results of the survey are summarized in the following figures which are based on data collected in nearly all instances for the year…

  1. Organizational Issues Involved in the Development and Operation of Farm Informational Systems for Modernizing Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lionberger, Herbert F.

    The need for an information development system for farmers is discussed in this paper. Issues and alternatives are described in terms of the research-extension-teaching trinity, extension services, role combinations, specialist advisor issues, innovations, research orientation, reward structures, and information services. Information gathered in…

  2. Comparison of Online Agricultural Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; Patterson, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Outlines major online agricultural information services--agricultural databases, databases with agricultural services, educational databases in agriculture--noting services provided, access to the database, and costs. Benefits of online agricultural database sources (availability of agricultural marketing, weather, commodity prices, management…

  3. A PILOT STUDY OF GLOBAL POSITION SYSTEM/GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM MEASUREMENT OF RESIDENTIAL PROXIMITY TO AGRICULTURE FIELDS AND URINARY ORGANOPHOSPHATE METABOLITE CONCENTRATIONS IN TODDLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot study of global position system/geographical information system measurement of residential proximity to agricultural fields and urinary organophosphate metabolite concentrations in toddlers

    Michael O. Royster1, Elizabeth D. Hilborn1, Dana Barr2, Cara L. Carty1, Sco...

  4. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J. C.; Stephens, J. C.; Chung, Serena; Brady, M. P.; Evans, R. D.; Kruger, C. E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, M. L.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, K.; Harrison, John; Tague, C. L.; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex B.; Leung, F. Y.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Perleberg, A. B.; Yoder, J.; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, S.; Chandrasekharan, B.; Malek, K.; Mullis, T.; Miller, C.; Nergui, T.; Poinsatte, J.; Reyes, J.; Zhu, J.; Choate, J. S.; Jiang, X.; Nelson, R.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, G. G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanhalli, K. J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Nijssen, B.; Walden, Von

    2015-04-01

    As managers of agricultural and natural resources are confronted with uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (land, air, water, economics, etc). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and "usability" of EaSMs. BioEarth is a current research initiative with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a "bottom-up" approach, upscaling a catchment-scale model to basin and regional scales, as opposed to the "top-down" approach of downscaling global models utilized by most other EaSM efforts. This paper describes the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  5. Food and Agriculture Organization: A Clearinghouse for Agricultural Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joling, Carole

    1989-01-01

    Describes the functions of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which is an international clearinghouse for agricultural information. The discussion focuses on the information formats provided by the agency and the dissemination channels used for FAO information. Lists of finding aids for FAO materials and libraries…

  6. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; Brady, Michael P.; Evans, R. David; Kruger, Chad E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; et al

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region thatmore » explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.« less

  7. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; Brady, Michael P.; Evans, R. David; Kruger, Chad E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, Kirti; Harrison, John A.; Tague, Christina L.; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex; Leung, Fok-Yan; Leung, L. Ruby; Perleberg, Andrew B.; Yoder, Jonathan; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, Sarah; Chandrasekharan, Bhagyam; Malek, Keyvan; Mullis, Tristan; Miller, Cody; Nergui, Tsengel; Poinsatte, Justin; Reyes, Julian; Zhu, Jun; Choate, Janet S.; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Nelson, Roger; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, Georgine G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanahalli, Kiran J.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Nijssen, Bart; Walden, Von

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  8. Innovations in information management to enhance agriculture: A research perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information management should be the cornerstone for innovative agricultural systems; however, the challenge remains on how to utilize all of the components to enhance agriculture. The enhancement of agriculture is often considered from only a yield perspective. This is an important factor and effo...

  9. Shaping Collective Functions in Privatized Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems: The Positioning and Embedding of a Network Broker in the Dutch Dairy Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines new organizational arrangements that have emerged in the context of a privatized extension system. It investigates the positioning and embedding of a network broker aimed at enhancing interaction in the privatized agricultural knowledge and information system (AKIS), to assess whether tensions reported in other sectors also…

  10. Detecting transition in agricultural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, P. J.; Coiner, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural phenomena has been largely concentrated on analysis of agriculture at the field level. Concern has been to identify crop status, crop condition, and crop distribution, all of which are spatially analyzed on a field-by-field basis. A more general level of abstraction is the agricultural system, or the complex of crops and other land cover that differentiate various agricultural economies. The paper reports on a methodology to assist in the analysis of the landscape elements of agricultural systems with Landsat digital data. The methodology involves tracing periods of photosynthetic activity for a fixed area. Change from one agricultural system to another is detected through shifts in the intensity and periodicity of photosynthetic activity as recorded in the radiometric return to Landsat. The Landsat-derived radiometric indicator of photosynthetic activity appears to provide the ability to differentiate agricultural systems from each other as well as from conterminous natural vegetation.

  11. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  12. a Reflective Perspective Towards Agricultural Information-Based System Development in General Rural China and Farmers' Economic Association as the Entry Point of Icts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Miao; Zuo, Ting; Leninhan, Eamon

    The information-based agricultural system plays a profound role in agricultural economic and social development in long term. There are various practices worldwide, both successful and unsuccessful. In recent years new technologies blossomed, if those new technologies succeed in the developed world, does it hold true for China? The alternative choices in informationbased system development should be noticed in China. This article argues that China’s development policy should choose the way that adapts to China’s circumstances, not totally adopt the western way. In the current situation of general rural China, the theme of information-based agricultural system needs to be further addressed. It is suggested that the Farmers’ Economic Association can be considered as one of the most accessible entry-points for further development way.

  13. Programming and Training for Peace Corps Agricultural Projects. Supplement to Peace Corps Programming and Training System Manual. Information Collection & Exchange T0078.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    The Peace Corps Programming and Training System (PATS) manual is designed to help field staff members of the Peace Corps train volunteers. This supplement to the PATS manual was developed to provide complementary information about key aspects of Peace Corps programming and training for agriculture. It is intended for individuals involved in Peace…

  14. Information Services for Agriculture: The Role of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartrand, Robert L.; And Others

    This document discusses issues and developments related to the effects of new information technology on agriculture, beginning with an overview of the range of information-related issues, the evolving role of information technology, and the "stakeholders" (the groups) involved in advanced information systems for rural America. An examination of…

  15. A center for commercial development of space: Real-time satellite mapping. Remote sensing-based agricultural information expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadipriono, Fabian C.; Diaz, Carlos F.; Merritt, Earl S.

    1989-01-01

    The research project results in a powerful yet user friendly CROPCAST expert system for use by a client to determine the crop yield production of a certain crop field. The study is based on the facts that heuristic assessment and decision making in agriculture are significant and dominate much of agribusiness. Transfer of the expert knowledge concerning remote sensing based crop yield production into a specific expert system is the key program in this study. A knowledge base consisting of a root frame, CROP-YIELD-FORECAST, and four subframes, namely, SATELLITE, PLANT-PHYSIOLOGY, GROUND, and MODEL were developed to accommodate the production rules obtained from the domain expert. The expert system shell Personal Consultant Plus version 4.0. was used for this purpose. An external geographic program was integrated to the system. This project is the first part of a completely built expert system. The study reveals that much effort was given to the development of the rules. Such effort is inevitable if workable, efficient, and accurate rules are desired. Furthermore, abundant help statements and graphics were included. Internal and external display routines add to the visual capability of the system. The work results in a useful tool for the client for making decisions on crop yield production.

  16. Uses of the climatic information in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, C.; Magaña, V.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrometeorological extreme events have serious impacts on agricultural activities. The variation from a year to year of the annual accumulated precipitation can be substantial and have a large impact on agriculture. In Mexico it is know that a strong relation between the El Niño/Oscillation of Sur (ENOS) and annual precipitation exists. This relationship is one reason why climate information is a fundamental element that must be considered when making decisions and planning activities each agricultural cycle. Through the analysis of climate variability and crop vulnerability the risk of crop loss under adverse climate can be considered. If this risk is considered in agricultural planning, the work strategies will vary. Using calculations of the probability of rain occurrence, the vulnerability to hydrometerological extreme events can be considered, thus determining the probability of crop destruction due to rain deficit. This information can be used by farmers or agricultural insurance agencies to determine whether or not there will be sufficient rainfall for an agricultural cycle and what crops to cultivate. This type of infromation can be obtained from seasonal climate prognoses. At present we know that the prognosis schemes work better when conditions appear La Niña or El Niño.

  17. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘intensification’ is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. Scope and Conclusions This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural–environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and

  18. Integrated agricultural energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to show New England farmers and other New England energy users how they can use alternative energy sources to reduce their energy cost and dependency on conventional sources. The project demonstrates alternative energy technologies in solar, alcohol and methane. Dissemination is planned through tours to be conducted by the Worcester County Extension Service. Most of these goals were completed as planned. A few things have yet to be completed. The solar panels and solar hot water tanks have to be installed. The fermenter's agitating and cooling system have to be secured inside the fermenter. Once these items are complete tours will begin early in the spring.

  19. 77 FR 67329 - Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment... collection associated with the Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) of 1978. DATES: We will... Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) Program Manager, Natural Resources Analysis Group, Economic...

  20. Insect Barcode Information System

    PubMed Central

    Pratheepa, Maria; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Arokiaraj, Robinson Silvester; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Nagesh, Mandadi; Panda, Madhusmita; Pattar, Sharath

    2014-01-01

    Insect Barcode Information System called as Insect Barcode Informática (IBIn) is an online database resource developed by the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore. This database provides acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records of agriculturally important insects, for researchers specifically in India and other countries. It bridges a gap in bioinformatics by integrating molecular, morphological and distribution details of agriculturally important insects. IBIn was developed using PHP/My SQL by using relational database management concept. This database is based on the client– server architecture, where many clients can access data simultaneously. IBIn is freely available on-line and is user-friendly. IBIn allows the registered users to input new information, search and view information related to DNA barcode of agriculturally important insects.This paper provides a current status of insect barcode in India and brief introduction about the database IBIn. Availability http://www.nabg-nbaii.res.in/barcode PMID:24616562

  1. Multi-Sensor Distributive On-Line Processing, Visualization, and Analysis Infrastructure for an Agricultural Information System at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Berrick, Steve; Leptuokh, Gregory; Liu, Zhong; Rui, Hualan; Pham, Long; Shen, Suhung; Zhu, Tong

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM On-line Visualization and Analysis System precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be ,integrated into existing operational decision support system for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that ,allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical ,parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output ,on screen in a matter of seconds.

  2. [Information systems].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Maniega, José Antonio; Trío Maseda, Reyes

    2005-03-01

    The arrival of victims of the terrorist attacks of 11 March at the hospital put the efficiency of its information systems to the test. To be most efficient, these systems should be simple and directed, above all, to the follow-up of victims and to providing the necessary information to patients and families. A specific and easy to use system is advisable. PMID:15771852

  3. Multipath for Agricultural and Rural Information Services in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ningning; Zang, Zhiyuan; Gao, Lingwang; Shi, Qiang; Li, Jie; Xing, Chunlin; Shen, Zuorui

    Internet cannot provide perfect information services for farmers in rural regions in China, because farmers in rural regions can hardly access the internet by now. But the wide coverage of mobile signal, telephone line, and television network, etc. gave us a chance to solve the problem. The integrated pest management platform of Northern fruit trees were developed based on the integrated technology, which can integrate the internet, mobile and fixed-line telephone network, and television network, to provide integrated pest management(IPM) information services for farmers in rural regions in E-mail, telephone-voice, short message, voice mail, videoconference or other format, to users' telephone, cell phone, personal computer, personal digital assistant(PDA), television, etc. alternatively. The architecture and the functions of the system were introduced in the paper. The system can manage the field monitoring data of agricultural pests, deal with enquiries to provide the necessary information to farmers accessing the interactive voice response(IVR) in the system with the experts on-line or off-line, and issue the early warnings about the fruit tree pests when it is necessary according to analysis on the monitoring data about the pests of fruit trees in variety of ways including SMS, fax, voice and intersystem e-mail.The system provides a platform and a new pattern for agricultural technology extension with a high coverage rate of agricultural technology in rural regions, and it can solve the problem of agriculture information service 'last kilometer' in China. The effectiveness of the system was certified.

  4. Carbon dynamics in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil carbon (C) pool constitutes the largest reservoir of C in terrestrial ecosystems. Full accounting of C emissions and sequestration to obtain net C flux budgets for agriculture indicate that agricultural land can function as a net source or sink of C, depending on land use and management. Ad...

  5. U.S.-State Agricultural Data. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 512.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Letricia M.; Traub, Larry G.

    This report presents agricultural information for each state and the United States as a whole for the years 1981-1985. Included are data on population, land use, agricultural production, farm income, value of assets on farms, and selected characteristics of farms. The primary data sources are the "1982 Census of Agriculture," the "Economic…

  6. U.S.-State Agricultural Data. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Letricia M.; And Others

    This report presents agricultural information for each of the 50 states and the United States. Data are provided on population, land use, agricultural production, farm income, value of assets on farms, and selected characteristics of farms, such as size, tenure, and farm organization. Primary data sources are the 1982 Census of Agriculture and the…

  7. Integrating Sensory/Actuation Systems in Agricultural Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of new and more powerful perception systems for agriculture, such as computer-vision and global positioning systems. Due to these advances, the automation of agricultural tasks has received an important stimulus, especially in the area of selective weed control where high precision is essential for the proper use of resources and the implementation of more efficient treatments. Such autonomous agricultural systems incorporate and integrate perception systems for acquiring information from the environment, decision-making systems for interpreting and analyzing such information, and actuation systems that are responsible for performing the agricultural operations. These systems consist of different sensors, actuators, and computers that work synchronously in a specific architecture for the intended purpose. The main contribution of this paper is the selection, arrangement, integration, and synchronization of these systems to form a whole autonomous vehicle for agricultural applications. This type of vehicle has attracted growing interest, not only for researchers but also for manufacturers and farmers. The experimental results demonstrate the success and performance of the integrated system in guidance and weed control tasks in a maize field, indicating its utility and efficiency. The whole system is sufficiently flexible for use in other agricultural tasks with little effort and is another important contribution in the field of autonomous agricultural vehicles. PMID:24577525

  8. Integrating sensory/actuation systems in agricultural vehicles.

    PubMed

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of new and more powerful perception systems for agriculture, such as computer-vision and global positioning systems. Due to these advances, the automation of agricultural tasks has received an important stimulus, especially in the area of selective weed control where high precision is essential for the proper use of resources and the implementation of more efficient treatments. Such autonomous agricultural systems incorporate and integrate perception systems for acquiring information from the environment, decision-making systems for interpreting and analyzing such information, and actuation systems that are responsible for performing the agricultural operations. These systems consist of different sensors, actuators, and computers that work synchronously in a specific architecture for the intended purpose. The main contribution of this paper is the selection, arrangement, integration, and synchronization of these systems to form a whole autonomous vehicle for agricultural applications. This type of vehicle has attracted growing interest, not only for researchers but also for manufacturers and farmers. The experimental results demonstrate the success and performance of the integrated system in guidance and weed control tasks in a maize field, indicating its utility and efficiency. The whole system is sufficiently flexible for use in other agricultural tasks with little effort and is another important contribution in the field of autonomous agricultural vehicles. PMID:24577525

  9. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  10. A Study of Job Demands and Curriculum Development in Agricultural Training Related to the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System. Final Report. Volume IV. Career Awareness Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Harold S.; And Others

    This is the final volume of a four-volume report of a research project designed to (1) identify job needs for agricultural occupations which will result from the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System and perform a task analysis on each occupation, (2) develop instructional modules and determine their place in either high school or 2-year…

  11. An ontology-based collaborative service framework for agricultural information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, China has developed modern agriculture energetically. An effective information framework is an important way to provide farms with agricultural information services and improve farmer's production technology and their income. The mountain areas in central China are dominated by agri...

  12. Sustainability of Agricultural Systems: Concept to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture not only feeds the planet, it also is the biggest overall factor affecting the environment. Thus, innovative sustainable farming systems that produce healthy food and protect the environment at the same time are very much needed. We, as agricultural engineers, need ...

  13. Agricultural Drainage Management Systems Task Force (ADMSTF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Drainage Management Systems (ADMS) Task Force was initiated during a Charter meeting in the fall of 2002 by dedicated professional employees of Federal, State, and Local Government Agencies and Universities. The Agricultural Drainage Management (ADM) Coalition was established in 200...

  14. Agricultural Science I. Supplementary Units. Instructor Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Donna; And Others

    These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply agricultural skills in the areas of animal breeding, animal nutrition, leadership, and power tools. Specific competencies are listed as study questions at the beginning of each of the 10 self-paced and self-contained units. Skill sheets, activity sheets, and…

  15. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  16. Texas Agricultural Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ryan; Williams, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The researchers sought to find the Agricultural Science teachers' attitude toward five innovations (Computer-Aided Design, Record Books, E-Mail Career Development Event Registration, and World Wide Web) of information technology. The population for this study consisted of all 333 secondary Agricultural science teachers from Texas FFA Areas V and…

  17. Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

    2010-09-01

    Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a

  18. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  19. Where Do Agricultural Producers Get Safety and Health Information?

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sophia; Cheyney, Marsha; Ramirez, Marizen; Gerr, Fred

    2015-01-01

    There is little empirical guidance regarding communication sources and channels used and trusted by agricultural producers. The goal of this study was to characterize frequency of use and levels of trust in agricultural safety and health information sources and channels accessed by agricultural producers. A sample of 195 agricultural producers was surveyed at county fairs in Iowa. Information was collected about the frequency of use and level of trust in 14 information sources and channels. Associations between age, gender, and education level and use and trust of each information source or channel were estimated using logistic regression. The sample consisted of 72% men with a mean age of 50.1 (SD = 15.6) years. Newspaper and magazine articles were the most commonly used agricultural safety and health information source or channel; 77% (n = 140) of respondents reporting using them at least monthly. Among those reporting monthly or more frequent use, 75% reported trusting mostly or completely, compared with 58% using and 49% trusting the Internet. High levels of use and trust of newspaper and magazine articles did not vary significantly by age, gender, or education level. Age in the highest tertile (57-83 years) was marginally associated with lower odds of using, as well as using and trusting, all the information sources and channels studied except for medical clinics (use only: odds ratio [OR], 3.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-15.64; use and trust: OR, 5.90, 95% CI, 0.91-38.42). These findings suggest that traditional media may be more effective than digital media for delivering agricultural safety and health information to agricultural producers. Medical clinics may be an untapped venue for communicating with older agricultural producers. PMID:26237716

  20. Grasslands, Rangelands, and Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable agro-ecosystems are those systems whose production does not negatively affect energy flow, nutrient cycling or ecosystem services. We examined literature reports in each of these different arenas to determine if cellulosic biomass production in rangelands met these criteria. We focused...

  1. INFORMATION COLLECTION RULE INFORMATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Information Collection Rule (ICR) Information System was developed to store and distribute the information collected in the ICR for DBPs and microbiological research. It is a research database. The information system consists of our parts: laboratory...

  2. Transformation and Transport Processes of Nitrogen in Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transformation and transport processes of nitrogen (N) in agricultural systems are discussed and information is provided on overall reservoir sizes for N. Nitrogen is ubiquitous in the environment and is required for the survival of all living things. It is also one of the most important essen...

  3. Agriculture Information Service Built on Interoperable Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, K.; Ines, A.; Han, E.; Seshimo, T.

    2015-12-01

    We are developing an agricultural information service platform called FieldTouch, that is built on an interoperable geospatial data infrastructure. More than 300 farmers in Hokkaido, Japan, are participating on this development and they are utilizing our services for optimizing their daily agricultural practices. FieldTouch integrates multi-scale sensor data for field monitoring, provides functionality for recording agricultural practices, then supports farmers in decision making. The platform has two layers. The base layer is interoperable geospatial data infrastructure for sensor networks, that provides updated sensor data to upper application layer via OGC( Open Geospatial Consortium) standard API. We are updating RapidEye satellite images every two weeks, and field sensor data from 50 nodes. Agro-Weather data generated by NIAES using national weather observation network; AMeDAS is also a data source at daily basis. We use "cloudSense" sensor backend service as the infrastructure that serves meta-data and data to the application layer via standard web service; SOS (Sensor Observation Service). SOS provides unified procedure to applications when they access different type of sensor platform, which brought us a great flexibility and automation in operating the system. We developed a crop simulation application in FieldTouch so that farmers are able to see the impact of different planting data on yield. Cultivar data of local wheat variety for DSSAT crop model was calibrated by data assimilation. We generate 100 of weather scenario by a weather generator to present the obtain distribution of yield in different planting options. We update the weather scenario day by day in order to reduce the uncertain of the prediction towards harvesting. Visualizing expected yield as distributions help farmers to understand the risks by weather variability as well as to optimize their works and investment.

  4. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through proper management, agricultural systems (cropland, pasture, and forest) have the ability to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sequester it in soils and wood products. The carbon thus sequestered can help slow the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide currently occurring as a res...

  5. Soil Organic Matter in Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agricultural systems, soil organic matter (SOM) has been recognized as an important source of nutrients and maintains favorable soil structure. Organic matter is considered a major binding agent that stabilizes soil aggregates. Soil aggregates especially, water stable aggregates, are important i...

  6. Agricultural Information: A Comparison of Information Delivery Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sarah A; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of 123 users at the National Agricultural Library and Purdue University showed that, for most measures of acceptability, users preferred online or digital videodisc versions of the Pork Industry Handbook to the printed version. User characteristics were examined as factors that might influence responses. (Author/MES)

  7. Informal Research and Development for Agricultural Development--Key Roles for Agricultural and Extension Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitinoja, Lisa

    Informal research and development (R & D) is defined as any small-scale, decentralized agricultural or extension education program that involves the population of learners in the process of planning, implementation, and evaluation of a learning process. It involves simple experimentation with potential solutions to common problems. The presence of…

  8. Digital spatial soil and land information for agriculture development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. K.; Laghathe, Pankaj; Meena, Ranglal; Barman, Alok Kumar; Das, Satyendra Nath

    2006-12-01

    Natural resource management calls for study of natural system prevailing in the country. In India floods and droughts visit regularly, causing extensive damages of natural wealth including agriculture that are crucial for sustenance of economic growth. The Indian Sub-continent drained by many major rivers and their tributaries where watershed, the hydrological unit forms a natural system that allows management and development of land resources following natural harmony. Acquisition of various kinds and levels of soil and land characteristics using both conventional and remote sensing techniques and subsequent development of digital spatial data base are essential to evolve strategy for planning watershed development programmes, their monitoring and impact evaluation. The multi-temporal capability of remote sensing sensors helps to update the existing data base which are of dynamic in nature. The paper outlines the concept of spatial data base development, generation using remote sensing techniques, designing of data structure, standardization and integration with watershed layers and various non spatial attribute data for various applications covering watershed development planning, alternate land use planning, soil and water conservation, diversified agriculture practices, generation of soil health card, soil and land reclamation, etc. The soil and land characteristics are vital to derive various interpretative groupings or master table that helps to generate the desired level of information of various clients using the GIS platform. The digital spatial data base on soils and watersheds generated by All India Soil and Land Use Survey will act as a sub-server of the main GIS based Web Server being hoisted by the planning commission for application of spatial data for planning purposes under G2G domain. It will facilitate e-governance for natural resource management using modern technology.

  9. TURNING PRECISION AGRICULTURE INFORMATION INTO PRECISION CONSERVATION DECISIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For over a decade (1991-2003), precision agriculture methods were used to intensively monitor crop, soil, and water quality information on a typical claypan-soil field in Missouri. Many field properties were found to vary greatly within this somewhat flat, uniform-looking field, including grain yiel...

  10. Information Transfer and the Adoption of Agricultural Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Rose Mary Juliano

    1990-01-01

    Data collected in the Federal District of Brazil were analyzed in terms of information transfer through mass media and interpersonal communication and how they influence farmers in the Federal District of Brazil in their decisions to adopt agricultural innovations. (42 references) (EAM)

  11. Utilizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Agricultural Education to Promote Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.; Muchena, Olivia N.

    1991-01-01

    Understanding and appreciation of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) are essential for promoting sustainable agriculture development. IKS provides a cultural basis for nonformal agricultural programs that is absent in technology transfer approaches. (SK)

  12. Application Of Colored Petri Net In Modeling Ofan Agricultural Enterprise Informationmanagement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangtian; Wang, Kaiyi; Sui, Jin; Liu, Chang; Liu, Zhongqiang

    Business system modeling of an agricultural enterprise is one of the difficulties in developing and researching an agricultural enterprise management information system. Given the inadequate description of concurrent and synchronal events in the traditional modeling methods, this paper presents a modeling method, which uses Colored Petri Net. The paper discusses the application of Colored Petri Net in system modeling with the example of an agricultural enterprise production management system model, and analyzes the feasibility and effectiveness of that model.

  13. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  14. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  15. Automatic information extraction for land use and agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Thomas, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    Description of some current work in interpretation technique development for automatic computer-aided image information extraction related to various application areas, including land use mapping and agricultural survey and monitoring. In particular, the application of a fast template matching algorithm, employing the sequential similarity detection principle, to image registration, linear feature detection, and the extraction and enumeration of scene objects is discussed and illustrated.

  16. Development of sensor systems for precision agriculture in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture (PA) is an information-based technology, using detailed information within an agricultural field to optimize production inputs on a spatially variable basis, maximize farm profit, and minimize environmental impact. Information collection and processing plays a very important ro...

  17. A geographic information system on the potential distribution and abundance of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in east Africa based on Food and Agriculture Organization databases.

    PubMed

    Malone, J B; Gommes, R; Hansen, J; Yilma, J M; Slingenberg, J; Snijders, F; Nachtergaele, F; Ataman, E

    1998-07-31

    An adaptation of a previously developed climate forecast computer model and digital agroecologic database resources available from FAO for developing countries were used to develop a geographic information system risk assessment model for fasciolosis in East Africa, a region where both F. hepatica and F. gigantica occur as a cause of major economic losses in livestock. Regional F. hepatica and F. gigantica forecast index maps were created. Results were compared to environmental data parameters, known life cycle micro-environment requirements and to available Fasciola prevalence survey data and distribution patterns reported in the literature for each species (F. hepatica above 1200 m elevation, F. gigantica below 1800 m, both at 1200-1800 m). The greatest risk, for both species, occurred in areas of extended high annual rainfall associated with high soil moisture and surplus water, with risk diminishing in areas of shorter wet season and/or lower temperatures. Arid areas were generally unsuitable (except where irrigation, water bodies or floods occur) due to soil moisture deficit and/or, in the case of F. hepatica, high average annual mean temperature >23 degrees C. Regions in the highlands of Ethiopia and Kenya were identified as unsuitable for F. gigantica due to inadequate thermal regime, below the 600 growing degree days required for completion of the life cycle in a single year. The combined forecast index (F. hepatica+F. gigantica) was significantly correlated to prevalence data available for 260 of the 1220 agroecologic crop production system zones (CPSZ) and to average monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor on board the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. For use in Fasciola control programs, results indicate that monthly forecast parameters, developed in a GIS with digital agroecologic zone databases and monthly climate databases, can be used to define the

  18. Information Technology for Agricultural America. Prepared for the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Research and Foreign Agriculture, 97th Congress, 2d Session. Committee Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This summary of the combined Hearing and Workshop on Applications of Computer-Based Information Systems and Services in Agriculture (May 19-20, 1982) offers an overview of the ways in which information technology--computers, telecommunications, microforms, word processing, video and audio devices--may be utilized by American farmers and ranchers.…

  19. A GEO Global Agricultural Water Productivity Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thenkabail, P. S.; Pozzi, W.; Miller, N. L.; Fekete, B.; Sheffield, J.; Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    Agriculture is the main consumer of freshwater, and improved precision and accuracy of the terrestrial water cycle requires a more reliable way of monitoring agricultural water use and agricultural water productivity. Wisser et al 2008 reported that agricultural water consumption over the satellite-determined crop acreage (from AVHRR, SPOT VGT), particularly for India and China (Thenkabail et al 2006) was 30% higher than the commonly used Food and Agricultural Organization country-reported agricultural crop census data. We propose further quantification and clarification of this error through the following methodology: 1) greater accuracy in measuring actual area and precise spatial distribution of irrigated and rainfed cropland areas, along with identification of crop types and cropping intensities; 2) satellite monitoring of actual evapotranspiration (water use) by croplands; 3) reconciling agricultural plot information and evapotranspiration against calculated stores of water and water budgets, as derived from a Global Hydrologic Model Multi-Model Ensemble; and (d) modeling and pin-pointing areas of low and high water productivity (WP) to optimize agricultural water use and thus save large quanta of water. We propose producing global irrigated and rainfed areas at finer scales using Landsat 30 m imagery in fusion with MODIS 250 m imagery using the spectral matching technique (Thenkabail et al 2009). Crop water use (water transpired by the crop) and crop water productivity maps can be prepared for terrestrial areas, by using the surface energy balance model, in which evapotranspiration fraction is provided from Landsat ETM+ and\\or MODIS thermal data, combined with locally derived meteorological data such as wind speed, humidity, incoming radiation, and other surface values to derive turbulent diffusion and finally computing reference evapotranspiration (e.g., Penman-Montieth approach), so that sensible heat flux may be deducted from net radiation to derive

  20. An Obstacle Alerting System for Agricultural Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Wire strikes are a significant cause of helicopter accidents. The aircraft most at risk are aerial applicators. The present study examines the effectiveness of a wire alert delivered by way of the lightbar, a GPS-based guidance system for aerial application. The alert lead-time needed to avoid an invisible wire is compared with that to avoid a visible wire. A flight simulator was configured to simulate an agricultural application helicopter. Two pilots flew simulated spray runs in fields with visible wires, invisible wires, and no wires. The wire alert was effective in reducing wire strikes. A lead-time of 3.5 sec was required for the alert to be effective. The lead- time required was the same whether the pilot could see the wire or not.

  1. External Economic Drivers and U.S. Agricultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S agriculture operates in a market driven economy. As with other businesses, agricultural producers respond to economic incentives and disincentives and make decisions to maximize their welfare. In this paper we examine external economic drivers that shape agricultural systems. Specifically, we c...

  2. Geographic Names Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1984-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is an automated data system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to standardize and disseminate information on geographic names. GNIS provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name. The information in the system can be manipulated to meet varied needs. You can incorporate information from GNIS into your own data base for special applications.

  3. Mission Medical Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  4. Bee Pollination in Agricultural Eco-Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many agricultural crops, bees play a vital role as pollinators, and this book discusses the interplay between bees, agriculture and the environment. Although honey bees are well recognized as pollinators, managed bumble bees and solitary bees are also critical for the successful pollination of c...

  5. Medical Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kent A.

    1986-01-01

    Description of information services from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) highlights a new system for retrieving information from NLM's databases (GRATEFUL MED); a formal Regional Medical Library Network; DOCLINE; the Unified Medical Language System; and Integrated Academic Information Management Systems. Research and development and the…

  6. Preferred Methods for Delivery of Technological Information by the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service: Opinions of Agricultural Producers Who Use Extension Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John G.; Mustian, R. David

    The findings of a questionnaire survey of 702 North Carolina agricultural producers indicated that communication methods historically used by the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service for information dissemination are accepted by state farmers and continue to be popular. Information delivery methods most frequently preferred are…

  7. Multiscale Land surface feedbacks within agricultural and urban systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, D.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will first discuss the interplay between agricultural landscapes and regional hydroclimatology with particular emphasis on the US Corn Belt. Results and experiences from studies underway as part of a multistate project (Making Climate Information Useful 2 Usable- U2U) will be summarized. The presentation will also highlight experiences regarding the different challenges in developing the regional assessment and guidance regarding sustainable futures. Study results will also be compared with findings from other geographical regions where agriculture - climate linkages are stretching the limits of sustainable water use. A vulnerability framework that can be considered for such agriculture - climate - water links will also be presented. The second issue the presentation will discuss relates to the urban land surface feedbacks and efforts underway to guide efforts related to greening as well as regional landuse planning. The complex links between city structures, urban layouts, and regional climate will be synthesized and the framework regarding a decision support system that is being developed will be presented. Salient points of the modeling efforts, data challenges, and the need for linking multiple disciplines will be presented with special focus on droughts and the need for considering complex multiscale coupled interactions within the analysis.

  8. Mobile Student Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  9. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staples, D.; Steingass, H.; Nolfi, J.

    1981-10-01

    The market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture was studied. Information is presented on technical and economically feasible applications, and assessments of the business, government and financial climate for photovoltaic sales. It is concluded that the market for stand-alone systems will be large because of the availability of captial and the high premium placed on high reliability, low maintenance power systems. Various specific applications are described, mostly related to agriculture.

  10. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Nigeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, D.; Steingass, H.; Nolfi, J.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture was studied. Information is presented on technical and economically feasible applications, and assessments of the business, government and financial climate for photovoltaic sales. It is concluded that the market for stand-alone systems will be large because of the availability of captial and the high premium placed on high reliability, low maintenance power systems. Various specific applications are described, mostly related to agriculture.

  11. WEBGIS based CropWatch online agriculture monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Wu, B.; Zeng, H.; Zhang, M.; Yan, N.

