Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural injury prevention

  1. Needlestick Injuries in Agriculture Workers and Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Buswell, Minden L; Hourigan, Mary; Nault, André J; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of biologics, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones used in animal agriculture. Depending upon the procedure or pharmaceutical used, accidental injections or product exposures can result in mild to severe injuries. Needlestick injury (NSI) prevention, research, and education for veterinarians and agriculture workers is limited. The objective of this study was to collect and review published case reports and case series/surveys on human needlestick exposure to veterinary biologics and to summarize needlestick prevention strategies for agricultural workers/veterinarians. A search was conducted of PubMed and Centre for Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI) databases. References were reviewed to identify additional articles. NSI among agricultural workers were primarily included in this review. Thirty articles were applicable to exposures in agricultural settings. Relevant literature consisted of case reports, survey/case series articles, prevention documents, and background articles. Fifty-nine case patients were identified. Most of these cases were associated with exposures to specific vaccines or veterinary products. Injury location was identified from 36 individuals: 24 (67%) NSI to the hands, 10 (28%) injuries to the legs, and 2 to other body locations. Of the 59 cases, 20 (34%) involved oil-adjuvant vaccines. Evidence of hospitalization was recorded for 30 case patients. The length of hospitalization was available from 11 case patients. Median length of hospitalization was 3 days (range: 1-4). Surgical intervention was reported in 25 case patients. Outcome information was available on 30 case patients. Fifteen made a complete recovery within 2 weeks of treatment, 14 had residual sequelae attributed to the injury, and there was 1 reported death. Of the 13 survey/case series articles: 2 focused on oil-adjuvant products, 1 on Brucellosis RB-51 vaccine, 3 on tilmicosin, 1 on Salmonella enteritidis vaccine, 1 on high-pressure injection, and 5

  2. Culturally relevant model program to prevent and reduce agricultural injuries.

    PubMed

    Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C

    2014-07-01

    Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms. PMID:25174150

  3. Culturally relevant model program to prevent and reduce agricultural injuries.

    PubMed

    Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C

    2014-07-01

    Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms.

  4. Building community capacity for agricultural injury prevention in a Navajo community.

    PubMed

    Helitzer, D; Willging, C; Hathorn, G; Benally, J

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of building community capacity to plan, implement, and evaluate culturally appropriate agricultural injury prevention programs on the Navajo Nation. Navajo farmers and ranchers, the community stakeholders in this model program, experience significantly greater farm-related occupational mortality compared to other ethnic groups in the southwestern U.S. In this population, effective agricultural injury prevention projects designed to change livestock and pesticide handling practices are likely to reduce agricultural-related injuries and deaths. Community-based organizations and community members may benefit from training to develop the capacity to undertake systematic planning and evaluation. Using a community-based participatory research approach that addressed the need for such training, a stakeholder group consisting of university faculty and community members implemented a sequential planning process that incorporated scientific principles and activities. Over five years, community stakeholders identified criteria to define capacity improvement and then proceeded to implement activities to enhance their ability to develop, implement, and evaluate agricultural injury prevention projects. Specifically, stakeholders developed, translated, and administered a baseline survey of agricultural practices among Navajo farmers and ranchers, used survey results to design two agricultural safety projects, and implemented and evaluated the interventions. The results of the evaluation of capacity building suggest that the project was successful. This project may serve as an innovative model for increasing community involvement in the development of agricultural injury prevention interventions with underserved populations where mortality and morbidity are high, and strategies for prevention have either not been effective or adequately studied. PMID:19266882

  5. Using logic models in a community-based agricultural injury prevention project.

    PubMed

    Helitzer, Deborah; Willging, Cathleen; Hathorn, Gary; Benally, Jeannie

    2009-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has long promoted the logic model as a useful tool in an evaluator's portfolio. Because a logic model supports a systematic approach to designing interventions, it is equally useful for program planners. Undertaken with community stakeholders, a logic model process articulates the underlying foundations of a particular programmatic effort and enhances program design and evaluation. Most often presented as sequenced diagrams or flow charts, logic models demonstrate relationships among the following components: statement of a problem, various causal and mitigating factors related to that problem, available resources to address the problem, theoretical foundations of the selected intervention, intervention goals and planned activities, and anticipated short- and long-term outcomes. This article describes a case example of how a logic model process was used to help community stakeholders on the Navajo Nation conceive, design, implement, and evaluate agricultural injury prevention projects. PMID:19618808

  6. Prevention of youth injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

    1999-01-01

    There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

  7. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  8. Childhood agricultural injuries: an update for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Wright, Suzanne; Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2013-02-01

    Every three days a child dies in an agriculture-related incident, and every day 45 children are injured in the United States. These tragedies should not be regarded as "accidents," as they often follow predictable and preventable patterns. Prevention is not only possible, but vital, since many of these injuries are almost immediately fatal. Major sources of fatal injuries are machinery, motor vehicles, and drowning. Tractor injuries alone account for one-third of all deaths. The leading sources of nonfatal injuries are structures and surfaces, animals (primarily horses), and vehicles (primarily all-terrain vehicles [ATVs]). Children living on farms are at a higher risk than hired workers, and are unprotected by child labor laws. Preschool children and older male youth are at the highest risk for fatal injury, while nonfatal injury was most common among boys aged 10-15 years. Multiple prevention strategies have been developed, yet economic and cultural barriers often impede their implementation. Educational campaigns alone are often ineffective, and must be coupled with re-engineering of machines and safety devices to reduce fatalities. Legislation has the potential to improve child safety, yet political and economic pressures often prohibit changes in child labor laws and mandated safety requirements. Clinicians play a pivotal role in injury prevention, and should actively address common rural risk-taking behaviors as part of the routine office visit in order to help prevent these tragedies.

  9. Prevention of pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Rebecca A; Landry, Gregory L

    2003-12-01

    With over 30 million children participating in sports each year across the United States, a number of significant injuries are to be expected. Although mild injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions predominate, catastrophic injuries do occur. Young athletes are at an increased risk for growth plate and apophyseal injuries, overuse injuries, and heat illness. Many of these sports injuries can be prevented. Prevention strategies include protective equipment, rule changes, preseason and season prevention interventions, safety measures, better coaching, education, and a societal awareness of injury and prevention. This article discusses current injury prevention for children participating in baseball, football, soccer, and ice hockey.

  10. Preventing Injuries, Promoting Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneously promoting a safe learning environment that encourages students to express their creative voices while exploring the rudiments of dance technique can be difficult. This article discusses how the author has learned to do it effectively by employing a few simple classroom strategies. To prevent injuries during class, the author offers…

  11. Prevention of skateboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Morgan, W J; Galloway, D J; Patel, A R

    1980-01-01

    Skateboarding has become extremely popular in the United Kingdom, and it is estimated that over two million skateboards have been sold. Previous surveys have shown the dangers of the sport, fractures of the limbs being a particularly common form of injury. Consequently the provision of skateboard parks and the wearing of adequate protective clothing were considered necessary to reduce to severity of the injuries sustained. Our survey does not support this view, and suggests that fractures are more likely to occur in people with full protective clothing and skating in a park. The reasons for this are discussed. It is also suggested that expert instruction in the use of the skateboard has been neglected as a means of accident prevention.

  12. Prevention and Control of Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchfarber, Barbara S.; Zins, Joseph E.; Jason, Leonard A.

    Childhood injury continues to be a major public health crisis in the United States, with a large percentage of injuries being preventable and controllable. This chapter provides information related to understanding child and youth injury. Studies have shown that injuries affect identifiable high-risk groups. Such host factors that put children at…

  13. Injury prevention in youth sports.

    PubMed

    Veigel, Jake D; Pleacher, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Sport is the principal cause of injury in children and adolescents. Youth participation in organized athletics is estimated to be 45 million in the United States alone. These injuries influence health and fitness and have socioeconomic impact. Many injuries can be prevented. This article outlines the efficacy of current injury prevention strategies in youth sports through the use of educational programs, rule changes in baseball and hockey, safety equipment, and conditioning programs.

  14. Injury prevention in youth sports.

    PubMed

    Veigel, Jake D; Pleacher, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Sport is the principal cause of injury in children and adolescents. Youth participation in organized athletics is estimated to be 45 million in the United States alone. These injuries influence health and fitness and have socioeconomic impact. Many injuries can be prevented. This article outlines the efficacy of current injury prevention strategies in youth sports through the use of educational programs, rule changes in baseball and hockey, safety equipment, and conditioning programs. PMID:19005358

  15. Softball injuries. Aetiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Janda, D H; Wild, D E; Hensinger, R N

    1992-04-01

    Over 40 million individuals nationally participate in organised softball leagues, playing an estimated 23 million games per year in the United States. It has also been estimated that softball causes more injuries leading to emergency room visits in the United States than any other sport. Between 1983 and 1989, over 2.6 million injuries were documented through selected emergency rooms throughout the United States. In addition, the potential costs of these injuries can be staggering, therefore, prevention is of utmost importance. Prior to implementation of any preventative measures, the aetiology and distribution of injuries must be ascertained. Softball-related injuries can be grouped into 3 categories: (a) sliding-related injuries--the most common injury scenario; (b) collision-related injuries; and (c) falls sustained by the player. Various preventative approaches have been utilised to reduce the incidence of these recreational sports injuries and the associated health care costs. In regard to sliding-related injuries, breakaway bases have been utilised and have been found to reduce sliding-related injuries by approximately 98%. In reference to collision injuries, deformable walls and padded back stops and field maintenance have been found to prevent the majority of injuries secondary to collisions and falls. In addition, better coaching techniques as well as stretching and conditioning programmes have all been found to benefit players in the prevention of their injuries. As physicians, trainers and individuals involved with sporting activities, it is imperative that we turn and focus our attention on prevention. The cornerstone to diminished injuries and subsequent prevention of an injury is a safer environment for the recreational softball player to participate in.

  16. School Injury Prevention Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackett, Christine

    This guide has been developed to provide resources to teachers to address injury prevention in their classrooms. Entries in this guide represent materials which the Injury Prevention Program has identified. Chapters are divided by their target grade and age level. Curricula are listed by the youngest grade which they target. For each entry,…

  17. 76 FR 29756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention, Program Announcement (PA) Number PAR-11... Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention, PAR-11-022, initial review.'' Contact... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  18. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  19. Preventing head and neck injury.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P

    2005-06-01

    A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport.

  20. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  1. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finance Human Resources and Administrative Services Information Technology Marketing and Sales Membership Practice Public Affairs Quality Publishing ... Feedback Recent a a a print email share Facebook Twitter 2016 Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet 3/ ...

  2. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... ups and training sessions before practices and before games. This will help ensure that they have fun ... be allowed periods of rest during practices and games. previous continue Common Types of Sports Injuries Three ...

  3. Using protection motivation theory and formative research to guide an injury prevention intervention: increasing adherence to the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Heaney, Catherine A; Kmet, Jennifer M; Wilkins, J R

    2011-05-01

    The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to reduce childhood agricultural injuries by assisting adults in assigning appropriate chores and providing needed supervision and training. To develop an effective intervention to increase adherence to NAGCAT among farm parents, formative research (focus groups and pilot-testing) was conducted. Protection motivation theory (PMT) was used to guide this research and inform intervention development. Focus group results suggested how PMT constructs might be addressed to increase adherence. A home visit intervention, using a standardized presentation in POWERPoint™, was developed to (a) introduce NAGCAT, (b) increase motivation to use NAGCAT and enhance safe work behaviors, and (c) ultimately reduce agricultural work-related injuries among youth. Process evaluation data suggests that the intervention was well received by farm parents. Conducting theory-guided formative research identified motivational barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers that might not have been otherwise apparent.

  4. Diving injuries: a preventable catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Y; Jarosz, D; Paul, D B; Townsend, R N; Diamond, D L

    1994-03-01

    During a 5-year period from January 1987 through January 1992, 58 patients were admitted to the Allegheny General Hospital trauma center for non-scuba, non-suicidal diving injuries. There were 46 men and 12 women (mean age, 23 years). Forty-five patients were injured in swimming pools. Twenty-two patients had blood alcohol levels > 100 mg/dL. Cervical spine injury was the most common pathologic entity encountered in this group of patients. Closed head injury, pelvic fracture, thoracic vertebral fracture, and rib fractures were other injuries identified. Some patients had multiple organ failure syndrome. Aquatic recreational activities carry a risk for injury that is preventable. The mechanism, clinical data, and complications of 58 patients are presented and the importance of prevention is discussed.

  5. Preventing Knee Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to tearing. Growth Plate Injuries, Fractures, and Dislocations Knee fractures rarely occur in childhood sports, but with any ... is the bump on the front of the knee where the patellar tendon attaches. Fractures to the growth plate in this area often ...