    2015-12-01

    CropWatch, which was developed by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has achieved breakthrough results in the integration of methods, independence of the assessments and support to emergency response by periodically releasing global agricultural information. Taking advantages of the multi-source remote sensing data and the openness of the data sharing policies, CropWatch group reported their monitoring results by publishing four bulletins one year. In order to better analysis and generate the bulletin and provide an alternative way to access agricultural monitoring indicators and results in CropWatch, The CropWatch online system based on the WEBGIS techniques has been developed. Figure 1 shows the CropWatch online system structure and the system UI in Clustering mode. Data visualization is sorted into three different modes: Vector mode, Raster mode and Clustering mode. Vector mode provides the statistic value for all the indicators over each monitoring units which allows users to compare current situation with historical values (average, maximum, etc.). Users can compare the profiles of each indicator over the current growing season with the historical data in a chart by selecting the region of interest (ROI). Raster mode provides pixel based anomaly of CropWatch indicators globally. In this mode, users are able to zoom in to the regions where the notable anomaly was identified from statistic values in vector mode. Data from remote sensing image series at high temporal and low spatial resolution provide key information in agriculture monitoring. Clustering mode provides integrated information on different classes in maps, the corresponding profiles for each class and the percentage of area of each class to the total area of all classes. The time series data is categorized into limited types by the ISODATA algorithm. For each clustering type, pixels on the map, profiles, and percentage legend are all linked

  12. Quality assurance of weather data for agricultural system model input

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well known that crop production and hydrologic variation on watersheds is weather related. Rarely, however, is meteorological data quality checks reported for agricultural systems model research. We present quality assurance procedures for agricultural system model weather data input. Problems...

  13. Agroclimate.Org: Tools and Information for a Climate Resilient Agriculture in the Southeast USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraisse, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgroClimate (http://agroclimate.org) is a web-based system developed to help the agricultural industry in the southeastern USA reduce risks associated with climate variability and change. It includes climate related information and dynamic application tools that interact with a climate and crop database system. Information available includes climate monitoring and forecasts combined with information about crop management practices that help increase the resiliency of the agricultural industry in the region. Recently we have included smartphone apps in the AgroClimate suite of tools, including irrigation management and crop disease alert systems. Decision support tools available in AgroClimate include: (a) Climate risk: expected (probabilistic) and historical climate information and freeze risk; (b) Crop yield risk: expected yield based on soil type, planting date, and basic management practices for selected commodities and historical county yield databases; (c) Crop diseases: disease risk monitoring and forecasting for strawberry and citrus; (d) Crop development: monitoring and forecasting of growing degree-days and chill accumulation; (e) Drought: monitoring and forecasting of selected drought indices, (f) Footprints: Carbon and water footprint calculators. The system also provides background information about the main drivers of climate variability and basic information about climate change in the Southeast USA. AgroClimate has been widely used as an educational tool by the Cooperative Extension Services in the region and also by producers. It is now being replicated internationally with version implemented in Mozambique and Paraguay.

  14. Energy efficiency of Pacific Northwest agriculture irrigation pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.

    1987-03-01

    This document addresses the energy use and efficiency characteristics of pumping plants used to irrigate agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The principal focus of this document is on field information obtained from tests of irrigation pumping plants.

  15. Who Talks to Whom in Malawi's Agricultural Research Information Network?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapila, Mariam A. T. J.; Yauney, Jason; Thangata, Paul; Droppelmann, Klaus; Mazunda, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The sector-wide approach currently dominates as the strategy for developing the agricultural sector of many African countries. Although recognised that collaborative agricultural research is vital in ensuring success of sector-wide agricultural development strategies; there have been few efforts to understand the dynamics of national…

  16. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  17. Regional Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sherrilynne

    1997-01-01

    Abstract In general, there is agreement that robust integrated information systems are the foundation for building successful regional health care delivery systems. Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) institutions that, over the years, have developed strategies for creating cohesive institutional information systems and services are finding that IAIMS strategies work well in the even more complex regional environment. The key elements of IAIMS planning are described and lessons learned are discussed in the context of regional health information systems developed. The challenges of aligning the various information agencies and agendas in support of a regional health information system are complex ; however, the potential rewards for health care in quality, efficacy, and cost savings are enormous. PMID:9067887

  18. Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    WxLink is an aviation weather system based on advanced airborne sensors, precise positioning available from the satellite-based Global Positioning System, cockpit graphics and a low-cost datalink. It is a two-way system that uplinks weather information to the aircraft and downlinks automatic pilot reports of weather conditions aloft. Manufactured by ARNAV Systems, Inc., the original technology came from Langley Research Center's cockpit weather information system, CWIN (Cockpit Weather INformation). The system creates radar maps of storms, lightning and reports of surface observations, offering improved safety, better weather monitoring and substantial fuel savings.

  19. From LACIE to GEOGLAM: Integrating Earth Observations into Operational Agricultural Monitoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-12-01

    Earth observation data, owing to their synoptic, timely and repetitive coverage, have long been recognized as an indispensible tool for agricultural monitoring at local to global scales. Research and development over the past several decades in the field of agricultural remote sensing has led to considerable capacity for crop monitoring within the current operational monitoring systems. These systems are relied upon nationally and internationally to provide crop outlooks and production forecasts as the growing season progresses. This talk will discuss the legacy and current state of operational agricultural monitoring using earth observations. In the US, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) have been collaborating to monitor global agriculture from space since the 1970s. In 1974, the USDA, NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) which demonstrated that earth observations could provide vital information on crop production, with unprecedented accuracy and timeliness, prior to harvest. This experiment spurred many agencies and researchers around the world to further develop and evaluate remote sensing technologies for timely, large area, crop monitoring. The USDA and NASA continue to closely collaborate. More recently they jointly initiated the Global Agricultural Monitoring Project (GLAM) to enhance the agricultural monitoring and the crop-production estimation capabilities of the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service by using the new generation of NASA satellite observations including from MODIS and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instruments. Internationally, in response to the growing calls for improved agricultural information, the Group on Earth Observations (partnership of governments and international organizations) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative which was adopted

  20. Information retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  1. Quantification of isotopic turnover in agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, A.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic turnover, which is a proxy for the metabolic rate, is gaining scientific importance. It is quantified for an increasing range of organisms, from microorganisms over plants to animals including agricultural livestock. Additionally, the isotopic turnover is analyzed on different scales, from organs to organisms to ecosystems and even to the biosphere. In particular, the quantification of the isotopic turnover of specific tissues within the same organism, e.g. organs like liver and muscle and products like milk and faeces, has brought new insights to improve understanding of nutrient cycles and fluxes, respectively. Thus, the knowledge of isotopic turnover is important in many areas, including physiology, e.g. milk synthesis, ecology, e.g. soil retention time of water, and medical science, e.g. cancer diagnosis. So far, the isotopic turnover is quantified by applying time, cost and expertise intensive tracer experiments. Usually, this comprises two isotopic equilibration periods. A first equilibration period with a constant isotopic input signal is followed by a second equilibration period with a distinct constant isotopic input signal. This yields a smooth signal change from the first to the second signal in the object under consideration. This approach reveals at least three major problems. (i) The input signals must be controlled isotopically, which is almost impossible in many realistic cases like free ranging animals. (ii) Both equilibration periods may be very long, especially when the turnover rate of the object under consideration is very slow, which aggravates the first problem. (iii) The detection of small or slow pools is improved by large isotopic signal changes, but large isotopic changes also involve a considerable change in the input material; e.g. animal studies are usually carried out as diet-switch experiments, where the diet is switched between C3 and C4 plants, since C3 and C4 plants differ strongly in their isotopic signal. The

  2. A Landscape Perspective on Sustainability of Agricultural Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Kaffka, Stephen R; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape sustainability of agricultural systems considers effects of farm activities on social, economic, and ecosystem services at local and regional scales. Sustainable agriculture entails: defining sustainability, developing easily measured indicators of sustainability, moving toward integrated agricultural systems, and offering incentives or imposing regulations to affect farmer behavior. A landscape perspective is useful because landscape ecology provides theory and methods for dealing with spatial heterogeneity, scaling, integration, and complexity. To implement agricultural sustainability, we propose adopting a systems perspective, recognizing spatial heterogeneity, addressing the influences of context, and integrating landscape-design principles. Topics that need further attention at local and regional scales include (1) protocols for quantifying material and energy flows; (2) effects of management practices; (3) incentives for enhancing social, economic, and ecosystem services; (4) integrated landscape planning and management; (5) monitoring and assessment; (6) effects of societal demand; and (7) consistent and holistic policies for promoting agricultural sustainability.

  3. Information System Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, J. H.

    This paper was prepared for distribution to the California Educational Administrators participating in the "Executive Information Systems" Unit of Instruction as part of the instructional program of Operation PEP (Prepare Educational Planners). The purpose of the course was to introduce some basic concepts of information systems technology to…

  4. Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahle, Jack D., Jr.

    The Fort Detrick Information Retrieval System is a system of computer programs written in COBOL for a CDC 3150 to store and retrieve information about the scientific and technical reports and documents of the Fort Detrick Technical Library. The documents and reports have been abstracted and indexed. This abstract, the subject matter descriptors,…

  5. Medical Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, S.; Hipkins, K. R.; Friedman, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    On-line interactive information processing system easily and rapidly handles all aspects of data management related to patient care. General purpose system is flexible enough to be applied to other data management situations found in areas such as occupational safety data, judicial information, or personnel records.

  6. Environmental geographic information system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Dennis; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  7. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  8. USER REQUIREMENTS FOR SATELLITE AND OTHER REMOTE SENSING INFORMATION IN THE FIELD OF AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report presents the current remote sensing technology that is applicable to the field of agricultural meteorology. The information presented is applicable for monitoring and assessment of agricultural crops and grasslands and their impact on agricultural production at regional and national lev...

  9. Next generation information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Limback, Nathan P; Medina, Melanie A; Silva, Michelle E

    2010-01-01

    The Information Systems Analysis and Development (ISAD) Team of the Safeguards Systems Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing web based information and knowledge management systems for sixteen years. Our vision is to rapidly and cost effectively provide knowledge management solutions in the form of interactive information systems that help customers organize, archive, post and retrieve nonproliferation and safeguards knowledge and information vital to their success. The team has developed several comprehensive information systems that assist users in the betterment and growth of their organizations and programs. Through our information systems, users are able to streamline operations, increase productivity, and share and access information from diverse geographic locations. The ISAD team is also producing interactive visual models. Interactive visual models provide many benefits to customers beyond the scope of traditional full-scale modeling. We have the ability to simulate a vision that a customer may propose, without the time constraints of traditional engineering modeling tools. Our interactive visual models can be used to access specialized training areas, controlled areas, and highly radioactive areas, as well as review site-specific training for complex facilities, and asset management. Like the information systems that the ISAD team develops, these models can be shared and accessed from any location with access to the internet. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the capabilities of information systems and interactive visual models as well as consider the possibility of combining the two capabilities to provide the next generation of infonnation systems. The collection, processing, and integration of data in new ways can contribute to the security of the nation by providing indicators and information for timely action to decrease the traditional and new nuclear threats. Modeling and simulation tied to comprehensive

  10. A framework for developing an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system from remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    With a changing climate, drought has become more intensified, of which agriculture is the major affected sector. Satellite observations have proven great utilities for real-time drought monitoring as well as crop yield estimation, and many remotely sensed indicators have been developed for drought monitoring based on vegetation growth conditions, surface temperature and evapotranspiration information. However, those current drought indicators typically don't take into account the different responses of various input information and the drought impacts during the growing season, revealing some limitations for effective agricultural drought monitoring and impact analysis. Therefore, the goal of this research is to build a framework for the development of an impact-oriented and remote sensing based agricultural drought indicator. Firstly, the global agricultural drought risk was characterized to provide an overview of the agricultural drought prone areas in the world. Then, the responses of different remotely sensed indicators to drought and the impacts of drought on crop yield from the remote sensing perspective during the growing season were explored. Based on previous works on drought risk, drought indicator response and drought impact analysis, an impact-oriented drought indicator will be prototyped from the integration of the drought responses of different indicators and the drought impacts during the growing season. This research can inform an impact-oriented agricultural drought indicator, help prototype an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system, and thus provide valuable inputs for effective agricultural management.

  11. Informing Lake Erie agriculture nutrient management via scenario evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scavia, Donald; Kalcic, Margaret; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Aloysius, Noel; Arnold, Jeffrey; Boles, Chelsie; Confesor, Remegio; DePinto, Joseph; Gildow, Marie; Martin, Jay; Read, Jennifer; Redder, Todd; Robertson, Dale; Sowa, Scott P.; Wang, Yu-Chen; White, Michael; Yen, Haw

    2016-01-01

    Therefore, the overall goal of this study was to identify potential options for agricultural management to reduce phosphorus loads and lessen future HABs in Lake Erie. We applied multiple watershed models to test the ability of a series of land management scenarios, developed in consultation with agricultural and environmental stakeholders, to reach the proposed targets. 

  12. Space Station Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, Clarence W.

    1988-01-01

    The utility of the Space Station is improved, the ability to manage and integrate its development and operation enhanced, and the cost and risk of developing the software for it is minimized by three major information systems. The Space Station Information System (SSIS) provides for the transparent collection and dissemination of operational information to all users and operators. The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) provides all the developers with timely and consistent program information and a project management 'window' to assess the project status. The Software Support Environment (SSE) provides automated tools and standards to be used by all software developers. Together, these three systems are vital to the successful execution of the program.

  13. Earthquake Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    IAEMIS (Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System) is the principal tool of an earthquake preparedness program developed by Martin Marietta and the Mid-America Remote Sensing Center (MARC). It is a two-component set of software, data and procedures to provide information enabling management personnel to make informed decisions in disaster situations. The NASA-developed program ELAS, originally used to analyze Landsat data, provides MARC with a spatially-oriented information management system. Additional MARC projects include land resources management, and development of socioeconomic data.

  14. Health Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Artz, David R

    2016-03-01

    This article provides surgical pathologists an overview of health information systems (HISs): what they are, what they do, and how such systems relate to the practice of surgical pathology. Much of this article is dedicated to the electronic medical record. Information, in how it is captured, transmitted, and conveyed, drives the effectiveness of such electronic medical record functionalities. So critical is information from pathology in integrated clinical care that surgical pathologists are becoming gatekeepers of not only tissue but also information. Better understanding of HISs can empower surgical pathologists to become stakeholders who have an impact on the future direction of quality integrated clinical care. PMID:26851670

  15. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  16. Arkansas Technology Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBiervliet, Alan; Parette, Howard P., Jr.

    The Arkansas Technology Information System (ARTIS) was developed to fill a significant void in existing systems of technical support to Arkansans with disabilities by creating and maintaining a consumer-responsive statewide system of data storage and retrieval regarding assistive technology and services. ARTIS goals also include establishment of a…

  17. Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. Office of Records Management.

    Descriptions of representative nonconventional information systems in use today are given in order to provide managers, management analysts, supervisors, and others with ideas as to how they might improve the dissemination, storage, and retrieval of information in their offices. No attempt was made to evaluate the relative merits of the systems…

  18. Information System Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck

    Prepared for review and discussion by the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges (CCC), this report provides background and recommendations for the refinement, expansion, and increased use of the information system of the CCC Chancellor's Office. Following introductory material proposing an expanded scope of the information system…

  19. Information systems definition architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Calapristi, A.J.

    1996-06-20

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Systems Definition architecture evaluated information Management (IM) processes in several key organizations. The intent of the study is to identify improvements in TWRS IM processes that will enable better support to the TWRS mission, and accommodate changes in TWRS business environment. The ultimate goals of the study are to reduce IM costs, Manage the configuration of TWRS IM elements, and improve IM-related process performance.

  20. Systems in peril: Climate change, agriculture and biodiversity in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocklin, Chris; Dibden, Jacqui

    2009-11-01

    This paper reflects on the interplay amongst three closely linked systems - climate, agriculture and biodiversity - in the Australian context. The advance of a European style of agriculture has imperilled Australian biodiversity. The loss and degradation of biodiversity has, in turn, had negative consequences for agriculture. Climate change is imposing new pressures on both agriculture and biodiversity. From a policy and management perspective, though, it is possible to envisage mitigation and adaptation responses that would alleviate pressures on all three systems (climate, agriculture, biodiversity). In this way, the paper seeks to make explicit the important connections between science and policy. The paper outlines the distinctive features of both biodiversity and agriculture in the Australian context. The discussion then addresses the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, followed by an overview of how climate change is impacting on both of these systems. The final section of the paper offers some commentary on current policy and management strategies that are targeted at mitigating the loss of biodiversity and which may also have benefits in terms of climate change.

  1. HS3 Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Mceniry, M.; Stone, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) is developing an enterprise information system to manage and better serve data for Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3), a NASA airborne field campaign. HS3 is a multiyear campaign aimed at helping scientists understand the physical processes that contribute to hurricane intensification. For in-depth analysis, HS3 encompasses not only airborne data but also variety of in-situ, satellite, simulation, and flight report data. Thus, HS3 provides a unique challenge in information system design. The GHRC team is experienced with previous airborne campaigns to handle such challenge. Many supplementary information and reports collected during the mission include information rich contents that provide mission snapshots. In particular, flight information, instrument status, weather reports, and summary statistics offer vital knowledge about the corresponding science data. Furthermore, such information help narrow the science data of interest. Therefore, the GHRC team is building HS3 information system that augments the current GHRC data management framework to support search and discover of airborne science data with interactive visual exploration. Specifically, the HS3 information system is developing a tool to visually playback mission flights along with other traditional search and discover interfaces. This playback capability allows the users to follow the flight in time and visualize collected data. The flight summary and analyzed information are also presented during the playback. If the observed data is of interest, then they can order the data from GHRC using the interface. The users will be able to order just the data for the part of the flight that they are interested in. This presentation will demonstrate use of visual exploration to data download along with other components that comprise the HS3 information system.

  2. A speech recognition system for data collection in precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dux, David Lee

    Agricultural producers have shown interest in collecting detailed, accurate, and meaningful field data through field scouting, but scouting is labor intensive. They use yield monitor attachments to collect weed and other field data while driving equipment. However, distractions from using a keyboard or buttons while driving can lead to driving errors or missed data points. At Purdue University, researchers have developed an ASR system to allow equipment operators to collect georeferenced data while keeping hands and eyes on the machine during harvesting and to ease georeferencing of data collected during scouting. A notebook computer retrieved locations from a GPS unit and displayed and stored data in Excel. A headset microphone with a single earphone collected spoken input while allowing the operator to hear outside sounds. One-, two-, or three-word commands activated appropriate VBA macros. Four speech recognition products were chosen based on hardware requirements and ability to add new terms. After training, speech recognition accuracy was 100% for Kurzweil VoicePlus and Verbex Listen for the 132 vocabulary words tested, during tests walking outdoors or driving an ATV. Scouting tests were performed by carrying the system in a backpack while walking in soybean fields. The system recorded a point or a series of points with each utterance. Boundaries of points showed problem areas in the field and single points marked rocks and field corners. Data were displayed as an Excel chart to show a real-time map as data were collected. The information was later displayed in a GIS over remote sensed field images. Field corners and areas of poor stand matched, with voice data explaining anomalies in the image. The system was tested during soybean harvest by using voice to locate weed patches. A harvester operator with little computer experience marked points by voice when the harvester entered and exited weed patches or areas with poor crop stand. The operator found the

  3. Application of principles of integrated agricultural systems: results from farmer panels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Integrated Agricultural Systems working group comprised of USDA-ARS scientists is examining different agricultural systems from various geographic regions of the United States to determine fundamental principles that underlie successful integrated agricultural systems. Our hypothesis is that prin...

  4. Mandatory Production Controls. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 520.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Mandatory restrictions on agricultural production continue to be suggested as an alternative policy for reducing price-depressing surplus production, increasing farm income, and cutting farm program costs. A mandatory production control program (MPCP) can be implemented through two methods: (1) acreage allotments, which restrict individual farmers…

  5. Management Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Kelvin

    An Australian university architect studying management information systems programs at academic institutions in the United States visited 26 universities and colleges and nine educational and professional associations, including extended visits at the University of Wisconsin and the National Center of Higher Education Management Systems. During…

  6. Management Information System Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Walter J.; Harr, Gordon G.

    The Management Information System (MIS) described in this report represents a plan to utilize modern management techniques to facilitate the goal of a learner-responsive school system. The MIS component is being developed to meet the need for the coordination of the resources of staff, facilities, and time with the long range planning and…

  7. A Qualitative Study of Agricultural Literacy in Urban Youth: What Do Elementary Students Understand about the Agri-Food System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural literacy of K-12 students is a national priority for both scientific and agricultural education professional organizations. Development of curricula to address this priority has not been informed by research on what K-12 students understand about the agri-food system. While students' knowledge of food and fiber system facts have been…

  8. Sustainable Uses of FGD Gypsum in Agricultural Systems: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Watts, Dexter B; Dick, Warren A

    2014-01-01

    Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. Abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants, in major agricultural producing regions within the last two decades has attributed to this interest. Currently, published data on the long-term sustainability of FGD gypsum use in agricultural systems is limited. This has led to organization of the American Society of Agronomy's Community "By-product Gypsum Uses in Agriculture" and a special collection of nine technical research articles on various issues related to FGD gypsum uses in agricultural systems. A brief review of FGD gypsum, rationale for the special collection, overviews of articles, knowledge gaps, and future research directions are presented in this introductory paper. The nine articles are focused in three general areas: (i) mercury and other trace element impacts, (ii) water quality impacts, and (iii) agronomic responses and soil physical changes. While this is not an exhaustive review of the topic, results indicate that FGD gypsum use in sustainable agricultural production systems is promising. The environmental impacts of FGD gypsum are mostly positive, with only a few negative results observed, even when applied at rates representing cumulative 80-year applications. Thus, FGD gypsum, if properly managed, seems to represent an important potential input into agricultural systems. PMID:25602557

  9. NEEDS - Information Adaptive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, W. L.; Benz, H. F.; Meredith, B. D.

    1980-01-01

    The Information Adaptive System (IAS) is an element of the NASA End-to-End Data System (NEEDS) Phase II and is focused toward onboard image processing. The IAS is a data preprocessing system which is closely coupled to the sensor system. Some of the functions planned for the IAS include sensor response nonuniformity correction, geometric correction, data set selection, data formatting, packetization, and adaptive system control. The inclusion of these sensor data preprocessing functions onboard the spacecraft will significantly improve the extraction of information from the sensor data in a timely and cost effective manner, and provide the opportunity to design sensor systems which can be reconfigured in near real-time for optimum performance. The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary design of the IAS and the plans for its development.

  10. Traceability System For Agricultural Productsbased on Rfid and Mobile Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Koji

    In agriculture, it is required to establish and integrate food traceability systems and risk management systems in order to improve food safety in the entire food chain. The integrated traceability system for agricultural products was developed, based on innovative technology of RFID and mobile computing. In order to identify individual products on the distribution process efficiently,small RFID tags with unique ID and handy RFID readers were applied. On the distribution process, the RFID tags are checked by using the readers, and transit records of the products are stored to the database via wireless LAN.Regarding agricultural production, the recent issues of pesticides misuse affect consumer confidence in food safety. The Navigation System for Appropriate Pesticide Use (Nouyaku-navi) was developed, which is available in the fields by Internet cell-phones. Based on it, agricultural risk management systems have been developed. These systems collaborate with traceability systems and they can be applied for process control and risk management in agriculture.

  11. Network Information System

    1996-05-01

    The Network Information System (NWIS) was initially implemented in May 1996 as a system in which computing devices could be recorded so that unique names could be generated for each device. Since then the system has grown to be an enterprise wide information system which is integrated with other systems to provide the seamless flow of data through the enterprise. The system Iracks data for two main entities: people and computing devices. The following aremore » the type of functions performed by NWIS for these two entities: People Provides source information to the enterprise person data repository for select contractors and visitors Generates and tracks unique usernames and Unix user IDs for every individual granted cyber access Tracks accounts for centrally managed computing resources, and monitors and controls the reauthorization of the accounts in accordance with the DOE mandated interval Computing Devices Generates unique names for all computing devices registered in the system Tracks the following information for each computing device: manufacturer, make, model, Sandia property number, vendor serial number, operating system and operating system version, owner, device location, amount of memory, amount of disk space, and level of support provided for the machine Tracks the hardware address for network cards Tracks the P address registered to computing devices along with the canonical and alias names for each address Updates the Dynamic Domain Name Service (DDNS) for canonical and alias names Creates the configuration files for DHCP to control the DHCP ranges and allow access to only properly registered computers Tracks and monitors classified security plans for stand-alone computers Tracks the configuration requirements used to setup the machine Tracks the roles people have on machines (system administrator, administrative access, user, etc...) Allows systems administrators to track changes made on the machine (both hardware and software) Generates an

  12. Materials management information systems.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The hospital materials management function--ensuring that goods and services get from a source to an end user--encompasses many areas of the hospital and can significantly affect hospital costs. Performing this function in a manner that will keep costs down and ensure adequate cash flow requires effective management of a large amount of information from a variety of sources. To effectively coordinate such information, most hospitals have implemented some form of materials management information system (MMIS). These systems can be used to automate or facilitate functions such as purchasing, accounting, inventory management, and patient supply charges. In this study, we evaluated seven MMISs from seven vendors, focusing on the functional capabilities of each system and the quality of the service and support provided by the vendor. This Evaluation is intended to (1) assist hospitals purchasing an MMIS by educating materials managers about the capabilities, benefits, and limitations of MMISs and (2) educate clinical engineers and information system managers about the scope of materials management within a healthcare facility. Because software products cannot be evaluated in the same manner as most devices typically included in Health Devices Evaluations, our standard Evaluation protocol was not applicable for this technology. Instead, we based our ratings on our observations (e.g., during site visits), interviews we conducted with current users of each system, and information provided by the vendor (e.g., in response to a request for information [RFI]). We divided the Evaluation into the following sections: Section 1. Responsibilities and Information Requirements of Materials Management: Provides an overview of typical materials management functions and describes the capabilities, benefits, and limitations of MMISs. Also includes the supplementary article, "Inventory Cost and Reimbursement Issues" and the glossary, "Materials Management Terminology." Section 2. The

  13. Management Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    New Automated Management Information Center (AMIC) employs innovative microcomputer techniques to create color charts, viewgraphs, or other data displays in a fraction of the time formerly required. Developed under Kennedy Space Center's contract by Boeing Services International Inc., Seattle, WA, AMIC can produce an entirely new informational chart in 30 minutes, or an updated chart in only five minutes. AMIC also has considerable potential as a management system for business firms.

  14. Training Management Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Rackley, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Training Management Information System (TMIS) is an integrated information system for all training related activities. TMIS is at the leading edge of training information systems used in the nuclear industry. The database contains all the necessary records to confirm the department's adherence to accreditation criteria and houses all test questions, student records and information needed to evaluate the training process. The key to the TMIS system is that the impact of any change (i.e., procedure change, new equipment, safety incident in the commercial nuclear industry, etc.) can be tracked throughout the training process. This ensures the best training can be performed that meets the needs of the employees. TMIS is comprised of six functional areas: Job and Task Analysis, Training Materials Design and Development, Exam Management, Student Records/Scheduling, Evaluation, and Commitment Tracking. The system consists of a VAX 6320 Cluster with IBM and MacIntosh computers tied into an ethernet with the VAX. Other peripherals are also tied into the system: Exam Generation Stations to include mark sense readers for test grading, Production PC's for Desk-Top Publishing of Training Material, and PC Image Workstations. 5 figs.

  15. APPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM MODELS IN ASSESSING AND MANAGING CONTAMINATION OF THE SOIL-WATER-ATMOSPHERE CONTINUUM IN AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last three decades, there has been a growing public concern about the adverse effects of modern agriculture on environmental quality and soil-water resources. In the mid-1980's, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) identified the need for models of whole agricultural systems that wi...

  16. Application of Agricultural System Models in Assessing and Managing Contamination of Soil-Water-Atmosphere Continuum in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last three decades, there has been a growing public concern about the adverse effects of modern agriculture on environmental quality and soil-water resources. In the mid-1980s, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) identified the need for models of whole agricultural systems th...

  17. Multilingual information retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hong; Chan, Syin; Lai, Kok-Fung

    1996-11-01

    In this paper, we present an approach in implementing intelligent information retrieval systems. We have constructed a multilingual information system which combines both image and text retrieval. We have developed an English/Chinese text retrieval tool on the WWW, and later incorporated an image retrieval tool based on associated multilingual captions. The system allows the general public to locate and keep abreast of information about Singapore. It has a novel user interface which accepts queries that are expressed in English, Chinese and mixed text into its database. The titles, summaries, URLs and the matching scores of retrieved documents will then be returned, and a thumbnail will be displayed as well if an image document is retrieved.

  18. A decision support system for rainfed agricultural areas of Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural inhabitants of arid lands lack sufficient water to fulfill their agricultural and household needs. They do not have readily available technical information to support decisions regarding the course of action they should follow to handle the agro-climatic risk. In this paper, a computer model (...

  19. Discovering Information Use in Agricultural Economics: A Citation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2007-01-01

    This citation study investigated the research needs and activity of U.S. agricultural economists. Journals were the dominant format of cited sources. Books, government publications, and working papers formed the other important types of references, whereas electronic sources were sparsely used. Subject scatter in this interdisciplinary field was…

  20. Geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Information and activities are provided to: (1) enhance the ability to distinguish between a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a data management system; (2) develop understanding of spatial data handling by conventional methods versus the automated approach; (3) promote awareness of GIS design and capabilities; (4) foster understanding of the concepts and problems of data base development and management; (5) facilitate recognition of how a computerized GIS can model conditions in the present "real world" to project conditions in the future; and (6) appreciate the utility of integrating LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data into the GIS.

  1. SOIL QUALITY IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building and maintaining soil quality is the basis for successful organic farming. However, before developing a soil management plan focused on soil quality in organic systems, farmers should become knowledgeable regarding the overall philosophies, legalities, and marketing opportunities in organic ...

  2. A Food Systems Approach To Healthy Food And Agriculture Policy.

    PubMed

    Neff, Roni A; Merrigan, Kathleen; Wallinga, David

    2015-11-01

    Food has become a prominent focus of US public health policy. The emphasis has been almost exclusively on what Americans eat, not what is grown or how it is grown. A field of research, policy, and practice activities addresses the food-health-agriculture nexus, yet the work is still often considered "alternative" to the mainstream. This article outlines the diverse ways in which agriculture affects public health. It then describes three policy issues: farm-to-school programming, sustainability recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and antibiotic use in animal agriculture. These issues illustrate the progress, challenges, and public health benefits of taking a food systems approach that brings together the food, agriculture, and public health fields. PMID:26526249

  3. Space Station information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, W. L.; Mckay, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    The space operations information system is defined and characterized in a wide perspective. Interactive subsets of the total system are defined and discussed. Particular attention is paid to the concept of end-to-end systems and their repetitive population within the total system. High level program goals are reviewed and related to more explicit system requirements and user needs. Emphasis is placed on the utility and cost effectiveness of data system services from a user standpoint. Productivity, as a quantitative goal, in both development and operational phases is also addressed. Critical aspects of the approach to successful development of the data management system are discussed along with recommendations important to advanced development activities. Current and planned activity in both technology and advanced development areas are reviewed with emphasis on their importance to program success.

  4. Sustaining the Earth's watersheds, agricultural research data system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS water resources program has developed a web-based data system, STEWARDS: Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data System to support research that encompasses a broad range of topics such as water quality, hydrology, conservation, land use, and soils. The data syst...

  5. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  6. Management Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Jean, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This collection of papers addresses key questions facing college managers and others choosing, introducing, and living with big, complex computer-based systems. "What Use the User Requirement?" (Tony Coles) stresses the importance of an information strategy driven by corporate objectives, not technology. "Process of Selecting a Computerised MIS in…

  7. Geographic information systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1992-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, and developmental planning. For example, a GIS might allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times in the event of a natural disaster, or a GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection form pollution.

  8. Information Systems Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Sharon Lund

    This guide outlines an information systems curriculum that has been developed for postsecondary institutions in Texas. The curriculum, which is intended to help students acquire the competencies necessary to function in automated offices in business and industry, includes the following core courses: computer business applications I and II,…

  9. Pharmacology Information System Ready

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the development and future of Prophet,'' a specialized information handling system for pharmacology research. It is designed to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge about mechanisms of drug action, and it is hoped that it will aid in converting pharmacology research from an empirical to a predictive science. (JR)

  10. Specialized Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Dangott, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Some laboratories or laboratory sections have unique needs that traditional anatomic and clinical pathology systems may not address. A specialized laboratory information system (LIS), which is designed to perform a limited number of functions, may perform well in areas where a traditional LIS falls short. Opportunities for specialized LISs continue to evolve with the introduction of new testing methodologies. These systems may take many forms, including stand-alone architecture, a module integrated with an existing LIS, a separate vendor-supplied module, and customized software. This article addresses the concepts underlying specialized LISs, their characteristics, and in what settings they are found. PMID:26851663

  11. Toward intelligent information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Fumio; Hinatsu, Ken'ichi

    This article describes the indexing aid system and project at JICST, API, NLM and BIOSIS. They are dealing with the very broad domain of science, medicine and technological literatures and indexing is done by use of controlled terms, the indexing is routinely performed by highly skilled indexers. Because of the high cost of controlled indexing of bibliographic information they have designed automated indexing system and/or expert-like system to take advantage of many years of experienced indexing using knowledge bases and /on thesauri.

  12. A 10-Year Assessment of Information and Communication Technology Tasks Required in Undergraduate Agriculture Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Cox, Casandra

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess required information and communication technology (ICT) tasks in selected undergraduate agriculture courses in a land-grant university during a 10-year period. Selected agriculture faculty members in the fall 1999 (n = 63), 2004 (n = 55), and 2009 (n = 64) semesters were surveyed to determine the ICT tasks they required…

  13. Agricultural Science Teachers' Barriers, Roles, and Information Source Preferences for Teaching Biotechnology Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Diana L.; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Roberts, T. Grady; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine barriers, roles, and information source preferences for teaching agricultural biotechnology topics. Agricultural science teachers were described primarily as 37 year-old males who had taught for 12 years, had bachelor's degrees, and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. Equipment was perceived as the…

  14. Information Use by PhD Students in Agriculture and Biology: A Dissertation Citation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuruppu, Pali U.; Moore, Debra C.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study conducted to examine the types of information used by graduate students in the fields of biological and agricultural sciences at Iowa State University (ISU). The citations of doctoral dissertations submitted in nine agriculture and biological science subject fields (crop production and physiology;…

  15. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26065785

  16. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26851660

  17. Integrating NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Data Into Global Agricultural Decision Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Kempler, S.; Chiu, L.; Doraiswamy, P.; Liu, Z.; Milich, L.; Tetrault, R.

    2003-12-01

    Monitoring global agricultural crop conditions during the growing season and estimating potential seasonal production are critically important for market development of U.S. agricultural products and for global food security. Two major operational users of satellite remote sensing for global crop monitoring are the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) and the U.N. World Food Programme (WFP). The primary goal of FAS is to improve foreign market access for U.S. agricultural products. The WFP uses food to meet emergency needs and to support economic and social development. Both use global agricultural decision support systems that can integrate and synthesize a variety of data sources to provide accurate and timely information on global crop conditions. The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has begun a project to provide operational solutions to FAS and WFP, by fully leveraging results from previous work, as well as from existing capabilities of the users. The GES DAAC has effectively used its recently developed prototype TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS) to provide ESE data and information to the WFP for its agricultural drought monitoring efforts. This prototype system will be evolved into an Agricultural Information System (AIS), which will operationally provide ESE and other data products (e.g., rainfall, land productivity) and services, to be integrated into and thus enhance the existing GIS-based, decision support systems of FAS and WFP. Agriculture-oriented, ESE data products (e.g., MODIS-based, crop condition assessment product; TRMM derived, drought index product) will be input to a crop growth model in collaboration with the USDA Agricultural Research Service, to generate crop condition and yield prediction maps. The AIS will have the capability for remotely accessing distributed data, by being compliant with community-based interoperability standards, enabling easy access to

  18. Using agricultural practices information for multiscale environmental assessment of phosphorus risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos Moreira, Mariana; Lemercier, Blandine; Michot, Didier; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth. In intensively farmed areas, excessive applications of animal manure and mineral P fertilizers to soils have raised both economic and ecological concerns. P accumulation in agricultural soils leads to increased P losses to surface waterbodies contributing to eutrophication. Increasing soil P content over time in agricultural soils is often correlated with agricultural practices; in Brittany (NW France), an intensive livestock farming region, soil P content is well correlated with animal density (Lemercier et al.,2008). Thus, a better understanding of the factors controlling P distribution is required to enable environmental assessment of P risk. The aim of this study was to understand spatial distribution of extractable (Olsen method) and total P contents and its controlling factors at the catchment scale in order to predict P contents at regional scale (Brittany). Data on soil morphology, soil tests (including P status, particles size, organic carbon…) for 198 punctual positions, crops succession since 20 years, agricultural systems, field and animal manure management were obtained on a well-characterized catchment (ORE Agrhys, 10 km²). A multivariate analysis with mixed quantitative variables and factors and a digital soil mapping approach were performed to identify variables playing a significant role in soil total and extractable P contents and distribution. Spatial analysis was performed by means of the Cubist model, a decision tree-based algorithm. Different scenarios were assessed, considering various panels of predictive variables: soil data, terrain attributes derived from digital elevation model, gamma-ray spectrometry (from airborne geophysical survey) and agricultural practices information. In the research catchment, mean extractable and total P content were 140.0 ± 63.4 mg/kg and 2862.7 ± 773.0 mg/kg, respectively. Organic and mineral P inputs, P balance, soil pH, and Al contents were

  19. Integrated clinical information system.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, G

    1995-01-01

    SIDOCI (Système Informatisé de DOnnées Cliniques Intégrées) is a Canadian joint venture introducing newly-operating paradigms into hospitals. The main goal of SIDOCI is to maintain the quality of care in todayUs tightening economy. SIDOCI is a fully integrated paperless patient-care system which automates and links all information about a patient. Data is available on-line and instantaneously to doctors, nurses, and support staff in the format that best suits their specific requirements. SIDOCI provides a factual and chronological summary of the patient's progress by drawing together clinical information provided by all professionals working with the patient, regardless of their discipline, level of experience, or physical location. It also allows for direct entry of the patient's information at the bedside. Laboratory results, progress notes, patient history and graphs are available instantaneously on screen, eliminating the need for physical file transfers. The system, incorporating a sophisticated clinical information database, an intuitive graphical user interface, and customized screens for each medical discipline, guides the user through standard procedures. Unlike most information systems created for the health care industry, SIDOCI is longitudinal, covering all aspects of the health care process through its link to various vertical systems already in place. A multidisciplinary team has created a clinical dictionary that provides the user with most of the information she would normally use: symptoms, signs, diagnoses, allergies, medications, interventions, etc. This information is structured and displayed in such a manner that health care professionals can document the clinical situation at the touch of a finger. The data is then encoded into the patient's file. Once encoded, the structured data is accessible for research, statistics, education, and quality assurance. This dictionary complies with national and international nomenclatures. It also

  20. Benchmarking a soil moisture data assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drought is defined as a shortage of moisture in the root zone of plants. Recently available satellite-based remote sensing data have accelerated development of drought early warning system by providing spatially continuous soil moisture information repeatedly at short-term interval. Non...

  1. Nuclear criticality information system

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1981-11-30

    The nuclear criticality safety program at LLNL began in the 1950's with a critical measurements program which produced benchmark data until the late 1960's. This same time period saw the rapid development of computer technology useful for both computer modeling of fissile systems and for computer-aided management and display of the computational benchmark data. Database management grew in importance as the amount of information increased and as experimental programs were terminated. Within the criticality safety program at LLNL we began at that time to develop a computer library of benchmark data for validation of computer codes and cross sections. As part of this effort, we prepared a computer-based bibliography of criticality measurements on relatively simple systems. However, it is only now that some of these computer-based resources can be made available to the nuclear criticality safety community at large. This technology transfer is being accomplished by the DOE Technology Information System (TIS), a dedicated, advanced information system. The NCIS database is described.

  2. Information Systems in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Fedja

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Almost the entire human creativity today, from the standpoint of its efficiency and expediency, is conditioned with the existence of information systems. Most information systems are oriented to the management and decision-making, including health information system. System of health and health insurance together form one of the most important segments of society and its functioning as a compact unit. Increasing requirements for reducing health care costs while preserving or improving the quality of services provided represent a difficult task for the health system. Material and methods: Using descriptive metods by retreiiving literature we analyzed the latest solutions in information and telecommunications technology is the basis for building an effective and efficient health system. Computerization does not have the primary objective of saving, but the rationalization of spending in health care. It is estimated that at least 20-30% of money spent in health care can be rationally utilized. Computerization should give the necessary data and indicators for this rationalization. Very important are the goals of this project and the achievement of other uses and benefits, improving overall care for patients and policyholders, increasing the speed and accuracy of diagnosis in determining treatment using electronic diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines. Results and discussion: Computerization in dentistry began similarly as in other human activities–recording large amounts of data on digital media, and by replacing manual data processing to machine one. But specifics of the dental profession have led to the specifics of the application of information technology (IT), and continue to require special development of dental oriented and applied IT. Harmonization of dental software with global standards will enable doctors and dentists to with a few mouse clicks via the internet reach the general medical information about their patients from the central

  3. Information sciences experiment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Murray, Nicholas D.; Benz, Harry F.; Bowker, David E.; Hendricks, Herbert D.

    1990-01-01

    The rapid expansion of remote sensing capability over the last two decades will take another major leap forward with the advent of the Earth Observing System (Eos). An approach is presented that will permit experiments and demonstrations in onboard information extraction. The approach is a non-intrusive, eavesdropping mode in which a small amount of spacecraft real estate is allocated to an onboard computation resource. How such an approach allows the evaluation of advanced technology in the space environment, advanced techniques in information extraction for both Earth science and information science studies, direct to user data products, and real-time response to events, all without affecting other on-board instrumentation is discussed.

  4. Design and Implementation of a GPS Guidance System for Agricultural Tractors Using Augmented Reality Technology

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Fernández, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; del-Pozo-San-Cirilo, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Current commercial tractor guidance systems present to the driver information to perform agricultural tasks in the best way. This information generally includes a treated zones map referenced to the tractor’s position. Unlike actual guidance systems where the tractor driver must mentally associate treated zone maps and the plot layout, this paper presents a guidance system that using Augmented Reality (AR) technology, allows the tractor driver to see the real plot though eye monitor glasses with the treated zones in a different color. The paper includes a description of the system hardware and software, a real test done with image captures seen by the tractor driver, and a discussion predicting that the historical evolution of guidance systems could involve the use of AR technology in the agricultural guidance and monitoring systems. PMID:22163479

  5. Engineering Review Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  6. [Qingshishan watershed agro-ecology information system and its application with the support of Geographic Information System (GIS)].

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Wang, Z

    2000-10-01

    Geographic Information System(GIS) is applied to establish Qingshishan Watershed Agro-Ecology Information System (QWAEIS), QWAEIS integrates spatial information such as land use, soil, water and topography with basic information such as population, climate and agricultural production. The watershed agro-ecology information was effectively analyzed and managed by QWAEIS, land suitable classes were evaluated by QWAEIS and the land evaluation result are given, QWAEIS also can support watershed planning with its spatial information. PMID:11767525

  7. Ohio Agricultural Business and Production Systems. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Gayl M.; Kershaw, Isaac; Mokma, Arnie

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in agricultural business and production systems. Following an introduction, the Ohio College Tech Prep standards and program, and relevant definitions are described. Next are the technical competency profiles for these…

  8. Remote sensing with unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Federal Aviation Administration is revising regulations for using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace. An important potential application of UAS may be as a remote-sensing platform for precision agriculture, but simply down-scaling remote sensing methodologies developed usi...

  9. 7 CFR 277.18 - Establishment of an Automated Data Processing (ADP) and Information Retrieval System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of an Automated Data Processing (ADP) and Information Retrieval System. 277.18 Section 277.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF...

  10. Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

    To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

  11. Understanding the Information Needs of Academic Scholars in Agricultural and Biological Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuruppu, Pali U.; Gruber, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the information needs of faculty and graduate students in agricultural and biological sciences. Qualitative research methods, interviews and focus groups, were used to examine what types of information these scholars need for their research, teaching and learning, how they seek that information, and perceptions. The…

  12. An environmental impact assessment system for agricultural R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Geraldo Stachetti; Campanhola, Clayton; Kitamura, Paulo Choji

    2003-03-01

    A strategic planning process has been implemented at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) to introduce sustainable agriculture concepts in all steps of Research and Development (R and D). An essential part of the devised mission statement called for the impact assessment of all technology innovation resulting from R and D, under field conditions (ex-post). However, methods for impact assessment of technology innovations at the farmstead level appropriate for the institutional context were lacking. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) system (AMBITEC-AGRO) developed to attend that demand is composed by a set of weighing matrices constructed in an electronic spreadsheet. Impact indicators are evaluated in the field in an interview/survey, and weighed according to their spatial scale and importance toward effecting environmental impacts. The results of these weighing procedures are expressed graphically in the assessment spreadsheets. Finally, the indicator evaluations are composed into an Environmental Impact Index for the agricultural technology innovation.

  13. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110

  14. Emerging technologies in ethanol production. Agriculture information bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hohmann, N.; Rendleman, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel ethanol industry is poised to adopt a wide range of technologies that would reduce costs at every stage of the production process. Improved enzymes and fermenter designs can reduce the time needed to convert corn to ethanol and lower capital costs. Membrane filtration can allow the recovery of high-value coproducts such as lactic acid. Adoption of these and other innovations in the next 5 years is expected in new ethanol plants constructed to cope with new demand resulting from Clean Air Act stipulations for cleaner burning fuel. Biomass (agricultural residues, municipal and yard waste, energy crops like switchgrass) can also be converted to ethanol, although commercial-scale ventures are limited by current technology. While biomass requires more handling and sorting before conversion, those costs may be offset by the abundance of biomass relative to corn.

  15. Implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks Based Pig Farm Integrated Management System in Ubiquitous Agricultural Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Lee, Jiwoong; Lee, Hochul; Yoe, Hyun

    The wireless sensor networks (WSN) technology based on low power consumption is one of the important technologies in the realization of ubiquitous society. When the technology would be applied to the agricultural field, it can give big change in the existing agricultural environment such as livestock growth environment, cultivation and harvest of agricultural crops. This research paper proposes the 'Pig Farm Integrated Management System' based on WSN technology, which will establish the ubiquitous agricultural environment and improve the productivity of pig-raising farmers. The proposed system has WSN environmental sensors and CCTV at inside/outside of pig farm. These devices collect the growth-environment related information of pigs, such as luminosity, temperature, humidity and CO2 status. The system collects and monitors the environmental information and video information of pig farm. In addition to the remote-control and monitoring of the pig farm facilities, this system realizes the most optimum pig-raising environment based on the growth environmental data accumulated for a long time.

  16. The information systems heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzhals, P. R.; Bricker, R. W.; Jensen, A. S.; Smith, A. T.

    1981-05-01

    This paper addresses key developments in the evolution of information systems over the past five decades. Major areas covered include the growth of imaging sensors from such pioneering devices as the iconoscope and orthicon which ushered in television, through a wide range of vidicon tubes, to the solid-state arrays which characterize current systems; the phenomenal expansion of electronic communications from telegraph and telephone wires, through the introduction of broadcast and microwave relay services, to the present era of worldwide satellite communications and data networks; and the key role of digital computers from their ancient precursors like the abacus and the mechanical calculating engines, through the appearance of the first large-scale electronic computers and their transistorized successors, to the rapid proliferation of miniaturized processors which impact every aspect of aerospace systems today.

  17. Agricultural Model for the Nile Basin Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bolt, Frank; Seid, Abdulkarim

    2014-05-01

    To analyze options for increasing food supply in the Nile basin the Nile Agricultural Model (AM) was developed. The AM includes state-of-the-art descriptions of biophysical, hydrological and economic processes and realizes a coherent and consistent integration of hydrology, agronomy and economics. The AM covers both the agro-ecological domain (water, crop productivity) and the economic domain (food supply, demand, and trade) and allows to evaluate the macro-economic and hydrological impacts of scenarios for agricultural development. Starting with the hydrological information from the NileBasin-DSS the AM calculates the available water for agriculture, the crop production and irrigation requirements with the FAO-model AquaCrop. With the global commodity trade model MAGNET scenarios for land development and conversion are evaluated. The AM predicts consequences for trade, food security and development based on soil and water availability, crop allocation, food demand and food policy. The model will be used as a decision support tool to contribute to more productive and sustainable agriculture in individual Nile countries and the whole region.

  18. Rapid assessment methods of resilience for natural and agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Juan C; Janssens, Marc J J

    2010-12-01

    The resilience, ecological function and quality of both agricultural and natural systems were evaluated in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Rain Forest of Rio de Janeiro through Rapid Assessment Methods. For this goal new indicators were proposed, such as eco-volume, eco-height, bio-volume, volume efficiency, and resilience index. The following agricultural and natural systems have been compared according: (i) vegetables (leaf, fruit and mixed); (ii) citrus; (iii) ecological system; (iv) cattle, (v) silvo-pastoral system, (vi) forest fragment and (vii) forest in regeneration stage (1, 2 and 3 years old). An alternative measure (index) of resilience was proposed by considering the actual bio-volume as a function of the potential eco-volume. The objectives and hypotheses were fulfilled; it is shown that there does exist a high positive correlation between resilience index, biomass, energy efficiency and biodiversity. Cattle and vegetable systems have lowest resilience, whilst ecological and silvo-pastoral systems have greatest resilience. This new approach offers a rapid, though valuable assessment tool for ecological studies, agricultural development and landscape planning, particularly in tropical countries. PMID:21152779

  19. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIS. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre" which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. GIS can be broken down into two main categories, urban GIS and natural resource GIS. Further still, natural resource GIS can be broken down into six sub-categories, agriculture, forestry, wildlife, catchment management, archaeology, and geology/mining. Agriculture GIS has several applications, such as agricultural capability analysis, land conservation, market analysis, or whole farming planning. Forestry GIs can be used for timber assessment and management, harvest scheduling and planning, environmental impact assessment, and pest management. GIS when used in wildlife applications enables the user to assess and manage habitats, identify and track endangered and rare species, and monitor impact assessment.

  20. The AMMA information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissebrat, Guillaume; Fleury, Laurence; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Cloché, Sophie; Eymard, Laurence; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Moulaye, Oumarou; Ramage, Karim; Asencio, Nicole; Favot, Florence; Roussot, Odile

    2013-04-01

    The AMMA information system aims at expediting data and scientific results communication inside the AMMA community and beyond. It has already been adopted as the data management system by several projects and is meant to become a reference information system about West Africa area for the whole scientific community. The AMMA database and the associated on line tools have been developed and are managed by two French teams (IPSL Database Centre, Palaiseau and OMP Data Service, Toulouse). The complete system has been fully duplicated and is operated by AGRHYMET Regional Centre in Niamey, Niger. The AMMA database contains a wide variety of datasets: - about 250 local observation datasets, that cover geophysical components (atmosphere, ocean, soil, vegetation) and human activities (agronomy, health...) They come from either operational networks or scientific experiments, and include historical data in West Africa from 1850; - 1350 outputs of a socio-economics questionnaire; - 60 operational satellite products and several research products; - 10 output sets of meteorological and ocean operational models and 15 of research simulations. Database users can access all the data using either the portal http://database.amma-international.org or http://amma.agrhymet.ne/amma-data. Different modules are available. The complete catalogue enables to access metadata (i.e. information about the datasets) that are compliant with the international standards (ISO19115, INSPIRE...). Registration pages enable to read and sign the data and publication policy, and to apply for a user database account. The data access interface enables to easily build a data extraction request by selecting various criteria like location, time, parameters... At present, the AMMA database counts more than 740 registered users and process about 80 data requests every month In order to monitor day-to-day meteorological and environment information over West Africa, some quick look and report display websites have

  1. Climate change information supporting adaptation in forestry and agriculture - results and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálos, Borbála; Czimber, Kornél; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Bidló, András; Csáki, Péter; Kalicz, Péter; Haensler, Andreas; Jacob, Daniela; Mátyás, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent droughts of the last decades have led to severe impacts in forestry and agriculture in the sensitive and vulnerable low-elevation regions of Southeast Europe. Observed impacts are very likely to occur with increasing probability under projected climate conditions throughout the 21st century. In order to suggest options for adaptation and mitigation, a GIS-based Decision Support System is under development in the frame of the joint EU-national research project "Agroclimate". Impact assessments and adaptation support services are based on the simulation results of 12 regional climate models (www.ensembles-eu.org) using the A1B emission scenario until 2100. The development of the Decision Support System requires the balancing of available climatic information and required data for research and economically relevant projection needs of the end users. Here, concrete examples of the development process will be shown for the stepwise analysis and comparison of the followings: 1. Provided climate services: • projected tendencies of temperature and precipitation means and extremes until the end of the 21st century, spread of the simulation results. 2. Required information for climate impact research: • types and characteristics of climate input data, • methods and functions for deriving possible climate change impacts in forestry and agriculture (e.g. on species distribution, growth, production, yield, soil water retention, ground water table, runoff, erosion, evapotranspiration and other ecosystem services and soil properties). 3. Required climate information from the end users' side for developing adaption strategies in the affected sectors: • types of climate indicators, • possible range of the expected impacts (in magnitude and probability). 4. Gaps between climate services and the needs of impact researchers and end users (e.g. spatial and temporal scales, interpretation techniques). Experiences of supporting climate change adaptation in forestry

  2. TMDL Implementation in Agricultural Landscapes: A Communicative and Systemic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Nicholas R.; Slotterback, Carissa Schively; Cadieux, Kirsten Valentine; Mulla, David J.; Pitt, David G.; Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2011-07-01

    Increasingly, total maximum daily load (TMDL) limits are being defined for agricultural watersheds. Reductions in non-point source pollution are often needed to meet TMDL limits, and improvements in management of annual crops appear insufficient to achieve the necessary reductions. Increased adoption of perennial crops and other changes in agricultural land use also appear necessary, but face major barriers. We outline a novel strategy that aims to create new economic opportunities for land-owners and other stakeholders and thereby to attract their voluntary participation in land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Our strategy has two key elements. First, focused efforts are needed to create new economic enterprises that capitalize on the productive potential of multifunctional agriculture (MFA). MFA seeks to produce a wide range of goods and ecosystem services by well-designed deployment of annual and perennial crops across agricultural landscapes and watersheds; new revenue from MFA may substantially finance land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Second, efforts to capitalize on MFA should use a novel methodology, the Communicative/Systemic Approach (C/SA). C/SA uses an integrative GIS-based spatial modeling framework for systematically assessing tradeoffs and synergies in design and evaluation of multifunctional agricultural landscapes, closely linked to deliberation and design processes by which multiple stakeholders can collaboratively create appropriate and acceptable MFA landscape designs. We anticipate that application of C/SA will strongly accelerate TMDL implementation, by aligning the interests of multiple stakeholders whose active support is needed to change agricultural land use and thereby meet TMDL goals.

  3. TMDL implementation in agricultural landscapes: a communicative and systemic approach.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Nicholas R; Slotterback, Carissa Schively; Cadieux, Kirsten Valentine; Mulla, David J; Pitt, David G; Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2011-07-01

    Increasingly, total maximum daily load (TMDL) limits are being defined for agricultural watersheds. Reductions in non-point source pollution are often needed to meet TMDL limits, and improvements in management of annual crops appear insufficient to achieve the necessary reductions. Increased adoption of perennial crops and other changes in agricultural land use also appear necessary, but face major barriers. We outline a novel strategy that aims to create new economic opportunities for land-owners and other stakeholders and thereby to attract their voluntary participation in land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Our strategy has two key elements. First, focused efforts are needed to create new economic enterprises that capitalize on the productive potential of multifunctional agriculture (MFA). MFA seeks to produce a wide range of goods and ecosystem services by well-designed deployment of annual and perennial crops across agricultural landscapes and watersheds; new revenue from MFA may substantially finance land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Second, efforts to capitalize on MFA should use a novel methodology, the Communicative/Systemic Approach (C/SA). C/SA uses an integrative GIS-based spatial modeling framework for systematically assessing tradeoffs and synergies in design and evaluation of multifunctional agricultural landscapes, closely linked to deliberation and design processes by which multiple stakeholders can collaboratively create appropriate and acceptable MFA landscape designs. We anticipate that application of C/SA will strongly accelerate TMDL implementation, by aligning the interests of multiple stakeholders whose active support is needed to change agricultural land use and thereby meet TMDL goals. PMID:21547434

  4. Advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance details of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) for fault and damage tolerant data processing on aircraft and spacecraft are presented. AIPS comprises several computers distributed throughout the vehicle and linked by a damage tolerant data bus. Most I/O functions are available to all the computers, which run in a TDMA mode. Each computer performs separate specific tasks in normal operation and assumes other tasks in degraded modes. Redundant software assures that all fault monitoring, logging and reporting are automated, together with control functions. Redundant duplex links and damage-spread limitation provide the fault tolerance. Details of an advanced design of a laboratory-scale proof-of-concept system are described, including functional operations.

  5. The AMMA information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Cloché, Sophie; Mière, Arnaud; Moulaye, Oumarou; Ramage, Karim; Favot, Florence; Boulanger, Damien

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) programme, several tools have been developed in order to boost the data and information exchange between researchers from different disciplines. The AMMA information system includes (i) a user-friendly data management and dissemination system, (ii) quasi real-time display websites and (iii) a scientific paper exchange collaborative tool. The AMMA information system is enriched by past and ongoing projects (IMPETUS, FENNEC, ESCAPE, QweCI, ACASIS, DACCIWA...) addressing meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, extreme events, health, adaptation of human societies... It is becoming a reference information system on environmental issues in West Africa. (i) The projects include airborne, ground-based and ocean measurements, social science surveys, satellite data use, modelling studies and value-added product development. Therefore, the AMMA data portal enables to access a great amount and a large variety of data: - 250 local observation datasets, that cover many geophysical components (atmosphere, ocean, soil, vegetation) and human activities (agronomy, health). They have been collected by operational networks since 1850, long term monitoring research networks (CATCH, IDAF, PIRATA...) and intensive scientific campaigns; - 1350 outputs of a socio-economics questionnaire; - 60 operational satellite products and several research products; - 10 output sets of meteorological and ocean operational models and 15 of research simulations. Data documentation complies with metadata international standards, and data are delivered into standard formats. The data request interface takes full advantage of the database relational structure and enables users to elaborate multicriteria requests (period, area, property, property value…). The AMMA data portal counts about 900 registered users, and 50 data requests every month. The AMMA databases and data portal have been developed and are operated jointly by SEDOO and

  6. The AMMA information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Cloché, Sophie; Eymard, Laurence; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Moulaye, Oumarou; Ramage, Karim; Favot, Florence; Roussot, Odile

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) programme, several tools have been developed in order to facilitate and speed up data and information exchange between researchers from different disciplines. The AMMA information system includes (i) a multidisciplinary user-friendly data management and dissemination system, (ii) report and chart archives associated with display websites and (iii) a scientific paper exchange system. The AMMA information system is enriched by several previous (IMPETUS...) and following projects (FENNEC, ESCAPE, QweCI, DACCIWA…) and is becoming a reference information system about West Africa monsoon. (i) The AMMA project includes airborne, ground-based and ocean measurements, satellite data use, modelling studies and value-added product development. Therefore, the AMMA database user interface enables to access a great amount and a large variety of data: - 250 local observation datasets, that cover many geophysical components (atmosphere, ocean, soil, vegetation) and human activities (agronomy, health). They have been collected by operational networks from 1850 to present, long term monitoring research networks (CATCH, IDAF, PIRATA...) or scientific campaigns; - 1350 outputs of a socio-economics questionnaire; - 60 operational satellite products and several research products; - 10 output sets of meteorological and ocean operational models and 15 of research simulations. All the data are documented in compliance with metadata international standards, and delivered into standard formats. The data request user interface takes full advantage of the data and metadata base relational structure and enables users to elaborate easily multicriteria data requests (period, area, property, property value…). The AMMA data portal counts around 800 registered users and process about 50 data requests every month. The AMMA databases and data portal have been developed and are operated jointly by SEDOO and ESPRI in France

  7. Dynamic Information Architecture System

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, John

    1997-02-12

    The Dynamic Information System (DIAS) is a flexible object-based software framework for concurrent, multidiscplinary modeling of arbitrary (but related) processes. These processes are modeled as interrelated actions caused by and affecting the collection of diverse real-world objects represented in a simulation. The DIAS architecture allows independent process models to work together harmoniously in the same frame of reference and provides a wide range of data ingestion and output capabilities, including Geographic Information System (GIS) type map-based displays and photorealistic visualization of simulations in progress. In the DIAS implementation of the object-based approach, software objects carry within them not only the data which describe their static characteristics, but also the methods, or functions, which describe their dynamic behaviors. There are two categories of objects: (1) Entity objects which have real-world counterparts and are the actors in a simulation, and (2) Software infrastructure objects which make it possible to carry out the simulations. The Entity objects contain lists of Aspect objects, each of which addresses a single aspect of the Entity''s behavior. For example, a DIAS Stream Entity representing a section of a river can have many aspects correspondimg to its behavior in terms of hydrology (as a drainage system component), navigation (as a link in a waterborne transportation system), meteorology (in terms of moisture, heat, and momentum exchange with the atmospheric boundary layer), and visualization (for photorealistic visualization or map type displays), etc. This makes it possible for each real-world object to exhibit any or all of its unique behaviors within the context of a single simulation.

  8. Dynamic Information Architecture System

    1997-02-12

    The Dynamic Information System (DIAS) is a flexible object-based software framework for concurrent, multidiscplinary modeling of arbitrary (but related) processes. These processes are modeled as interrelated actions caused by and affecting the collection of diverse real-world objects represented in a simulation. The DIAS architecture allows independent process models to work together harmoniously in the same frame of reference and provides a wide range of data ingestion and output capabilities, including Geographic Information System (GIS) typemore » map-based displays and photorealistic visualization of simulations in progress. In the DIAS implementation of the object-based approach, software objects carry within them not only the data which describe their static characteristics, but also the methods, or functions, which describe their dynamic behaviors. There are two categories of objects: (1) Entity objects which have real-world counterparts and are the actors in a simulation, and (2) Software infrastructure objects which make it possible to carry out the simulations. The Entity objects contain lists of Aspect objects, each of which addresses a single aspect of the Entity''s behavior. For example, a DIAS Stream Entity representing a section of a river can have many aspects correspondimg to its behavior in terms of hydrology (as a drainage system component), navigation (as a link in a waterborne transportation system), meteorology (in terms of moisture, heat, and momentum exchange with the atmospheric boundary layer), and visualization (for photorealistic visualization or map type displays), etc. This makes it possible for each real-world object to exhibit any or all of its unique behaviors within the context of a single simulation.« less

  9. Greenhouse gas budget of agricultural systems: real possibility or dream?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Calanca, P.; Fuhrer, J.; Leifeld, J.; Jocher, M.; Volk, M.

    2003-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) by human activities are causing an increase of global mean temperature. Model calculations have shown that the rate of increase might have a decisive influence on the stability of the climate. It is therefore crucial to slow down the increase of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Storage of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere is mentioned as one possibility in the Kyoto protocol. Mitigation options to decrease GHG emissions in agricultural systems as well as to increase carbon stock in agricultural soils are in discussion. The quantification and verification of the GHG budget is a prerequisite to establish a trade within the Kyoto protocol. On the scientific level this comes down to a greenhouse gas budget for agricultural systems. Comparability and interpretation of GHG budgets depends on an appropriate and consistent choice of the considered system, especially the system boundaries. In this presentation we discuss the feasibility of such a budget for a the smallest unit: the yearly budget of grassland system. Differences between GHG budget and carbon budget will be assessed.

  10. Development of a Global Agricultural Hotspot Detection and Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, G.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Csak, G.

    2015-12-01

    The number of web based platforms for crop monitoring has grown rapidly over the last years and anomaly maps and time profiles of remote sensing derived indicators can be accessed online thanks to a number of web based portals. However, while these systems make available a large amount of crop monitoring data to the agriculture and food security analysts, there is no global platform which provides agricultural production hotspot warning in a highly automatic and timely manner. Therefore a web based system providing timely warning evidence as maps and short narratives is currently under development by the Joint Research Centre. The system (called "HotSpot Detection System of Agriculture Production Anomalies", HSDS) will focus on water limited agricultural systems worldwide. The automatic analysis of relevant meteorological and vegetation indicators at selected administrative units (Gaul 1 level) will trigger warning messages for the areas where anomalous conditions are observed. The level of warning (ranging from "watch" to "alert") will depend on the nature and number of indicators for which an anomaly is detected. Information regarding the extent of the agricultural areas concerned by the anomaly and the progress of the agricultural season will complement the warning label. In addition, we are testing supplementary detailed information from other sources for the areas triggering a warning. These regard the automatic web-based and food security-tailored analysis of media (using the JRC Media Monitor semantic search engine) and the automatic detection of active crop area using Sentinel 1, upcoming Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 imagery processed in Google Earth Engine. The basic processing will be fully automated and updated every 10 days exploiting low resolution rainfall estimates and satellite vegetation indices. Maps, trend graphs and statistics accompanied by short narratives edited by a team of crop monitoring experts, will be made available on the website on a

  11. Layers of Information: Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Geographic Information System (GIS) which is capable of storing, manipulating, and displaying data allowing students to explore complex relationships through scientific inquiry. Explains applications of GIS in middle school classrooms and includes assessment strategies. (YDS)

  12. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  13. Agricultural biodiversity, social-ecological systems and sustainable diets.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo; Cogill, Bruce; Flichman, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    The stark observation of the co-existence of undernourishment, nutrient deficiencies and overweight and obesity, the triple burden of malnutrition, is inviting us to reconsider health and nutrition as the primary goal and final endpoint of food systems. Agriculture and the food industry have made remarkable advances in the past decades. However, their development has not entirely fulfilled health and nutritional needs, and moreover, they have generated substantial collateral losses in agricultural biodiversity. Simultaneously, several regions are experiencing unprecedented weather events caused by climate change and habitat depletion, in turn putting at risk global food and nutrition security. This coincidence of food crises with increasing environmental degradation suggests an urgent need for novel analyses and new paradigms. The sustainable diets concept proposes a research and policy agenda that strives towards a sustainable use of human and natural resources for food and nutrition security, highlighting the preeminent role of consumers in defining sustainable options and the importance of biodiversity in nutrition. Food systems act as complex social-ecological systems, involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Nutritional patterns and environment structure are interconnected in a mutual dynamic of changes. The systemic nature of these interactions calls for multidimensional approaches and integrated assessment and simulation tools to guide change. This paper proposes a review and conceptual modelling framework that articulate the synergies and tradeoffs between dietary diversity, widely recognised as key for healthy diets, and agricultural biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, crucial resilience factors to climate and global changes. PMID:25068204

  14. Beyond climate-smart agriculture: toward safe operating spaces for global food systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gulledge, Jay; Neufeldt, Heinrich; Jahn, Margaret M; Lezaks, David P; Meinke, Jan H; Scholes, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is considered to be climate-smart when it contributes to increasing food security, adaptation and mitigation in a sustainable way. This new concept now dominates current discussions in agricultural development because of its capacity to unite the agendas of the agriculture, development and climate change communities under one brand. In this opinion piece authored by scientists from a variety of international agricultural and climate research communities, we argue that the concept needs to be evaluated critically because the relationship between the three dimensions is poorly understood, such that practically any improved agricultural practice can be considered climate-smart. This lack of clarity may have contributed to the broad appeal of the concept. From the understanding that we must hold ourselves accountable to demonstrably better meet human needs in the short and long term within foreseeable local and planetary limits, we develop a conceptualization of climate-smart agriculture as agriculture that can be shown to bring us closer to safe operating spaces for agricultural and food systems across spatial and temporal scales. Improvements in the management of agricultural systems that bring us significantly closer to safe operating spaces will require transformations in governance and use of our natural resources, underpinned by enabling political, social and economic conditions beyond incremental changes. Establishing scientifically credible indicators and metrics of long-term safe operating spaces in the context of a changing climate and growing social-ecological challenges is critical to creating the societal demand and political will required to motivate deep transformations. Answering questions on how the needed transformational change can be achieved will require actively setting and testing hypotheses to refine and characterize our concepts of safer spaces for social-ecological systems across scales. This effort will demand prioritizing key

  15. REDUCING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL AND NON-AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS: MITIGATING OFF-SITE TRANSPORT OF PESTICIDES WITH RUNOFF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality surveys have detected numerous pesticides in surface waters of urban and agricultural areas. The intense use of pesticides in highly managed turf systems and agriculture is of concern due to their potential adverse effects on the quality of surface waters, impacting drinking water reso...