  6. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    PubMed

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  7. Kinesiology and Injury Prevention. Every Dancer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clippinger-Robertson, Karen

    1986-01-01

    This article focuses on three aspects of kinesiology: training principles, technique, and class design as they relate to injury prevention. Recommendations for prevention of some common dance injuries are offered. (MT)

  8. Internet Resources for Injury and Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Krista; Sleet, David A.; Mickalide, Angela; Gorcowski, Susan; Bryn, Stephanie; Balsley, Tara; Mitchko, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Access to injury prevention information is being transformed by the Internet and information technology. These new strategies for "knowledge management" are creating new opportunities for health education and injury prevention. This article provides an overview and a list of internet resources on unintentional injury prevention, acute care and…

  9. Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury

    PubMed Central

    C. Schwebel, David; Swart, Dehran

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world) is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages-especially its comparatively low cost to produce-it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ‎discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ‎multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ‎and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ‎successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ‎initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations. PMID:21483184

  10. Agricultural health in The Gambia II: A systematic survey of safety and injuries in production agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kuye, Rex; Donham, Kelley; Marquez, Shannon; Sanderson, Wayne; Fuortes, Laurence; Rautiainen, Risto; Jones, Martin; Culp, Kennith

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide baseline information on the injuries and health and safety conditions in Gambian agriculture. The objective was to produce information to guide the formulation of an agricultural health and safety policy for the country, future investigations, prevention and surveillance of the adverse health effects in agriculture. A cross-sectional survey of 20 farmers, 20 nurses, and 20 agricultural extension workers was conducted in the Central and Upper River Divisions of The Gambia. The survey was implemented by the means of questionnaires, walk-through survey and hazard checklist. Seventy percent of farms reported an injury during the past year. Major sources and contributing factors for the injuries were characterized. Predisposing factors to the injuries were climatic conditions, working in static positions, bending and twisting and carrying heavy objects. Cuts and lacerations were identified as the commonest injury types and the most common sources were hand tools (hand hoe, cutlass, axe and knife) and animal-powered carts. A workshop for the major stake holders in the country's agriculture was also held to identify problems and possible solutions for health promotion of Gambian farmers.

  11. Triathlon related musculoskeletal injuries: the status of injury prevention knowledge.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Cameron McR; Gabbe, Belinda J; Forbes, Andrew B

    2008-07-01

    Triathlon is a popular participation sport that combines swimming, cycling and running into a single event. A number of studies have investigated the incidence of injury, profile of injuries sustained and factors contributing to triathlon injury. This paper summarises the published literature in the context of the evidence base for the prevention of triathlon related injuries. Relevant articles on triathlon injuries were sourced from peer-reviewed English language journals and assessed using the Translating Research into Injury Prevention Practice (TRIPP) framework. This review highlights the significant knowledge gap that exists in the published literature describing the incidence of injury, the profile of injuries sustained and evidence for the prevention of injury in triathlon. Despite the number of studies undertaken to address TRIPP Stages 1 and 2 (injury surveillance, aetiology and mechanism of injury), most triathlon studies have been limited by retrospective designs with substantial, and unvalidated, recall periods, inconsistency in the definitions used for a reportable injury and exposure to injury, or a failure to capture exposure data at all. Overall, the paucity of quality, prospective studies investigating the incidence of injury in triathlon and factors contributing to their occurrence has led to an inability to adequately inform the development of injury prevention strategies (TRIPP Stages 3-6) for this sport, a situation that must be rectified if gains are to be made in reducing the burden of triathlon related injury.

  12. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  13. Identifying and mitigating risks for agricultural injury associated with obesity.

    PubMed

    King, Nathan; Janssen, Ian; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Lawson, Joshua; Trask, Catherine; Pickett, William

    2016-12-01

    In some occupational contexts overweight and obesity have been identified as risk factors for injury. The purpose of this study was to examine this hypothesis within farm work environments and then to identify specific opportunities for environmental modification as a preventive strategy. Data on farm-related injuries, height and weight used to calculate body mass index (BMI), and demographic characteristics were from the Phase 2 baseline survey of the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort; a large cross-sectional mail-based survey conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada from January through May 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between BMI and injury. Injury narratives were explored qualitatively. Findings were inconsistent and differed according to gender. Among women (n = 927), having overweight (adjusted OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.29 to 6.70) but not obesity (1.10; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.43) was associated with an increased odds of incurring a farm-related injury. No strong or statistically significant effects were observed for men (n = 1406) with overweight or obesity. While injury-related challenges associated with obesity have been addressed in other occupational settings via modification of the worksite, such strategies are challenging to implement in farm settings because of the diversity of work tasks and associated hazards. We conclude that the acute effects of overweight in terms of injury do require consideration in agricultural populations, but these should also be viewed with a differentiation based on gender.

  14. Youth Sport Injury Prevention is KEY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how providing a well-designed injury prevention program that includes attention to growth and development, training and conditioning, protective equipment, and emergency care can minimize youth sport injuries. (SM)

  15. ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries are motor vehicle crashes, violence, falls, sports and recreation. What might surprise you is that ... supporting ThinkFirst! Ticket sales and Silent Auction proceeds benefit... Read more 2016 ThinkFirst Conference on Injury Prevention ...

  16. Improving Injury Prevention Through Health Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Haegerich, Tamara M.; Sugerman, David E.; Annest, Joseph L.; Klevens, Joanne; Baldwin, Grant T.

    2015-01-01

    Health information technology is an emerging area of focus in clinical medicine with the potential to improve injury and violence prevention practice. With injuries being the leading cause of death for Americans aged 1–44 years, greater implementation of evidence-based preventive services, referral to community resources, and real-time surveillance of emerging threats is needed. Through a review of the literature and capturing of current practice in the field, this paper showcases how health information technology applied to injury and violence prevention can lead to strengthened clinical preventive services, more rigorous measurement of clinical outcomes, and improved injury surveillance, potentially resulting in health improvement. PMID:25441230

  17. Current trends and update on injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Parichat; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2011-01-01

    Injuries are a major and growing public health problem, a leading cause of death and disabilities among people aged 1–44 years around the world. Each year, 5.8 million people die from injuries, accounting for 10% of the world's deaths. Road traffic injuries (RTIs), self-inflicted injuries and violence are the top three leading causes of all injury deaths, while RTIs, falls and drowning are the top three leading causes of unintentional injury death. In many high-income countries, trends of injury death have been decreasing as a result of prevention measures. In contrast, trends in low- and middle-income countries have been rising. In this article, we review the prevention strategies for RTIs, violence, falls and drowning developed over decades to disseminate the knowledge and inform health care providers, especially acute care physicians, about the importance of injury prevention. PMID:22096775

  18. Injury prevention. Where are the resources?

    PubMed

    Feury, Karen Jean

    2003-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control (2002), each year nearly 150,000 Americans die from injuries, making injury the leading cause of death among children and young adults and a significant problem for Americans of all ages. Nonfatal injuries account for approximately 114 million physician office visits and 25% of all emergency department examinations. It is estimated that one in four Americans will suffer a potentially preventable injury serious enough to require medical attention (Shienfield Gorin & Arnold, 1998). As injury-prevention advocates, we must address this public health problem with a multidimensional approach that includes the three Es: education, engineering, and enforcement. Professionals from many disciplines, including nurses, physicians, health educators, school teachers, social workers, police officers, firefighters, emergency medical technicians, and coaches, must have accurate information to educate. Education in injury prevention must be a collaborative approach. These injury-prevention leaders must stay informed and knowledgeable of this ever-changing science. This article highlights common injuries, preventive strategies, and resources for injury-prevention information. This information will assist the healthcare provider in finding accurate sources of information concerning injury prevention (Shienfield Gorin & Arnold, 1998).

  19. [Ankle braces prevent ligament injuries].

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Jon

    2002-09-01

    The Cochrane collaboration has performed a meta-analysis of all studies found on the prevention of ankle ligament injuries, frequent in sports like soccer, European handball and basketball. Interventions include the use of modified footwear and associated supports, training programmes and health education. Five randomized trials totalling 3,954 participants were included. With the exception of ankle disc training, all prophylactic interventions entailed the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis, air-cast or high top shoes. The studies showed a significant reduction in the number of ankle sprains in individuals allocated to external ankle support. This reduction was greater for those with a previous history of ankle sprains.

  20. [Mechanisms and prevention of windsurfing injuries].

    PubMed

    Petersen, W; Rau, J; Hansen, U; Zantop, T; Stein, V

    2003-09-01

    Aim of this study was to analyse the mechanisms of windsurfing injuries. For this purpose we performed a internet based survey among 327 windsurfers in Germany. Overall 630 accidents have been registered among all 327 athletes during the 2000 season. The majority of injuries were classified as minor injury. The most common injury was the bruise. 70 participants reported fractures, 26 participants ruptured a ligament. 280 injuries required medical treatment; in 67 cases even surgical treatment was necessary. The majority of accidents happened at wind power of 5-6 Beaufort after 2 hour exercise. A technical mistake was the most frequent cause for the accident. The most dangerous manoeuvres were difficult jumps (e. g. front loop, backward loop, 70 injuries). In 46 cases the weather conditions were underestimated. Only 10 windsurfers reported about broken material as cause for the injury. One half of the injuries happened in wave conditions. The analysis of injury mechanisms allows conclusions regarding injury prevention. A longer break after 60 minutes windsurfing might help to prevent injuries due to poor physical fitness. After one hour windsurfing without a break training of difficult manoeuvres should not be performed. The use of a helmet might prevent head injuries during training of difficult jumps. "Overpower situations" should be prevented by choosing the right board and sail size.

  1. Cheerleading Injuries. Patterns, Prevention, Case Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Although cheerleading carries a relatively low injury risk, injuries that do occur can be severe, commonly affecting the ankle, head, and neck. Two case reports are presented that illustrate acute injuries typical of cheerleading. Prevention recommendations are offered related to supervising, screening, limiting stunts, optimizing the environment…

  2. Developments in the prevention of road injuries.

    PubMed

    Bull, J P

    1978-08-01

    Selected studies of road injury causation since 1960 are reviewed together with corresponding methods of prevention. British road accident deaths have remained relatively low in spite of greatly increased numbers of vehicles. Though not the only factors, improvements in car design and in safety equipment of vehicles have contributed to injury prevention. PMID:721289

  3. Identifying and mitigating risks for agricultural injury associated with obesity.

    PubMed

    King, Nathan; Janssen, Ian; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Lawson, Joshua; Trask, Catherine; Pickett, William

    2016-12-01

    In some occupational contexts overweight and obesity have been identified as risk factors for injury. The purpose of this study was to examine this hypothesis within farm work environments and then to identify specific opportunities for environmental modification as a preventive strategy. Data on farm-related injuries, height and weight used to calculate body mass index (BMI), and demographic characteristics were from the Phase 2 baseline survey of the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort; a large cross-sectional mail-based survey conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada from January through May 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between BMI and injury. Injury narratives were explored qualitatively. Findings were inconsistent and differed according to gender. Among women (n = 927), having overweight (adjusted OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.29 to 6.70) but not obesity (1.10; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.43) was associated with an increased odds of incurring a farm-related injury. No strong or statistically significant effects were observed for men (n = 1406) with overweight or obesity. While injury-related challenges associated with obesity have been addressed in other occupational settings via modification of the worksite, such strategies are challenging to implement in farm settings because of the diversity of work tasks and associated hazards. We conclude that the acute effects of overweight in terms of injury do require consideration in agricultural populations, but these should also be viewed with a differentiation based on gender. PMID:27413685

  4. Cheerleading injuries: epidemiology and recommendations for prevention.

    PubMed

    LaBella, Cynthia R; Mjaanes, Jeffrey

    2012-11-01

    Over the last 30 years, cheerleading has increased dramatically in popularity and has evolved from leading the crowd in cheers at sporting events into a competitive, year-round sport involving complex acrobatic stunts and tumbling. Consequently, cheerleading injuries have steadily increased over the years in both number and severity. Sprains and strains to the lower extremities are the most common injuries. Although the overall injury rate remains relatively low, cheerleading has accounted for approximately 66% of all catastrophic injuries in high school girl athletes over the past 25 years. Risk factors for injuries in cheerleading include higher BMI, previous injury, cheering on harder surfaces, performing stunts, and supervision by a coach with low level of training and experience. This policy statement describes the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries and provides recommendations for injury prevention.