  16. Self Study Report: Department of Agricultural Information, North Carolina State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of Agricultural Information.

    The purpose of North Carolina State University's Department of Agricultural Information is to reach people with information that will help them in their everyday lives. Major areas of concern are production and marketing, family living, 4-H and youth, community resource development, and natural resources. This report discusses the Department…

  17. Constructing a refinery information system

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, K.R. ); Kennedy, J.P. )

    1994-09-01

    With the right information links, a distributed control system can become the cornerstone of a total refinery information system. Using an advanced historical data and archiving system, sequential query language (SQL) links to key databases and object embedding with live data links in a spreadsheet, Atlas is bridging its process control and information systems to give the plant useful information easily via a windows-type PC interface. Atlas Processing is Pennzoil's largest refinery. The vision for the plant information system was to provide the refinery with ready access to: operating data from the distributed control system; laboratory data; accounting throughputs and yields; tank gauges and volumes; and production and scheduling model information. This information could be used to develop an executive information system, provide the operating personnel with reliable information to facilitate unit operations and enhance the facility's ability to use statistical process control to enhance yields and reduce energy costs.

  18. A Remote Sensing-based Global Agricultural Drought Monitoring and Forecasting System for Supporting GEOSS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, L.; Yu, G.; Han, W.; Deng, M.

    2010-12-01

    Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations. GEO is coordinating the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a worldwide effort to make Earth observation resources more useful to the society. As one of the important technical contributors to GEOSS, the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems (CSISS), George Mason University, is implementing a remote sensing-based global agricultural drought monitoring and forecasting system (GADMFS) as a GEOSS societal benefit areas (agriculture and water) prototype. The goals of the project are 1) to establish a system as a component of GEOSS for providing global on-demand and systematic agriculture drought information to users worldwide, and 2) to support decision-making with improved monitoring, forecasting, and analyses of agriculture drought. GADMFS has adopted the service-oriented architecture and is based on standard-compliant interoperable geospatial Web services to provide online on-demand drought conditions and forecasting at ~1 km spatial and daily and weekly temporal resolutions for any part of the world to world-wide users through the Internet. Applicable GEOSS recommended open standards are followed in the system implementation. The system’s drought monitoring relies on drought-related parameters, such as surface and root-zone soil moisture and NDVI time series derived from remote sensing data, to provide the current conditions of agricultural drought. The system links to near real-time satellite remote sensing data sources from NASA and NOAA for the monitoring purpose. For drought forecasting, the system utilizes a neural-network based modeling algorithm. The algorithm is trained with inputs of current and historic vegetation-based and climate-based drought index data, biophysical characteristics of the environment, and time-series weather data. The trained algorithm will establish per-pixel model for

  19. Evolutionary ecology of mycorrhizal functional diversity in agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Erik; Toby Kiers, E

    2010-09-01

    The root systems of most agronomic crops are colonized by diverse assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), varying in the functional benefits (e.g. nutrient transfer, pathogen protection, water uptake) provided to hosts. Little is known about the evolutionary processes that shape the composition of these fungal assemblages, nor is it known whether more diverse assemblages are beneficial to crop productivity. In this review we aim to identify the evolutionary selection pressures that shape AMF diversity in agricultural systems and explore whether promotion of AMF diversity can convincingly be linked to increases in agricultural productivity and/or sustainability. We then ask whether farmers can (and should) actively modify evolutionary selection pressures to increase AMF functioning. We focus on three agriculturally imposed selection regimes: tillage, fertilization, and continuous monoculture. We find that the uniform nature of these practices strongly selects for dominance of few AMF species. These species exhibit predictable, generally non-beneficial traits, namely heavy investment in reproduction at the expense of nutrient scavenging and transfer processes that are beneficial for hosts. A number of focus-points are given based on empirical and theoretical evidence that could be utilized to slow down negative selection pressures on AMF functioning, therein increasing crop benefit. PMID:25567946

  20. Evolutionary ecology of mycorrhizal functional diversity in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, Erik; Toby Kiers, E

    2010-01-01

    The root systems of most agronomic crops are colonized by diverse assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), varying in the functional benefits (e.g. nutrient transfer, pathogen protection, water uptake) provided to hosts. Little is known about the evolutionary processes that shape the composition of these fungal assemblages, nor is it known whether more diverse assemblages are beneficial to crop productivity. In this review we aim to identify the evolutionary selection pressures that shape AMF diversity in agricultural systems and explore whether promotion of AMF diversity can convincingly be linked to increases in agricultural productivity and/or sustainability. We then ask whether farmers can (and should) actively modify evolutionary selection pressures to increase AMF functioning. We focus on three agriculturally imposed selection regimes: tillage, fertilization, and continuous monoculture. We find that the uniform nature of these practices strongly selects for dominance of few AMF species. These species exhibit predictable, generally non-beneficial traits, namely heavy investment in reproduction at the expense of nutrient scavenging and transfer processes that are beneficial for hosts. A number of focus-points are given based on empirical and theoretical evidence that could be utilized to slow down negative selection pressures on AMF functioning, therein increasing crop benefit. PMID:25567946

  1. Concept of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T

    2012-01-01

    Unlike in urban areas where intensive water reclamation systems are available, development of decentralized technologies and systems is required for water use to be sustainable in agricultural areas. To overcome various water quality issues in those areas, a research project entitled 'Development of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas under the consideration of climate change' was launched in 2009. This paper introduces the concept of this research and provides detailed information on each of its research areas: (1) development of a diffuse agricultural pollution control technology using catch crops; (2) development of a decentralized differentiable treatment system for livestock and human excreta; and (3) development of a cascading material-cycle system for water pollution control and value-added production. The author also emphasizes that the innovative water management system for agricultural areas should incorporate a strategy for the voluntary collection of bio-resources. PMID:22828292

  2. Federal Energy Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Joseph G.; Moneyhun, Dora H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Technical Information Center (TIC), and lists databases accessible online to the Department of Energy and its contractors through DOE/RECON. (RAA)

  3. The Phobos information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, I. P.; Oberst, J.; Zubarev, A. E.; Nadezhdina, I. E.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Garov, A. S.; Uchaev, D. V.; Uchaev, Dm. V.; Malinnikov, V. A.; Klimkin, N. D.

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a Geo-information system (GIS) for Phobos, based on data from the Mars Express and Viking Orbiter missions, which includes orthoimages, global maps, terrain- and gravity field models, all referenced to the Phobos coordinate system. The data are conveniently stored in the ArcGIS software system, which provides an environment for mapping and which allows us to carry out joint data analysis and miscellaneous data cross-comparisons. We have compiled catalogs of Phobos craters using manual and automated techniques, which includes about 5500 and 6400 craters correspondingly. While crater numbers are biased by available image data resolution and illumination, we estimate that our catalog of manually detected craters contains all Phobos craters with diameters D>250 m which is a total of 1072 and catalog of automated detected craters are complete for craters D>400 m (360 craters). Statistical analysis of these large craters reveals a surplus of craters on the anti-Mars hemisphere, whereas differences in crater abundance between leading and trailing hemisphere cannot be confirmed. This in contrast to previous papers, where no such asymmetry was found (Schmedemann et al., 2014). But we cannot rule out remaining biases due to resolution, viewing angles or illumination effects. Using digital terrain model (DTM) derived from photogrammetry image processing we estimate depths of 25 craters larger than 2 km using geometric and dynamic heights (for discussion of Phobos crater morphometry see Kokhanov et al., 2014). We also have compiled catalogs of lineaments, and boulders. In particular, we mapped 546 individual grooves or crater chains, which extend in length from 0.3 km to 16.2 km. We identified and determined the sizes and locations of 1379 boulders near crater Stickney. Cross-comparisons of gravity field models against distribution patterns of grooves and boulders are currently under way and may shed light on their possible origins. Finally, we have developed

  4. Manufacturing information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. K.; Smith, P. R.; Smart, M. J.

    1983-12-01

    The size and cost of manufacturing equipment has made it extremely difficult to perform realistic modeling and simulation of the manufacturing process in university research laboratories. Likewise the size and cost factors, coupled with many uncontrolled variables of the production situation has even made it difficult to perform adequate manufacturing research in the industrial setting. Only the largest companies can afford manufacturing research laboratories; research results are often held proprietary and seldom find their way into the university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development of miniature prototype equipment suitable for use in an integrated CAD/CAM Laboratory. The equipment being developed is capable of actually performing production operations (e.g. drilling, milling, turning, punching, etc.) on metallic and non-metallic workpieces. The integrated CAD/CAM Mini-Lab is integrating high resolution, computer graphics, parametric design, parametric N/C parts programmings, CNC machine control, automated storage and retrieval, with robotics materials handling. The availability of miniature CAD/CAM laboratory equipment will provide the basis for intensive laboratory research on manufacturing information systems.

  5. Efficient mapping of agricultural soils using a novel electromagnetic measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, Immo; Pregesbauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    "Despite all our accomplishments, we owe our existence to a six-inch layer of topsoil and the fact that it rains." - Paul Harvey. Despite the fact, that a farmers most precious good is the soil that he or she cultivates, in most cases actually very little is known about the soils that are being farmed. Agricultural soils are under constant threat through erosion, depletion, pollution and other degrading processes, in particular when considering intensive industrial scale farming. The capability of soils to retain water and soil moisture is of vital importance for their agricultural potential. Detailed knowledge of the physical properties of soils, their types and texture, water content and the depth of the agricultural layer would be of great importance for resource-efficient tillage with sub-area dependent variable depth, and the targeted intelligent application of fertilizers or irrigation. Precision farming, which has seen increasing popularity in the USA as well as Australia, is still in its infancy in Europe. Traditional near-surface geophysical prospection systems for agricultural soil mapping have either been based on earth resistance measurements using electrode-disks that require soil contact, with inherent issues, or electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements conducted with EMI devices mounted in non-metallic sledges towed several metres behind survey vehicles across the fields. Every farmer passes over the fields several times during each growing season, working the soil and treating the crops. Therefore a novel user-friendly measurement system, the "Topsoil Mapper" (TSM) has been developed, which enables the farmer to simultaneously acquire soil conductivity information and derived soil parameters while anyway passing over the fields using different agricultural implements. The measurement principle of the TSM is electromagnetic induction using a multi-coil array to acquire conductivity information along a vertical profile down to approximately 1.1 m

  6. Reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions: role of biotechnology, organic systems, and consumer behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All agricultural systems have environmental and societal costs and benefits that should be objectively quantified before recommending specific management practices. Agricultural biotechnology, which takes advantage of genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), along with organic cropping systems, econ...

  7. Linked Data for Fighting Global Hunger:Experiences in setting standards for Agricultural Information Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Thomas; Keizer, Johannes

    FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, has the global goal to defeat hunger and eliminate poverty. One of its core functions is the generation, dissemination and application of information and knowledge. Since 2000, the Agricultural InformationManagement Standards (AIMS) activity in FAO's Knowledge Exchange and Capacity Building Division has promoted the use of Semantic Web standards to improve information sharing within a global network of research institutes and related partner organizations. The strategy emphasizes the use of simple descriptive metadata, thesauri, and ontologies for integrating access to information from a wide range of sources for both scientific and non-expert audiences. An early adopter of Semantic Web technology, the AIMS strategy is evolving to help information providers in nineteen language areas use modern Linked Data methods to improve the quality of life in developing rural areas, home to seventy percent of the world's poor and hungry people.

  8. Exploring agricultural production systems and their fundamental components with system dynamics modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production in the United States is undergoing marked changes due to rapid shifts in consumer demands, input costs, and concerns for food safety and environmental impact. Agricultural production systems are comprised of multidimensional components and drivers that interact in complex wa...

  9. [Agricultural policies and farming systems: A case study of landscape changes in Shizuitou Village in the recent four decades].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-jun; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yan-bin; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural policy in China's rural heartland is driving profound changes to traditional farming systems. A case study covering four decades mapped and recorded farming patterns and processes in Shizuitou Village, a rural village in northwest Shanxi. An integrated geospatial methodology from geography and anthropology was employed in the case study to record the changing dynamics of farming systems in Shizuitou Village to discover the long-term impacts of China's agricultural policies on village farming systems. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural policies on village farming systems were mapped, inventoried and evaluated using Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS). The results revealed traditional polycultures are being gradually replaced by industrialized monocultures. The driving forces behind these farming changes come from a series of government agricultural policies aiming at modernization of farming systems in China. The goal of these policies was to spur rapid development of industrial agriculture under the guise of modernization but is leading to the decay of traditional farming systems in the village that maintained local food security with healthy land for hundreds of years. The paper concluded with a recommendation that in future, agricultural policy makers should strike a more reasonable balance between short-term agricultural profits and long-term farming sustainability based on the principles of ecological sustainable development under the context of global changes. PMID:25985671

  10. Introduction to hospital information systems.

    PubMed

    Vegoda, P R

    1987-01-01

    The phrase, 'hospital information system', is frequently used in discussions about the flow of information throughout a hospital with the assumption that everybody has the same concept in mind. Closer examination shows that this is not necessarily the case. The author draws on his experience as the Chief Information Officer at University Hospital at Stony Brook to define a hospital information system in terms of the implementation at Stony Brook. The University Hospital Information System at University Hospital (UHIS), has received international acclaim and was recently selected by the IBM Quarterly of Australia as the world leader in hospital information systems. This paper answers four questions: What is a hospital information system? How does a hospital information system work? How do you implement a hospital information system? After the system is operational, where do you go, e.g., critical care data management, physician's office management? University Hospital at Stony Brook is located on eastern Long Island and is the tertiary care referral hospital for approximately 1.4 million people. Nothing in the hospital happens without computers. Doctors, nurses, administrators and staff at all levels rely on the system daily. The system operates 24 hours per day, seven days per week. Access to the system is through 300 terminals and 128 printers throughout the hospital. In addition to the UHIS terminals, the critical care management system which is called Patient Data Management System, (PDMS), is available at over 90 ICU beds and in the operating rooms. PMID:3585130

  11. A Decision Support System for Climate Change Adaptation in Rainfed Sectors of Agriculture for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyás, Csaba; Berki, Imre; Drüszler, Áron; Eredics, Attila; Gálos, Borbála; Illés, Gábor; Móricz, Norbert; Rasztovits, Ervin; Czimber, Kornél

    2013-04-01

    • Background and aims: Rainfed sectors of agriculture such as nature-close forestry, non-irrigated agriculture and animal husbandry on nature-close pastures are threatened by projected climate change especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is the limiting factor of production and ecosystem stability. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimization is increasing. The aim of the Decision Support System under development is to raise awareness and initiate preparation for frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses in the mentioned sectors. • Services provided: The Decision Support System provides GIS-supported information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options regarding climate change impacts, projected for reference periods until 2100 (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, potential production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.). The projections are referring first of all on biological production (natural produce), but the System includes also social and economic consequences. • Methods: In the raster based system, the latest image processing technology is used. We apply fuzzy membership functions, Support Vector Machine and Maximum Likelihood classifier. The System is developed in the first step for a reference area in SW Hungary (Zala county). • Novelty: The coherent, fine-scale regional system integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions and expected production potential for three sectors of agriculture as options for land use and conservation. • Funding: The development of the Decision Support System "Agrárklíma" is supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV and 4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018 "Talentum" joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate change

  12. System status display information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

  13. Design of a solar controlled environment agriculture system (SCEAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Landstrom, D.K.; Stickford, G.H.; Talbert, S.G.; Wilkinson, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    The overall objective of the SCEAS project was to integrate advanced greenhouse agriculture technology with various energy sources and innovative cooling/ventilation concepts to demonstrate technical and economic feasibility of these facilities in several climatic regions where conventional greenhouse technology will not permit yearround growing of certain crops. The designed facility is capable of high yields of practically any crop, even temperaturesensitive vegetables such as lettuce, in extremely hostile external environments. The recirculation and ventilation system provides considerable flexibility in precise control of temperature and humidity throughout the year and in reducing water and energy consumption.

  14. Copying and the Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Richard L.

    1975-01-01

    Calls on the users and producers and publishers of scientific information to aid in the design of practical systems for information dissemination that will encompass not only copyright law but also computer file access. (GS)

  15. PESTICIDE PRODUCT INFORMATION SYSTEM (PPIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS) contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pestic...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EIMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Information Management System (EIMS) organizes descriptive information (metadata) for data sets, databases, documents, models, projects, and spatial data. The EIMS design provides a repository for scientific documentation that can be easily accessed with standar...

  17. Information and Communication Technologies as Agricultural Extension Tools: A Survey among Farmers in West Macedonia, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasios, Michailidis; Koutsouris, Alex; Konstadinos, Mattas

    2010-01-01

    This article critically assesses the potential of information and communication technologies (ICTs) as agricultural extension tools. Specifically, the purpose of the current piece of work is to identify the extent of the use of ICTs on farms, look into farmers' characteristics as related to ICTs' adoption and explore farmers' preferred extension…

  18. Financial Performance of Specialized Cotton Farms. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 538.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Mary; And Others

    This United States Department of Agriculture summary report focuses on the revenues, costs, and finances of specialized cotton farms in 1986. The report also provides general information on all farms producing cotton. The data on which the report is based are from the 1986 Farm Costs and Returns Survey. Some of the conclusions drawn from the study…

  19. 75 FR 15403 - Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is requesting comments from all interested individuals and organizations on an extension of a currently approved information collection associated with procurement of agricultural commodities for foreign donation. The Kansas City Commodity Office (KCCO) issues a public invitation soliciting bids for......

  20. Cockpit weather information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

  1. Information Systems for University Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Robert J.

    This paper proposes construction of a separate data base environment for university planning information, distinct from data bases and systems supporting operational functioning and management. The data base would receive some of its input from the management information systems (MIS)/transactional data bases and systems through a process of…

  2. FEDERAL MINERAL LAND INFORMATION SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of geographic information systems to combine point, line, and areal data has been widely documented, although the establishment of a particular data base presents its own unique problems. The U. S. Geological Survey is developing a geographic information system consisting of information on Federal surface ownership, Federal subsurface mineral rights, location of actual mineral occurrences and (or) known potential, and formal restrictions to mineral development. By utilizing information already compiled or soon to be collected by other agencies, the Federal Mineral Land Information System should be able to provide answers relating to mineral availability on public lands.

  3. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  4. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  5. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  6. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  7. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993-2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall is

  8. Information Retrieval Systems and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locatis, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Discusses instructional systems and information retrieval systems and highlights the growing role of retrieval systems in learning. Topics discussed include cognitive psychology; degree of learner control; interaction with the systems; technological trends, including storage capacity, integrated media, and interlinked systems; hypermedia; and…

  9. Condition Assessment Information System

    2002-09-16

    CAIS2000 records, tracks and cost maintenance deficiencies associated with condition assessments of real property assets. Cost information is available for 39,000 items in the currenht RS Means, Facilities Construction Manual. These costs can, in turn, be rolled by by asset to produce the summary condition of an asset or site.

  10. TECHNOLOGY, COMPLEXITY AND CHANGE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technological advances have greatly impacted agricultural production. Some innovations have been specifically designed to address problems or shortcomings in current production practices, while others have been borrowed from other disciplines and adapted to agriculture. Many of the advances in agric...

  11. Toward intelligent information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Sanzo

    NASA/RECON, the predecessor of DIALOG System, was originally designed as a user friendly system for astronauts, so that they should not miss-operate the machine in spite of tension in the outer space. Since then, DIALOG has endeavoured to develop a series of user friendly systems, such as knowledge index, inbound gateway, as well as Version II. In this so-called end user searching era, DIALOG has released a series of front end systems successively; DIALOG Business Connection, DIALOG Medical Connection and OneSearch in 1986, early and late 1987 respectively. They are all called expert systems. In this paper, the features of each system are described in some detail and the remaining critical issues are also discussed.

  12. Medical Information Management System (MIMS): An automated hospital information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, S.; Simmons, P. B.; Schwartz, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    An automated hospital information system that handles all data related to patient-care activities is described. The description is designed to serve as a manual for potential users, nontechnical medical personnel who may use the system. Examples of the system's operation, commentary on the examples, and a complete listing of the system program are included.

  13. Medical Information Management System (MIMS): A generalized interactive information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, S.; Friedman, C. A.; Hipkins, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    An interactive information system is described. It is a general purpose, free format system which offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. The medical area is a prime area of application. Examples of the system's operation, commentary on the examples, and a complete listing of the system program are included.

  14. Differences in Aquatic Communities Between Wetlands Created by an Agricultural Water Recycling System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of an agricultural water recycling system known as the wetland reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to s...

  15. Forest Resource Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mrocznyski, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three processing functions aid in utilizing LANDSAT data for forest resource management. Designed to work primarily with digital data obtained from measurements recorded by multispectral remote sensors mounted on aerospace platforms. communication between processing functions, simplicity of control, and commonality of data files in LARSFRIS enhance usefulness of system as tool for research and development of remote sensing systems.

  16. Evolution of the knowledge system for agricultural development in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Ellen B; Matson, Pamela A

    2016-04-26

    Knowledge systems-networks of linked actors, organizations, and objects that perform a number of knowledge-related functions that link knowledge and know how with action-have played a key role in fostering agricultural development over the last 50 years. We examine the evolution of the knowledge system of the Yaqui Valley, Mexico, a region often described as the home of the green revolution for wheat, tracing changes in the functions of critical knowledge system participants, information flows, and research priorities. Most of the knowledge system's key players have been in place for many decades, although their roles have changed in response to exogenous and endogenous shocks and trends (e.g., drought, policy shifts, and price trends). The system has been agile and able to respond to challenges, in part because of the diversity of players (evolving roles of actors spanning research-decision maker boundaries) and also because of the strong and consistent role of innovative farmers. Although the agricultural research agenda in the Valley is primarily controlled from within the agricultural sector, outside voices have become an important influence in broadening development- and production-oriented perspectives to sustainability perspectives. PMID:21606365

  17. Project Records Information System (PRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.S.; Schwarz, R.K.

    1990-11-01

    The Project Records Information System (PRIS) is an interactive system developed for the Information Services Division (ISD) of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to perform indexing, maintenance, and retrieval of information about Engineering project record documents for which they are responsible. This PRIS User's Manual provides instruction on the use of this system. This manual presents an overview of PRIS, describing the system's purpose; the data that it handles; functions it performs; hardware, software, and access; and help and error functions. This manual describes the interactive menu-driven operation of PRIS. Appendixes A, B, C, and D contain the data dictionary, help screens, report descriptions, and a primary menu structure diagram, respectively.

  18. Camelot: An Individualized Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Camelot is a microcomputer-based system for individualizing information in a variety of settings. The information is not prespecified in Camelot and, consequently, can take many forms including instruction, counseling, prescription, and task assignment. The basis for individualizing the information is also not predeclared; therefore, users can…

  19. Science information systems: Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Ray J.

    1991-01-01

    Future programs in earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics will involve complex instruments that produce data at unprecedented rates and volumes. Current methods for data display, exploration, and discovery are inadequate. Visualization technology offers a means for the user to comprehend, explore, and examine complex data sets. The goal of this program is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of scientists in extracting scientific information from large volumes of instrument data.

  20. Information technology equipment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  1. Forest resource information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mroczynski, R. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A benchmark classification evaluation framework was implemented. The FRIS preprocessing activities were refined. Potential geo-based referencing systems were identified as components of FRIS.

  2. Implementing Student Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Laurie; Porter, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Implementing an enterprise resource planning system is a complex undertaking. Careful planning, management, communication, and staffing can make the difference between a successful and unsuccessful implementation. (Contains 3 tables.)

  3. The limitations of environmental management systems in Australian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cary, John; Roberts, Anna

    2011-03-01

    The efficacy of government-supported programs to encourage improved management of land and water systems associated with agricultural land in Australia has been mixed. The broad approach of Australian governments is reviewed briefly. Evidence is presented from case assessments of a program to promote adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs) to improve environmental outcomes from agricultural practices. EMSs are systems implemented to manage the environmental impacts and ameliorate environmental risk associated with business activity. Data are presented on reported EMS activity and experience of four selected groups of farmers in Victoria, south-eastern Australia, representing broad-acre cropping, beef and dairy farming. The pro-environmental behaviours of farmers were mediated through voluntary adoption of government and industry sponsored EMSs, often with financial incentives and other support. Findings from the study were that adoption of EMS practices with sufficient public benefits is unlikely to occur at sufficient scale for significant environmental impact. Farmers more readily adopted practices which were financially beneficial than those which had a positive environmental impact. Although the focus on voluntary market-based instrument (MBI) type programs is popular in western countries, enforcing regulation is an important, but usually politically unpopular, component of land use policy. The comparative advantage of EMSs differed for the industries studied, but overall there were insufficient market drivers for widespread EMS adoption in Australia. Environmental outcomes could be more effectively achieved by directly funding land management practices which have highest public net benefits. Having a clear and unambiguous management objective for a particular land management policy is more likely to achieve outcomes than having multiple objectives as occurs in a number of international programs currently. PMID:21084146

  4. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  5. Groundwater economics: An object-oriented foundation for integrated studies of irrigated agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, David R.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.; Yang, Xiaoying; Bulatewicz, Tom; Herrera-Rodriguez, Mauricio; Mao, Dazhi; Hendricks, Nathan

    2009-05-01

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater wells and agricultural parcels is employed to couple these models using geographic information science technology and open modeling interface protocols. This approach is used to study the collective action problem of the common pool. Three different policies (existing, regulation, and incentive based) are studied in the semiarid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer in the central United States. Results show that while regulation using the prior appropriation doctrine and incentives using a water buy-back program may each achieve the same level of water savings across the study region, each policy has a different impact on spatial patterns of groundwater declines and farm level economic activity. This represents the first time that groundwater and econometric models of irrigated agriculture have been integrated at the well-parcel level and provides methods for scientific investigation of this coupled natural-human system. Results are useful for science to inform decision making and public policy debate.

  6. A Description and Source Listing of Professional Information in Agricultural Education, 1964-65, 1965-66.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    This bibliography, containing professional information in agricultural education published in the school years 1964-65 and 1965-66 was prepared by the Professional Information Committee of the Agricultural Division of the American Vocational Association. Respectively they contain 141 and 170 listings with short annotations including availability…

  7. Geographic names information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1987-01-01

    of the data in each of the data elements of the four data bases of GNIS. The GNIS program, which includes the automated names system and the National Gazetteer program, is a coordinated effort under the direction of Donald J. Orth, Chief of the Branch of Geographic Names. The automated system was initially developed by Sam Stulberg and Roger L. Payne. System enhancement and software development is coordinated by Judy J. Stella, head programmer for GNIS, and special projects coordinator is Louis A. Yost IV. Coordination of the research and compilation of certain gazetteers is directed by Robin D. Worcester with research assistance and support from Jon Campbell, Linda S. Davis, and Nancy Engel.

  8. Evolution of the knowledge system for agricultural development in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Ellen B.; Matson, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge systems—networks of linked actors, organizations, and objects that perform a number of knowledge-related functions that link knowledge and know how with action—have played a key role in fostering agricultural development over the last 50 years. We examine the evolution of the knowledge system of the Yaqui Valley, Mexico, a region often described as the home of the green revolution for wheat, tracing changes in the functions of critical knowledge system participants, information flows, and research priorities. Most of the knowledge system's key players have been in place for many decades, although their roles have changed in response to exogenous and endogenous shocks and trends (e.g., drought, policy shifts, and price trends). The system has been agile and able to respond to challenges, in part because of the diversity of players (evolving roles of actors spanning research–decision maker boundaries) and also because of the strong and consistent role of innovative farmers. Although the agricultural research agenda in the Valley is primarily controlled from within the agricultural sector, outside voices have become an important influence in broadening development- and production-oriented perspectives to sustainability perspectives. PMID:21606365

  9. Medical-Information-Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, Sidney; Friedman, Carl A.; Frankowski, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Medical Information Management System (MIMS) computer program interactive, general-purpose software system for storage and retrieval of information. Offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases required. User quickly and efficiently extracts, displays, and analyzes data. Used in management of medical data and handling all aspects of data related to care of patients. Other applications include management of data on occupational safety in public and private sectors, handling judicial information, systemizing purchasing and procurement systems, and analyses of cost structures of organizations. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  10. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  11. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    This report integrates and extrapolates worldwide the results of the agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Philippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand-alone mode. The study focused on the needs of low- and middle-income countries. The major conclusions derived from the studies were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 - 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 - 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market-related factors influencing the potential for US PV sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long-term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have their governments support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  12. NASA space information systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dana L.

    1987-01-01

    A major objective of NASA space missions is the gathering of information that when analyzed, compared, and interpreted furthers man's knowledge of his planet and surrounding universe. A space information system is the combination of data gathering, data processing, and data transport capabilities that interact to provide the underlying services that enable that advancement in understanding. Past space projects have been characterized by rather disjoint data systems that often did not satisfy user requirements. NASA has learned from those experiences, however, and now is conceptualizing a new generation of sophisticated, integrated space information systems suitable to the wide range of near future space endeavors. This paper examines the characteristics of recent data systems and, based upon that characterization, outlines the scope and attributes of future systems. A description if offered of the information system for the Space Station Program as one real example of such advanced capabilities.

  13. Integrated risk information system (IRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tuxen, L.

    1990-12-31

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an electronic information system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) containing information related to health risk assessment. IRIS is the Agency`s primary vehicle for communication of chronic health hazard information that represents Agency consensus following comprehensive review by intra-Agency work groups. The original purpose for developing IRIS was to provide guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This original purpose for developing IRIS was to guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This role has expanded and evolved with wider access and use of the system. IRIS contains chemical-specific information in summary format for approximately 500 chemicals. IRIS is available to the general public on the National Library of Medicine`s Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and on diskettes through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  14. Property Information System

    1998-01-28

    Provides cradle to grave tracking of DOE property (capital, accountable, etc.). Major functional areas include Acquisitions, Management, Inventory, Accounting, Agreements, Excessing, Dispositions, and Reporting. The Accounting module is not used at this time and may not be operational. A major enhancement added here at Lockheed Martin Energy Systems is the Web-based portion of the system, which allows custodians of property to record location and custodial changes, and to provide inventory confirmations. PLEASE NOTE: Customer mustmore » contact Ben McMurry, (865) 576-5906, Lockheed Martin Energy Ssytems, for help with installation of package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to the cost of the package from ESTSC. Customer should contact Cheri Cross, (865) 574-6046, for user help.« less

  15. Multipurpose interactive NASA information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. M.; Keefer, R. L.; Sanders, D. R.; Seitz, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System (MINIS) is data management system capable of retrieving descriptive data from LANDSAT photos. General enough to be used with other user-defined data bases, interactive data management and information retrieval system was especially developed for small and medium-sized computers. It uses free-form data base that allows one to create entirely new and different data bases and to control format of output products.

  16. Tropical Cyclone Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, P. Peggy; Knosp, Brian W.; Vu, Quoc A.; Yi, Chao; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Infor ma tion System (TCIS) is a Web portal (http://tropicalcyclone.jpl.nasa.gov) that provides researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane parameters together with large-scale and convection resolving model outputs. It provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution satellite (see figure), airborne, and in-situ observations in both image and data formats. Large-scale datasets depict the surrounding environmental parameters such as SST (Sea Surface Temperature) and aerosol loading. Model outputs and analysis tools are provided to evaluate model performance and compare observations from different platforms. The system pertains to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storm, the air-sea interaction processes, and the larger-scale environment as depicted by ocean heat content and the aerosol loading of the environment. Currently, the TCIS is populated with satellite observations of all tropical cyclones observed globally during 2005. There is a plan to extend the database both forward in time till present as well as backward to 1998. The portal is powered by a MySQL database and an Apache/Tomcat Web server on a Linux system. The interactive graphic user interface is provided by Google Map.