  5. Agricultural injury in California Hispanic farm workers: MICASA follow-up survey.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Stephen A; Xiao, Hong; Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Tancredi, Daniel J; Bennett, Deborah H; Schenker, Marc B

    2013-01-01

    The authors report here results from the first follow-up survey of the Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) cohort of community-dwelling immigrant Hispanic farm workers in California's Central Valley. Among 560 participants the authors observed cumulative 1-year injury incidence of 6.6% (all injuries) and 4.3% (agricultural injuries). Increased prospective injury risk was associated with males, US birth, years lived in the United States, family income, and poor self-rated health. Agricultural injuries were associated most frequently with being struck by an object, falls, and cutting instruments, whereas over two thirds of nonagricultural injuries involved motor vehicles. Prevention should focus on safe handling of tools and materials, falls, and motor vehicle safety. PMID:23301889

  6. Eye Injury Prevention for the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha S; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Mackey, David A

    2016-05-01

    Each year an estimated 3.3 to 5.7 million pediatric eye injuries occur worldwide. It is widely reported that 90% of ocular injuries are preventable. Our aim was to identify legislation and policies, education, and mandatory eye protection strategies that have successfully contributed to reducing rates of children's eye injuries. A literature search was conducted using the terms "pediatric" or "children" or "adolescent" and "ocular" or "eye" and "protection" or "injury prevention." Articles were retrieved based on titles and abstracts and assessed in the context of our research question. Strategies identified aimed at reducing ocular trauma fell into 3 broad categories: legislation and policies, education, and personal eye protection. Policies including restrictions on the sale and supply of certain consumer products, mandatory vehicle seatbelts, and laminated windscreens in vehicles have assisted in reducing children's eye injuries. Educational tools aimed at children and their caregivers have been effective in changing attitudes to eye health and safety. Effective pediatric eye injury prevention systems require a multifactorial approach combining legislation, policies, standards, education, and personal eye protection to limit exposure to ocular hazards. A paucity of standardized measurement and lack of funding have limited advances in the field of children's eye injury prevention. Improved eye injury surveillance and research funding along with collaboration with health care providers are important components for strategies to prevent pediatric ocular trauma. PMID:27183290

  7. Tennis injuries: occurrence, aetiology, and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pluim, B M; Staal, J B; Windler, G E; Jayanthi, N

    2006-01-01

    A systematic search of published reports was carried out in three electronic databases from 1966 on to identify relevant articles relating to tennis injuries. There were 39 case reports, 49 laboratory studies, 28 descriptive epidemiological studies, and three analytical epidemiological studies. The principal findings of the review were: first, there is a great variation in the reported incidence of tennis injuries; second, most injuries occur in the lower extremities, followed by the upper extremities and then the trunk; third, there have been very few longitudinal cohort studies that investigated the association between risk factors and the occurrence of tennis injuries (odds ratios, risk ratios, hazard ratios); and fourth, there were no randomised controlled trials investigating injury prevention measures in tennis. More methodologically sound studies are needed for a better understanding of risk factors, in order to design useful strategies to prevent tennis injuries. PMID:16632572

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: etiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Robert H; Silvers, Holly J; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2010-03-01

    The relatively high risk of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture among female athletes has been a major impetus for investigation into the etiology of this injury. A number of risk factors have been identified, both internal and external to the athlete, including neuromuscular, anatomical, hormonal, shoe-surface interaction, and environmental, such as weather. The anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors, often gender related, are the focus of most ACL injury prevention programs. Although studies have shown that biomechanic- centered prevention programs can reduce the risk of ACL injury, many questions remain unanswered. More research is needed to increase our understanding of the risk factors for ACL injury; how injury prevention programs work and can the clinical application of such programs be optimized. PMID:20160623

  9. Eye Injuries Can Be Prevented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Eleven thousand eye injuries are suffered annually by 5- to-14-year-old youngsters during sports and recreational activities. Baseball-related accidents result in more eye injuries to youth than any other sport. Protective face gear is discussed and recommended. (MT)

  10. Wheat thresher agricultural injuries: a by-product of mechanised farming.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Sharma, A K; Jain, S; Sharma, S C; Magu, N K

    2005-01-01

    Farm mechanization has resulted in extensive use of wheat threshers on Indian farms. It has also increased agricultural injuries. A prospective study was undertaken for analysis of wheat thresher agricultural injuries and their remedial measures. Fifty two patients presenting with thresher injuries during the wheat harvesting season of March to June, 2003 were studied. A study-specific 14-point proforma was prepared to gather all possible information from site of injury to hospital records. Injuries were mostly of the upper limb and amputations accounted for most of these. Poor light arrangements, unskilled workers, drug / alcohol abuse, fatigue, poor designing and lack of orientation to work on these machines were the contributory factors to such injuries. The analysis emphasizes that the need of the hour is to decrease wheat thresher injuries through specific preventive approaches like improved designing, education, legislation, compensation and surveillance programmes.

  11. Community-based Injury Prevention Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Terry P.; MacKay, J. Morag; Moher, David; Walker, Annie; Jones, Alison L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed 32 studies that evaluated the impact of community-based injury prevention efforts on childhood injuries, safety behaviors, and adoption of safety devices. Interventions targeted schools, municipalities, and cities. This approach effectively increased some safety practices (e.g, bicycle helmet and car seat use) but not others. Common…

  12. Applying a Developmental Approach to Injury Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercy, James A.; Sleet, David A.; Doll, Lynda S.

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiology of unintentional injury and violence, including likely causes and individuals' abilities to respond to risks, are closely related to the stages of human development. The epidemiology and prevention of injury are also influenced by the social contexts (i.e., family, community, and socio-cultural) in which human development occurs.…

  13. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  14. Core Competencies for Injury and Violence Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Bou-Saada, Ingrid; Hunter, Wanda; Lindemer, Kristen; Runyan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence require a workforce that is knowledgeable and skilled in prevention. However, there has been no systematic process to ensure that professionals possess the necessary competencies. To address this deficiency, we developed a set of core competencies for public health practitioners in injury and violence prevention programs. The core competencies address domains including public health significance, data, the design and implementation of prevention activities, evaluation, program management, communication, stimulating change, and continuing education. Specific learning objectives establish goals for training in each domain. The competencies assist in efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence and can provide benchmarks against which to assess progress in professional capacity for injury and violence prevention. PMID:19197083

  15. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C.; Anderson, Barton E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: “core OR trunk” AND “training OR prevention OR exercise OR rehabilitation” AND “risk OR prevalence”) published between January 1980 and October 2012. Articles with relevance to core stability risk factors, assessment, and training were reviewed. Relevant sources from articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Results: Stabilizer, mobilizer, and load transfer core muscles assist in understanding injury risk, assessing core muscle function, and developing injury prevention programs. Moderate evidence of alterations in core muscle recruitment and injury risk exists. Assessment tools to identify deficits in volitional muscle contraction, isometric muscle endurance, stabilization, and movement patterns are available. Exercise programs to improve core stability should focus on muscle activation, neuromuscular control, static stabilization, and dynamic stability. Conclusion: Core stabilization relies on instantaneous integration among passive, active, and neural control subsystems. Core muscles are often categorized functionally on the basis of stabilizing or mobilizing roles. Neuromuscular control is critical in coordinating this complex system for dynamic stabilization. Comprehensive assessment and training require a multifaceted approach to address core muscle strength, endurance, and recruitment requirements for functional demands associated with daily activities, exercise, and sport. PMID:24427426

  16. Pediatric lap belt injuries: care and prevention.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, B L; Ose, M

    1997-01-01

    Motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of death from injury during childhood. As children outgrow their toddler car seats, they are often restrained by two-point lap belts, which are fashioned for adult body proportions. Those children restrained by two-point lap belts are at risk for intraabdominal and spinal injury during an auto collision. This article explores the mechanisms of injury and identification of "lap belt syndrome." Aspects of nursing care and prevention strategies will be discussed. A case study illustrates and summarizes the cogent aspects of lap belt related injury and child/family care.

  17. Fatal and hospitalized agricultural machinery injuries to children in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, W.; Brison, R. J.; Hoey, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess rates and patterns of agricultural machinery injuries in farm children in order to both determine priorities and develop strategies for injury control in this population. METHODS: Coroners' files and hospital discharge data were examined for Ontario farm children aged 0-19 who had agricultural machinery injuries over a five year period ending 31 March 1990. Injury rates were described by age, sex, geographic region, type of machinery, and mechanism of injury. Common patterns of injury deserving of priority for prevention were then identified and described. RESULTS: 283 machinery injuries to children were identified. Injury rates were 116 and 25/100,000/year for boys and girls respectively. Boys were at increasing risk relative to girls as their ages increased. Young children were at greatest risk for fatal injury. There is a prominent summer peak in occurrence. The farm tractor was the machine most commonly associated with these injuries (33.2%), and entanglement, usually of clothing, was the mechanism cited most often (36.3%). The case fatality ratio (ratio of hospitalizations:deaths) was generally low whether assessed by machinery type or by mechanism of injury. This provides an indication of the lethality of these injuries. Common patterns associated with injury risk included: (1) inadequate supervision of small children; (2) permitting children to be in the area of moving or unguarded machinery; (3) allowing children to accompany workers using farm machinery; and (4) having children performing work related tasks inappropriate for their age. CONCLUSIONS: Machinery related injuries are not uncommon in farm children and have a high case fatality rate. These rates changed little over the five year study period. Feasible strategies for prevention of these injuries, four of which are presented here, need to be developed and implemented by public health professionals working in cooperation with members of the agricultural industry. PMID:9346004

  18. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective.

  19. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Results: Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P < 0.001) and ankle sprains (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29-0.69; P < 0.001), yet not ACL ruptures (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.36-3.29; P = 0.87) in basketball athletes. Conclusion: In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. PMID

  20. Prevention of sports-related eye injury.

    PubMed

    Stock, J G; Cornell, F M

    1991-08-01

    Sports-related eye injury is an important cause of vision loss. Many eye injuries can be prevented through the supervision of play, the enforcement of game rules and the use of eye protective devices. State-of-the-art eye protective devices incorporate highly impact-resistant optical material, usually polycarbonate lenses, in a sturdy frame. Protective devices are available for use in racquet sports, baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey and other sports. PMID:1858609

  1. Prevention of sports-related eye injury.

    PubMed

    Stock, J G; Cornell, F M

    1991-08-01

    Sports-related eye injury is an important cause of vision loss. Many eye injuries can be prevented through the supervision of play, the enforcement of game rules and the use of eye protective devices. State-of-the-art eye protective devices incorporate highly impact-resistant optical material, usually polycarbonate lenses, in a sturdy frame. Protective devices are available for use in racquet sports, baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey and other sports.

  2. Preventing injuries and illnesses in the wilderness.

    PubMed

    Angert, David; Schaff, Eric A

    2010-06-01

    Wilderness trips have become increasingly popular, especially in the adolescent population. The wilderness can be a source of rejuvenation while being mentally and physically challenging; however, it is also fraught with the potential for injury, illness, and even death. Epidemiologic studies of injuries and illnesses from hikers are not extensive, but there are sufficient data to identify the most common risk factors to offer some strategies for prevention. Many youth will have a medical visit or preparticipation physical assessment before an organized wilderness experience. This article highlights commonly seen wilderness injuries and illnesses and provides guidance for proper planning and problem solving.

  3. Sports eye injuries a preventable disease.

    PubMed

    Vinger, P F

    1981-02-01

    Each year, sports are responsible for over 100.000 preventable eye injuries. A face-protector standard was developed for hockey. Certified protectors effectively eliminated eye and face injuries to 1,200,000 players averting a projected 70,000 injuries and saving over $10,000,000 in medical expenses annually. The principle of absorbing energy in a protective device before the eye is injured is applied to other sports (racket sports, baseball, basketball). Recommendations are made on eye protection for athletes. Better data collection and standards for sports and children's eyewear are encouraged.

  4. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English Español ( ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  6. Psychological determinants of behaviors leading to occupational injuries and diseases in agriculture: a literature overview.

    PubMed

    Colémont, A; Van den Broucke, S

    2006-08-01

    Agriculture is one of the most hazardous occupational sectors, with a high prevalence of occupational injuries and work-related health problems. Most of these problems are caused by the interplay of human behavior and ergonomic factors and are thus preventable. Interventions to prevent occupational injuries and diseases among agricultural workers should aim to change risk behaviors and conditions by addressing specific behavioral determinants. To identify these factors, social cognitive models can be use that explain and predict health-related behavior. This study reviews the literature on the application of social cognitive models for the prevention of occupational injuries and diseases among agricultural workers. Studies are reviewed that apply the Health Belief Model, Theory of ReasonedAction, Theory of Planned Behavior, Transtheoretical Model of Change, or their subcomponents, to predict or change preventive behavior. Only a limited number of studies were found describing interventions that make use of these models, and those that do are often poorly documented with regard to the effect sizes and the explanatory or predictive value. It is concluded that the application of social cognitive models could significantly contribute to the effectiveness of preventive interventions in agriculture.

  7. The prevention of baseball and softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Janda, David H

    2003-04-01

    Forty million individuals participate in organized softball leagues each year in the United States. Eighteen million additional student athletes and young adults also participate in organized baseball league play. In addition to being two of the most popular team sports in the United States, they also are responsible for a significant percentage of sports-related injuries that are sustained in the United States. Fortunately, numerous interventions independently have been shown to be effective at reducing the injury scenario, which has grown to be of epidemic proportion. Interventions such as break-away bases, batting helmets, face shields on helmets, lighter mass baseballs, and teaching and reiteration of the fundamentals of softball and baseball all have been effective in preventing millions of injuries and billions of dollars in healthcare costs each year in the United States.

  8. Implementing Injury Prevention Counseling in a Clinic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBailly, Susan A.; And Others

    While physicians should provide injury prevention counseling to parents of young children, they do not always feel they are adequately prepared to provide such counseling. An injury prevention training project was developed to train physicians in injury prevention counseling and to examine factors related to parental compliance with injury…

  9. Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Peden, Margie

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report. PMID:16156532

  10. Repetitive strain injury: causes, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Shuttleworth, Ann

    Repetitive strain injury (RSI) has become increasingly prevalent with the growth of computer-based and automated occupations. While environmental factors such as work stations and repetitive tasks are primary causes, a number of secondary causes can increase a person's risk of RSI. Various treatments provide relief but the rate of recovery varies widely. Prevention involves adopting a range of measures that will also promote recovery in those with RSI.

  11. Cross cultural child injury prevention awareness.

    PubMed Central

    Ritzel, D. O.; Klein, K.; Gast, J.; Sarvela, P. D.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine how injury prevention awareness of children ages 3, 4, and 5, based on recognition of hazards in pictures differs in the United States, Belgium, East Germany and West Germany. METHODS: Children from these four countries were presented with 10 different pictures. Each picture represented a common injury producing situation to which children are exposed in traffic, home, and recreation. RESULTS: Results indicate that for pictures relating to home hazards, less than 22% of children from Belgium (21.5%), West Germany (4.7%), and the United States (20.3%) clearly recognized the essential hazards in the pictures, whereas over 40% of the East German children clearly recognized these dangers. A higher proportion of the children from all countries recognized the traffic hazards. Only 23.9% of all children had a clear recognition of the playground situations. The child's age had a bearing on ability to recognize hazards overall. CONCLUSIONS: Children need to be provided with better injury prevention education at an early age, especially those from West Germany. PMID:9346054

  12. A Case-Crossover Study of Heat Exposure and Injury Risk in Outdoor Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Bonauto, David K.; Sheppard, Lianne; Busch-Isaksen, Tania; Calkins, Miriam; Adams, Darrin; Lieblich, Max; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations. Objective To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data. Methods A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers’ compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted. Maximum daily Humidex exposures, derived from modeled meteorological data, were assigned to latitudes and longitudes of injury locations on injury and referent dates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of injury for a priori daily maximum Humidex categories. Results The mean of within-stratum (injury day and corresponding referent days) standard deviations of daily maximum Humidex was 4.8. The traumatic injury odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.22), 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.25), and 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.20) for daily maximum Humidex of 25–29, 30–33, and ≥34, respectively, compared to < 25, adjusted for self-reported duration of employment. Stronger associations were observed during cherry harvest duties in the June and July time period, compared to all duties over the entire study period. Conclusions Agricultural workers laboring in warm conditions are at risk for heat-related traumatic injuries. Combined heat-related illness and injury prevention efforts should be considered in high-risk populations exposed to warm ambient conditions in the setting of physical exertion. PMID:27716794

  13. Women in agriculture: risks for occupational injury within the context of gendered role.

    PubMed

    McCoy, C A; Carruth, A K; Reed, D B

    2002-02-01

    Women continue to make significant contributions to farming. Not only do women participate in the traditional roles of homemaker, caregiver, and wife, they also work side-by-side with their spouses in keeping the farm viable. More daughters are entering the farming business, either as partners with other family members or as independent operators. Each year since the United States Department of Agriculture began including gender in the Census of Agriculture, the percentage of women engaged in agriculture has increased, and women's participation in agriculture is increasing faster than in other business segments. This article examines the role of women in agriculture and how sociocultural, economic, and physical factors may affect women's exposure to injury-producing events and their knowledge and beliefs about injury prevention. To date, few studies have examined work-related unintentional injuries among farm women. Even less is known about the extent to which occupational risks are recognized when women seek medical care. Differences in size and stature, increased physical strain, and low maximal oxygen uptake may predispose women to ergonomic-related injuries. Limitations of current research and recommendations for future analyses are discussed. PMID:12002372

  14. Prevention of Overuse Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to review current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young, athletic population. This information will provide valuable insight into the state of current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071

  15. Need for injury-prevention education in medical school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Isaac; Sayegh, Rockan; Lotfipour, Shahram; Vaca, Federico E

    2010-02-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury.

  16. Does community-level Australian football support injury prevention research?

    PubMed

    Gabbe, B; Finch, C F; Wajswelner, H; Bennell, K

    2003-06-01

    The progress of injury prevention research in Australian football to date has been slow despite its recognition as a public health goal. In particular, field-based studies to identify injury risk factors and evaluate the effectiveness of injury prevention strategies need to be undertaken to ensure safety gains in this sport. For these types of studies to be successful and complied with, considerable support is required from clubs, coaches and players. To date, the actual level of support for injury prevention research at the community-level of football has not been established. A survey of 82 club administrators and coaches from the Victorian Amateur Football Association was undertaken to determine the level of support for injury prevention research, along with incentives for, and barriers towards, participation in such research. The highest priorities for injury prevention research were given as the prevention of knee, hamstring and concussion injuries and investigation into the content of training programs. The most common incentives reported as being necessary for participation in injury prevention research were financial assistance (59.5%), more club staff (57.0%) and further education (36.7%). The most commonly reported barriers to research were the expertise (50.0%) and number of (48.8%) of club medical staff members. Overall community-level football club administrators and coaches rank the importance of injury prevention research highly. The findings of this study are positive for injury prevention researchers and suggest that clubs are keen to participate in such research.

  17. Drudgery, accidents and injuries in Indian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Nag, Pranab Kumar; Nag, Anjali

    2004-04-01

    The Indian farming employs 225 million workforce to cover 140 million hectares of total cultivated land. In spite of rapid farm mechanization (e.g., 149 million farm machinery), the vast resource-poor family farming has primary dependence on traditional methods (e.g., 520 million hand tools and 37 million animal-drawn implements are in operation). The work drudgery, the traumatic accidents and injuries are the major concerns to examine options for ergonomics intervention and betterment of work in crop production activities. This review summarizes human energy expenditure in crop production activities, to assess the job severity, tools and machinery, and formulate the basis to reorganize work and work methods. While the farm mechanization is more in the northern India, the accidents were more in the villages in southern India. On average of the four regions, the tractor incidents (overturning, falling from the tractor, etc.) were highest (27.7%), followed by thresher (14.6%), sprayer/duster (12.2%), sugarcane crusher (8.1%) and chaff cutter (7.8%) accidents. Most of the fatal accidents resulted from the powered machinery, with the annual fatality rate estimated as 22 per 100,000 farmers. The hand tools related injuries (8% of the total accidents) were non-fatal in nature. In spite of the enactment of legislation, the shortcomings in production and monitoring of the machinery in field use may be responsible for the high rate of accidents (e.g., 42 thresher accidents/1,000 mechanical threshers/year in southern India). Due to the lack of technical capability of the local artisans, adhering to safety and design standards is impractical to the implements fabricated in the rural areas. The analysis emphasizes that the effective safety and health management may be possible through legislative enabling of the local infra-structure, such as block development authority and primary health services, to permeate occupational health and safe work practices in the farming sector

  18. 75 FR 23637 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Injury and Illness Prevention Program AGENCY... Prevention Programs, referred to as ``I2P2.'' OSHA plans to use the information gathered at these meetings in developing an Injury and Illness Prevention Program proposed rule. The discussions will be informal and...

  19. Death and disability from agricultural injuries in Wisconsin: a 12-year experience with 739 patients.

    PubMed

    Cogbill, T H; Steenlage, E S; Landercasper, J; Strutt, P J

    1991-12-01

    During a 12-year period, 739 patients were admitted to a referral trauma center as the result of injuries incurred while farming. There were 608 (82%) male patients and 131 female patients. Ages ranged from 1 to 89 years including 160 patients (22%) less than 16 years old and 78 patients (11%) more than 65 years old. The injury mechanism was a farm animal in 225 (30%), farm machinery in 168 (23%), a tractor in 120 (16%), a fall in 77 (10%), a power take-off in 47 (7%), a cornpicker in 42 (6%), and miscellaneous in 60 (8%). There were 16 (2%) deaths attributable to the agricultural accident. Tractors were involved in eight of these deaths, falls in four, power take-offs in three, and farm machinery in one. Furthermore, 159 (22%) patients were left with significant permanent disability including orthopedic problems in 131 patients, neurologic deficits in 22, and pulmonary disability in 6. Agricultural trauma is frequent and diverse with unique injury mechanisms. Life-threatening injuries are often seen and permanent disability is common. Effective injury prevention must focus on farmer education, additional mandatory safety features on agricultural equipment, and appropriate design of rural trauma systems. PMID:1749035

  20. Training and equipment to prevent athletic head and neck injuries.

    PubMed

    Cross, Kevin M; Serenelli, Catherine

    2003-07-01

    Due to the potential for catastrophic neurotraumas and cervical spine injuries in sport, the sports health care professional must take proper measures to prevent such injuries. Strength training of the cervical spine, teaching of proper sporting techniques, and use of protective sports equipment are three primary means of attempting to prevent neurotraumas and cervical spine injuries in sports. There are other avenues to assist in preventing these injuries, such as flexibility programs. The sports health care professional, therefore, must be knowledgeable of the needs of each individual athlete when developing prevention plans.

  1. Preventing unintentional injuries in Indigenous children and youth in Canada.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Anna

    2012-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in Canadian Indigenous children and youth, occurring at rates three to four times the national average. Death and disabling injuries not only devastate families and communities but take a heavy toll on health care resources. The lack of statistics, ongoing surveillance or injury prevention programs for Indigenous children and adolescents further compound human and health care costs. Indigenous communities are heterogeneous culturally, in terms of access to resources, and even as to risks and patterns of injury. Yet in general, they are far more likely to be poor, to have substandard housing and to have difficulty accessing health care, factors which increase the risk and impact of injury. There are urgent needs for injury surveillance, research, capacity-building, knowledge dissemination, as well as for injury prevention programs that focus on Indigenous populations. Effective injury prevention would involve multidisciplinary, collaborative and sustainable approaches based on best practices while being culturally and linguistically specific and sensitive.

  2. Injury Prevention and Control for Children and Youth. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widome, Mark D., Ed.

    This book was compiled for pediatricians and others who are interested in the control of pediatric injuries. The manual's three sections are: (1) "The Field of Pediatric Injury Prevention and Control," which provides a broad overview of the field and highlights the roles of the pediatrician in the control of injuries and a developmental approach…

  3. CDC School Health Guidelines to Prevent Unintentional Injuries and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Lisa C.; Sleet, David A.; Mercy, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of all deaths among children and adolescents aged five to 19 years results from injury-related causes: motor-vehicle crashes, all other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Schools have a responsibility to prevent injuries from occurring on school property and at school-sponsored events. In addition, schools can…

  4. Prevention of Injury and Violence in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I

    2015-01-01

    In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. PMID:24996591

  5. Solar Injury and Heat Illness. Treatment and Prevention in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to solar injury and heat illness. Physicians can lower children's risk through education about short-term and long-term sequelae and through various prevention efforts. The paper discusses how to screen for risk factors and how to prevent and treat heat illness and solar injury. (SM)

  6. [Sports injuries and their prevention in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Lascombes, Pierre; Mainard, Laurence; Haumont, Thierry; Journeau, Pierre

    2010-10-01

    Sports injuries are common in children and adolescents. Typical musculoskeletal disorders include overuse injuries such as stress fractures and apophyseal avulsions. Gymnastics has one of the highest injury rates of all girls' sports. Intensive gymnastics can cause chronic spine and wrist trauma. Prevention of sport injuries should be a priority for parents, coaches and children themselves. Protection (helmet, padding) is mandatory for some activities. Proper education and preparation are necessary for all sports activities.

  7. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  8. Survey of wheelchair athletic injuries: common patterns and prevention.

    PubMed

    Curtis, K A; Dillon, D A

    1985-06-01

    Twelve hundred wheelchair athletes were surveyed to determine commonly experienced athletic injuries, sports participation and training patterns associated with injuries. Soft tissue trauma, blisters, lacerations, decubiti and joint disorders were the most commonly reported injuries of the 128 respondents. Over 70 per cent of all reported injuries occurred during wheelchair track, road racing and basketball. Common mechanisms of injury were also identified. A significantly higher number of reported injuries were associated with increased sports participation (p less than 001), with the 21-30 year-old age group (p less than .01), and with a high number of training hours per week (p less than .05). There was no significant relationship between number of reported injuries and disability type, National Wheelchair Athletic Association classification, or sex. Decubitus ulcers and temperature regulation disorders were identified as particular risks for the spinal cord injury population. Educating the athlete and coach in means to prevent injury is necessary to promote optimal performance and safe participation.