  17. Nitrate loading and isotopic signatures in subsurface agricultural drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, E L; Kellman, L M

    2011-01-01

    Artificially draining soils using subsurface tiles is a common practice on many agricultural fields. High levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) are often released from these systems; therefore, knowledge on the sources and processes controlling NO-N in drainage systems is needed. A dual isotope study (δN and δO) was used to investigate three subsurface drainage systems (shallow, conventional, and controlled) in Onslow, Nova Scotia, Canada. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify which drainage system more effectively reduced the NO-N loading, (ii) to examine differences in isotopic signatures under identical nutrient and cropping regimes for a fixed soil type, and (iii) to identify the utility of different drainage systems in controlling nutrient flows. Nitrate concentrations measured ranged from 0.92 to 11.8, from 2.3 to 17.3, and from 2.1 to 19.8 mg L for the shallow, conventional, and controlled drains, respectively. Total NO-N loading from shallow and controlled drains were 20 and 5.6 kg ha, respectively, lower than conventional (39.1 kg ha). The isotopic composition of NO-N for all drainage types appeared to be a mixture of two organic sources (manure and soil organic matter) via the process of nitrification. There was no evidence that denitrification played a significant role in removing NO-N during transport. Overall, shallow drainage reduced NO-N loading but offered no water conservation benefits. Combining the benefits of decreased NO-N loading from shallow systems with water control capability may offer the best solution to reducing nutrient loadings into water systems, achieving optimal crop yield, and decreasing drainage installation costs. PMID:21712595

  18. System for Information Discovery

    1998-09-25

    SID characterizes natural language based documents so that they may be related and retrieved based on content similarity. This technology processes textual documents, autonoumsly identifies the major topics of the document set, and constructs an interpretable, high dimensional representation of each document. SID also provides the ability to interactively reweight representations based on user need, so users may analyze the dataset from multiple points of view. The particular advantages SID offers are speed, data compression,more » flexibility in representation, and incremental processing. SPIRE consists of software for visual analysis of text-based information sources. This technology enables users to make discoveries about the content of very large sets of textual documents without requiring the user to read or presort the documents. It employs algorithms for text and word proximity analysis to identify the key themes within the documents. The results of this analysis are projected onto a visual spatial proximity display (Galaxies or Themescape) where document proximity represents the degree of relatedness of theme.« less

  19. Geographic information system based manure application plan.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Badri B; Apan, Armando A; Raine, Steven R

    2002-02-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) based manure application plan has been developed for the site-specific application of animal waste to agricultural fields in the Westbrook sub-catchment of the Murray-Darling Basin, south-east Queensland, Australia. Sites suitable for animal waste application were identified using a GIS based weighted linear combination (WLC) model. The degree of land suitability for animal waste application was determined using a range of social, economic, environmental, and agricultural factors. As eutrophication and toxic blue-green algae blooms are a known problem in the catchment, the manure application rates were limited to the rate of crop phosphorus removal. Maximum manure application rate was calculated spatially by taking the crop nutrient (P2O5) requirement and the manure nutrient (P2O5) content into account. The environmental suitability of the fields receiving animal waste was considered in prescribing the final application rate of solid and liquid manures generated by local animal production facilities. The degree of site suitability of the agricultural fields was also used to suggest manure management practices to minimise the socio-environmental risks and increase the nutrient use efficiency of the applied manure. The amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) that would be added to the soil by satisfying the P2O5 requirement using manure sources was also calculated and an applied NH4-N map was created. This map could be used to assist farmers identify additional nitrogen requirements after manure application. PMID:11995243

  20. Toward systems-level analysis of agricultural production from crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM): scaling from cell to commercial production.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sarah C; Ming, Ray; LeBauer, David S; Long, Stephen P

    2015-10-01

    Systems-level analyses have become prominent tools for assessing the yield, viability, economic consequences and environmental impacts of agricultural production. Such analyses are well-developed for many commodity crops that are used for food and biofuel, but have not been developed for agricultural production systems based on drought-tolerant plants that use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). We review the components of systems-level evaluations, and identify the information available for completing such analyses for CAM cropping systems. Specific needs for developing systems-level evaluations of CAM agricultural production include: improvement of physiological models; assessment of product processing after leaving the farm gate; and application of newly available genetic tools to the optimization of CAM species for commercial production. PMID:26094655

  1. Economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production within a biomass system

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Flaim, S.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production in the United States is discussed. The beverage fermentation processes are compared and contrasted with the wet milling of corn, and alternative agricultural products for alcohol production are discussed. Alcohol costs for different fermentation methods and for various agricultural crops (corn, sugar cane, sugar beets, etc.) are presented, along with a brief discussion of US government policy implications. (JMT)

  2. Application of modern biotechnology to food and agriculture: food systems perspective.

    PubMed

    McCullum, Christine; Benbrook, Charles; Knowles, Lori; Roberts, Susan; Schryver, Tamara

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide nutrition educators with an introduction to a range of considerations and forces that are driving the application of modern biotechnology in the food and fiber sector based on a food systems perspective. In doing so, the following issues are critically assessed: (1) the global debate on how to regulate genetically engineered (GE) foods and crops, (2) cultural differences in public perceptions of GE foods, and (3) evaluation of selected GE traits against the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability, including the potential of modern agricultural biotechnology to enhance global food security. Where appropriate, we also review other agricultural technologies and the broader political, social, and economic contexts in which these technologies have been introduced. Finally, we offer recommendations for how multiple stakeholder groups, including policy makers, biotechnology advocates, and nutrition educators, can move toward a more informed dialogue and debate on this issue. PMID:14642218

  3. Life cycle assessment of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Santosh R; Johnston, John M; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Hawkins, Troy R

    2014-04-01

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricultural rainwater harvesting (ARWH) systems. We also summarize the design aspects of DRWH and ARWH systems adapted to the Back Creek watershed, Virginia. The baseline design reveals that the pump and pumping electricity are the main components of DRWH and ARWH impacts. For nonpotable uses, the minimal design of DRWH (with shortened distribution distance and no pump) outperforms municipal drinking water in all environmental impact categories except ecotoxicity. The minimal design of ARWH outperforms well water in all impact categories. In terms of watershed sustainability, the two minimal designs reduced environmental impacts, from 58% to 78% energy use and 67% to 88% human health criteria pollutants, as well as avoiding up to 20% blue water (surface/groundwater) losses, compared to municipal drinking water and well water. We address potential environmental and human health impacts of urban and rural RWH systems in the region. The Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) model-based life cycle inventory data were used for this study. PMID:24605844

  4. Earth Science Information System (ESIS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1982-01-01

    The Earth Science Information System (ESIS) was developed in 1981 by the U.S. Geological Survey's Office of the Data Administrator. ESIS serves as a comprehensive data management facility designed to support the coordination, integration, and standardization of scientific, technical, and bibliographic data of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). ESIS provides, through an online interactive computer system, referral to information about USGS data bases, data elements which are fields in the records of data bases, and systems. The data bases contain information about many subjects from several scientific disciplines such as: geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, cartography, oceanography, geography, minerals exploration and conservation, and satellite data sensing.

  5. The IAGOS information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Damien; Gautron, Benoit; Schultz, Martin; Brötz, Björn; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Thouret, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in situ observations of the atmospheric composition. IAGOS observation systems are deployed on a fleet of commercial aircraft. The IAGOS database is an essential part of the global atmospheric monitoring network. Data access is handled by open access policy based on the submission of research requests which are reviewed by the PIs. The IAGOS database (http://www.iagos.fr, damien.boulanger@obs-mip.fr) is part of the French atmospheric chemistry data centre Ether (CNES and CNRS). In the framework of the IGAS project (IAGOS for Copernicus Atmospheric Service) interoperability with international portals or other databases is implemented in order to improve IAGOS data discovery. The IGAS data network is composed of three data centres: the IAGOS database in Toulouse including IAGOS-core data and IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) data since January 2015; the HALO research aircraft database at DLR (https://halo-db.pa.op.dlr.de); and the MACC data centre in Jülich (http://join.iek.fz-juelich.de). The MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) project is a prominent user of the IGAS data network. In June 2015 a new version of the IAGOS database will be released providing improved services such as download in NetCDF or NASA Ames formats; graphical tools (maps, scatter plots, etc.); standardized metadata (ISO 19115) and a better users management. The link with the MACC data centre, through JOIN (Jülich OWS Interface), will allow to combine model outputs with IAGOS data for intercomparison. The interoperability within the IGAS data network, implemented thanks to many web services, will improve the functionalities of the web interfaces of each data centre.

  6. Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

    Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

  7. EO-LDAS Temporal Regularization for Estimation of fAPAR over an Agriculture Test Site Using MISR Multiangular Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernetskiy, M.; Gorbron, N.; Truckenbrodt, S.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Morgan, O.; Lewis, P.; Schmullius, C.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we present the retrieval of the Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) over an agricultural Sentinel-3 validation test site (S3VT) using multi-angular information from the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) at 275 m and the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EOLDAS). EO-LDAS is done with a temporal regularization using 7 MISR cameras. Results are compared against ground-based data, Joint Research Centre Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP) and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) FAPAR products.

  8. Computerized international geothermal information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.

    1980-03-01

    The computerized international geothermal energy information system is reviewed. The review covers establishment of the Italy - United States linked data centers by the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, through a bilateral agreement, and up to the present time. The result of the information exchange project is given as the bibliographic and numerical data available from the data centers. Recommendations for the exchange of computerized geothermal information at the international level are discussed.

  9. Phosphorus cycling in Montreal's food and urban agriculture systems.

    PubMed

    Metson, Geneviève S; Bennett, Elena M

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities' P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents' relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting. PMID:25826256

  10. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and h...

  11. Rationalizing Management Information System Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parden, Robert J.

    This paper examines the proposition that management information systems (MIS) for colleges and universities are not achieving their original objectives of supporting better management decisions by providing more and better information in a more timely manner. As a consequence, the MIS activity should be reduced in scope, and standardized to…

  12. Maryland Automated Geographic Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    A computer based system designed for storing geographic data in a consistent and coordinated manner is described. The data are stored, retrieved, and analyzed using a 400 km sq/acre cell. Stored information can be displayed on computer maps in a manner similar to standard map graphics. The data bank contains various information for performing land use analysis in a variety of areas.

  13. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  14. Medical Information Management System (MIMS): A Generalized Interactive Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alterescu,Sidney; And Others

    This report describes an interactive information system. It is a general purpose, free format system which can offer immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. The medical area is a prime area of application. The report is designed to serve as a manual for potential users--nontechnical personnel who will use the…

  15. Geographic Information System Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Chad; Casad, Christopher; Floriano, Luis G.; Hill, Tracie; Johnson, Rashida K.; Locklear, J. Mark; Penn, Stephen; Rhoulac, Tori; Shay, Adam H.; Taylor, Antone; Thorpe, Karina

    1995-01-01

    Data was collected in order to further NASA Langley Research Center's Geographic Information System(GIS). Information on LaRC's communication, electrical, and facility configurations was collected. Existing data was corrected through verification, resulting in more accurate databases. In addition, Global Positioning System(GPS) points were used in order to accurately impose buildings on digitized images. Overall, this project will help the Imaging and CADD Technology Team (ICTT) prove GIS to be a valuable resource for LaRC.

  16. RIMS: Resource Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symes, J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is given of the capabilities and functions of the resource management system (RIMS). It is a simple interactive DMS tool which allows users to build, modify, and maintain data management applications. The RIMS minimizes programmer support required to develop/maintain small data base applications. The RIMS also assists in bringing the United Information Services (UIS) budget system work inhouse. Information is also given on the relationship between the RIMS and the user community.

  17. Representative Agricultural Pathways and Climate Impact Assessment for Pacific Northwest Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MU, J.; Antle, J. M.; Zhang, H.; Capalbo, S. M.; Eigenbrode, S.; Kruger, C.; Stockle, C.; Wolfhorst, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs) are projections of plausible future biophysical and socio-economic conditions used to carry out climate impact assessments for agriculture. The development of RAPs iss motivated by the fact that the various global and regional models used for agricultural climate change impact assessment have been implemented with individualized scenarios using various data and model structures, often without transparent documentation or public availability. These practices have hampered attempts at model inter-comparison, improvement, and synthesis of model results across studies. This paper aims to (1) present RAPs developed for the principal wheat-producing region of the Pacific Northwest, and to (2) combine these RAPs with downscaled climate data, crop model simulations and economic model simulations to assess climate change impacts on winter wheat production and farm income. This research was carried out as part of a project funded by the USDA known as the Regional Approaches to Climate Change in the Pacific Northwest (REACCH). The REACCH study region encompasses the major winter wheat production area in Pacific Northwest and preliminary research shows that farmers producing winter wheat could benefit from future climate change. However, the future world is uncertain in many dimensions, including commodity and input prices, production technology, and policies, as well as increased probability of disturbances (pests and diseases) associated with a changing climate. Many of these factors cannot be modeled, so they are represented in the regional RAPS. The regional RAPS are linked to global agricultural and shared social-economic pathways, and used along with climate change projections to simulate future outcomes for the wheat-based farms in the REACCH region.

  18. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-10-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agropastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socioeconomic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's (FEWS NET) science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S-8° N, 36-46° E) for the March-April-May (MAM) growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food-insecure, climatically variable, and socioeconomically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world; this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To produce an "agricultural outlook", our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios describing the upcoming season. First, we forced the VIC model with high-quality atmospheric observations to produce baseline soil moisture (SM) estimates (here after referred as SM a posteriori estimates). These compared favorably (correlation = 0.75) with the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI), an index that the FEWS NET uses to estimate crop yields. Next, we evaluated the SM forecasts generated by this system on 5 March and 5 April of each year between 1993 and 2012 by comparing them with the corresponding SM a posteriori estimates. We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (SOS) (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month and, in some cases, 3-month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with midseason (i.e., 5

  19. Information Processing in Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkačik, Gašper; Bialek, William

    2016-03-01

    Life depends as much on the flow of information as on the flow of energy. Here we review the many efforts to make this intuition precise. Starting with the building blocks of information theory, we explore examples where it has been possible to measure, directly, the flow of information in biological networks, or more generally where information-theoretic ideas have been used to guide the analysis of experiments. Systems of interest range from single molecules (the sequence diversity in families of proteins) to groups of organisms (the distribution of velocities in flocks of birds), and all scales in between. Many of these analyses are motivated by the idea that biological systems may have evolved to optimize the gathering and representation of information, and we review the experimental evidence for this optimization, again across a wide range of scales.

  20. Safeguards Information Management Systems (SIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, R.J.; Sheely, K.B.; Brown, J.B.; Horton, R.D.; Strittmatter, R.; Manatt, D.R.

    1994-04-01

    The requirements for the management of information at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its Department of Safeguards are rapidly changing. Historically, the Department of Safeguards has had the requirement to process large volumes of conventional safeguards information. An information management system is currently in place that adequately handles the IAEA`s conventional safeguards data needs. In the post-Iraq environment, however, there is a growing need to expand the IAEA information management capability to include unconventional forms of information. These data include environmental sampling results, photographs, video film, lists of machine tools, and open-source materials such as unclassified publications. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responded to this information management need by implementing the Safeguards Information Management Systems (SIMS) initiative. SIMS was created by the DOE to anticipate and respond to IAEA information management needs through a multilaboratory initiative that will utilize an integrated approach to develop and deploy technology in a timely and cost-effective manner. The DOE will use the SIMS initiative to coordinate US information management activities that support the IAEA Department of Safeguards.

  1. MIMS - MEDICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankowski, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    MIMS, Medical Information Management System is an interactive, general purpose information storage and retrieval system. It was first designed to be used in medical data management, and can be used to handle all aspects of data related to patient care. Other areas of application for MIMS include: managing occupational safety data in the public and private sectors; handling judicial information where speed and accuracy are high priorities; systemizing purchasing and procurement systems; and analyzing organizational cost structures. Because of its free format design, MIMS can offer immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. File structures, data categories, field lengths and formats, including alphabetic and/or numeric, are all user defined. The user can quickly and efficiently extract, display, and analyze the data. Three means of extracting data are provided: certain short items of information, such as social security numbers, can be used to uniquely identify each record for quick access; records can be selected which match conditions defined by the user; and specific categories of data can be selected. Data may be displayed and analyzed in several ways which include: generating tabular information assembled from comparison of all the records on the system; generating statistical information on numeric data such as means, standard deviations and standard errors; and displaying formatted listings of output data. The MIMS program is written in Microsoft FORTRAN-77. It was designed to operate on IBM Personal Computers and compatibles running under PC or MS DOS 2.00 or higher. MIMS was developed in 1987.

  2. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has already a large impact on the availability of water resources. Many regions in South-East Asia are assumed to receive less water in the future, dramatically impacting the production of the most important staple food: rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice is the primary food source for nearly half of the World's population, and is the only cereal that can grow under wetland conditions. Especially anaerobic (flooded) rice fields require high amounts of water but also have higher yields than aerobic produced rice. In the past different methods were developed to reduce the water use in rice paddies, like alternative wetting and drying or the use of mixed cropping systems with aerobic (non-flooded) rice and alternative crops such as maize. A more detailed understanding of water and nutrient cycling in rice-based cropping systems is needed to reduce water use, and requires the investigation of hydrological and biochemical processes as well as transport dynamics at the field scale. New developments in analytical devices permit monitoring parameters at high temporal resolutions and at acceptable costs without much necessary maintenance or analysis over longer periods. Here we present a new type of automatic sampling set-up that facilitates in situ analysis of hydrometric information, stable water isotopes and nitrate concentrations in spatially differentiated agricultural fields. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The whole system is maintained with special developed software for remote control of the system via internet. We

  3. Teaching Geographic Information Systems in a Soil Physics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, H. D.; Smith, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the use of geographic information system (GIS) technology in the laboratory section of an upper-level college course in soil physics. The laboratory includes a lecture portion that provides an introduction to GIS and selected applications to soil science, agriculture, and environmental sciences. (LZ)

  4. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS) for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines) in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system's technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season. PMID:24366178

  5. Set up of an automatic water quality sampling system in irrigation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS) for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines) in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system's technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season. PMID:24366178

  6. Simulating The SSF Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Govind K.; Kleine, Henry; Younger, Joseph C.; Sanders, Felicia A.; Smith, Jeffrey L.; Aster, Robert W.; Olivieri, Jerry M.; Paul, Lori L.

    1993-01-01

    Freedom Operations Simulation Test (FROST) computer program simulates operation of SSF information system, tracking every packet of data from generation to destination, for both uplinks and downlinks. Collects various statistics concerning operation of system and provides reports of statistics at intervals specified by user. FROST also incorporates graphical-display capability to enhance interpretation of these statistics. Written in SIMSCRIPT 11.5.

  7. Information Retrieval Systems for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiden, Peggy; Kibbey, Mark

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of information retrieval software and examines several capabilities of two systems, SIRE and ZyINDEX--creating a database, indexing the database, maintaining the database, and searching the database. Each system's strengths and weaknesses in bibliographic record and full text applications are analyzed. A glossary is…

  8. Descriptions and Source Listings of Professional Information in Agricultural Education, 1966-67, 1967-68, and 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Professional Information Committee.

    These annotated bibliographies contain a total of 449 references of professional information in agricultural education published annually. References are organized under headings of: (1) Agricultural Mechanics, (2) Animal Science, (3) Conservation and Forestry, (4) Curriculum Development and Course of Study, (5) Farm Business Management and…

  9. Case Analysis of Farm Agriculture Machinery Informatization Management Network System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Xi; Zhuang, Weidong

    In the process of China's agricultural modernization, especially agricultural machinery modernization, in terms of equipment, we've chose the way that foreign imports (and domestic research) with the combination of self-developed, in the software, it is difficult to fully apply this approach, the specific reasons are: the modernization of China's agriculture development model is diversified, it is difficult to find a unified management model, even in the scale of operations of the representative state-owned farms and the abroad farms are also very different management models. Due to various types of growth models of biological complexity, diverse climatic and geographical environment factors, coupled with the characteristics such as long cycle of agricultural production, high input, high-risk, and decentralized management, industrial management mode it is very difficult to apply. Moreover, the application of modern management tools is also difficult to quantify the benefits, leading to the current research and application are in a state of comparatively dropped behind.

  10. To establish pilot projects for agriculture renewable energy systems.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Holden, Tim [D-PA-17

    2010-09-29

    11/16/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Biotechnology, Specialty Crops, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Integration of agricultural and energy system models for biofuel assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a coupled modeling framework to capture the dynamic linkages between agricultural and energy markets that have been enhanced through the expansion of biofuel production, as well as the environmental impacts resulting from this expansion. The framework incorpor...

  12. Forest Resource Information System (FRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The technological and economical feasibility of using multispectral digital image data as acquired from the LANDSAT satellites in an ongoing operational forest information system was evaluated. Computer compatible multispectral scanner data secured from the LANDSAT satellites were demonstrated to be a significant contributor to ongoing information systems by providing the added dimensions of synoptic and repeat coverage of the Earth's surface. Major forest cover types of conifer, deciduous, mixed conifer-deciduous and non-forest, were classified well within the bounds of the statistical accuracy of the ground sample. Further, when overlayed with existing maps, the acreage of cover type retains a high level of positional integrity. Maps were digitized by a graphics design system, overlayed and registered onto LANDSAT imagery such that the map data with associated attributes were displayed on the image. Once classified, the analysis results were converted back to map form as a cover type of information. Existing tabular information as represented by inventory is registered geographically to the map base through a vendor provided data management system. The notion of a geographical reference base (map) providing the framework to which imagery and tabular data bases are registered and where each of the three functions of imagery, maps and inventory can be accessed singly or in combination is the very essence of the forest resource information system design.

  13. Adaptation to Interannual and Interdecadal Climate Variability in Agricultural Production Systems of the Argentine Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podestá, G. P.; Bert, F.; Weber, E.; Laciana, C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Letson, D.

    2007-05-01

    Agricultural ecosystems play a central role in world food production and food security, and involve one of the most climate-sensitive sectors of society-agriculture. We focus on crop production in the Argentine Pampas, one of the world's major agricultural regions. Climate of the Pampas shows marked variability at both interannual and decadal time scales. We explored the scope for adaptive management in response to climate information on interannual scales. We show that different assumptions about what decision makers are trying to achieve (i.e., their objective functions) may change what actions are considered as "optimal" for a given climate context. Optimal actions also were used to estimate the economic value of forecasts of an ENSO phase. Decision constraints (e.g., crop rotations) have critical influence on value of the forecasting system. Gaps in knowledge or misconceptions about climate variability were identified in open-ended "mental model" interviews. Results were used to design educational interventions. A marked increase in precipitation since the 1970s, together with new production technologies, led to major changes in land use patterns in the Pampas. Continuous cropping has widely replaced agriculture-pasture rotations. Nevertheless, production systems that evolved partly in response to increased rainfall may not be viable if climate reverts to a drier epoch. We use historical data to define a range of plausible climate trajectories 20-30 years hence. Regional scenarios are downscaled using semi-parametric weather generators to produce multiple realizations of daily weather consistent with decadal scenarios. Finally, we use the synthetic climate, crop growth models, and realistic models of decision-making under risk to compute risk metrics (e.g., probability of yields or profits being below a threshold). Climatically optimal and marginal locations show differential responses: probabilities of negative economic results are much higher in currently

  14. Evolution of toxicology information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wassom, J.S.; Lu, P.Y.

    1990-12-31

    Society today is faced with new health risk situations that have been brought about by recent scientific and technical advances. Federal and state governments are required to assess the many potential health risks to exposed populations from the products (chemicals) and by-products (pollutants) of these advances. Because a sound analysis of any potential health risk should be based on the use of relevant information, it behooves those individuals responsible for making the risk assessments to know where to obtain needed information. This paper reviews the origins of toxicology information systems and explores the specialized information center concept that was proposed in 1963 as a means of providing ready access to scientific and technical information. As a means of illustrating this concept, the operation of one specialized information center (the Environmental Mutagen Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will be discussed. Insights into how toxicological information resources came into being, their design and makeup, will be of value to those seeking to acquire information for risk assessment purposes. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  16. Development of a UAV system for VNIR-TIR acquisitions in precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misopolinos, L.; Zalidis, Ch.; Liakopoulos, V.; Stavridou, D.; Katsigiannis, P.; Alexandridis, T. K.; Zalidis, G.

    2015-06-01

    Adoption of precision agriculture techniques requires the development of specialized tools that provide spatially distributed information. Both flying platforms and airborne sensors are being continuously evolved to cover the needs of plant and soil sensing at affordable costs. Due to restrictions in payload, flying platforms are usually limited to carry a single sensor on board. The aim of this work is to present the development of a vertical take-off and landing autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (VTOL UAV) system for the simultaneous acquisition of high resolution vertical images at the visible, near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths. A system was developed that has the ability to trigger two cameras simultaneously with a fully automated process and no pilot intervention. A commercial unmanned hexacopter UAV platform was optimized to increase reliability, ease of operation and automation. The designed systems communication platform is based on a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processor running Linux OS with custom developed drivers in an efficient way, while keeping the cost and weight to a minimum. Special software was also developed for the automated image capture, data processing and on board data and metadata storage. The system was tested over a kiwifruit field in northern Greece, at flying heights of 70 and 100m above the ground. The acquired images were mosaicked and geo-corrected. Images from both flying heights were of good quality and revealed unprecedented detail within the field. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was calculated along with the thermal image in order to provide information on the accurate location of stressors and other parameters related to the crop productivity. Compared to other available sources of data, this system can provide low cost, high resolution and easily repeatable information to cover the requirements of precision agriculture.

  17. Water quality modeling using geographic information system (GIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Bernard A

    1992-01-01

    Protection of the environment and natural resources at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is of great concern. The potential for surface and ground water quality problems resulting from non-point sources of pollution was examined using models. Since spatial variation of parameters required was important, geographic information systems (GIS) and their data were used. The potential for groundwater contamination was examined using the SEEPAGE (System for Early Evaluation of the Pollution Potential of Agricultural Groundwater Environments) model. A watershed near the VAB was selected to examine potential for surface water pollution and erosion using the AGNPS (Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution) model.

  18. Simulating semiarid dryland cropping systems using the precision agricultural landscape modeling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS) is a terrain and weather driven, and distributed parameter hydrological-biophysical model primarily used in the Midwestern United States. Recently, research was started to evaluate the effectiveness of PALMS on irrigated and on dryland cro...

  19. Using a Decision Support System to Optimize Production of Agricultural Crop Residue Biofeedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Reed L. Hoskinson; Ronald C. Rope; Raymond K. Fink

    2007-04-01

    For several years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) which determines the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field to produce a crop, based on the existing soil fertility at each site, as well as historic production information and current prices of fertilizers and the forecast market price of the crop at harvest, for growing a crop such as wheat, potatoes, corn, or cotton. In support of the growing interest in agricultural crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, we have extended the capability of the DSS4Ag to develop a variable-rate fertilizer recipe for the simultaneous economically optimum production of both grain and straw, and have been conducting field research to test this new DSS4Ag. In this paper we report the results of two years of field research testing and enhancing the DSS4Ag’s ability to economically optimize the fertilization for the simultaneous production of both grain and its straw, where the straw is an agricultural crop residue that can be used as a biofeedstock.

  20. Integrated Information Systems. Course Six. Information Systems Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Sharon Lund; Everett, Donna R.

    This course is the sixth of seven in the Information Systems curriculum. The purpose of the course is to build on skills acquired in the earlier courses and to provide the student with skills that enable him/her to function as a resource person. Its focus is on concepts, applications, and skills as well as on equipment familiarity needed to…

  1. Using Innovative Information Systems Techniques To Teach Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimi, Carl J.; Gordon, Gene M.

    This paper discusses a number of innovative techniques that were used to teach courses in Information Systems to undergraduate and graduate students. While none of these techniques is individually innovative, the combination of techniques provides a true "hands-on" environment for students; because of the way that the components of the courses are…

  2. [National public health information system].

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Stevanović, Ranko; Babić-Erceg, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Information production and its communication being a key public health activity, developing modern information systems is a precondition for its fulfilling these assignments. A national public health information system (NPHIS) is a set of human resources combined with computing and communication technologies. It enables data linkage and data coverage as well as undertaking information production and dissemination in an effective, standardized and safe way. The Croatian Institute of Public Health LAN/WAN modules are under development. Health Safety System, Health Workers Registry, and Digital Library are among the Institute's developmental priorities. Communication between NPHIS participants would unfold over the Internet by using every relevant data protection method. Web technology-based applications would be run on special servers. Between individual applications, use would be made of the transaction module of communication through an exchange of the HL7 standard-based xml messages. In the conditions of transition, the health system must make an optimal use of the resources, which is not feasible without applying modern information and communication technologies. PMID:16095199

  3. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, D.; Steingass, H.; Nolfi, J.

    1981-10-01

    The results of a month-long study in Nigeria conducted in February 1981 are detailed. The study was aimed at assessing in the 1981 to 1986 market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture. Information on technically and economically feasible applications, and assessments of business, government and financial climate for photovoltaic sales are provided. The study concluded that the market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems will be large, the primary reasons being the availability of capital and the high premium placed on high reliability, low maintenance power systems. A market exists for such agricultural/rural applications as: micro-irrigation, veterinary units, grain grinding, dryers, produce coolers, ice makers, water/boreholes, and health, education and extension services. Other markets with high PV sales potential include: remote local government centers, public and private communication systems, TV battery chargers, domestic power supply and cathodic protection. The potential market for photovoltaics in the 1981 to 1986 time frame is estimated at about 1.9 to 4.7 MW. The major purchaser in the near-term would be the federal and state governments.

  4. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  5. The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Zareen; Pretty, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter–gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods by agricultural and forager communities in 22 countries of Asia and Africa (36 studies) is 90–100 species per location. Aggregate country estimates can reach 300–800 species (e.g. India, Ethiopia, Kenya). The mean use of wild species is 120 per community for indigenous communities in both industrialized and developing countries. Many of these wild foods are actively managed, suggesting there is a false dichotomy around ideas of the agricultural and the wild: hunter–gatherers and foragers farm and manage their environments, and cultivators use many wild plants and animals. Yet, provision of and access to these sources of food may be declining as natural habitats come under increasing pressure from development, conservation-exclusions and agricultural expansion. Despite their value, wild foods are excluded from official statistics on economic values of natural resources. It is clear that wild plants and animals continue to form a significant proportion of the global food basket, and while a variety of social and ecological drivers are acting to reduce wild food use, their importance may be set to grow as pressures on agricultural productivity increase. PMID:20713393

  6. Can Climate Information be relevant to decision making for Agriculture on the 1-10 year timescale? Case studies from southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    Climate forecasts have been developed to assist decision making in sectors averse to, and affected by, climate risks, and agriculture is one of those. In agriculture and food security, climate information is now used on a range of timescales, from days (weather), months (seasonal outlooks) to decades (climate change scenarios). Former researchers have shown that when seasonal climate forecast information was provided to farmers prior to decision making, farmers adapted by changing their choice of planting seeds and timing or area planted. However, it is not always clear that the end-users' needs for climate information are met and there might be a large gap between information supplied and needed. It has been pointed out that even when forecasts were available, they were often not utilized by farmers and extension services because of lack of trust in the forecast or the forecasts did not reach the targeted farmers. Many studies have focused on the use of either seasonal forecasts or longer term climate change prediction, but little research has been done on the medium term, that is, 1 to 10 year future climate information. The agriculture and food system sector is one potential user of medium term information, as land use policy and cropping systems selection may fall into this time scale and may affect farmers' decision making process. Assuming that reliable information is provided and it is utilized by farmers for decision making, it might contribute to resilient farming and indeed to longer term food security. To this end, we try to determine the effect of medium term climate information on farmers' strategic decision making process. We explored the end-users' needs for climate information and especially the possible role of medium term information in agricultural system, by conducting interview surveys with farmers and agricultural experts. In this study, the cases of apple production in South Africa, maize production in Malawi and rice production in Tanzania

  7. Mass Storage Performance Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop a data warehouse to enable system administrators and their managers to gather information by querying the data logs of the MDSDS. Currently detailed logs capture the activity of the MDSDS internal to the different systems. The elements to be included in the data warehouse are requirements analysis, data cleansing, database design, database population, hardware/software acquisition, data transformation, query and report generation, and data mining.

  8. Ultimate drivers of native biodiversity change in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Norton, David A; Reid, Nick; Young, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to address land degradation and biodiversity loss while maintaining the production of plant and animal products is a key global challenge. Biodiversity decline as a result of vegetation clearance, cultivation, grazing, pesticide and herbicide application, and plantation establishment, amongst other factors, has been widely documented in agricultural ecosystems. In this paper we identify six ultimate drivers that underlie these proximate factors and hence determine what native biodiversity occurs in modern agricultural landscapes; (1) historical legacies; (2) environmental change; (3) economy; (4) social values and awareness; (5) technology and knowledge; and (6) policy and regulation. While historical legacies and environmental change affect native biodiversity directly, all six indirectly affect biodiversity by influencing the decisions that land managers make about the way they use their land and water resources. Understanding these drivers is essential in developing strategies for sustaining native biodiversity in agricultural landscapes into the future. PMID:26834971

  9. Evaluating the Performance of a Soil Moisture Data Assimilation System for Agricultural Drought Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Crow, W. T.; Holmes, T. R.; Bolten, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Despite considerable interest in the application of land surface data assimilation systems (LDAS) for agricultural drought applications, relatively little is known about the large-scale performance of such systems and, thus, the optimal methodological approach for implementing them. To address this need, we evaluates a soil moisture assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring by benchmarking each component of the system (i.e., a satellite soil moisture retrieval algorithm, a soil water balance model and a sequential data assimilation filter) against a series of linear models which perform the same function (i.e., have the same basic inputs/output) as the full component. Lagged soil moisture/NDVI correlations obtained using individual LDAS components versus their linear analogs reveal the degree to which non-linearities and/or complexities contained within each component actually contribute to the performance of the LDAS system as a whole. Here, a particular system based on surface soil moisture retrievals from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), a two-layer Palmer soil water balance model and an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is benchmarked. Results suggest significant room for improvement in each component of the system. First, the non-linear LPRM retrieval algorithm does not appear to add much additional predictive information for future NDVI compared to the simple linear benchmark model comprised of initial AMSR-E observations (horizontally and vertically polarized brightness temperatures and surface temperature). Second, the Palmer model performed worse than the purely linear prognostic model (Antecedent Precipitation Index model) in predicting future vegetation condition. This result points out that the saturation threshold of soil layers in the modern LSMs for runoff generation hinders maximum utilization of meteorological input information for agricultural drought monitoring. As to the assimilation algorithm, better performance of the

  10. Music Information Services System (MISS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Paladugu V.

    Music Information Services System (MISS) was developed at the Eastern Illinois University Library to manage the sound recording collection. Operating in a batch mode, MISS keeps track of the inventory of sound recordings, generates necessary catalogs to facilitate the use of the sound recordings, and provides specialized bibliographies of sound…

  11. Policy Information System Computer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Roger E.; And Others

    The concepts and methodologies outlined in "A Policy Information System for Vocational Education" are presented in a simple computer format in this booklet. It also contains a sample output representing 5-year projections of various planning needs for vocational education. Computerized figures in the eight areas corresponding to those in the…

  12. TITLE V INFORMATION SYSTEM (TVIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title V is administered by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) as part of the Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Title V Information System (TVIS) electronically captures data from annual Title V Block Grant app...

  13. Learning Information Systems: Theoretical Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Terrance D.

    This paper uses the conceptual framework of cybernetics to understand why learning information systems such as the "Accelerated Reader" work so successfully, and to examine how this simple yet incisive concept can be used to accelerate learning at every level and in all disciplines. The first section, "Basic Concepts," discusses the cybernetic…

  14. Information Systems, Security, and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    1984-01-01

    Computer security and computer privacy issues are discussed. Among the areas addressed are technical and human security threats, security and privacy issues for information in electronic mail systems, the need for a national commission to examine these issues, and security/privacy issues relevant to colleges and universities. (JN)

  15. Advisement and Graduation Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Harold; And Others

    This descriptive report outlines Miami-Dade Community College's Advisement and Graduate Information System (AGIS) which, as an on-line computer aid for counseling staff, monitors students' progress in degree attainment. The need for AGIS is discussed first, in terms of: (1) the college's commitment to providing students with adequate information…

  16. Information Systems: Fact or Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearley, William

    Rising costs of programming and program maintenance have caused discussion concerning the need for generalized information systems. These would provide data base functions plus complete report writing and file maintenance capabilities. All administrative applications, including online registration, student records, and financial applications are…

  17. Outline of an environmental information system.

    PubMed

    Fraser, A S; Hodgson, K

    1995-07-01

    The development of an environmental information system necessitates a phased implementation approach. Phase 1 includes the elements that are traditionally viewed as comprising monitoring and assessment activities. Analysis tools for interpretive work are identified including statistics, modelling, and GIS. Phase 2 follows the information flow beyond project reporting to examine the process of decision making. The inclusion of other forms of knowledge beyond the strictly scientific is necessary where the development of multi-sectoral decisions must be made. Phase 3 extends the decision-making process to the policy development and implementation field. This is accomplished by the inclusion of expert systems as advanced decision support systems which enable the manager to test various hypotheses and policy options prior to commitment. In addressing water resource issues, the importance of setting achievable and enforceable sectoral criteria and standards for industrial, agricultural, and drinking water supplies is discussed with reference to both usage and effluent criteria. Quality assurance and control is an area which must be critically addressed in any water resource project. The implementation of quality control programs must extend from the field sampling procedures and laboratory standard methods to both inter- and intra-laboratory tests and the development and maintenance of databases. PMID:24197777

  18. Water Governance and Adaptation to Disturbances in Irrigated Semi-Arid Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. P.; McCord, P. F.; McBride, L.; Gower, D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate and other physical drivers of environmental systems are modifying the global availability of water for irrigation. At the same time population growth is placing an increased demand on water resources as local municipalities promote agricultural production as a mechanism to support human welfare and development. Substantial has research focused on household-level agricultural decision-making and adaptation. But equally important are institutional dynamics, or the rules implemented to allocate water resources across different user groups. Previous work has identified design principles for common-pool resource systems that tend to lead to sustained governance regimes. Likewise, past research has addressed the issue of "institutional fit", or locally adapted governance arrangements characterized through governance structure. However, much of the complexity behind institutional dynamics and adaptive capacity lies in the translation of data to information to knowledge, and how this sequence contributes to effective cross-scale water management and decision-making - an arena that has arguably received less attention in the water management literature. We investigate the interplay between governance regimes, data/information and institutional dynamics in irrigation systems in semi-arid regions of Kenya. In particular, we articulate the role of knowledge and data in institutional dynamics at multiple levels of analysis. How do users at different decision-making levels incorporate social and hydrological information in water governance? What data is needed to develop the information and knowledge users need for effective management? While governance structure is certainly a critical component of water management systems - we emphasize the interplay between the data-information-knowledge sequence and institutional dynamics. We present findings from household and manager-level surveys examining irrigation practices and the institutions designed to equitably allocate

  19. Successes and challenges in a novel doctoral program in systems agriculture: a case example.

    PubMed

    Lust, D; Topliff, D; Deotte, R

    2010-01-01

    A doctoral program in Systems Agriculture was initiated at West Texas A&M University, Canyon, TX, in September, 2003. The stated objective of the program was "..to prepare leaders for the agricultural industry that are trained in a multidisciplinary, research-based curriculum that emphasizes a systems approach to problem solving". The program offers a single doctoral degree in Agriculture and accepts qualified students with a master's or professional degree in agricultural or related disciplines. Courses related to systems methodologies, leadership, agricultural economics, plant and soil science, and animal science are required. Additional program requirements include a systems research project and dissertation, leadership training, and written and oral exams. The program has exceeded enrollment and graduation targets, suggesting interest in this approach to a doctoral degree. Students have entered the program with M.S. backgrounds in education, traditional agricultural disciplines, veterinary medicine, business, and physics. Graduates have gained employment in industry, university teaching and research, government research/administration, and extension. Doctoral student projects in systems agriculture contributed to curriculum changes and to the conceptual framework adopted by a multi-state research group. Designing and teaching courses for students with diverse backgrounds has been challenging. Development of a common understanding of systems agriculture was identified by a third-party program review as an issue for faculty. Development and maintenance of program standards and administrative procedures posed additional challenges. Leadership, administrative support, and timely and continuing program assessment are suggested as necessary components for a nontraditional doctoral program. PMID:20491404

  20. Database Systems. Course Three. Information Systems Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Sharon Lund; Everett, Donna R.

    This course is the third of seven in the Information Systems curriculum. The purpose of the course is to familiarize students with database management concepts and standard database management software. Databases and their roles, advantages, and limitations are explained. An overview of the course sets forth the condition and performance standard…

  1. Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A final progress report is presented on the Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS). The primary purpose of the CSIS is to demonstrate and evaluate real time interactive computerized data collection, interpretation and display techniques as applied to severe weather forecasting. CSIS objectives pertaining to improved severe storm forecasting and warning systems are outlined. The positive impact that CSIS has had on the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) is discussed. The benefits of interactive processing systems on the forecasting ability of the NSSFC are described.

  2. PROMIS (Procurement Management Information System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The PROcurement Management Information System (PROMIS) provides both detailed and summary level information on all procurement actions performed within NASA's procurement offices at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It provides not only on-line access, but also schedules procurement actions, monitors their progress, and updates Forecast Award Dates. Except for a few computational routines coded in FORTRAN, the majority of the systems is coded in a high level language called NATURAL. A relational Data Base Management System called ADABAS is utilized. Certain fields, called descriptors, are set up on each file to allow the selection of records based on a specified value or range of values. The use of like descriptors on different files serves as the link between the falls, thus producing a relational data base. Twenty related files are currently being maintained on PROMIS.

  3. Sustainable uses of FGD gypsum in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil/water quality has recently increased. Abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur (S) from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants, in major agricultural...

  4. Nitrogen in agricultural systems: Implications for conservation policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen is an important agricultural input that is critical for providing food to feed a growing world population. However, the introduction of large amount of reactive nitrogen into the environment has a number of undesirable impacts on water, terrestrial, and atmospheric resources. Careful manage...

  5. Interactions in Integrated Agricultural Systems: The Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 20th century, American agriculture underwent dramatic changes. At the beginning, farms were more diverse, dependent on animal traction, on-farm inputs and income, and after initial land grants nearly independent of government policy. Subsequently, social/political, economic, environmental...

  6. Landscape context and plant community composition in grazed agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate humid grazinglands are an important component of the landscape of the northeastern Unites States. Grass-based agriculture is a major contributor to the economy of this region, but little is known about the basic ecology of these grazinglands. During an eight-year survey of 28 farms across ...

  7. CHEMICALS, RUNOFF, AND EROSION FROM AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - CREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CREAMS model can simulate pollutant movement on and from a field site, including such constituents as fertilizers (N and P), pesticides, and sediment. The effects of various agricultural practices can be assessed by simulation of the potential water, soil, nutrient, and pesti...

  8. Multifunctional systems approaches to water management for agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of anthropogenic chemicals on water quality, wildlife, and human health has received increasing attention in recent years. One potential source of anthropogenic compounds is land-based recycling programs which apply municipal wastes (biosolids) to large tracts of agricultural land in lie...

  9. Environmental Services from Agricultural Stormwater Detention Systems in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Knowles, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural Stormwater Detention Areas (ADAs) commonly exist for the purpose of downstream flood protection in high water table regions of Florida. In addition to flood protection, they are also considered an important Best Management Practice due to their presumed effectiveness in reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to the Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades (KLE) ecosystem. The KLE ecosystem has been adversely impacted due to excessive P loads. Despite their presumed water quality effectiveness, limited data exist on actual N and P treatment efficiencies. A study was conducted at two ADAs (ADA 1 and ADA 2) located in two row crop farms to quantify the total N and P treatment efficiencies. Water, N, and P inflow and outflows at both ADAs were monitored for a year. Results from ADA 1 suggested that P treatment efficiency was below zero indicating that the ADA was a source of P rather than a sink. On the other hand, N treatment efficiency was found to be 20%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 1 were 1.6 and 1.4 mg/l respectively, indicating a 9% reduction. Mean inflow and outflow P concentrations were 0.04 and 0.06 mg/l respectively, showing an increase of 67%. Although ADA 1 was effective in retaining N it was not for P. In contrast to ADA 1, the P treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was positive (20%). Nitrogen treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was 22%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 2 were 4.0 and 2.0 mg/l respectively, indicating 50% reduction. A reduction of 32% was observed for P concentrations with mean inflow and outflow P concentrations of 0.5 and 0.3 mg/l respectively. No P retention at ADA 1 was mainly due to low P adsorption capacity of the soil. Analysis of surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-20 cm) soil P retention characteristics suggested that ADA 1 had no remaining P storage capacity which resulted in it being a source of P. At ADA 2, a large fraction of the area still had P storage capacity which resulted in

  10. 77 FR 28625 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the Agricultural and Food Processing Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... agricultural workers. In situations where an adequate supply of workers does not exist locally, agricultural... opening with the State Workforce Agency (SWA) for recruiting temporary agricultural workers. The... job opening with the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) for recruiting temporary agricultural workers...

  11. Fisher Information in Ecological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.

    Fisher information is being increasingly used as a tool of research into ecological systems. For example the information was shown in Chapter 7 to provide a useful diagnostic of the health of an ecology. In other applications to ecology, extreme physical information (EPI) has been used to derive the population-rate (or Lotka-Volterra) equations of ecological systems, both directly [1] and indirectly (Chapter 5) via the quantum Schrodinger wave equation (SWE). We next build on these results, to derive (i) an uncertainty principle (8.3) of biology, (ii) a simple decision rule (8.18) for predicting whether a given ecology is susceptible to a sudden drop in population (Section 8.1), (iii) the probability law (8.57) or (8.59) on the worldwide occurrence of the masses of living creatures from mice to elephants and beyond (Section 8.2), and (iv) the famous quarter-power laws for the attributes of biological and other systems. The latter approach uses EPI to derive the simultaneous quarter-power behavior of all attributes obeyed by the law, such as metabolism rate, brain size, grazing range, etc. (Section 8.3). This maximal breadth of scope is allowed by its basis in information, which of course applies to all types of quantitative data (Section 1.4.3, Chapter 1).

  12. NEIS (NASA Environmental Information System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Beth

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) is a tool to support the functions of the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET). The NEIS is designed to provide a central environmental technology resource drawing on all NASA centers' capabilities, and to support program managers who must ultimately deliver hardware compliant with performance specifications and environmental requirements. The NEIS also tracks environmental regulations, usages of materials and processes, and new technology developments. It has proven to be a useful instrument for channeling information throughout the aerospace community, NASA, other federal agencies, educational institutions, and contractors. The associated paper will discuss the dynamic databases within the NEIS, and the usefulness it provides for environmental compliance efforts.

  13. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  14. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  15. The risk assessment information system

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, S.B.; Bonczek, R.R.; McGinn, C.W.; Land, M.L.; Bloom, L.D.; Sample, B.E.; Dolislager, F.G.

    1998-06-01

    In an effort to provide service-oriented environmental risk assessment expertise, the Department of Energy (DOE) Center for Risk Excellence (CRE) and DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) are sponsoring Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a web-based system for disseminating risk tools and information to its users. This system, the Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS), was initially developed to support the site-specific needs of the DOE-ORO Environmental Restoration Risk Assessment Program. With support from the CRE, the system is currently being expanded to benefit all DOE risk information users and can be tailored to meet site-specific needs. Taking advantage of searchable and executable databases, menu-driven queries, and data downloads, using the latest World Wide Web technologies, the RAIS offers essential tools that are used in the risk assessment process or anywhere from project scoping to implementation. The RAIS tools can be located directly at http://risk.lsd.ornl.gov/homepage/rap{_}tool.htm or through the CRE`s homepage at http://www.doe.gov/riskcenter/home.html.

  16. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes. PMID:26484978

  17. National Soil Information System in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emrah Erdogan, Hakki; Sahin, Mehmet; Sahin, Yuksel

    2013-04-01

    Land consolidation (LC) represents complexity if management, legal, economic and technical procedures realized in order to adjust the land structure according to actual human preferences and needs. It includes changes in ownership rights to land and other real estate property, exchange of parcels among owners, changes in parcel borders, parcel size and shape, joining and dividing of parcels, changes in land use, construction works as roads, bridges, water changes etc.. Since the subject of LC is agricultural lands, the quality of consolidation depends on the quality of soil data. General Directorate of Agrarian Reform (GDAR) is the responsible institution on land consolidation whole of Turkey. Under GDAR, National Soil Information System (NSIS) has been build up with base soil data in relevant scale (1:5000). NSIS contain detailed information on soil chemical and physical properties, current land use, parent material, land capability class, Storie Index Values. SI were used on land consolidation, land use planning and farm development services. LCC was used for land distribution, rental land; define of village settlement, consolidation, expropriation, reconstruction, reclamation, non-agricultural usage. LCC were also specified to subclasses in four different limited factors as i) flow and erosion risk ii) requirement of drainage and soil moisture iii) Limits of soil tillage and root (shallow soils, low water retention capacity, stony, salty .etc) iv) climatic limits. In this study, digital soil survey and mapping project located in Yumurtalik, Adana is presented as an example of NSIS data structure. The project cover an area of 45709 ha that include crop lands as an area of 28528 ha and other land use (urban, roads..etc) as an area of 17181 ha. Soil profiles were described in 45 different points and totally 1279 soil samples were collected in field study and the check bore hole were made in 3170 points.

  18. Application of the Doppler lidar system to agricultural burning and air-sea interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, D.

    1980-01-01

    The Doppler lidar system is potentially a very powerful measurement system. Three areas concerning the system are discussed: (1) error analysis of the system to verify the results; (2) application of the system to agricultural burning in California central valley; and (3) oceanographic possibilities of the system.

  19. Efficacy of Indexing and Abstracting Services for the Dissemination of Agricultural Information Resources in the Institure for Agricultural Research Library, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, KASA, M.

    2012-10-01

    The efficacy of Indexing and Abstracting service for effective organization, storage and retrieval of information resources for agricultural research in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria necessitated examining the situation in Agricultural Library, Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru. The study examines the processes, awareness and problems militating against the effective exploitation of the indexing and abstracting services in the Agricultural library established in 1975. The study was conducted ex post facto, data collected span from 2006 ñ 2010. Total sample sizes of 752 patrons and 20,236 intellectually indexed and abstracted resources were involved in the study. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that a total of 644 articles were indexed and abstracted, 35% of these was done in 2010. Results for awareness show 452 (60.11%) to be aware in 2008. A total 584 articles were indexed and abstracted from which 167 (28.59%) was retrieved in 2006. Patrons, 270 (35.90%) attributed the poor use of the service to assumption it is a referral unit. The hypothesis testing revealed that there is significant association between articles indexed and abstracted with information consulted by patrons (?2cal,100.31>?2tab,9.488) at 5% level of probability and df, 4. In conclusion, enormous documents on Nigerian agriculture are indexed and abstracted in the unit, implying that the service is desirous and consistent. The study recommends that the unit should explore the use of modern technology, employ a permanent subject specialist, train and retrain the unit staff as well as intensify it general orientation campaigns to focus on awareness and use of the indexing and abstracting services.

  20. Sustaining the Earth's Watersheds-Agricultural Research Data System: Data development, user interaction, and operations management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To support the Agricultural Research Service’s Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in assessing USDA conservation programs and practices on soil and water quality, a publicly available web-based watershed data system, called Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data Sy...

  1. Agricultural Extension, Collective Action and Innovation Systems: Lessons on Network Brokering from Peru and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellin, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: New approaches to extension service delivery are needed that stimulate increased agricultural production, contribute to collective action and which also foster the emergence of agricultural innovation systems. Research in Peru and Mexico explores some of these new approaches. Design/methodology/approach: In both countries, a qualitative…

  2. Exploring Agricultural Production Systems and Their Fundmental Components With Dynamic Modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is changing due to transitions in consumer demands, input costs, and concerns for food safety and the environment. Agricultural systems are comprised of multidimensional components, are quantitative and qualitative, and interact in complex ways. We developed a dynamic modeling environmen...

  3. Building an Agricultural Extension Services System Supported by ICTs in Tanzania: Progress Made, Challenges Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanga, C.; Kalungwizi, V. J.; Msuya, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    The conventional agricultural extension service in Tanzania is mainly provided by extension officers visiting farmers to provide agricultural advisory service. This system of extension service provision faces a number of challenges including the few number of extension officers and limited resources. This article assesses the effectiveness of an…

  4. Which Advisory System to Support Innovation in Conservation Agriculture? The Case of Madagascar's Lake Alaotra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faure, Guy; Penot, Eric; Rakotondravelo, Jean Chrysostome; Ramahatoraka, Haja Andrisoa; Dugue, Patrick; Toillier, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To promote sustainable agriculture, various development projects are encouraging farmers around Madagascar's Lake Alaotra to adopt conservation agriculture techniques. This article's objective is to analyze the capacity of a project-funded advisory system to accompany such an innovation and to design and implement an advisory method aimed…

  5. Integrated crop–livestock systems: Strategies to achieve synergy between agricultural production and environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world for food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce agriculture’s negative environmental impacts. We suggest that a cause of this dichotomy is loss of diversity within agricultural systems at field, farm and landscape scales....

  6. Higher Agricultural Universities Serve for "Sannong" by Offering English Human Resources Support System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Youqin; Cheng, Baole

    2008-01-01

    This paper puts higher agricultural English education how to serve for "Sannong" construction as priority, combining the actual market demand, based on teaching reform in the past few years, tries to explore English nurturing model and curriculum system for real delivery the agriculture-related qualified foreign language professionals.…

  7. State of science of phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  8. Image and information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places hot spots, or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  9. Image and information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places ''hot spots'', or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  10. Information management systems for pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Thallinger, Gerhard G; Trajanoski, Slave; Stocker, Gernot; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2002-09-01

    The value of high-throughput genomic research is dramatically enhanced by association with key patient data. These data are generally available but of disparate quality and not typically directly associated. A system that could bring these disparate data sources into a common resource connected with functional genomic data would be tremendously advantageous. However, the integration of clinical and accurate interpretation of the generated functional genomic data requires the development of information management systems capable of effectively capturing the data as well as tools to make that data accessible to the laboratory scientist or to the clinician. In this review these challenges and current information technology solutions associated with the management, storage and analysis of high-throughput data are highlighted. It is suggested that the development of a pharmacogenomic data management system which integrates public and proprietary databases, clinical datasets, and data mining tools embedded in a high-performance computing environment should include the following components: parallel processing systems, storage technologies, network technologies, databases and database management systems (DBMS), and application services. PMID:12223050

  11. Against the Grain: The Influence of Changing Agricultural Management on the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The rise of modern agriculture was one of the most transformative events in human history, and has forever changed our relationship to the natural world. By clearing tropical forests, practicing subsistence agriculture on marginal lands and intensifying industrialized farmland production, agricultural practices are changing the worldês landscapes in pervasive ways. In the past decade, we have made tremendous progress in monitoring agricultural expansion from satellites, and modeling associated environmental impacts. In the past decade, the Earth System Science research community has begun to recognize the importance of agricultural lands, particularly as they continue expanding at the expense of important natural ecosystems, potentially altering the planetês carbon cycle and climate. With the advent of new remote sensing and global modeling methods, several efforts have documented the expansion of agricultural lands, the corresponding loss of natural ecosystems, and how this may influence the earth system. But the geographic expansion of agricultural lands is not the whole story. While significant agricultural expansion (or extensification) has occurred in the past few decades, the intensification of agricultural practices Ð under the aegis of the -Green Revolution" Ð has dramatically altered the relationship between humans and environmental systems across the world. Simply put, many of the worldês existing agricultural lands are being used much more intensively as opportunities for agricultural expansion are being exhausted elsewhere. In the last 40 years, global agricultural production has more than doubled Ð although global cropland has increased by only 12% Ð mainly through the use of high yielding varieties of grain, increased reliance on irrigation, massive increases in chemical fertilization, and increased mechanization. Indeed, in the past 40 years there has been a 700% increase in global fertilizer use and a 70% increase in irrigated cropland area

  12. Assessing and Mapping Drought Vulnerability in Agricultural Systems - A case Study for Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slejko, M.; Gregorič, G.; Bergant, K.; Stanič, S.

    2010-09-01

    during their growing and ripening season. Geographical mapping was performed using Geographic Information System (GIS) software, which provides graphical presentation of the exposure of particular geographic areas to drought with spatial resolution of 100m in both longitude and latitude. The reliability of our vulnerability assessment model was checked through comparisons of its predictions to the data on agricultural damage in 2006, which were in good agreement.

  13. Applied Information Systems Research Program Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredekamp, Joe

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Applied Information Systems Research Program Workshop are presented. Topics covered include: the Earth Observing System Data and Information System; the planetary data system; Astrophysics Data System project review; OAET Computer Science and Data Systems Programs; the Center of Excellence in Space Data and Information Sciences; and CASIS background.

  14. Large-Scale Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Nicol; H. R. Ammerlahn; M. E. Goldsby; M. M. Johnson; D. E. Rhodes; A. S. Yoshimura

    2000-12-01

    Large enterprises are ever more dependent on their Large-Scale Information Systems (LSLS), computer systems that are distinguished architecturally by distributed components--data sources, networks, computing engines, simulations, human-in-the-loop control and remote access stations. These systems provide such capabilities as workflow, data fusion and distributed database access. The Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) contains many examples of LSIS components, a fact that motivates this research. However, most LSIS in use grew up from collections of separate subsystems that were not designed to be components of an integrated system. For this reason, they are often difficult to analyze and control. The problem is made more difficult by the size of a typical system, its diversity of information sources, and the institutional complexities associated with its geographic distribution across the enterprise. Moreover, there is no integrated approach for analyzing or managing such systems. Indeed, integrated development of LSIS is an active area of academic research. This work developed such an approach by simulating the various components of the LSIS and allowing the simulated components to interact with real LSIS subsystems. This research demonstrated two benefits. First, applying it to a particular LSIS provided a thorough understanding of the interfaces between the system's components. Second, it demonstrated how more rapid and detailed answers could be obtained to questions significant to the enterprise by interacting with the relevant LSIS subsystems through simulated components designed with those questions in mind. In a final, added phase of the project, investigations were made on extending this research to wireless communication networks in support of telemetry applications.

  15. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  16. The Co-Creation of Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomillion, David

    2013-01-01

    In information systems development, end-users have shifted in their role: from consumers of information to informants for requirements to developers of systems. This shift in the role of users has also changed how information systems are developed. Instead of systems developers creating specifications for software or end-users creating small…

  17. Regional scale cropland carbon budgets: evaluating a geospatial agricultural modeling system using inventory data

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Sahajpal, Ritvik; West, Tristram O.; Thomson, Allison M.; Xu, Min; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification and clear understanding of regional scale cropland carbon (C) cycling is critical for designing effective policies and management practices that can contribute toward stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, extrapolating site-scale observations to regional scales represents a major challenge confronting the agricultural modeling community. This study introduces a novel geospatial agricultural modeling system (GAMS) exploring the integration of the mechanistic Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, spatially-resolved data, surveyed management data, and supercomputing functions for cropland C budgets estimates. This modeling system creates spatially-explicit modeling units at a spatial resolution consistent with remotely-sensed crop identification and assigns cropping systems to each of them by geo-referencing surveyed crop management information at the county or state level. A parallel computing algorithm was also developed to facilitate the computationally intensive model runs and output post-processing and visualization. We evaluated GAMS against National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported crop yields and inventory estimated county-scale cropland C budgets averaged over 2000–2008. We observed good overall agreement, with spatial correlation of 0.89, 0.90, 0.41, and 0.87, for crop yields, Net Primary Production (NPP), Soil Organic C (SOC) change, and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), respectively. However, we also detected notable differences in the magnitude of NPP and NEE, as well as in the spatial pattern of SOC change. By performing crop-specific annual comparisons, we discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies between GAMS and the inventory method, such as data requirements, representation of agroecosystem processes, completeness and accuracy of crop management data, and accuracy of crop area representation. Based on these analyses, we further discuss strategies to improve GAMS by updating input

  18. Information Security and Integrity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs from the Information Security and Integrity Systems seminar held at the University of Houston-Clear Lake on May 15-16, 1990 are presented. A tutorial on computer security is presented. The goals of this tutorial are the following: to review security requirements imposed by government and by common sense; to examine risk analysis methods to help keep sight of forest while in trees; to discuss the current hot topic of viruses (which will stay hot); to examine network security, now and in the next year to 30 years; to give a brief overview of encryption; to review protection methods in operating systems; to review database security problems; to review the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book); to comment on formal verification methods; to consider new approaches (like intrusion detection and biometrics); to review the old, low tech, and still good solutions; and to give pointers to the literature and to where to get help. Other topics covered include security in software applications and development; risk management; trust: formal methods and associated techniques; secure distributed operating system and verification; trusted Ada; a conceptual model for supporting a B3+ dynamic multilevel security and integrity in the Ada runtime environment; and information intelligence sciences.

  19. Relative impacts of land-use, management intensity and fertilization on microbial community structure in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of agricultural land management practices on soil prokaryotic diversity have not been well described. Soil microbial communities under three agricultural management systems (conventionally tilled cropland, hayed pasture, and grazed pasture) and two fertilizer systems [inorganic fertilizer (I...

  20. Climate change induced transformations of agricultural systems: insights from a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclère, D.; Havlík, P.; Fuss, S.; Schmid, E.; Mosnier, A.; Walsh, B.; Valin, H.; Herrero, M.; Khabarov, N.; Obersteiner, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change might impact crop yields considerably and anticipated transformations of agricultural systems are needed in the coming decades to sustain affordable food provision. However, decision-making on transformational shifts in agricultural systems is plagued by uncertainties concerning the nature and geography of climate change, its impacts, and adequate responses. Locking agricultural systems into inadequate transformations costly to adjust is a significant risk and this acts as an incentive to delay action. It is crucial to gain insight into how much transformation is required from agricultural systems, how robust such strategies are, and how we can defuse the associated challenge for decision-making. While implementing a definition related to large changes in resource use into a global impact assessment modelling framework, we find transformational adaptations to be required of agricultural systems in most regions by 2050s in order to cope with climate change. However, these transformations widely differ across climate change scenarios: uncertainties in large-scale development of irrigation span in all continents from 2030s on, and affect two-thirds of regions by 2050s. Meanwhile, significant but uncertain reduction of major agricultural areas affects the Northern Hemisphere’s temperate latitudes, while increases to non-agricultural zones could be large but uncertain in one-third of regions. To help reducing the associated challenge for decision-making, we propose a methodology exploring which, when, where and why transformations could be required and uncertain, by means of scenario analysis.

  1. Prime agricultural land monitoring and assessment component of the California Integrated Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Tinney, L. R. (Principal Investigator); Streich, T.

    1981-01-01

    The use of digital LANDSAT techniques for monitoring agricultural land use conversions was studied. Two study areas were investigated: one in Ventura County and the other in Fresno County (California). Ventura test site investigations included the use of three dates of LANDSAT data to improve classification performance beyond that previously obtained using single data techniques. The 9% improvement is considered highly significant. Also developed and demonstrated using Ventura County data is an automated cluster labeling procedure, considered a useful example of vertical data integration. Fresno County results for a single data LANDSAT classification paralleled those found in Ventura, demonstrating that the urban/rural fringe zone of most interest is a difficult environment to classify using LANDSAT data. A general raster to vector conversion program was developed to allow LANDSAT classification products to be transferred to an operational county level geographic information system in Fresno.

  2. Groundwater economics: An object-oriented foundation for integrated studies of irrigated agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater we...

  3. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  4. The Adaptability Evaluation of Enterprise Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junjuan; Xue, Chaogai; Dong, Lili

    In this paper, a set of evaluation system is proposed by GQM (Goal-Question-Metrics) for enterprise information systems. Then based on Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), the evaluation model is proposed to evaluate enterprise information systems' adaptability. Finally, the application of the evaluation system and model is proved via a case study, which provides references for optimizing enterprise information systems' adaptability.

  5. Evaluating geographic information systems technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, Stephen C.

    1989-01-01

    Computerized geographic information systems (GISs) are emerging as the spatial data handling tools of choice for solving complex geographical problems. However, few guidelines exist for assisting potential users in identifying suitable hardware and software. A process to be followed in evaluating the merits of GIS technology is presented. Related standards and guidelines, software functions, hardware components, and benchmarking are discussed. By making users aware of all aspects of adopting GIS technology, they can decide if GIS is an appropriate tool for their application and, if so, which GIS should be used.

  6. Changes in Soil Chemistry and Agricultural Return Flow in an Integrated Seawater Agriculture System (ISAS) Demonstration in Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Q.; Matiin, W. A.; Ahmad, F.

    2012-12-01

    Growing halophytes using Integrated Seawater Agriculture Systems (ISAS) offers a sustainable solution for the generation of biomass feedstock for carbon neutral biofuels - halophytes do not enter the foodchain and they do not compete with food-crops for natural resources. A field demonstration of ISAS in the coastal regions of Abu Dhabi, UAE, scheduled to start in 2013, will likely face a number of region-specific challenges not encountered in past demonstrations of ISAS at coastal locations in Mexico and Eritrea. The arid climate, unique soil chemistry (evaporite deposits, especially gypsum), and hypersaline coastal hydrogeology of Abu Dhabi will affect long-term halophyte agricultural productivity when Arabian Gulf seawater is applied to coastal soils as part of ISAS. Therefore, the changes in irrigation return flow quality and soil chemistry must be monitored closely over time to establish transient salt and water balances in order to assess the sustainability of ISAS in the region. As an initial phase of the ISAS demonstration project, numerical modeling of different seawater loadings onto coastal soils was conducted to estimate the chemical characteristics of soil and the irrigation return flow over time. These modeling results will be validated with field monitoring data upon completion of one year of ISAS operation. The results from this study could be used to (i) determine the optimal saline water loading that the soils at the ISAS site can tolerate, (ii) potential for sodicity of the soil with saline water application, (iii) impacts of land application of saline water on underlying coastal groundwater, and (iv) develop strategies to control soil water activities in favor of halophyte agricultural productivity.

  7. Results and Interpretations from a Survey on Agriculturally Related Weather Information.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, A.; Robb, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    A survey Of "top" wheat farmers in 12 counties in western Nebraska was undertaken to help guide future research and extension programs (in agricultural meteorology and economics) in the region. One hundred forty-two farmers (59 percent of those receiving questionnaires) responded to the survey. Of the respondents, 42 percent own or are considering purchasing a personal computer; the vast majority of farmers own a rain gage and some form of temperature- measuring device; the respondents were moderately familiar with an existing Automated Weather Data Network in Nebraska; commercial and NOAA weather radio and commercial television are the main sources of weather data and information. short-term weather forecasts (1 day and 3-5 days) are most important to overall farm planning; respondents considered market and cost-of-production information and more-accurate weather forecasts most important in better management of their farm operations; the risk factors that impacted farm net income were economic followed by weather factors and marketing decisions; and most farmers would be willing to forward contract before the crop was half developed if good projections of crop status and yield could be made. A major constraint to preharvest forward contracting from some of the farmers' perspective appears to be variability in yield due to hail.

  8. RBIS - An Environmental Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, F.; Kralisch, S.

    2012-04-01

    The River Basin Information System (RBIS) developed at the Department of Geoinformatics at the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena provides a modular structured and web-based platform for environmental data management and data sharing (http://www.rbis.uni-jena.de). The system is used in several multidisciplinary research projects and provides user-friendly functions for the management, analysis, visualization and presentation of different types of data. These types of data include time series data (e.g. hydrological, climatologically …), geodata, documents and more domain specific modules for example related to soil, vegetation, scenarios, simulation models or indicators. One main focus lies on the maintenance on meta-data to make sure information about data provenance and responsible parties are preserved. Furthermore the fine grained user and permission management of RBIS take care about the access and manipulation rights of all stored data. For an easy data exchange of time series data and other data types RBIS provides several interfaces. One example is a prototypical implementation using OGC standards (Sensor Observation Service (SOS) and WaterML2.0). Since RBIS is used for data in research regions located in different countries (e.g. Brazil, Vietnam, Angola, Chile, Germany) a Multilanguage support was added to address not only research project partners but also local stakeholder and public. We will present the structure, modules, main functions, permission management and interfaces for data exchange of RBIS together with selected examples of RBIS instances.