  9. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  10. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  11. Epidemiology of Injuries and Prevention Strategies in Competitive Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Wanivenhaus, Florian; Fox, Alice J. S.; Chaudhury, Salma; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Competitive swimmers are predisposed to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper limb, knee, and spine. This review discusses the epidemiology of these injuries, in addition to prevention strategies that may assist the physician in formulating rehabilitation programs for the swimmer following an injury. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was performed by a review of Google Scholar, OVID, and PubMed articles published from 1972 to 2011. Results: This study highlights the epidemiology of injuries common to competitive swimmers and provides prevention strategies for the sports health professional. Conclusions: An understanding of swimming biomechanics and typical injuries in swimming aids in early recognition of injury, initiation of treatment, and design of optimal prevention and rehabilitation strategies. PMID:23016094

  12. Injury prevention programs: do they really make a difference?

    PubMed

    Warnell, P

    1997-09-01

    Brain and spinal cord injuries are a leading cause of death and disability for the youth of Canada (Damba et al, 1996). The costs of these injuries to the individual, the family, and society at large are immense. Most of these injuries are preventable (Tator et al, 1993). Over the last decade, a number of injury prevention programs have been developed to address the high incidence of traumatic central nervous system (CNS) injuries in young people. However, what remains unclear is how effective these programs are in terms of altering risk-taking behaviours. The following paper/presentation will highlight three injury prevention programs currently offered in the Toronto area: The Party Program. The Heroes Program, and The Think First Program. Each program will be outlined in terms of historical development and infrastructure, content, setting, format, and intended audience. In addition, each program will be evaluated based on criteria established by the author. Measurement of outcomes will also be addressed. PMID:9355267

  13. Injuries are not accidents: towards a culture of prevention.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us.

  14. National survey of the injury prevention activities of children's centres

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Kendrick, Denise; Stewart, Jane; Coupland, Carol; Hayes, Mike; Wynn, Persephone

    2014-01-01

    Children's centres were established across England to provide a range of services including early education, social care and health to pre-school children and their families. We surveyed children's centres to ascertain the activities they were undertaking to prevent unintentional injuries in the under fives. A postal questionnaire was sent to a sample of children's centre managers (n = 694). It included questions on current activities, knowledge and attitudes to injury prevention, health priorities and partnership working. Responses were received from 384 (56%) children's centres. Overall, 58% considered unintentional injury prevention to be one of the three main child health priorities for their centre. Over half the respondents (59%) did not know if there was an injury prevention group in their area, and 21% did not know if there was a home safety equipment scheme. Knowledge of how child injury deaths occur in the home was poor. Only 11% knew the major cause of injury deaths in children under five. Lack of both staff time and funding were seen as important barriers by children's centre staff to undertake injury prevention activities. Nearly all stated that training (97%) and assistance with planning injury prevention (94%) would be helpful to their centres. Children's centres need further support if they are to effectively tackle this important public health area. PMID:23837887

  15. Injury prevention in an urban setting: challenges and successes.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.; Heagarty, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Harlem Hospital Injury Prevention Program (HHIPP) was established in 1988 with the goal of reducing injuries to children in central Harlem by providing safe play areas, supervised activities, and injury prevention education. To achieve this goal, a broad-based coalition was formed with state and local governmental agencies interested in injury prevention and with community groups, schools, parents, and hospital staff. An evaluation of the program in terms of both process and outcome formed a critical element of this effort. Since 1988 the HHIPP, as the lead agency for the Healthy Neighborhoods/Safe Kids Coalition, developed or participated in two types of programs: injury-prevention education programs and programs that provide safe activities and/or environments for children. The educational programs included Window Guards campaign; Safety City Program; Kids, Injuries and Street Smarts Program (KISS); Burn Prevention Curriculum and Smoke Detector Distribution; Harlem Alternative to Violence Program; Adolescent Outreach Program; and Critical Incident Stress Management Teams. The safe activities and environmental programs included the Bicycle Safety Program/Urban Youth Bike Corps; Playground Injury Prevention Program; the Greening of Harlem Program; the Harlem Horizon Art Studio; Harlem Hospital Dance Clinic; Unity through Murals project; baseball at the Harlem Little League; winter baseball clinic; and the soccer league. Each program was conceived using injury data, coupled with parental concern and activism, which acted as catalysts to create a community coalition to respond to a specific problem. Data systems developed over time, which monitored the prevalence and incidence of childhood injuries in northern Manhattan, including central Harlem, became essential not only to identify specific types of childhood injuries in this community but also to evaluate these programs for the prevention of injuries in children. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7581311

  16. Injury prevention in an urban setting: challenges and successes.

    PubMed

    Laraque, D; Barlow, B; Durkin, M; Heagarty, M

    1995-01-01

    The Harlem Hospital Injury Prevention Program (HHIPP) was established in 1988 with the goal of reducing injuries to children in central Harlem by providing safe play areas, supervised activities, and injury prevention education. To achieve this goal, a broad-based coalition was formed with state and local governmental agencies interested in injury prevention and with community groups, schools, parents, and hospital staff. An evaluation of the program in terms of both process and outcome formed a critical element of this effort. Since 1988 the HHIPP, as the lead agency for the Healthy Neighborhoods/Safe Kids Coalition, developed or participated in two types of programs: injury-prevention education programs and programs that provide safe activities and/or environments for children. The educational programs included Window Guards campaign; Safety City Program; Kids, Injuries and Street Smarts Program (KISS); Burn Prevention Curriculum and Smoke Detector Distribution; Harlem Alternative to Violence Program; Adolescent Outreach Program; and Critical Incident Stress Management Teams. The safe activities and environmental programs included the Bicycle Safety Program/Urban Youth Bike Corps; Playground Injury Prevention Program; the Greening of Harlem Program; the Harlem Horizon Art Studio; Harlem Hospital Dance Clinic; Unity through Murals project; baseball at the Harlem Little League; winter baseball clinic; and the soccer league. Each program was conceived using injury data, coupled with parental concern and activism, which acted as catalysts to create a community coalition to respond to a specific problem. Data systems developed over time, which monitored the prevalence and incidence of childhood injuries in northern Manhattan, including central Harlem, became essential not only to identify specific types of childhood injuries in this community but also to evaluate these programs for the prevention of injuries in children.

  17. Antenatal brain injury: aetiology and possibilities of prevention.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, H; Mallard, C

    2000-02-01

    Although the aetiology of antenatal brain injury is often unclear, procedures can be employed to prevent or reduce the risk of injury. Defective neuropore closure can be prevented by periconceptional administration of folic acid, and the incidence of other severe malformations and genetic disorders can be reduced by early identification and termination of pregnancy. Antenatal identification of IUGR, administration of corticosteroids to cases with pending preterm birth, and treatment of maternal/fetal infections would also reduce the incidence of injury. Mothers can decrease the risk of injury by maintaining a good diet, avoiding smoking, alcohol intake and exposure to TORCH infections during pregnancy. PMID:10802749

  18. Safe Kids Worldwide: preventing unintentional childhood injuries across the globe.

    PubMed

    Mickalide, Angela; Carr, Kate

    2012-12-01

    Unintentional injuries are predictable and preventable. Yet every hour, a child in the United States dies from an unintentional injury. Globally, the number is even more staggering, with nearly 1 million children dying from unintentional injuries each year. Motor vehicle-related injuries, burns, drowning, falls, suffocation or choking, and poisoning are just a few of the unintentional injury risks threatening children. Patient safety requires a three-pronged strategy of behavior change, use of safety devices, and improvement of laws and regulations to ensure that all children lead healthy and productive lives.

  19. [National plan for prevention in agriculture state of art and prosecution].

    PubMed

    Ariano, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural work submits to high risks for safety and health. In 2009, in execution of "workplace health protection pact" (DPCM 17.12.2007), has been defined the National Plan for prevention in agriculture and forestry, whose first three-year program ended in 2012. Goals were: to Systematize and to standardize direction and control activity, defining the number of factories to control, in most italian regions, for high and ubiquitous risks applying homogeneous standards, spending special attention to risks of fatal and serious injury; to develop agricultural machinery trade control, for new and second-hand machinery, for normalizing the whole fleet; to contribute to monitoring of risk factors and injury dynamics, for a better definition of prevention policies; to increase the knowledge of public health agency officers; to identify and to promote technical solutions, helping to define, in proper way, good practices for complex problems; to promote coordination between economic develop policies and prevention policies for agriculture, breeding and forestry, paying attention also to financial helps. The plan, divided in regional plans, obtained most of defined goals and allowed to build a permanent interregional net of referents and expert officers. Next years perspective is to enhance in developing the faced themes and objectives. PMID:24303719

  20. Diné (Navajo) parents' and community leaders' perceptions of agriculture-related injury risk to youth: a social narrative.

    PubMed

    Shumway, K; Pate, M L; McNeal, L G

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a formative needs assessment of Diné (Navajo) parents for the prevention of childhood injuries resulting from livestock and horses. The research objectives were to identify parents' perceived livestock and horse related injury risks to Diné children and describe Diné community stakeholder input on prevention interventions for reducing injury risks to children associated with livestock and horse related activities on farms or ranches. The assessment used a survey constructed of closed and open-response questions to gauge Diné farmers' and ranchers' perceptions of injury risks to children who live or work on agricultural operations. Additional questions were asked to gauge Diné acceptance of an online training program as a prevention intervention to reduce livestock and horse related injuries to children. A total of 96 individuals agreed to participate in the survey and provided usable responses. A total of 53.2% (f = 50) of participants were female. Sixty-three percent of participants (f = 58) perceived that youth who work with intact male livestock were at high risk for injury. A total of 25 individuals perceived that youth who ride horses without equestrian helmets were at high risk for injury. Approximately 96% (f = 89) of those surveyed agreed or strongly agreed that they would use an online training program to promote agricultural health and safety for Diné youth. When participants were asked if there were safety issues associated with having youth working on a farm or ranch, a very large portion felt that the biggest issue was a lack of education and instruction from elders. A recommendation for an injury prevention practice included developing a user-friendly online network, giving parents and community leaders access to resources to assist in educating youth in local agricultural traditions integrated with safety training. PMID:24804462

  1. 75 FR 30041 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and... Disease Registry. Dated: May 20, 2010. Elaine L. Baker, Director, Management Analysis and Services...

  2. 75 FR 34750 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates: 8... management activities for both CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: June...

  3. 75 FR 39544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: July 2, 2010. Elaine L. Baker, Director,...

  4. 75 FR 7606 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease and Health Promotion, Office of the Director,...

  5. 75 FR 30040 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 1:30... committee management activities, for both CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease...

  6. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  7. 76 FR 10371 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease...

  8. Hamstring injuries. Proposed aetiological factors, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Agre, J C

    1985-01-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles can be devastating to the athlete because these injuries frequently heal slowly and have a tendency to recur. It is thought that many of the recurrent injuries to the hamstring musculotendinous unit are the result of inadequate rehabilitation following the initial injury. The severity of hamstring injuries is usually of first or second degree, but occasionally third-degree injuries (complete rupture of the musculotendinous unit) do occur. Most hamstring strain injuries occur while running or sprinting. Several aetiological factors have been proposed as being related to injury of the hamstring musculotendinous unit. They include: poor flexibility, inadequate muscle strength and/or endurance, dyssynergic muscle contraction during running, insufficient warm-up and stretching prior to exercise, awkward running style, and a return to activity before complete rehabilitation following injury. Treatment for hamstring injuries includes rest and immobilisation immediately following injury and then a gradually increasing programme of mobilisation, strengthening, and activity. Permission to return to athletic competition should be withheld until full rehabilitation has been achieved (complete return of muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility in addition to a return of co-ordination and athletic agility). Failure to achieve full rehabilitation will only predispose the athlete to recurrent injury. The best treatment for hamstring injuries is prevention, which should include training to maintain and/or improve strength, flexibility, endurance, co-ordination, and agility.