  9. Somerset County Flood Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the floods of August 2, 1973, September 16 and 17, 1999, and April 16, 2007, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how costly, especially in terms of human life, an unexpected flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin. Since the mid 1960's, the National Weather Service (NWS) has been able to forecast flooding on larger streams in Somerset County, such as the Raritan and Millstone Rivers. Flooding on smaller streams in urban areas was more difficult to predict. In response to this problem the NWS, in cooperation with the Green Brook Flood Control Commission, installed a precipitation gage in North Plainfield, and two flash-flood alarms, one on Green Brook at Seeley Mills and one on Stony Brook at Watchung, in the early 1970's. In 1978, New Jersey's first countywide flood-warning system was installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Somerset County. This system consisted of a network of eight stage and discharge gages equipped with precipitation gages linked by telephone telemetry and eight auxiliary precipitation gages. The gages were installed throughout the county to collect precipitation and runoff data that could be used to improve flood-monitoring capabilities and flood-frequency estimates. Recognizing the need for more detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the USGS, in cooperation with Somerset County, designed and installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. This system is part of a statewide network of stream gages, precipitation gages, weather stations, and tide gages that collect data in real time. The data provided by the SCFIS improve the flood forecasting ability of the NWS and aid Somerset County and municipal agencies in

  10. Elementary student and prospective teachers' agri-food system literacy: Understandings of agricultural and science education's goals for learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, Cary Jay

    1999-09-01

    Although rhetoric abounds in the agricultural education literature regarding the public's dearth of agri-food system literacy, problems arise when establishing educational interventions to help ameliorate illiteracy. Researchers do not fully know what individuals understand about the complex agri-food system. Hence, educational programs and curricula may focus on areas where students already possess well developed and scientifically accurate schemata, while ignoring other areas where incompatible or naive understandings persist. Democratic decisions about complex societal and environmental issues, such as trade-offs of our industrial agri-food system, require individuals to possess understandings of complex interrelationships. This exploratory qualitative study determines what two groups---elementary students and prospective elementary school teachers---understand about selected concepts foundational to agri-food system literacy. To ground the study in current national education curricular standards, a synthesis of both agricultural and science education benchmarks was developed. This helped structure interviews with the study's informants: nine elementary students and nine prospective elementary teachers. Analysis of discourse was based upon a conceptual change methodology. Findings showed that informant background and non-school experiences were linked to agri-food system literacy, while formal, in-school learning was not. For elementary students, high socio-economic status, gardening and not living in urban areas were correlates with literacy; the prospective teacher group exhibited similar trends. Informants understood that food came from farms where plants and animals were raised. For the majority, however, farms were described as large gardens. Additionally, informants lacked a clear understanding of the roles soil and fertilizers play in crop production. Further, few spoke of weeds as competitors with crops for growth requirements. Informants understood that

  11. An Intelligent Pictorial Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Edward T.; Chang, B.

    1987-05-01

    In examining the history of computer application, we discover that early computer systems were developed primarily for applications related to scientific computation, as in weather prediction, aerospace applications, and nuclear physics applications. At this stage, the computer system served as a big calculator to perform, in the main, manipulation of numbers. Then it was found that computer systems could also be used for business applications, information storage and retrieval, word processing, and report generation. The history of computer application is summarized in Table I. The complexity of pictures makes picture processing much more difficult than number and alphanumerical processing. Therefore, new techniques, new algorithms, and above all, new pictorial knowledge, [1] are needed to overcome the limitatins of existing computer systems. New frontiers in designing computer systems are the ways to handle the representation,[2,3] classification, manipulation, processing, storage, and retrieval of pictures. Especially, the ways to deal with similarity measures and the meaning of the word "approximate" and the phrase "approximate reasoning" are an important and an indispensable part of an intelligent pictorial information system. [4,5] The main objective of this paper is to investigate the mathematical foundation for the effective organization and efficient retrieval of pictures in similarity-directed pictorial databases, [6] based on similarity retrieval techniques [7] and fuzzy languages [8]. The main advantage of this approach is that similar pictures are stored logically close to each other by using quantitative similarity measures. Thus, for answering queries, the amount of picture data needed to be searched can be reduced and the retrieval time can be improved. In addition, in a pictorial database, very often it is desired to find pictures (or feature vectors, histograms, etc.) that are most similar to or most dissimilar [9] to a test picture (or feature

  12. Multivariate Climate-Weather Forecasting System: An Integrated Approach for Mitigating Agricultural Risks in Punjab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindranath, A.; Devineni, N.

    2015-12-01

    While India has a long history of prediction of the All India Monsoon, work on spatially specific attributes of the monsoon, as well as monsoon break periods has only recently emerged. However, from a risk management context, prognostic information of a single variable such as total precipitation or average temperature will be of less utility especially for specific operational purposes. An integrated regional climate-weather forecast system covering precipitation, temperature and humidity etc. over the year will benefit the farmers in the context of a specific decision time table for irrigation scheduling as well as for pre-season crop choices. Hence, contrary to the existing forecasting methods that develop multi time scale information of a single variable at a time, in this paper, we introduce an integrated regional multivariate climate-weather forecasting system that directly relates to agricultural decision making and risk mitigation. These multi-scale risk attributes include mutually dependent, spatially disaggregated statistics such as total rainfall, average temperature, growing degree days, relative humidity, total number of rainfall days/dry spell length, and cumulative water deficits that inform the potential irrigation water requirements for crops. Given that these attributes exhibit mutual dependence across space and time, we propose to explore common ocean-atmospheric conditions from the observations and the state of the art Global Circulation Models (GCMs) that can be utilized as the predictor variables for the forecasting system. Hierarchical Bayesian methods are be used to develop the integrated forecast system. The developed multivariate forecasts will be adapted and disseminated as decision tools for the farmers under the extension projects in Punjab region of India.

  13. Multivariate Climate-Weather Forecasting System: An Integrated Approach for Mitigating Agricultural Risks in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devineni, N.; Lall, U.; Perveen, S.

    2012-12-01

    While India has a long history of prediction of the All India Monsoon, work on spatially specific attributes of the monsoon, as well as monsoon break periods has only recently emerged. However, from a risk management context, prognostic information of a single variable such as total precipitation or average temperature will be of less utility especially for specific operational purposes. An integrated regional climate-weather forecast system covering precipitation, temperature and humidity etc. over the year will benefit the farmers in the context of a specific decision time table for irrigation scheduling as well as for pre-season crop choices. Hence, contrary to the existing forecasting methods that develop multi time scale information of a single variable at a time, in this paper, we introduce an integrated regional multivariate climate-weather forecasting system that directly relates to agricultural decision making and risk mitigation. These multi-scale risk attributes include mutually dependent, spatially disaggregated statistics such as total rainfall, average temperature, growing degree days, relative humidity, total number of rainfall days/dry spell length, and cumulative water deficits that inform the potential irrigation water requirements for crops etc. Given that these attributes exhibit mutual dependence across space and time, we propose to explore common ocean-atmospheric conditions from the observations and the state of the art Global Circulation Models (GCMs) that can be utilized as the predictor variables for the forecasting system. Non parametric bootstrap resampling methods and Hierarchical Bayesian methods that can easily handle the high dimensionality of such problems will be used to develop the integrated forecast system. The developed multivariate forecasts will be adapted and disseminated as decision tools for the farmers under the Columbia Water Center's pilot project in Punjab region of India.

  14. Moving toward climate-informed agricultural decision support - can we use PRISM data for more than just monthly averages?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision support systems/models for agriculture are varied in target application and complexity, ranging from simple worksheets to near real-time forecast systems requiring significant computational and manpower resources. Until recently, most such decision support systems have been constructed with...

  15. Intergovernmental cooperation for mission-oriented information systems: a memoir

    SciTech Connect

    Woolston, John E.

    2004-12-01

    This frankly personal account is based on my involvement in negotiations, design, and development for international bibliographic systems to support three different missions: fostering the peaceful uses of atomic energy (International Nuclear Information System, or INIS); supporting research, development, and better practices in agriculture (International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology, or AGRIS); and improving economic and social conditions in poorer countries (Development Sciences Information System, or DEVSIS). All three designs were based on the concept of decentralized operation: each country reports the information produced in its own territory; the merging of this input and the overall management are in the hands of an organization in the United Nations system; and all participants have equal rights to exploit the entire database. INIS began in 1970 and is still in steady operation; AGRIS started in 1975 and showed quantitative and qualitative growth for more than twenty years but has been in disastrous decline since its peak in 1996; and DEVSIS, unfortunately, was not launched on a global scale. Attempts are made to identify the condition -- political and technical -- likely to favor or frustrate efforts to obtain cooperation among countries for the construction of large, essentially comprehensive databases and ultimately for sharing knowledge without discrimination between rich and poor participants.

  16. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    . However, these growth benefits subsequently diminished over time. Insignificant growth benefits were observed for lucerne. The analysis of the literature and our own work indicates that it is difficult to account for all the possible variables where research is used to inform land management practices. Assisting farmers to conduct localised research in cooperative ventures is likely to bring about the best outcomes where site-specific research directly informs land management practices. 1. Michael T. Rose, Antonio F. Patti, Karen R. Little, Alicia L. Brown, W. Roy Jackson, Timothy R. Cavagnaro, A Meta-Analysis and Review of Plant-Growth Response to Humic Substances: Practical Implications for Agriculture, Advances in Agronomy, 2013, 124, 37-89

  17. Application of methane fermentation technology into organic wastes in closed agricultural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Ryosuke; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    Sustainable and recycling-based systems are required in space agriculture which takes place in an enclosed environment. Methane fermentation is one of the most major biomass conversion technologies, because (1) it provides a renewable energy source as biogas including methane, suitable for energy production, (2) the nutrient-rich solids left after digestion can be used as compost for agriculture. In this study, the effect of the application of methane fermentation technology into space agriculture on the material and energy cycle was investigated.

  18. Information Systems Coordinate Emergency Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    -changing planet. This information can be captured, analyzed, and visualized by geographic information systems (GIS) to produce maps, charts, and other tools that can reveal information essential to a wide variety of applications including emergency management. Knowing precise, real-time information about the size, location, environmental conditions, and resulting damage of an event like a flood or wildfire as well as the location and numbers of emergency responders and other resources contributes directly to the effectiveness of disaster mitigation. The need for such information is also evident when responding to homeland security threats, such as a terrorist attack. Recognizing the value of its geospatial information resources for this and other purposes, in 1998 Stennis and the state of Mississippi partnered to form what became the Enterprise for Innovative Geospatial Solutions (EIGS) industry cluster, supporting the growth of remote sensing and GIS-based research and business. As part of EIGS, several companies partnered with NASA through dual use and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts. Among those was NVision.

  19. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associatedmore » with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.« less

  20. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.

  1. Convergent Bacterial Microbiotas in the Fungal Agricultural Systems of Insects

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Klepzig, Kier D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes. PMID:25406380

  2. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  3. 12 CFR 617.7620 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? 617.7620 Section 617.7620 Banks and... What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? System institutions electing to sell or lease acquired agricultural real estate or...

  4. 12 CFR 617.7620 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? 617.7620 Section 617.7620 Banks and... What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? System institutions electing to sell or lease acquired agricultural real estate or...

  5. The GRIN-Global Information Management System – Public Interface Demonstration and Input Opportunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The GRIN-Global (GG) Information Management System, under development for the past three years, provides the world's crop genebanks and plant genetic resource (PGR) users with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use PGR information management system. Developed jointly by the USDA Agricultural Research Ser...

  6. The GRIN-Global Information Management System – A Preview and Opportunity for Public User Input

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The GRIN-Global Information Management System, under development for the past two years, will provide the world's crop genebanks and plant genetic resource (PGR) users with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use PGR information management system. Developed jointly by the USDA Agricultural Research Servi...

  7. AgMIP's Transdisciplinary Agricultural Systems Approach to Regional Integrated Assessment of Climate Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antle, John M.; Valdivia, Roberto O.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Janssen, Sander; Jones, James W.; Porter, Cheryl H.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alexander C.; Thorburn, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes methods developed by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to implement a transdisciplinary, systems-based approach for regional-scale (local to national) integrated assessment of agricultural systems under future climate, biophysical, and socio-economic conditions. These methods were used by the AgMIP regional research teams in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia to implement the analyses reported in their respective chapters of this book. Additional technical details are provided in Appendix 1.The principal goal that motivates AgMIP's regional integrated assessment (RIA) methodology is to provide scientifically rigorous information needed to support improved decision-making by various stakeholders, ranging from local to national and international non-governmental and governmental organizations.

  8. Journals Significant to Rural Development Received at the National Agricultural Library. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 48. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Dorothy A., Comp.

    This directory lists 227 journals in the National Agricultural Library's (NAL) collection that are related to social and economic aspects of rural development. The directory includes both United States and international journals. Each citation includes title, NAL call number, NAL holdings information, the International Standard Serial Number…

  9. Image retrieval for information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, Thorsten; Klauck, Christoph; Kreyss, Jutta; Zhang, J.

    1995-03-01

    In order to retrieve a set of intended images from a huge image archive, human beings think of special contents with respect to the searched scene, like a countryside or a technical drawing. Therefore, in general it is harder to retrieve images by using a syntactical feature- based language than a language which offers the selection of examples concerning color, texture, and contour in combination with natural language concepts. This motivation leads to a content-based image analysis and goes on to a content-based storage and retrieval of images. Furthermore, it is unreasonable for any human being to make the content description for thousands of images manually. From this point of view, the project IRIS (image retrieval for information systems) combines well-known methods and techniques in computer vision and AI in a new way to generate content descriptions of images in a textual form automatically. IRIS retrieves the images by means of text retrieval realized by the SearchManager/6000. The textual description is generated by four sub-steps: feature extraction like colors, textures, and contours, segmentation, and interpretation of part-whole relations. The system is implemented on IBM RS/6000 using AIX. It has already been tested with 350 images.

  10. GBIS: the information system of the German Genebank

    PubMed Central

    Oppermann, Markus; Weise, Stephan; Dittmann, Claudia; Knüpffer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The German Federal ex situ Genebank of Agricultural and Horticultural Crop Species is the largest collection of its kind in the countries of the European Union and amongst the 10 largest collections worldwide. Beside its enormous scientific value as a safeguard of plant biodiversity, the plant genetic resources maintained are also of high importance for breeders to provide new impulses. The complex processes of managing such a collection are supported by the Genebank Information System (GBIS). GBIS is an important source of information for researchers and plant breeders, e.g. for identifying appropriate germplasm for breeding purposes. In addition, the access to genebank material as a sovereign task is also of high interest to the general public. Moreover, GBIS acts as a data source for global information systems, such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) or the European Search Catalogue for Plant Genetic Resources (EURISCO). Database URL: http://gbis.ipk-gatersleben.de/ PMID:25953079

  11. The Role of Crop Systems Simulation in Agriculture and Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 30 to 40 years, simulation of crop systems has advanced from a neophyte science with inadequate computing power into a robust and increasingly accepted science supported by improved software, languages, development tools, and computer capabilities. Crop system simulators contain mathe...

  12. An airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  13. 28 CFR 25.3 - System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.3 System information. (a) There is established at the FBI a National Instant Criminal Background Check System. (b) The system will be based at the Federal Bureau...

  14. 28 CFR 25.3 - System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.3 System information. (a) There is established at the FBI a National Instant Criminal Background Check System. (b) The system will be based at the Federal Bureau...

  15. 28 CFR 25.3 - System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.3 System information. (a) There is established at the FBI a National Instant Criminal Background Check System. (b) The system will be based at the Federal Bureau...

  16. 28 CFR 25.3 - System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.3 System information. (a) There is established at the FBI a National Instant Criminal Background Check System. (b) The system will be based at the Federal Bureau...

  17. 28 CFR 25.3 - System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.3 System information. (a) There is established at the FBI a National Instant Criminal Background Check System. (b) The system will be based at the Federal Bureau...

  18. 76 FR 18798 - Comment Request for Information Collection for The National Agricultural Workers Survey: Revision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Agricultural Workers Survey: Revision to an Approved Collection (OMB 1205-0453) AGENCY: Employment and Training... Collection. Agency: Employment and Training Administration. Title: National Agricultural Workers Survey. OMB... Workers Survey (NAWS) regarding: (1) The amount of time per day farm workers are engaged working...

  19. Managing Resources in Agricultural Colleges. Information Bank Working Paper Number 2326.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, L.; And Others

    Three papers from a study conference are provided. "Is There a Future for Agricultural Education?" (L. Norman) attempts to answer this question. Part I puts forward suggestions as to why there may be no future for agricultural education. Part II suggests some ways of counteracting the problems enumerated in Part I. Part III offers suggestions on…

  20. Agricultural Safety and Health: A Resource Guide. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 40. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joy, Comp.

    This guide lists resource materials that address agricultural occupational injuries and diseases and their prevention. Many of the entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, books, government reports, training materials, and audiovisual materials. The first section…

  1. Reaping the Return on Agricultural Research and Education in Virginia. Information Series 93-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, George W.; Paczkowski, Remi

    This report focuses upon the economic and other contributions that agricultural research and education have made to Virginia over the past 40 years. Agricultural research, extension, and classroom instruction contribute in the following ways to Virginia's citizens: increased supplies and reduced costs, improved competitiveness, multiplier effects…

  2. Agricultural Education: Review and Synthesis of the Research, Fourth Edition. Information Series No. 298.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.

    This fourth edition of a review and synthesis of agricultural education research concentrates on the period from 1978 to 1984. The review covers research published in papers and bulletins, compilations of abstracts, proceedings of regional and national agricultural education research meetings, material in the ERIC database, masters' theses, and…

  3. SAFE DRINKING WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM (STATE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Safe Drinking Water Information System (STATE) (SDWIS/STATE) is an information system OGWDW is developing for states and EPA regions to manage their water industry. SDWIS/STATE is not an information system for which EPA HQ is using to store or retrie...

  4. An Expertise Based Energy Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, S.

    This paper describes an intelligent decision support system for information on petroleum resources and use currently being designed by the Information Methodology Research Project as the first step in the development of a comprehensive intelligent information system for dealing with energy resources in the United States. The system draws on…

  5. Efficient Bar-Code Watermark System to Protectagricultural Products Information Andcopyright

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lin; Wen, Xiaoming

    In order to protect agricultural product information and copyright, this paper proposes an efficient bar-code watermark system with digital signature. The proposed system adopts digital signature to prevent a buyer from unauthorized copies and to prevent a seller from forged unauthorized copies. The proposed system also encodes the signature with bar-code and embeds the bar-code image into the original image. As long as the similarity of watermark extracts from the damaged image over a threshold, the signature can be fully recovered. It is a novel idea to bring the bar-code concept into watermark system to protect agricultural product information and copyright. Detailed simulation results show that the proposed system gets much better results than that with error correcting code scheme, and prove that the proposed system can protect agricultural product information and copyright effectively.

  6. Detection of Anthropogenic pressures on western Mediterranean irrigation systems (La Albufera de Valencia agriculture system, eastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Andreu, V.; Picó, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Irrigation systems are considered as one of the major landscapes features in western Mediterranean environments. Both socio-economic and cultural elements are interrelated in their development and preservation. Generally, due to their location in flat lands and close to major urban-industrial zones, irrigation lands are suffering of intense pressures that can alter their agricultural values, environmental quality and, consequently, the sustainability of the systems. To understand the nature of anthropogenic pressures on large Mediterranean water agricultural systems a methodology based on environmental forensics criteria has been developed and applied to La Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Eastern Spain), a protected area where traditional irrigation systems exists since Muslim times (from 8th to 15th centuries). The study analysed impacts on water and soils, for the first case the fate of emerging contaminants of urban origin (pharmaceuticals and illegal drugs) are analysed. Impact on soils is analysed using the dynamics urban expansion and the loss and fragmentation of soils. The study focused is organised around two major procedures: (1) analysis of 16 water samples to identify the presence of 14 illicit drugs and 17 pharmaceutical compounds by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry techniques; (2) spatial analysis with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) integrating different sources and data formats such as water analysis, social, location of sewage water treatment plan and the synchronic comparison of two soil sealing layers -for the years 1991 and 2010. Results show that there is a clear trend in the introduction of pharmaceutical in the irrigation water through previous use of urban consumption and, in many cases, for receiving the effluents of wastewaters treatment plants. Impacts on soils are also important incidence in the fragmentation and disappearance of agricultural land due to soil sealing, even within the protected area of the Natural Park

  7. The Information Support System: Management Information for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Nancy A.

    The Information Support System (ISS) is a management information system developed for the National Drug Education Program (NDEP). The major components of the ISS are: (1) the Project Growth Record which provides a tool for project self-evaluation and for communication between NDEP project officers and project directors; (2) the Quarterly Project…

  8. Information flow and information production in a population system.

    PubMed

    Nicolis, S C

    2011-07-01

    An approach aiming to quantify the dynamics of information within a population is developed based on the mapping of the processes underlying the system's evolution into a birth and death type stochastic process and the derivation of a balance equation for the information entropy. Information entropy flux and information entropy production are identified and their time-dependent properties, as well as their dependence on the parameters present in the problem, are analyzed. States of minimum information entropy production are shown to exist for appropriate parameter values. Furthermore, uncertainty and information production are transiently intensified when the population traverses the inflexion point stage of the logisticlike growth process. PMID:21867116

  9. Useful to Usable (U2U): Transforming climate information into usable tools to support Midwestern agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopy, L. S.; Widhalm, M.

    2014-12-01

    There is a close connection between weather and climate patterns and successful agricultural production. Therefore, incorporating climate information into farm management is likely to reduce the risk of economic losses and increase profitability. While weather and climate information is becoming ever more abundant and accessible, the use of such information in the agricultural community remains limited. Useful to Usable (U2U): Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers is a USDA-NIFA funded research and extension project focused on improving the use of climate information for agricultural production in the Midwestern United States by developing user-driven decision tools and training resources. The U2U team is a diverse and uniquely qualified group of climatologists, crop modelers, agronomists, and social scientists from 9 Midwestern universities and two NOAA Regional Climate Centers. Together, we strive to help producers make better long-term plans on what, when and where to plant and also how to manage crops for maximum yields and minimum environmental damage. To ensure relevance and usability of U2U products, our social science team is using a number of techniques including surveys and focus groups to integrate stakeholder interests, needs, and concerns into all aspects of U2U research. It is through this coupling of physical and social science disciplines that we strive to transform existing climate information into actionable knowledge.

  10. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  11. Photovoltaic applications definition and photovoltaic system definition study in the agricultural sector. Volume 2: Technical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, R. W.; Nadolski, T. P.; Sparks, D. C.; Young, S. K.; Yingst, A.

    1980-05-01

    This volume describes the technical results of the study of potential photovoltaic (P/V) applications in US agriculture. The results presented address all technical aspects of the program and include a summary of agricultural energy consumption. The objectives of the technical effort reported were to: (1) identify and characterize agricultural energy demands that can effectively use P/V power systems; (2) develop effective P/V system designs for the four most promising applications; (3) determine performance and cost estimates for the designs; and (4) recommend systems for early test and demonstration and critical issues requiring further systems studies. The farms chosen for conceptual design include; (1) poultry layer farm, (2) hog production farm, (3) beef feedlot, and (4) year round vegetable farm.

  12. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-04-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  13. Multilingual Access for Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Carol; Sheridan, Paraic

    With the rapid growth of the global information society, the concept of library has evolved to embrace all kinds of information collections, on all kinds of storage media, and using many different access methods. The users of today's information networks and digital libraries, no longer restricted by geographic or spatial boundaries, want to be…

  14. How can we harness quantitative genetic variation in crop root systems for agricultural improvement?

    PubMed

    Topp, Christopher N; Bray, Adam L; Ellis, Nathanael A; Liu, Zhengbin

    2016-03-01

    Root systems are a black box obscuring a comprehensive understanding of plant function, from the ecosystem scale down to the individual. In particular, a lack of knowledge about the genetic mechanisms and environmental effects that condition root system growth hinders our ability to develop the next generation of crop plants for improved agricultural productivity and sustainability. We discuss how the methods and metrics we use to quantify root systems can affect our ability to understand them, how we can bridge knowledge gaps and accelerate the derivation of structure-function relationships for roots, and why a detailed mechanistic understanding of root growth and function will be important for future agricultural gains. PMID:26911925

  15. System design requirements for advanced rotary-wing agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemont, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Helicopter aerial dispersal systems were studied to ascertain constraints to the system, the effects of removal of limitations (technical and FAA regulations), and subsystem improvements. Productivity indices for the aircraft and swath effects were examined. Typical missions were formulated through conversations with operators, and differing gross weight aircraft were synthesized to perform these missions. Economic analysis of missions and aircraft indicated a general correlation of small aircraft (3000 lb gross weight) suitability for small fields (25 acres), and low dispersion rates (less than 32 lb/acre), with larger aircraft (12,000 lb gross weight) being more favorable for bigger fields (200 acres) and heavier dispersal rates (100 lb/acre). Operator problems, possible aircraft and system improvements, and selected removal of operating limitations were reviewed into recommendations for future NASA research items.

  16. Evaluation of a microwave and infrared human-presence sensing system for agricultural equipment.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Gilbert, W; Chaplin, J

    2001-11-01

    The potential use of electronic safety sensors to protect operators from agricultural equipment with rotating hazards has been identified and discussed as a possible means to prevent traumatic entanglement injury. A multi-sensor human-presence sensing system to protect persons approaching a rotating PTO shaft powering a stationary implement was developed using commercially available, passive infrared and microwave sensors. A control and data acquisition system was designed and constructed to evaluate sensor performance and response. The sensor system performed well during 822 warm weather test passes in which a person approached the potentially hazardous area near the drawbar and PTO/IID located between an IH 986 test tractor and a self-unloading forage wagon. During the 822 test passes, there were no false alarms and no misses. Operators approached the hazard space walking from 92 to 227 cm/second. During tests, the sensing system yielded warning times generally between 0.5 and 1.0 seconds, providing an estimate of the time available to accomplish machine shutdown or operator warnings. Additional cold weather tests caused the control and data acquisition hardware to function erratically. This work suggests that multi-sensor human detection systems have the potential to reduce false alarms through redundancy when more than one sensor is required to detect a person before the system signals a "detect" condition. However, the use of multiple, redundant sensors also increases the potential for a "miss." Further work is needed to determine whether these types of sensor can yield timely enough information to prevent injury via mechanical shutdown or operator warnings. PMID:11787754

  17. Aerial applications dispersal systems control requirements study. [agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Cleary, W. L.; Rogers, W. F.; Simpson, W.; Sanders, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Performance deficiencies in aerial liquid and dry dispersal systems are identified. Five control system concepts are explored: (1) end of field on/off control; (2) manual control of particle size and application rate from the aircraft; (3) manual control of deposit rate on the field; (4) automatic alarm and shut-off control; and (5) fully automatic control. Operational aspects of the concepts and specifications for improved control configurations are discussed in detail. A research plan to provide the technology needed to develop the proposed improvements is presented along with a flight program to verify the benefits achieved.

  18. Toward agricultural sustainability through integrated crop–livestock systems. III. Social aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensification of cropping and animal production as two separately specialized agricultural systems has led to unacceptable deterioration of the environment due to (i) excessive concentration of nutrients and pathogens in livestock production systems and (ii) loss of natural biodiversity and excess...

  19. Evaluation of the Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS) in the Semiarid Texas Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate models to simulate the soil water balance in semiarid cropping systems are needed to evaluate management practices for soil and water conservation in both irrigated and dryland production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of the Precision Agricultural Land...

  20. Development of a data acquisition and processing system for precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A data acquisition and processing system for precision agriculture was developed by using MapX5.0 and Visual C 6.0. This system can be used easily and quickly for drawing grid maps in-field, creating parameters for grid-reorganization, guiding in-field data collection, converting data between diffe...

  1. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Site-Specific Agricultural Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for site-specific management in agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been avail...

  2. Inorganic fertilizer and poultry-litter manure amendments alter the soil microbial communities in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of agricultural land management practices on soil prokaryotic diversity are not well described. We investigated three land usage systems (row cropped, ungrazed pasture, and cattle-grazed pasture) and two fertilizer systems (inorganic fertilizer or IF and poultry-litter or PL) and compare...

  3. Benchmarking the performance of a land data assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of land data assimilation systems to operational agricultural drought monitoring requires the development of (at least) three separate system sub-components: 1) a retrieval model to invert satellite-derived observations into soil moisture estimates, 2) a prognostic soil water balance...

  4. Evaluating the performance of a soil moisture data assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite considerable interest in the application of land surface data assimilation systems (LDAS) for agricultural drought applications, relatively little is known about the large-scale performance of such systems and, thus, the optimal methodological approach for implementing them. To address this ...

  5. Development of a data acquisition and processing system for precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A data acquisition and processing system for precision agriculture was developed by using MapX5.0 and Visual C6.0. This system can be used easily and quickly for drawing grid maps in-field, making out parameters for grid-reorganization, guiding for in-field data collection, converting data between ...

  6. Evaluation of the precision agricultural landscape modeling system (PALMS) in the semiarid Texas southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate models to simulate the soil water balance in semiarid cropping systems are needed to evaluate management practices for soil and water conservation in both irrigated and dryland production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of the Precision Agricultural Land...

  7. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Agricultural Production Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for managing agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been available in recent year...

  8. Toward agricultural sustainability through integrated crop–livestock systems. II. Production responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensification of cropping and animal production as two separately specialized agricultural systems has led to unacceptable deterioration of the environment due to (i) excessive concentration of nutrients and pathogens in livestock production systems and (ii) loss of natural biodiversity and excess...

  9. Soil physical properties of agricultural systems in a large-scale study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large-scale field study was performed to determine the effects of agricultural management systems on soil physical properties, including their spatial and temporal variations. Replicates were established in 1998 at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems, Goldsboro, North Carolina; replicates...

  10. Water Quality Benefits of Constructed Wetlands Integrated Within Agricultural Water Recycling Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands have been integrated within innovative agricultural water recycling systems, and these systems are now being evaluated at three demonstration sites located in the northwest Ohio portion of the Maumee River Basin (Defiance, Fulton, and Van Wert Counties). The water recycling syst...

  11. Benchmarking a soil moisture data assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite considerable interest in the application of land surface data assimilation systems (LDAS) for agricultural drought applications, relatively little is known about the large-scale performance of such systems and, thus, the optimal methodological approach for implementing them. To address this ...

  12. A Review: Controlled release systems for agricultural and food applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled release systems are widely used in numerous applications. Polymers from natural resources, such as pectin, starch, zein and poly(lactic acid) have been used to construct carriers of bioactive substances and deliver them in a designed manner. The retention and release of volatile fragrance...

  13. Farm Women, Farming Systems, and Agricultural Structure: Suggestions for Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    1981-01-01

    Suggests research agenda to analyze the class struggle occurring with farm women. Views the household as the unit of analysis, both internally from a farming-systems perspective and externally as responding to shifts in policy and technology. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.…

  14. 76 FR 29083 - Agriculture Priorities and Allocations System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... on June 7, 2010 (75 FR 32122-32140); Energy published the proposed rule for EPAS on July 16, 2010 (75 FR 41405-41421); and Transportation published the proposed rule for TPAS on February 15, 2011 (76 FR... Priorities and Allocations System; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 97 / Thursday, May...

  15. Public Sector Agricultural Extension System Reform and the Challenges Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is organized into two main sections. The first section examines extension as an engine for innovation and reviews the numerous priorities confronting extension systems. Section two highlights the current knowledge imperative and the critical connection of extension to post-secondary higher education and training, organizational…

  16. The Philippine System of Education: Some Implications to Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancebo, Samuel T.

    The Philippine educational system views education as a human development resource conversion process that can maximize the realization of the national developmental goals. Students comprise the principal input of this manpower resource conversion process. The output is individuals who can find useful and productive employment. Two broad strategies…

  17. Integrating Digital Response Systems within a Diversity of Agricultural Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciarappa, William; Quinn, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators have new computer-assisted tools as audience response systems (clickers) for increasing educational effectiveness and improving assessment by facilitating client input. From 2010-2012, 26 sessions involving 1093 participants in six diverse client categories demonstrated wide audience acceptance and suitability of clickers in…

  18. Science Information Systems Newsletter, issue 28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Information Systems Newsletter is to inform the space science and applications research community about information systems development and to promote coordination and collaboration by providing a forum for communication. This quarterly publication focuses on programs sponsored by the Information Systems Branch in support of NASA's Office of Space Science. Articles of interest for other programs and agencies are presented as well. The April 1993 issue is presented.

  19. Information-computational system: atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, Dmitri P.; Akhlyostin, Alexey Y.; Fazliev, Alexandre Z.; Gordov, Eugeni P.; Karyakin, Alexey S.; Mikhailov, Sergey A.; Rodimova, Olga B.

    1999-11-01

    The atmospheric chemistry information-computational system (ICS) with Internet access is presented. The ICS is aimed summarizing fundamental data on atmospheric processes, determining the dynamics of complex chemical systems and providing educational information. The system consist of three functional blocks: data preparation, computation and information blocks, within which a user may choose the chemical reactions and atmospheric models, drive relevant kinetic equations and conservation laws, solve the kinetic equations, visualize the results of calculations and get access to related information.

  20. Using Geo-informational System for determining land degradation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangul, I.; Mangul, S.

    The largest part of agricultural lands of the Republic of Moldova is concentrated in the arid zone Frequent droughts once in 2-4 years inflict vital causalities to agriculture of the Republic of Moldova However droughts influence doesn t only limit itself to forming production Drought after-effect is highly ruinous for water reserves industrial enterprises functioning rhythm and human health Droughts make for the drying up and crumbling of soil which is subject to excessive human influence and result in land degradation desertification Term desertification means land degradation in the droughty zones It is necessary to mention that the droughty ecosystems are extremely fragile and sensitive overexploitation Nowadays in the Republic of Moldova 33-37 of agricultural lands is eroded Republic of Moldova joined the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification on December 24 1998 The Government of the Republic of Moldova ratified the National Action Plan to Combat Desertification in 2000 Within the framework of executing the National Action Plan by National Committee to Combat Desertification Geo-informational System on arid questions was organized In addition a lot of indexes corresponding to international standards were used for the evaluation of drought of the territory and land degradation processes Mostly this information is presented in maps erosion landslides aridity water resources A rich experience of using satellite information for determining land degradation demonstrates high effectiveness of this method Satellite

  1. TWRS information locator database system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-13

    This document gives an overview and description of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD)system design. The TWRS ILD system is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  2. Enhancing Drought Early Warning System for Sustainable Water Resources and Agricultural Management through Apllication of Space Science - Nigeria in Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, J. N.; Akeh, L. E.; Anuforom, A. C.; Aribo, P. B.; Olayanju, S. O.

    Enhancing Drought Early Warning System for Sustainable Water Resources and Agriculture Management through Application of Space Science - Nigeria in Perspective BY J N Okpara L E Akeh Anuforom P B Aribo and S O Olayanju Directorate of Applied Meteorological Services Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET P M B 615 Garki Abuja Nigeria e-mail underline Juddy Okpara yahoo co uk and underline tonycanuforom yahoo com underline Abstract This paper attempts to highlight the importance of drought early warning system in water resources and agricultural management in Nigeria Various studies have shown that the negative impacts of droughts and other forms of extreme weather phenomena can be substantially reduced by providing early warning on any impending weather extremes X-rayed in this study are the various techniques presently used by the Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET in generating information for meteorological Early Warning System EWS which are based on models that make use of ground-based raingauge data and sea surface temperatures SST Komuscu standardized precipitation index SPI inclusive These methods are often limited by such factors as network density of stations limited communication infrastructure human inefficiency etc NIMET is therefore embarking on the development of a new Satellite Agrometeorological Information System SAMIS-Nigeria for famine and drought early warning The system combines satellite data with raingauge data to give a range of

  3. Energy Absorbing Seat System for an Agricultural Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A task was initiated to improve the energy absorption capability of an existing aircraft seat through cost-effective retrofitting, while keeping seat-weight increase to a minimum. This task was undertaken as an extension of NASA ongoing safety research and commitment to general aviation customer needs. Only vertical crash scenarios have been considered in this task which required the energy absorbing system to protect the seat occupant in a range of crash speeds up to 31 ft/sec. It was anticipated that, the forward and/or side crash accelerations could be attenuated with the aid of airbags, the technology of which is currently available in automobiles and military helicopters. Steps which were followed include, preliminary crush load determination, conceptual design of cost effective energy absorbers, fabrication and testing (static and dynamic) of energy absorbers, system analysis, design and fabrication of dummy seat/rail assembly, dynamic testing of dummy seat/rail assembly, and finally, testing of actual modified seat system with a dummy occupant. A total of ten full scale tests have been performed including three of the actual aircraft seat. Results from full-scale tests indicated that occupant loads were attenuated successfully to survivable levels.

  4. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  5. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  6. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  7. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  8. Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

  9. Adaptation Options for Land Drainage Systems Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Environment: A Czech Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulhavý, Zbyněk; Fučík, Petr

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, issues of agricultural drainage systems are introduced and discussed from the views of their former, current and future roles and functioning in the Czech Republic (CR). A methodologically disparate survey was done on thirty-nine model localities in CR with different intensity and state of land drainage systems, aimed at description of commonly occurred problems and possible adaptations of agricultural drainage as perceived by farmers, land owners, landscape managers or by protective water management. The survey was focused on technical state of drainage, fragmentation of land ownership within drained areas as well as on possible conflicts between agricultural and environmental interests in a landscape. Achieved results confirmed that there is obviously an increasing need to reassess some functions of prevailingly single-purpose agricultural drainage systems. Drainage intensity and detected unfavourable technical state of drainage systems as well as the risks connected with the anticipated climate change from the view of possible water scarcity claims for a complex solution. An array of adaptation options for agricultural drainage systems is presented, aiming at enhancement of water retention time and improvement of water quality. It encompasses additional flow-controlling measures on tiles or ditches, or facilities for making selected parts of a drainage system inoperable in order to retain or slow down the drainage runoff, to establish water accumulation zones and to enhance water self-cleaning processes. However, it was revealed that the question of landowner parcels fragmentation on drained land in CR would dramatically complicate design and realization of these measures. Presented solutions and findings are propounded with a respect to contemporary and future state policies and international strategies for sustainable agriculture, water management and environment.

  10. A survey of chemical information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Shaikh, Aneesa Bashir

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the features, functions, and characteristics of a fairly wide variety of chemical information storage and retrieval systems currently in operation is given. The types of systems (together with an identification of the specific systems) addressed within this survey are as follows: patents and bibliographies (Derwent's Patent System; IFI Comprehensive Database; PULSAR); pharmacology and toxicology (Chemfile; PAGODE; CBF; HEEDA; NAPRALERT; MAACS); the chemical information system (CAS Chemical Registry System; SANSS; MSSS; CSEARCH; GINA; NMRLIT; CRYST; XTAL; PDSM; CAISF; RTECS Search System; AQUATOX; WDROP; OHMTADS; MLAB; Chemlab); spectra (OCETH; ASTM); crystals (CRYSRC); and physical properties (DETHERM). Summary characteristics and current trends in chemical information systems development are also examined.

  11. Role of telecommunications in precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture has been made possible by the confluence of several technologies: geographic positioning systems, geographic information systems, image analysis software, low-cost microcomputer-based variable rate controller/recorders, and precision tractor guidance systems. While these techn...

  12. Information-Systems Data-Flow Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosiu, J. O.

    1983-01-01

    Single form presents clear picture of entire system. Form giving relational review of data flow well suited to information system planning, analysis, engineering, and management. Used to review data flow for developing system or one already in use.

  13. An Information System in the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Arlene R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The article describes how the New York Association for the Blind (The Lighthouse) studied its information needs and further systematized information collection, retrieval, and use for internal case management and external information exchange with human service agencies by means of a computerized client information system. (Author)

  14. Household Information Systems: An Integrated View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Higgins, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Describes the first stage in a study of home information systems in the United Kingdom that is being conducted to develop a theory of household information systems that will inform investors, producers, and consumers in a given region. Highlights include methodology, questions for structured interviews, task model, and technical model. (Author/LRW)

  15. General Information Processing System: (GIPSY). Application Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Charles H.; And Others

    The application description is directed to those desiring to acquaint themselves with the characteristics of the General Information Processing System (GIPSY). It provides guidelines and aids for the preparation and use of the system, and covers such areas as: (1) Information Collection and Creation, (2) Information Retrieval, (3) Maintenance…

  16. School Management Information Systems in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Kamile

    2006-01-01

    Developments in information technologies have been impacting upon educational organizations. Principals have been using management information systems to improve the efficiency of administrative services. The aim of this research is to explore principals' perceptions about management information systems and how school management information…

  17. Image Information Mining System Evaluation Using Information-Theoretic Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daschiel, Herbert; Datcu, Mihai

    2005-12-01

    During the last decade, the exponential increase of multimedia and remote sensing image archives, the fast expansion of the world wide web, and the high diversity of users have yielded concepts and systems for successful content-based image retrieval and image information mining. Image data information systems require both database and visual capabilities, but there is a gap between these systems. Database systems usually do not deal with multidimensional pictorial structures and vision systems do not provide database query functions. In terms of these points, the evaluation of content-based image retrieval systems became a focus of research interest. One can find several system evaluation approaches in literature, however, only few of them go beyond precision-recall graphs and do not allow a detailed evaluation of an interactive image retrieval system. Apart from the existing evaluation methodologies, we aim at the overall validation of our knowledge-driven content-based image information mining system. In this paper, an evaluation approach is demonstrated that is based on information-theoretic quantities to determine the information flow between system levels of different semantic abstraction and to analyze human-computer interactions.

  18. Developing a Management Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    This paper is based on the assumption that in shaping academic strategies for long-range planning purposes, educational institutions must be able to gather adequate information on which to base administrative decisions. Information on how the institution has operated in the past as well as how it is currently operating are critical items for valid…

  19. RAPID ACCESS INFORMATION SYSTEM (RAINS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    RAINS has been designed to provide you fast, easy, flexible access to the Region's vast stores of environmental, programmatic, and administrative data and information. RAINS will allow users to approach and interact with this information in an integrated, multi-dimensional contex...

  20. The Soil Degradation Subsystem of the Hungarian Environmental Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, József; Pirkó, Béla; Szabóné Kele, Gabriella; Dombos, Miklós; László, Péter; Koós, Sándor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Laborczi, Annamária; Pásztor, László

    2013-04-01

    Regular data collection on the state of agricultural soils has not been in operation in Hungary for more than two decades. In the meantime, mainly thanks to the Hungarian Soil Strategy and the planned Soil Framework Directive, the demand for the information on state of Hungarian soils and the follow up of the harmful changes in their conditions and functioning has greatly increased. In 2010 the establishment of a new national soil monitoring system was supported by the Environment and Energy Operational Programme for Informatics Development. The aim of the project was to collect, manage, analyse and publish soil data related to the state of soils and the environmental stresses attributed to the pressures due to agriculture; setting up an appropriate information system in order to fulfil the directives of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection. Further objective was the web-based publication of soil data as well as information to support the related public service mission and to inform publicity. The developed information system operates as the Soil Degradation Subsystem of the National Environmental Information System being compatible with its other elements. A suitable representative sampling method was elaborated. The representativity is meant for soil associations, landuse, agricultural practices and typical degradation processes. Soil data were collected on county levels led by regional representatives but altogether they are representative for the whole territory of Hungary. During the project, about 700,000 elementary data were generated, close to 2,000 parcels of 285 farms were surveyed resulting more than 9,000 analysis, 7,000 samples and 28,000 pictures. The overall number of the recorded parcels is 4500, with a total area of about 250,000 hectares. The effect of agricultural land use on soils manifests in rapid changes -related to natural processes- in qualitative and quantitative soil parameters. In intensively used agricultural areas, particularly

  1. Information technology security system engineering methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology is described for system engineering security into large information technology systems under development. The methodology is an integration of a risk management process and a generic system development life cycle process. The methodology is to be used by Security System Engineers to effectively engineer and integrate information technology security into a target system as it progresses through the development life cycle. The methodology can also be used to re-engineer security into a legacy system.

  2. The Role of Aerospace Technology in Agriculture. The 1977 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Possibilities were examined for improving agricultural productivity through the application of aerospace technology. An overview of agriculture and of the problems of feeding a growing world population are presented. The present state of agriculture, of plant and animal culture, and agri-business are reviewed. Also analyzed are the various systems for remote sensing, particularly applications to agriculture. The report recommends additional research and technology in the areas of aerial application of chemicals, of remote sensing systems, of weather and climate investigations, and of air vehicle design. Also considered in detail are the social, legal, economic, and political results of intensification of technical applications to agriculture.

  3. Information management challenges of the EOS Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kenneth R.; Blake, Deborah J.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the current information management concepts that are embodied in the plans for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is presented, and some of the technology development and application areas that are envisioned to be particularly challenging are introduced. The Information Management System (IMS) is the EOSDIS element that provides the primary interface between the science users and the data products and services of EOSDIS. The goals of IMS are to define a clear and complete set of functional requirements and to apply innovative methods and technologies to satisfy them. The information management functions are described in detail, and some applicable technolgies are discussed. Some of the general issues affecting the successful development and operation of the information management element are addressed.

  4. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA`s CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information.

  5. Integrating NASA Satellite-Derived Precipitation and Soil Moisture Data Into the Digital-NGP Decision Support System for Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Zhang, X.; Soriano, M.

    2007-12-01

    The usefulness of NASA satellite-derived data for agricultural decision support systems (DSS) depends on the specific applications and their spatial and temporal resolution requirements. For globally oriented DSS, such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Crop Explorer, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has demonstrated the operational usefulness of NASA precipitation data, by providing seamless, dynamic, context-sensitive Web services via the Agricultural Online Visualization and Analysis System (AOVAS). The latter is a component of the GES DISC's Agricultural Information System (AIS), which enables the remote, interoperable, operational access to distributed data (e.g., near-real-time satellite- derived rainfall), by using the GrADS-Data Server (GDS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)-compliant MapServer. The latter allows the access of AIS data from any OGC-compliant client, such as the Earth-Sun System Gateway (ESG) or Google Earth. AOVAS is one of a family of "Giovanni" (GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) instances, which enable users to perform interactive visualization and analysis online without downloading any data. For more regionally or locally oriented DSS, such as the Digital- NGP (Northern Great Plains), an online GIS database system for archiving and distributing remote sensing images developed by the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium, the usefulness of NASA data is less clear. For agricultural users from the regional down to the local (including precision farming) levels, answers to two key questions are needed: when and how. The "how" is addressed with spatial distribution (e.g., an image), particularly at the sub-field resolution. An example is the new capability of the Digital-NGP to deliver maps of management zones, using remote sensing images and field data provided by users. "When" is basically a time series question, the answer to which is primarily

  6. Modeling soil processes for adapting agricultural systems to climate variability and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, B.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change, drought, and agricultural intensification are increasing the demand for enhanced resource use efficiency (water, nitrogen and radiation). There is a global consensus between climate and agricultural scientists about the need to quantify the likely impacts of climate change on crop yields due to their significant consequences on food prices as well as the global economy. Crop models have been extensively tested for yields, but their validation for soil water balance, and carbon and nitrogen cycling in agricultural systems has been limited. The objective of this research is to illustrate the importance of modeling soil processes correctly to identify management strategy that allow cropping systems to adapt to climate variability and change. Results from the first phase of the AgMIP soil and crop rotation initiative will also be discussed.

  7. Nitrogen and phosphorus losses from agricultural systems in China: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Di; Cao, Wenzhi; Fang, Jing; Cai, Longyan

    2014-08-30

    Studies worldwide have indicated that agricultural pollution is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus (N and P) in surface waters. A systematic understanding of N and P sources and sinks in agricultural systems is important for selecting the appropriate remedial strategies to control nutrient losses and water pollution. Based on nationwide data and a long-term monitoring program in Southeast China, the nationwide spatial and temporal patterns of N and P losses and the relationships between such losses and N and P inputs and rainfall were analyzed. The results showed that the annual nutrient losses from agricultural systems in China strongly varied, and the N/P values ranged from 0.01 to 51.0, with a majority at approximately 0-20, and an arithmetic mean of 9.73; these values mostly overlap the suitable range of N/P (6-15) for red bloom algae. PMID:24934439

  8. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Columbia River Basin Agriculture through Integrated Crop Systems, Hydrologic, and Water Management Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Stockle, C.; Nelson, R.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Malek, K.; Kruger, C.; Yoder, J.; Marsh, T.

    2011-12-01

    rights data as well as instream flow requirements are incorporated to inform water allocation and curtailment decisions. This modeling framework is applied over the 1976-2006 period and compared to a future 30-year period centered on the 2030s. Impacts of climate change on irrigation water availability, crop irrigation demand, frequency of curtailment, and crop yields are quantified and presented. Development of this modeling framework is part of a larger effort to develop a regional-scale earth system model, "BioEarth". The goal of BioEarth is to understand the interactions between land use and water and nutrient cycling under decadal-scale climate variability to inform decisions related to agricultural and natural resources management.

  9. Information Systems; Modern Health Care and Medical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandejs, J. F., And Others

    1975-01-01

    To effectively handle changes in health policy and health information, new designs and applications of automation are explored. Increased use of computer-based information systems in health care could serve as a means of control over the costs of developing more comprehensive health service, with applications increasing not only the automation of…

  10. IMIS: Integrated Maintenance Information System. A maintenance information delivery concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonholle, Joseph C.

    1987-01-01

    The Integrated Maintenance Information System (IMIS) will optimize the use of available manpower, enhance technical performance, improve training, and reduce the support equipment and documentation needed for deployment. It will serve as the technician's single, integrated source of all the technical information required to perform modern aircraft maintenance.

  11. Operationalizing crop monitoring system for informed decision making related to food security in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamer, F. M.; Shah, S. N. Pd.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Baidar, T.; Dhonju, K.; Hari, B. G.

    2014-11-01

    In Nepal, two thirds of the total population depend on agriculture for their livelihoods and more than one third of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) comes from the agriculture sector. However, effective agriculture production across the country remains a serious challenge due to various factors, such as a high degree of spatial and temporal climate variability, irrigated and rain-fed agriculture systems, farmers' fragile social and economic fabric, and unique mountain practices. ICIMOD through SERVIR-Himalaya initiative with collaboration of Ministry of Agricultural Development (MoAD) is working on developing a comprehensive crop monitoring system which aims to provide timely information on crop growth and drought development conditions. This system analyzes historical climate and crop conditions patterns and compares this data with the current growing season to provide timely assessment of crop growth. Using remote sensing data for vegetation indices, temperature and rainfall, the system generated anomaly maps are inferred to predict the increase or shortfall in production. Comparisons can be made both spatially and in graphs and figures at district and Village Developmental Committee (VDC) levels. Timely information on possible anomaly in crop production is later used by the institutions like Ministry of Agricultural Development, Nepal and World Food Programme, Nepal to trigger appropriate management response. Future potential includes integrating data on agricultural inputs, socioeconomics, demographics, and transportation to holistically assess food security in the region served by SERVIR-Himalaya.

  12. Designing control system information models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panin, K. I.; Zinchenko, V. P.

    1973-01-01

    Problems encountered in modeling information models are discussed, Data cover condition, functioning of the object of control, and the environment involved in the control. Other parameters needed for the model include: (1) information for forming an image of the real situation, (2) data for analyzing and evaluating an evolving situation, (3) planning actions, and (4) data for observing and evaluating the results of model realization.

  13. Autonomous agricultural remote sensing systems with high spatial and temporal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Haitao

    In this research, two novel agricultural remote sensing (RS) systems, a Stand-alone Infield Crop Monitor RS System (SICMRS) and an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) based RS system have been studied. A high-resolution digital color and multi-spectral camera was used as the image sensor for the SICMRS system. An artificially intelligent (AI) controller based on artificial neural network (ANN) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed. Morrow Plots corn field RS images in the 2004 and 2006 growing seasons were collected by the SICMRS system. The field site contained 8 subplots (9.14 m x 9.14 m) that were planted with corn and three different fertilizer treatments were used among those subplots. The raw RS images were geometrically corrected, resampled to 10cm resolution, removed soil background and calibrated to real reflectance. The RS images from two growing seasons were studied and 10 different vegetation indices were derived from each day's image. The result from the image processing demonstrated that the vegetation indices have temporal effects. To achieve high quality RS data, one has to utilize the right indices and capture the images at the right time in the growing season. Maximum variations among the image data set are within the V6-V10 stages, which indicated that these stages are the best period to identify the spatial variability caused by the nutrient stress in the corn field. The derived vegetation indices were also used to build yield prediction models via the linear regression method. At that point, all of the yield prediction models were evaluated by comparing the R2-value and the best index model from each day's image was picked based on the highest R 2-value. It was shown that the green normalized difference vegetation (GNDVI) based model is more sensitive to yield prediction than other indices-based models. During the VT-R4 stages, the GNDVI based models were able to explain more than 95% potential corn yield

  14. An overview of crop growing condition monitoring in China agriculture remote sensing monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing; Zhou, Qing-bo; Zhang, Li

    2009-07-01

    China is a large agricultural country. To understand the agricultural production condition timely and accurately is related to government decision-making, agricultural production management and the general public concern. China Agriculture Remote Sensing Monitoring System (CHARMS) can monitor crop acreage changes, crop growing condition, agriculture disaster (drought, floods, frost damage, pest etc.) and predict crop yield etc. quickly and timely. The basic principles, methods and regular operation of crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS are introduced in detail in the paper. CHARMS can monitor crop growing condition of wheat, corn, cotton, soybean and paddy rice with MODIS data. An improved NDVI difference model was used in crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS. Firstly, MODIS data of every day were received and processed, and the max NDVI values of every fifteen days of main crop were generated, then, in order to assessment a certain crop growing condition in certain period (every fifteen days, mostly), the system compare the remote sensing index data (NDVI) of a certain period with the data of the period in the history (last five year, mostly), the difference between NDVI can indicate the spatial difference of crop growing condition at a certain period. Moreover, Meteorological data of temperature, precipitation and sunshine etc. as well as the field investigation data of 200 network counties were used to modify the models parameters. Last, crop growing condition was assessment at four different scales of counties, provinces, main producing areas and nation and spatial distribution maps of crop growing condition were also created.

  15. Using landscape typologies to model socioecological systems: Application to agriculture of the United States Gulf Coast

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Preston, Benjamin L.; King, Anthony Wayne; Mei, Rui; Nair, Sujithkumar Surendran

    2016-02-11

    Agricultural enterprises are vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. Improved understanding of the determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in agricultural systems is important for projecting and managing future climate risk. At present, three analytical tools dominate methodological approaches to understanding agroecological vulnerability to climate: process-based crop models, empirical crop models, and integrated assessment models. A common weakness of these approaches is their limited treatment of socio-economic conditions and human agency in modeling agroecological processes and outcomes. This study proposes a framework that uses spatial cluster analysis to generate regional socioecological typologies that capture geographic variance inmore » regional agricultural production and enable attribution of that variance to climatic, topographic, edaphic, and socioeconomic components. This framework was applied to historical corn production (1986-2010) in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region as a testbed. The results demonstrate that regional socioeconomic heterogeneity is an important driving force in human dominated ecosystems, which we hypothesize, is a function of the link between socioeconomic conditions and the adaptive capacity of agricultural systems. Meaningful representation of future agricultural responses to climate variability and change is contingent upon understanding interactions among biophysical conditions, socioeconomic conditions, and human agency their incorporation in predictive models.« less

  16. Flight Projects Office Information Systems Testbed (FIST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Flight Projects Office Information Systems Testbed (FIST) are presented. The goal is to perform technology evaluation and prototyping of information systems to support SFOC and JPL flight projects in order to reduce risk in the development of operational data systems for such projects.

  17. Top Four Trends in Student Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weathers, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The modern student information systems (SIS) is a powerful administrative tool with robust functionality. As such, it is essential that school and district administrators consider the top trends in modern student information systems before going forward with system upgrades or new purchases. These trends, described herein, are: (1) Support for…

  18. Management Information Systems and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    Britain's Further Education Unit (FEU) has continued to work in the areas of management information systems (MIS), particularly, computerized management information systems (CMIS), and their significance for curriculum management. Perceptions about the use of CMIS have been changed. Several reports have noted the limitations of existing systems in…

  19. Information Systems Design: The Librarian's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam

    1986-01-01

    Librarians should become more active in designing information systems so that their extensive knowledge of how people articulate their information needs and evaluate their findings can be incorporated into new systems. These systems would be more responsive to user needs than those driven by the machine or data processing mindset. (EM)

  20. Management Information Systems: Applications to Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Belle Ruth

    An orientation to management information systems (MIS) is offered which presents information about MIS in the context of public education and suggests some considerations that should be taken into account in designing and operating such systems. MIS is defined as a set of operating procedures that act as a control system to automatically provide…

  1. Implementation of Alabama Resources Information System, ARIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, B. E.

    1978-01-01

    Development of ARIS - Alabama Resources Information System is summarized. Development of data bases, system simplification for user access, and making information available to personnel having a need to use ARIS or in the process of developing ARIS type systems are discussed.

  2. Information flow in heterogeneously interacting systems.

    PubMed

    Yamaguti, Yutaka; Tsuda, Ichiro; Takahashi, Yoichiro

    2014-02-01

    Motivated by studies on the dynamics of heterogeneously interacting systems in neocortical neural networks, we studied heterogeneously-coupled chaotic systems. We used information-theoretic measures to investigate directions of information flow in heterogeneously coupled Rössler systems, which we selected as a typical chaotic system. In bi-directionally coupled systems, spontaneous and irregular switchings of the phase difference between two chaotic oscillators were observed. The direction of information transmission spontaneously switched in an intermittent manner, depending on the phase difference between the two systems. When two further oscillatory inputs are added to the coupled systems, this system dynamically selects one of the two inputs by synchronizing, selection depending on the internal phase differences between the two systems. These results indicate that the effective direction of information transmission dynamically changes, induced by a switching of phase differences between the two systems. PMID:24465282

  3. Development of Field Information Monitoring System Based on the Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ken; Liang, Xiaoying; Wang, Keqiang

    With the rapid development and wide application of electronics, communication and embedded system technologies, the global agriculture is changing from traditional agriculture that is to improve the production relying on the increase of labor, agricultural inputs to the new stage of modern agriculture with low yields, high efficiency, real-time and accuracy. On the other hand the research and development of the Internet of Things, which is an information network to connect objects, with the full capacity to perceive objects, and having the capabilities of reliable transmission and intelligence processing for information, allows us to obtain real-time information of anything. The application of the Internet of Things in field information online monitoring is an effective solution for present wired sensor monitoring system, which has much more disadvantages, such as high cost, the problems of laying lines and so on. In this paper, a novel field information monitoring system based on the Internet of Things is proposed. It can satisfy the requirements of multi-point measurement, mobility, convenience in the field information monitoring process. The whole structure of system is given and the key designs of system design are described in the hardware and software aspect. The studies have expanded current field information measurement methods and strengthen the application of the Internet of Things.

  4. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Müller, Christoph; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Schmitz, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction.

  5. Assessing indigenous knowledge systems and climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture: A case study of Chagaka Village, Chikhwawa, Southern Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkomwa, Emmanuel Charles; Joshua, Miriam Kalanda; Ngongondo, Cosmo; Monjerezi, Maurice; Chipungu, Felistus

    In Malawi, production from subsistence rain fed agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. In response to the adverse effects of climate change and variability, a National Adaptation Programme of Action is used as framework for implementing adaptation programmes. However, this framework puts limited significance on indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). In many parts of the world, IKS have shown potential in the development of locally relevant and therefore sustainable adaptation strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the role of IKS in adaptation to climate change and variability in the agricultural sector in a rural district of Chikhwawa, southern Malawi. The study used both qualitative data from focus group and key informant interviews and quantitative data from household interviews and secondary data to address the research objectives. The study established that the local communities are able to recognise the changes in their climate and local environment. Commonly mentioned indicators of changing climatic patterns included delayed and unpredictable onset of rainfall, declining rainfall trends, warming temperatures and increased frequency of prolonged dry spells. An analysis of empirical data corroborates the people's perception. In addition, the community is able to use their IKS to adapt their agricultural systems to partially offset the effects of climate change. Like vulnerability to climate change, IKS varies over a short spatial scale, providing locally relevant adaptation to impacts of climate change. This paper therefore advocates for the integration of IKS in programmes addressing adaptation to climate change and vulnerability. This will serve to ensure sustainable and relevant adaptation strategies.

  6. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  7. Trip Information Log Tracking System

    1992-06-23

    The system is focused on the Employee Business Travel Event. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the Travel Event as well as the ability to CRUD frequent flyer milage associated with airline travel. Additionally the system must provide for a compliance reporting system to monitor reductions in travel costs and lost opportunity costs (i.e., not taking advantage of business class or 7 day advance tickets).

  8. The Impacts of Agricultural Land Use on Dissolved Organic Matter in a Dryland River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, J. L.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Van Horn, D. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, expanding agriculture is significantly impacting aquatic nutrient cycles. In mesic systems, agriculture is a source of nitrogen and phosphorus and increases concentrations of structurally simple dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, recent studies suggest in dryland systems, where wastewater effluent is a primary nutrient source, agriculture is a nutrient sink—retaining nitrogen and phosphorous. Importantly, very little, is known about the influence of agriculture on DOC dynamics in dryland systems. To address this gap we used synoptic sampling, UV-absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy to elucidate source, character, and concentration of riverine and runoff DOC in a dryland agricultural system. Samples were collected along a 25 km stretch of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico (USA). The Rio Grande is an impoundment/irrigation-withdrawal controlled river that receives water from snowmelt, monsoonal storms, and wastewater effluent. During irrigation approximately 80% of the river's water is diverted into a manmade network where it waters crops and percolates through the soil before it enters a series of drains that return water to the river. Our preliminary characterization of the DOC reentering the river (DOCmean=3.23 mg/L, sd=0.81; SUVAmean=4.05, sd=1.37) indicates the agricultural pool is similar in concentration and aromaticity to riverine DOC (DOCmean= 3.10 mg/L, sd=1.17; SUVAmean= 4.64, sd=1.12). However, riverine organic matter is more terrestrially derived (FImean=1.68, sd=0.17) than organic matter in the drains (FImean=1.9, sd=0.24). Additionally, drains directly adjacent to actively irrigated fields show high concentrations (DOCmean=58.35; sd=0.91) of low aromaticity organic matter (SUVAmean=0.33; sd=0.11). We are continuing analysis throughout the irrigation season to further explore organic matter quality (traits such as bioavailability and freshness) and identify locations and processes of DOC transformation within the system

  9. Systems Suitable for Information Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, John C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Describes computer operating systems applicable to microcomputers, noting hardware components, advantages and disadvantages of each system, local area networks, distributed processing, and a fully configured system. Lists of hardware components (disk drives, solid state disk emulators, input/output and memory components, and processors) and…

  10. Working Together to Deliver Usable Climate Information to Agricultural Producers and Advisors in the U.S. Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopy, L. S.; Widhalm, M.

    2012-12-01

    Weather and climate patterns are a driving force behind the success or failure of cropping systems. With U.S. corn and soybean production accounting for nearly one-third of global supplies and contributing $100 billion annually to the national economy, the ability to successfully produce crops under more variable climate conditions is critical. Useful to Usable (U2U): Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers is a USDA-funded research and extension project focused on delivering to producers and farm advisors the resources and training they need to more effectively manage variable climate conditions. The U2U team is a diverse and uniquely qualified group of climatologists, crop modelers, agronomists, economists, and social scientists from 10 Midwestern universities and two NOAA Regional Climate Centers. Together, we strive to help producers make better long-term plans on what, when and where to plant and also how to manage crops for maximum yields and minimum environmental damage. Under development are tools that will allow the agricultural community to examine the financial, production, and environmental outcomes of different management options and climate scenarios so farmers can choose strategies that fit their capabilities and acceptable levels of risk. Researchers are currently using existing data and agro-climate models to investigate the impact of climate conditions on key topics such as crop yields, fieldwork opportunities, nitrogen management, and the cost-effectiveness of irrigation and tiling. To ensure relevance and usability of U2U products, our social science team is using a number of techniques including surveys and focus groups to integrate stakeholder interests, needs, and concerns into all aspects of U2U research. It is through this coupling of physical and social science disciplines that we strive to transform existing climate information into actionable knowledge. This presentation will elaborate on U2U

  11. A SCHOOL AND HEALTH RECORD TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR MIGRATORY CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS (CALIFORNIA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    THE CALIFORNIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION HAS ADOPTED A UNIFORM TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. EACH SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLLING MIGRANT CHILDREN MUST COMPLETE A STANDARDIZED FORM FOR EACH MIGRANT CHILD AND FORWARD IT WITH THE PUPIL WHEN HE WITHDRAWS FROM SCHOOL. A COPY ALSO MUST BE FORWARDED TO THE STATE…

  12. Sustaining the earth's watersheds-agricultural research data system: Overview of development and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive, long-term data for watershed systems across diverse locations are essential for interdisciplinary hydrologic and ecosystem analysis and model development, calibration and validation. The USDA and Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have supported watershed research since the 1930’s w...

  13. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  14. Object-Oriented Agricultural System Modeling: Component-Driven Nutrient Dynamics and Crop Yield Simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Challenges in agro-ecosystem conservation management have created demand for state-of-the-art, integrated, and flexible modeling tools. For example, agricultural system modeling tools are needed which are robust and fast enough to be applied on large watershed scales, but which are also able to sim...

  15. Integrated agricultural system modeling using OMS3: component driven runoff and nutrient dynamics simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Challenges in agro-ecosystem conservation management have created demand for state-of-the-art, integrated, and flexible modeling tools. For example, agricultural system modeling tools are needed which are robust and fast enough to be applied on large watershed scales, but which are also able to simu...

  16. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

  17. An Evaluation of a Welding Fumes Exhaust System. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 284.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    A study evaluated the feasibility of introducing unheated outside air into the airstream of a cross-flow welding exhaust system to reduce heating energy costs of a school welding laboratory. The physical facility used was the agricultural mechanics laboratory at the University of Arizona, which is similar to facilities in which instruction in…

  18. Application of the precision agricultural landscape modeling system in semiarid environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS) is a terrain and weather driven, distributed parameter hydrological-biophysical model primarily used in the Midwestern United States. Recently, research was started to evaluate the effectiveness of PALMS on irrigated and on dryland croppin...

  19. MULTIFUNCTIONALITY OF AGRICULTURE AND FARMING SYSTEM DESIGN: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farming systems are linked across three scales within the agricultural landscape. At each of these scales there are four functional aspects: i) production; ii) economics; iii) environment; and iv) multiple or alternative uses that link scales and endpoints. These linkages are observed in watershed...

  20. AGDEX: A System for Classifying, Indexing, and Filing Agricultural Publications. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Howard L.; Woodin, Ralph J.

    This document provides an introduction to and instructions for the use of AGDEX, a comprehensive numeric filing system to classify and organize a wide variety of agricultural publications. The index is subdivided and color coded according to the following categories: (1) field crops; (2) horticulture; (3) forestry; (4) animal science; (5) soils;…