  9. The prevention of spinal injuries in rugby football.

    PubMed

    Silver, J R; Stewart, D

    1994-07-01

    The incidence of injuries to the spinal cord sustained at rugby in South Africa, New Zealand and Australia is reviewed. Ninety-seven injuries seen at Stoke Mandeville Hospital at the National Spinal Injuries Centre (NSIC) between 1956 and 1993 are analysed in detail. There were 93 accidents at rugby union, two at American football and two at rugby league. The injuries were of the cervical spine apart from four hysterics and one thoracic injury. The thoracic injury occurred after the game when the player fell downstairs. The injuries were analysed according to the mechanism of injury, the neurological condition, the causation, the standard of the player and the position in the field. The injuries caused were the result of force being applied to the skull which was transmitted to the cervical spine resulting in injury to the cervical cord. As a result of this research, representations were made to the appropriate authorities and changes in the laws were made. As a result of these law changes there has been a dramatic reduction in the overall number of injuries and the elimination of the injury from the loose scrum. This paper discusses the historical sequence of how these preventative measures came about to reduce the incidence of injuries and the legal implications whereby the authors took part in two law suits. The legal consequences are analysed in detail. PMID:7970845

  10. Preventing Dance Injuries: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    This book on the interdisciplinary nature of dance medicine as an emerging field of inquiry contains the following chapters: (1) "A Comparison of Patterns of Injury in Ballet, Modern, and Aerobic Dance" (Marie Schafle, And Others); (2) "Pronation as a Predisposing Factor in Overuse Injuries" (Steven R. Kravitz); (3) "Some Common Foot and Ankle…

  11. Epidemiology of Collegiate Injuries for 15 Sports: Summary and Recommendations for Injury Prevention Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Hootman, Jennifer M; Dick, Randall; Agel, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for 15 sports and to identify potential modifiable risk factors to target for injury prevention initiatives. Background: In 1982, the NCAA began collecting standardized injury and exposure data for collegiate sports through its Injury Surveillance System (ISS). This special issue reviews 182 000 injuries and slightly more than 1 million exposure records captured over a 16-year time period (1988–1989 through 2003–2004). Game and practice injuries that required medical attention and resulted in at least 1 day of time loss were included. An exposure was defined as 1 athlete participating in 1 practice or game and is expressed as an athlete-exposure (A-E). Main Results: Combining data for all sports, injury rates were statistically significantly higher in games (13.8 injuries per 1000 A-Es) than in practices (4.0 injuries per 1000 A-Es), and preseason practice injury rates (6.6 injuries per 1000 A-Es) were significantly higher than both in-season (2.3 injuries per 1000 A-Es) and postseason (1.4 injuries per 1000 A-Es) practice rates. No significant change in game or practice injury rates was noted over the 16 years. More than 50% of all injuries were to the lower extremity. Ankle ligament sprains were the most common injury over all sports, accounting for 15% of all reported injuries. Rates of concussions and anterior cruciate ligament injuries increased significantly (average annual increases of 7.0% and 1.3%, respectively) over the sample period. These trends may reflect improvements in identification of these injuries, especially for concussion, over time. Football had the highest injury rates for both practices (9.6 injuries per 1000 A-Es) and games (35.9 injuries per 1000 A-Es), whereas men's baseball had the lowest rate in practice (1.9 injuries per 1000 A-Es) and women's softball had the lowest rate in games (4.3 injuries per 1000 A

  12. National Action Plan for the Prevention of Playground Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Donna; Hudson, Susan

    Recognizing the need for a nationally coordinated effort to reduce playground injuries, the National Program for Playground Safety was created in 1995. This package of materials contains a booklet describing the national action plan for the prevention of playground injuries and accompanying supporting materials. The program booklet, designed for…

  13. Injury Prevention in Physical Education: Scenarios and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrie, Michael D.; Shewmake, Cole; Calleja, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide physical educators with practical strategies that can assist in preventing injuries in the classroom. The dynamic nature of physical education and the numerous tasks physical educators must complete daily can be challenging. Embedded in these challenges is the constant risk of student injury. Fortunately,…

  14. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 5 and 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at children because it is early in life that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of child development,…

  15. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 3 and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  16. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  17. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Preschool-Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  18. National Action Plan for the Prevention of Playground Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Donna; Hudson, Susan

    Recognizing the need for a nationally coordinated effort to reduce playground injuries, the National Program for Playground Safety was created in 1995. This booklet describes the national action plan for prevention of playground injuries. Designed for use by parents, teachers, recreation and park personnel, and caregivers involved in providing…

  19. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    PubMed Central

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-01-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  20. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    PubMed

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-10-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward.

  1. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    PubMed

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-10-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  2. Effect of an injury prevention program on muscle injuries in elite professional soccer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Adam L; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Paul, Darren J; Orhant, Emmanuel; Collie, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    Due to the continual physical, physiological, and psychological demands of elite level soccer increasing the incidence and risk of injuries, preventative training programs have become a common feature of soccer players training schedule. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the effectiveness of a structured injury prevention program on the number of muscle injuries and the total number of injuries within elite professional soccer. The present study was conducted over 2 consecutive seasons, of which the first (2008-2009) being the intervention season and the second the control season (2009-2010). In total, 26 and 23 elite male professional soccer players competing within the Scottish Premier League and European competition participated. The training program was performed twice weekly for the entirety of the season (58 prevention sessions). The results revealed an increase in the total number of injuries within the intervention season (88 vs. 72); however, this was largely due to the greater number of contusion injuries sustained within the intervention season (n = 44) when compared with control season (n = 23). Significantly less muscle injuries were observed during the intervention season (moderate effect), and this occurred concomitant with a bigger squad size (large effect, p < 0.001). The findings from this study identify that a multicomponent injury prevention-training program may be appropriate for reducing the number of muscle injuries during a season but may not be adequate to reduce all other injuries.

  3. Preventing Burns and Scalds. Injury Prevention for Young Children from the National Safety Certification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Sheryl L.; Walker, April L.

    This booklet outlines a comprehensive fire and burn injury prevention program which includes an instructor's manual, a videotape, and a test: the video provides additional information and examples of injury prevention techniques, and the test measures the amount of knowledge acquired. Following an introduction, the prevalence and extent of burn…

  4. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Hewett, T E; Myer, G D; Ford, K R

    2001-12-01

    Numerous studies have found that female athletes who participate in jumping and pivoting sports are four to six times more likely to sustain a knee ligament injury, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, than male athletes participating in the same sports [1-8]. A widening gender gap in the number of serious knee ligament injuries exists due to geometric growth in female athletic participation, coupled with the four- to sixfold higher injury rate. More than 50,000 serious knee injuries are projected to occur in female varsity intercollegiate and high school athletics each year [9, 10]. Most ACL injuries occur by noncontact mechanisms, often during landing from a jump or making a lateral pivot while running [2, 11]. Knee instability, due to ligament dominance (decreased medial-lateral neuromuscular control of the joint), quadriceps dominance (increased quadriceps recruitment and decreased hamstring recruitment and strength), and leg dominance (side-to-side differences in strength, flexibility, and coordination) are possible contributing factors to the increased incidence of knee injury in female athletes [5, 6]. In this review, dynamic neuromuscular analysis (DNA) training is defined, and a rationale is presented for correcting the neuromuscular imbalances that may result in dynamic knee instability during sports play. Dynamic neuromuscular training has been shown to increase knee stability and decrease knee injury rates in female athletes [5, 12.., 13.]. Preliminary research on athlete screening and injury prediction based on the three aforementioned imbalances also is presented with recommendations for developing screening protocols for the identification of high-risk athletes.

  5. The Need for Cultural Safety in Injury Prevention.

    PubMed

    Giles, Audrey R; Hognestad, Sarah; Brooks, Lauren A

    2015-01-01

    Public health nurses are on the front line of injury prevention initiatives. However, within injury prevention interventions and research, issues pertaining to culture are often addressed through the employment of one of the three approaches: cultural competency, cultural appropriateness, and/or cultural sensitivity. When using these approaches, it is often suggested that it is only those who are the recipients of an intervention or the focus of research that "have" culture. The injury prevention designer's/provider's/researcher's own culture, as well as the ways in which it may influence the interventions or research, is typically rendered invisible. In this paper, we provide an overview and illustrations of the use of cultural competency, cultural appropriateness, and cultural sensitivity in injury prevention initiatives, as well as each approach's shortcomings. We then introduce cultural safety, an approach that has not yet gained traction in injury prevention but has had significant uptake within nursing in general, and argue that it has the potential to overcome many other approaches' shortcomings and thus may lead to more effective and socially just injury prevention initiatives.

  6. 75 FR 18848 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  7. Ankle Sprains: Healing and Preventing Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to stand on your foot. Ice--Using ice packs, ice slush baths or ice massages can decrease ... after your injury. Ice treatments can consist of ice packs, ice slush baths or ice massages. To use ...

  8. Prevention and Management of Nerve Injuries in Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Hugh G; Donahue, Dean M

    2015-11-01

    Nerve injuries can cause substantial morbidity after thoracic surgical procedures. These injuries are preventable, provided that the surgeon has a thorough understanding of the anatomy and follows important surgical principles. When nerve injuries occur, it is important to recognize the options available in the immediate and postoperative settings, including expectant management, immediate nerve reconstruction, or auxiliary procedures. This article covers the basic anatomy and physiology of nerves and nerve injuries, an overview of techniques in nerve reconstruction, and a guide to the nerves most commonly involved in thoracic operative procedures.

  9. Prevention, Evaluation, and Rehabilitation of Cycling-Related Injury.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit. PMID:27172085

  10. Predicting and Preventing Injury in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than position players. The past several MLB seasons have seen a dramatic rise in the number of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions performed in MLB pitchers. Several recent prospective studies have identified risk factors for injuries to both the shoulder and elbow in MLB pitchers. These risk factors include a lack of external rotation, a lack of total rotation, and a lack of flexion in the throwing arm. Thus far, no study has demonstrated a correlation between cumulative work (number of games pitched, total pitches thrown, total innings pitched, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game) and injuries in MLB pitchers, despite several studies showing this correlation in youth pitchers. Although many risk factors have been translated into guidelines for prevention, no study has been conducted to determine whether adherence to these guidelines effectively prevents injuries. Further studies are necessary to define exactly how injuries in MLB players can be prevented.

  11. Predicting and Preventing Injury in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than position players. The past several MLB seasons have seen a dramatic rise in the number of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions performed in MLB pitchers. Several recent prospective studies have identified risk factors for injuries to both the shoulder and elbow in MLB pitchers. These risk factors include a lack of external rotation, a lack of total rotation, and a lack of flexion in the throwing arm. Thus far, no study has demonstrated a correlation between cumulative work (number of games pitched, total pitches thrown, total innings pitched, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game) and injuries in MLB pitchers, despite several studies showing this correlation in youth pitchers. Although many risk factors have been translated into guidelines for prevention, no study has been conducted to determine whether adherence to these guidelines effectively prevents injuries. Further studies are necessary to define exactly how injuries in MLB players can be prevented. PMID:26991568

  12. Preventing sports injuries: opportunities for intervention in youth athletics.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Nancy L; Marshall, Stephen W; Miller, Mark D

    2002-03-01

    Participation in youth sports has steadily grown over the past 30 years and continues to rise. During the 1998-1999 school year over 360,000 collegiate athletes and almost 6.5 million high school athletes participated in sports. This expansion has been accompanied by an increased awareness of the injury problem associated with participation in youth sports. Estimates are that one-third of high school athletes will sustain an injury during a sports season serious enough to result in time lost from participation. While there may always be some risk associated with sports participation, health professionals can actively encourage injury prevention. In this paper, we describe the benefits of sport participation, the injury problem associated with sports, injury prevention frameworks, and conclude by discussing the changing role of the team physician in youth sports.

  13. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear

    PubMed Central

    Ting, D. K.; Brison, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED) care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Results: Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12–0.22). The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Conclusions: Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players. PMID:25915118

  14. Health Literacy and Injury Prevention Behaviors Among Caregivers of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Heerman, William J.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Bronaugh, Andrea B.; Barkin, Shari L.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional injury is a leading cause of infant mortality. Purpose To examine the role of caregiver health literacy in infant injury prevention behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2010–2012 from a randomized trial at four pediatric clinics was performed in 2012–2013. Caregiver health literacy was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Caregiver-reported adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended injury prevention behaviors was assessed across seven domains: (1) car seat position; (2) car seat use; (3) sleeping safety; (4) fire safety; (5) hot water safety; (6) fall prevention; and (7) firearm safety. Results Data were analyzed from 844 English and Spanish-speaking caregivers of 2-month-old children. Many caregivers were non-adherent with injury prevention guidelines, regardless of health literacy. Notably, 42.6% inappropriately placed their children in the prone position to sleep, and 88.6% did not have their hot water heater set <120°F. Eleven percent of caregivers were categorized as having low health literacy. Low caregiver health literacy, compared to adequate health literacy, was significantly associated with increased odds of caregiver non-adherence with recommended behaviors for car seat position (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=1.6, 7.1), and fire safety (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.02, 4.1) recommendations. Caregivers with low health literacy were less likely to be non-adherent to fall prevention recommendations (AOR=0.5, 95% CI=0.2, 0.9). Conclusions Non-adherence to injury prevention guidelines was common. Low caregiver health literacy was significantly associated with some injury prevention behaviors. Future interventions should consider the role of health literacy in promoting injury prevention. PMID:24745634

  15. Infection prevention and treatment in patients with major burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Conwy, G

    Infection is a significant challenge in burn care, particularly for those patients who have major burn injuries. This article aims to review the literature and establish best practice in prevention and treatment of infection in patients with major burns. The article considers the causes and clinical features of wound infection, and examines systemic and local methods of prevention and treatment. PMID:21138123

  16. 75 FR 27797 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and... committee management activities for both CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry....

  17. Injury Prevention Awareness in an Urban Native American Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, James S. J.; Williams, Scott D.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 50 Native American and 100 other families assessed injury prevention awareness and practices among urban Native Americans in Salt Lake City (Utah). Native American families were less aware of and less likely to practice prevention than others. These characteristics are more likely caused by low-income status than culture. (SLD)

  18. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized.

  19. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized. PMID:26902445

  20. Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, Liz; Bleakley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This systematic review set out to identify randomised controlled trials and controlled intervention studies that evaluated the effectiveness of preventive strategies in adolescent sport and to draw conclusions on the strength of the evidence. A literature search in seven databases (Medline, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Review and DARE) was carried out using four keywords: adolescent, sport, injury and prevention (expanded to capture any relevant literature). Assessment of 154 papers found 12 studies eligible for inclusion. It can be concluded that injury prevention strategies that focus on preseason conditioning, functional training, education, balance and sport‐specific skills, which should be continued throughout the sporting season, are effective. The evidence for the effectiveness of protective equipment in injury prevention is inconclusive and requires further assessment. PMID:17496070

  1. Preventing Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents: The Signs of Self-Injury Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Walsh, Barent W.; McDade, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) continues to be a problem among youth and there is a great need for programming aimed at reducing NSSI in adolescents. The signs of self-injury program is the first known NSSI school-based prevention program for adolescents that attempts to increase knowledge, improve help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, and…

  2. Parental Compliance with Childhood Injury Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBailly, Susan A.; And Others

    Preliminary data from a study documenting parental perceptions of injuries and steps taken by inner-city and suburban parents to make their homes safe are reported. Participants were 407 families with children under 5 years old. Families were provided one of the following interventions: (1) a well child visit; (2) safety equipment (3) physician…

  3. Preventing injuries from all-terrain vehicles.

    PubMed

    Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-11-01

    All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are widely used in Canada for recreation, transportation and occupations such as farming. As motorized vehicles, they can be especially dangerous when used by children and young adolescents who lack the knowledge, physical size, strength, and cognitive and motor skills to operate them safely. The magnitude of injury risk to young riders is reflected in explicit vehicle manual warnings and the warning labels on current models, and evidenced by the significant number of paediatric hospitalizations and deaths due to ATV-related trauma. However, helmet use is far from universal among youth operators, and unsafe riding behaviours, such as driving unsupervised and/or driving with passengers, remain common. Despite industry warnings and public education that emphasize the importance of safety behaviours and the risks of significant injury to children and youth, ATV-related injuries and fatalities continue to occur. Until measures are taken that clearly effect substantial reductions in these injuries, restricting ridership by young operators, especially those younger than 16 years of age, is critical to reducing the burden of ATV-related trauma in children and youth. This document replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2004.

  4. Are pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, L. M.; Redmond, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine what proportion of pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury--deaths at the scene of the accident and those that occur before the person has reached hospital--are preventable. DESIGN--Retrospective study of all deaths from accidental injury that occurred between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1990 and were reported to the coroner. SETTING--North Staffordshire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Injury severity score, probability of survival (probit analysis), and airway obstruction. RESULTS--There were 152 pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury (110 males and 42 females). In the same period there were 257 deaths in hospital from accidental injury (136 males and 121 females). The average age at death was 41.9 years for those who died before reaching hospital, and their average injury severity score was 29.3. In contrast, those who died in hospital were older and equally likely to be males or females. Important neurological injury occurred in 113 pre-hospital deaths, and evidence of airway obstruction in 59. Eighty six pre-hospital deaths were due to road traffic accidents, and 37 of these were occupants in cars. On the basis of the injury severity score and age, death was found to have been inevitable or highly likely in 92 cases. In the remaining 60 cases death had not been inevitable and airway obstruction was present in up to 51 patients with injuries that they might have survived. CONCLUSION--Death was potentially preventable in at least 39% of those who died from accidental injury before they reached hospital. Training in first aid should be available more widely, and particularly to motorists as many pre-hospital deaths that could be prevented are due to road accidents. PMID:8173428

  5. An Injury Prevention Strategy for Teen Restaurant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Julie A.; de Castro, A. B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  6. Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: risk factors and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Griffin, L Y; Agel, J; Albohm, M J; Arendt, E A; Dick, R W; Garrett, W E; Garrick, J G; Hewett, T E; Huston, L; Ireland, M L; Johnson, R J; Kibler, W B; Lephart, S; Lewis, J L; Lindenfeld, T N; Mandelbaum, B R; Marchak, P; Teitz, C C; Wojtys, E M

    2000-01-01

    An estimated 80,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears occur annually in the United States. The highest incidence is in individuals 15 to 25 years old who participate in pivoting sports. With an estimated cost for these injuries of almost a billion dollars per year, the ability to identify risk factors and develop prevention strategies has widespread health and fiscal importance. Seventy percent of ACL injuries occur in noncontact situations. The risk factors for non-contact ACL injuries fall into four distinct categories: environmental, anatomic, hormonal, and biomechanical. Early data on existing neuromuscular training programs suggest that enhancing body control may decrease ACL injuries in women. Further investigation is needed prior to instituting prevention programs related to the other risk factors.

  7. Survey of wheelchair athletic injuries: common patterns and prevention.

    PubMed

    Curtis, K A; Dillon, D A

    1985-06-01

    Twelve hundred wheelchair athletes were surveyed to determine commonly experienced athletic injuries, sports participation and training patterns associated with injuries. Soft tissue trauma, blisters, lacerations, decubiti and joint disorders were the most commonly reported injuries of the 128 respondents. Over 70 per cent of all reported injuries occurred during wheelchair track, road racing and basketball. Common mechanisms of injury were also identified. A significantly higher number of reported injuries were associated with increased sports participation (p less than 001), with the 21-30 year-old age group (p less than .01), and with a high number of training hours per week (p less than .05). There was no significant relationship between number of reported injuries and disability type, National Wheelchair Athletic Association classification, or sex. Decubitus ulcers and temperature regulation disorders were identified as particular risks for the spinal cord injury population. Educating the athlete and coach in means to prevent injury is necessary to promote optimal performance and safe participation. PMID:4011292

  8. Prevention of ligament injuries to the knee.

    PubMed

    Baker, B E

    1990-01-01

    Disruption of the ligamentous structures of the knee are commonly seen in competitive sports. Factors affecting the rate of injury include the sport, the participant, conditioning and technique, the level of competition, rules enforcement, the type of playing surface, and footwear. The role of prophylactic and functional bracing is controversial. Currently, prophylactic bracing has not been shown, conclusively, to be protective. Functional braces appear to have a capacity to provide some protective effect. PMID:2192897

  9. 76 FR 4911 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health Educational Research Centers, Program... recommendations to the Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and...

  10. 75 FR 4406 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health Training Projects Grants, Request for... Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and Health...

  11. Shoulder injuries in the skeletally immature baseball pitcher and recommendations for the prevention of injury.

    PubMed

    Zaremski, Jason L; Krabak, Brian J

    2012-07-01

    Since 1996, when the first article on pitch restriction recommendations was published, the number of research articles involving skeletally immature pitchers has increased. Potential shoulder injuries in this age group are proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, glenohumeral instability, rotator cuff dysfunction, and superior labrum anteroposterior lesions. Fatigue, improper biomechanics, and overuse are the most common reasons for these injuries. In the hopes of preventing injury to young pitchers, numerous organizations, including the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee, The American Sports Medicine Institute, Little League Baseball & Softball, and the Long Term Athlete Development Program for Baseball Canada, have developed recommendations on pitching restrictions that include limits on pitch count, pitches per week, pitches per season, and rest between pitching. Awareness by sports medicine providers, coaches, and parents/guardians of the most up-to-date recommendations on injury prevention and return to play guidelines should reduce the incidence of acute and chronic injuries in adolescent baseball pitchers.

  12. Evaluating injury prevention programs: the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    PubMed

    Mallonee, S

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of injury prevention programs is critical for measuring program effects on reducing injury-related morbidity and mortality or on increasing the adoption of safety practices. During the planning and implementation of injury prevention programs, evaluation data also can be used to test program strategies and to measure the program's penetration among the target population. The availability of this early data enables program managers to refine a program, increasing the likelihood of successful outcomes. The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project illustrates how an evaluation was designed to inform program decisions by providing methodologically sound data on program processes and outcomes. This community intervention trial was instituted to reduce residential fire-related injuries and deaths in a geographic area of Oklahoma City that was disproportionately affected by this problem. The distribution of free smoke alarms in targeted neighborhoods was accompanied by written educational pamphlets and home-based follow-up to test whether the alarms were functioning correctly. Early evaluation during the planning and implementation phases of the program allowed for midcourse corrections that increased the program's impact on desired outcomes. During the six years following the project, the residential fire-related injury rate decreased 81% in the target population but only 7% in the rest of Oklahoma City. This dramatic decline in fire-related injuries in the target area is largely attributed to the free smoke alarm distribution as well as to educational efforts promoting awareness about residential fires and their prevention. PMID:10911692

  13. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    Lightning is the second most common cause of weather-related death in the United States. Lightning is a natural atmospheric discharge that occurs between regions of net positive and net negative electric charges. There are several types of lightning, including streak lightning, sheet lightning, ribbon lightning, bead lightning, and ball lightning. Lightning causes injury through five basic mechanisms: direct strike, flash discharge (splash), contact, ground current (step voltage), and blunt trauma. While persons struck by lightning show evidence of multisystem derangement, the most dramatic effects involve the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Cardiopulmonary arrest is the most common cause of death in lightning victims. Immediate resuscitation of people struck by lightning greatly affects the prognosis. Electrocardiographic changes observed following lightning accidents are probably from primary electric injury or burns of the myocardium without coronary artery occlusion. Lightning induces vasomotor spasm from direct sympathetic stimulation resulting in severe loss of pulses in the extremities. This vasoconstriction may be associated with transient paralysis. Damage to the central nervous system accounts for the second most debilitating group of injuries. Central nervous system injuries from lightning include amnesia and confusion, immediate loss of consciousness, weakness, intracranial injuries, and even brief aphasia. Other organ systems injured by lightning include the eye, ear, gastrointestinal system, skin, and musculoskeletal system. The best treatment of lightning injuries is prevention. The Lightning Safety Guidelines devised by the Lightning Safety Group should be instituted in the United States and other nations to prevent these devastating injuries.

  14. The epidemiology and prevention of child pedestrian injury.

    PubMed

    Malek, M; Guyer, B; Lescohier, I

    1990-08-01

    Of pedestrian injuries that occur every year, approximately 50,000, including 1300 fatalities, are experienced by children between the ages of 1 and 14 years. Despite the importance of the problem, the pedestrian safety issue is often neglected in reports on vehicular injuries. Children between the ages of five and nine years, boys, and children in lower socioeconomic class are at higher risk of pedestrian injury than other children. Childhood pedestrian injuries take place predominantly in residential locations close to home and frequently occur while the child is at play. The risk of pedestrian injury to children is higher than that of other age groups when adjusted for traffic exposure, and a variety of developmental limitations may account for this fact. In spite of these limitations, children undertake collision avoidance maneuvers far more often than drivers do. Accident analyses have identified 15 different accident types, each reflecting a unique combination of human and environmental factors. Among children, the most frequently observed accident type is the midblock dart-out. Programs to modify pedestrian behavior, driver behavior, and vehicle design have met with modest success. In the United States, the cultural and political environments have not been favorable to the injury prevention effort. Urban designers and traffic engineers in Europe have undertaken a variety of modifications of the physical environment, and some of these have been successful in preventing pedestrian injuries to children. PMID:2222697

  15. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    Lightning is the second most common cause of weather-related death in the United States. Lightning is a natural atmospheric discharge that occurs between regions of net positive and net negative electric charges. There are several types of lightning, including streak lightning, sheet lightning, ribbon lightning, bead lightning, and ball lightning. Lightning causes injury through five basic mechanisms: direct strike, flash discharge (splash), contact, ground current (step voltage), and blunt trauma. While persons struck by lightning show evidence of multisystem derangement, the most dramatic effects involve the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Cardiopulmonary arrest is the most common cause of death in lightning victims. Immediate resuscitation of people struck by lightning greatly affects the prognosis. Electrocardiographic changes observed following lightning accidents are probably from primary electric injury or burns of the myocardium without coronary artery occlusion. Lightning induces vasomotor spasm from direct sympathetic stimulation resulting in severe loss of pulses in the extremities. This vasoconstriction may be associated with transient paralysis. Damage to the central nervous system accounts for the second most debilitating group of injuries. Central nervous system injuries from lightning include amnesia and confusion, immediate loss of consciousness, weakness, intracranial injuries, and even brief aphasia. Other organ systems injured by lightning include the eye, ear, gastrointestinal system, skin, and musculoskeletal system. The best treatment of lightning injuries is prevention. The Lightning Safety Guidelines devised by the Lightning Safety Group should be instituted in the United States and other nations to prevent these devastating injuries. PMID:15777170

  16. Buckled-up children: understanding the mechanism, injuries, management, and prevention of seat belt related injuries.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kimberly L

    2004-01-01

    In the United States motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in children. Although laws and public awareness campaigns have increased the use of passive restraints, many children continue to be unrestrained or improperly restrained. Age-appropriate child restraint systems are a vital means to prevent injury and death. The young school-aged child presents unique challenges to standardized vehicle restraint systems. As these children outgrow child safety seats, they frequently are placed in lap/shoulder belt systems designed for the adult. When prematurely graduated to the vehicle's restraint systems they are predisposed to injuries to the abdomen and lumbar spine known as the "seat belt syndrome" or "lap belt complex." These injuries often present subtly, and are not as obvious as the often life-threatening injuries found in the unrestrained pediatric trauma patient. However if undetected or missed these injuries can significantly impact the child's recovery and functional outcome. This article will provide a comprehensive overview of pediatric seat belt injuries. Content will explore the mechanisms responsible for producing the typical patterns of injury, recognition of these potential injuries during the trauma assessment, diagnostic evaluation and management of children with suspected or actual seat belt injuries. Prevention strategies will be discussed that will enable trauma nurses to effectively advocate the use of booster seats for the young school-aged child.

  17. Hamstring injuries: prevention and treatment—an update

    PubMed Central

    Brukner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased knowledge of hamstring muscle injuries, the incidence has not diminished. We now know that not all hamstring injuries are the same and that certain types of injuries require prolonged rehabilitation and return to play. The slow stretch type of injury and injuries involving the central tendon both require longer times to return to play. A number of factors have been proposed as being indicators of time taken to return to play, but the evidence for these is conflicting. Recurrence rates remain high and it is now thought that strength deficits may be an important factor. Strengthening exercise should be performed with the hamstrings in a lengthened position. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of hamstring injuries so at this stage we cannot advise their use. Various tests have been proposed as predictors of hamstring injury and the use of the Nordboard is an interesting addition to the testing process. Prevention of these injuries is the ultimate aim and there is increasing evidence that Nordic hamstring exercises are effective in reducing the incidence. PMID:26105015

  18. Community based prevention programs targeting all injuries for children

    PubMed Central

    Spinks, A; Turner, C; McClure, R; Nixon, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Community based models for injury prevention have become an accepted part of the overall injury control strategy. This systematic review of the scientific literature examines the evidence for their effectiveness in reducing all-cause injury in children 0–14 years of age. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature was performed using the following study selection criteria: community based intervention study; children under 14 years; outcome measure was injury rates; and either a community control or an historical control was used in the design. Quality assessment and data abstraction were guided by a standardized procedure and performed independently by two authors. Data synthesis was in tabular and text form with meta-analysis not being possible due to the discrepancy in methods and measures between the studies. Results: Thorough electronic and library search techniques yielded only nine formally evaluated community based all-cause child injury prevention programs that have reported actual injury outcomes. Of these nine studies, seven provided high level evidence where contemporary control communities were used for comparison; the remaining two used a pre and post-design or time trend analysis where historical data from the community were used as the comparison. Only three of the seven studies with contemporary control communities found significant effect of the intervention; the two studies without controls noted significant reductions in injury rates after the intervention period. Conclusion: There is a paucity of research from which evidence regarding the effectiveness of community based childhood injury prevention programs can be obtained and hence a clear need to increase the effort on developing this evidence base. PMID:15178676

  19. Profiling Young Children's Participation in Track and Field, Injuries Sustained and Prevention Methods Employed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulon, Lyn; Mok, Magadalena

    1999-01-01

    Explored nature and extent of track and field injuries of 8- and 9-year-olds and their injury prevention methods. Found that about one-third had at least one injury. About one-fourth considered their injuries serious. Most serious injuries occurred during track and field events. There were no age or gender differences in injury rates. Injury…

  20. The effectiveness of the nationwide BokSmart rugby injury prevention program on catastrophic injury rates.

    PubMed

    Brown, J C; Verhagen, E; Knol, D; Van Mechelen, W; Lambert, M I

    2016-02-01

    Rugby Union ("rugby") participants have a higher than average risk of injury compared with participants of other popular team sports. BokSmart, a nationwide injury prevention program was launched in South Africa in mid-2009, with the goal of reducing catastrophic head/neck (serious) injuries in players. The program provides injury prevention information to coaches and referees. This study investigated if BokSmart has been associated with a reduction in these injuries. The BokSmart program collected data on all South African rugby-related serious injuries since 2008. Using a Poisson regression, injury numbers were compared pre-BokSmart (2008-2009) to the years post-implementation (2010-2013). Player numbers were assumed to be constant throughout this evaluation: junior = 529,483; senior = 121,663. In junior players, the "post-BokSmart" period had 2.5 less annual serious injuries than "pre-BokSmart" (incidence rate ratio: 0.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.7, P < 0.000). In contrast, there was no significant difference in these periods in seniors. The absence of effect in seniors may be a result of fewer players or of differences in effectiveness of BokSmart in this group--future studies should investigate these questions.

  1. Youth baseball injuries: recognition, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ray, Tracy R

    2010-01-01

    Baseball is a very popular and safe sport for children and adolescents. Understanding bone maturation and risk factors for overuse will guide the practitioner to manage these athletes properly. Overuse injury risk can be minimized by limiting pitch counts, ensuring adequate recovery, developing proper mechanics, and allowing for early evaluation and intervention. Rest, albeit difficult for the athlete, is the mainstay of treatment for many of the maladies affecting this age group of throwers. Individualized approaches to treatment for this population are advised. Structural damage that may lead to surgery is rare but may need consideration if there is no response to conservative measures. Several resources are available to educate players, coaches, and parents regarding safe play.

  2. Child Injury Deaths: Comparing Prevention Information from Two Coding Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Ewigman, Bernard G.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The International Classification of Disease (ICD) external cause of injury E-codes do not sufficiently identify injury circumstances amenable to prevention. The researchers developed an alternative classification system (B-codes) that incorporates behavioral and environmental factors, for use in childhood injury research, and compare the two coding systems in this paper. Methods All fatal injuries among children less than age five that occurred between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1994, were classified using both B-codes and E-codes. Results E-codes identified the most common causes of injury death: homicide (24%), fires (21%), motor vehicle incidents (21%), drowning (10%), and suffocation (9%). The B-codes further revealed that homicides (51%) resulted from the child being shaken or struck by another person; many fires deaths (42%) resulted from children playing with matches or lighters; drownings (46%) usually occurred in natural bodies of water; and most suffocation deaths (68%) occurred in unsafe sleeping arrangements. Conclusions B-codes identify additional information with specific relevance for prevention of childhood injuries. PMID:15944169

  3. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  4. Prevention of arm injury in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Kerut, Edmund Kenneth; Kerut, Denise Goodfellow; Fleisig, Glenn S; Andrews, James R

    2008-01-01

    The advent of youth year-round baseball has come with an increased incidence of pitching related injury and surgery, most notably involving the shoulder and elbow (ulnar collateral ligament). These injuries become evident in high school and college, but begin at the youth level. Several studies have identified baseball pitching risk factors during youth that increase likelihood for injury and surgery in subsequent years. Based on these studies, the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee has published guidelines for pitching that include limits on pitch count and pitches per week and season as well as recommendations for number of rest days between pitching. Also, recommendations include the restriction of breaking balls prior to puberty, the importance of instruction for proper pitching mechanics as early as possible in development, and at least three months of rest after a season. This review is intended to help guide primary care physicians and pediatricians when discussing youth pitching and injury prevention with parents and coaches.

  5. Injury prevention and performance enhancement: a training program for basketball.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of a training program for basketball. Effectiveness in this case was determined by the program's ability to decrease the rate of injury and to increase athletic performance on the basketball court. The search for a program to help prevent serious knee ligament injuries has resulted in a plyometric type of training program. The first stage began eight weeks before basketball season, the second three days before the season started. Upon completion of the second testing session, both male and female participants had improved in all tests administered. This shows that a supervised, scientifically developed program consisting of sports-specific material can result in an increase in sports performance. There were no injuries reported during the training period or during the season lending credence to the fact that a program of this type can result in injury reduction. PMID:17288098

  6. Injury prevention and performance enhancement: a training program for basketball.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of a training program for basketball. Effectiveness in this case was determined by the program's ability to decrease the rate of injury and to increase athletic performance on the basketball court. The search for a program to help prevent serious knee ligament injuries has resulted in a plyometric type of training program. The first stage began eight weeks before basketball season, the second three days before the season started. Upon completion of the second testing session, both male and female participants had improved in all tests administered. This shows that a supervised, scientifically developed program consisting of sports-specific material can result in an increase in sports performance. There were no injuries reported during the training period or during the season lending credence to the fact that a program of this type can result in injury reduction.

  7. 77 FR 74695 - Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration RIN 1218-AC51 Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder meetings. SUMMARY... Washington and Virginia have their own state occupational safety and health programs and have...

  8. Childhood injury prevention practices by parents in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mock, C; Arreola, R; Trevino, P; Almazan, S; Enrique, Z; Gonzalez, S; Simpson, K; Hernandez, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Scientifically based injury prevention efforts have not been widely implemented in Latin America. This study was undertaken to evaluate the baseline knowledge and practices of childhood safety on the part of parents in Monterrey, Mexico and in so doing provide information on which to base subsequent injury prevention efforts. Methods: Interviews were carried out with parents from three socioeconomic strata (upper, middle, lower). Questionnaires were based on Spanish language materials developed by The Injury Prevention Program (TIPP) of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Results: Data were obtained from parents of 1123 children. Overall safety scores (percent safe responses) increased with increasing socioeconomic status. The differences among the socioeconomic groups were most pronounced for transportation and less pronounced for household and recreational safety. The differences were most notable for activities that required a safety related device such as a car seat, seat belt, helmet, or smoke detector. Appropriate use of such devices declined from 47% (upper socioeconomic group) to 25% (middle) to 15% (lower). Conclusions: Considerable differences in the knowledge and especially the practice of childhood safety exist among parents in different socioeconomic levels in Mexico. Future injury prevention efforts need to address these and especially the availability, cost, and utilization of specific highly effective safety devices. PMID:12460967

  9. Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallonee, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

  10. Preventing Death and Serious Injury from Falling Trees and Branches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Of 128 outdoor education related deaths examined since 1960, 14 have been due to falling trees or branches. This article examines the grounds on which death or serious injury due to falling trees or branches can be regarded as an inherent risk in outdoor education, and the extent to which such incidents can be regarded as preventable. It compares…

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: diagnosis, management, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Francesca; Volk, Bradford Scott; Setter, Don

    2010-10-15

    There are an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repairs in the United States each year. Most ACL tears occur from noncontact injuries. Women experience ACL tears up to nine times more often than men. Evaluation of the ACL should be performed immediately after an injury if possible, but is often limited by swelling and pain. When performed properly, a complete knee examination is more than 80 percent sensitive for an ACL injury. The Lachman test is the most accurate test for detecting an ACL tear. Magnetic resonance imaging is the primary study used to diagnose ACL injury in the United States. It can also identify concomitant meniscal injury, collateral ligament tear, and bone contusions. Treatment consists of conservative management or surgical intervention, with the latter being the better option for patients who want to return to a high level of activity. Patients who undergo surgery must commit to appropriate rehabilitation for the best outcome. Long-term sequelae of ACL injury include knee osteoarthritis in up to 90 percent of patients. Primary prevention of ACL injury includes specific proprioceptive and neuromuscular training exercises to improve knee stability.

  12. Pressure injury prevention: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition management.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Kerri; Fulbrook, Paul; Nowicki, Tracy

    2010-08-10

    To prevent pressure injuries research indicates the importance of focusing on three key areas of practice: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition. These are a synergistic trio and many patients require considered management in all three areas. In addition to targeting specific aspects of nursing care in these areas, it is also crucial that there is organisational buy-in for strategic initiatives. Some of the ways that we achieved this are outlined below: Support from managerial level by presenting evidence and education to senior nurses and directors. Nurse unit managers completed individual ward action plans outlining their individual commitments to reducing pressure injuries. Providing support and education to staff to choose and use continence products effectively. Support from allied health colleagues in prevention of pressure injuries. After implementing the actions described above, pressure injury prevalence at the Prince Charles Hospital in Brisbane decreased from 13.78% in 2008 to 5.15% in 2010, representing a 62% reduction overall. Of these pressure injuries, 53% were stage one.

  13. Interpretation of postmortem forensic toxicology results for injury prevention research.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H; Kennedy, Briohny; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2013-08-01

    Forensic toxicological data provides valuable insight into the potential contribution of alcohol and drugs to external-cause deaths. There is a paucity of material that guides injury researchers on the principles that need to be considered when examining the presence and contribution of alcohol and drugs to these deaths. This paper aims to describe and discuss strengths and limitations of postmortem forensic toxicology sample selection, variations in analytical capabilities and data interpretation for injury prevention research. Issues to be considered by injury researchers include: the circumstances surrounding death (including the medical and drug use history of the deceased person); time and relevant historical factors; postmortem changes (including redistribution and instability); laboratory practices; specimens used; drug concentration; and attribution of contribution to death. This paper describes the range of considerations for testing and interpreting postmortem forensic toxicology, particularly when determining impairment or toxicity as possible causal factors in injury deaths. By describing these considerations, this paper has application to decisions about study design and case inclusion in injury prevention research, and to the interpretation of research findings.

  14. Prevention of infections associated with combat-related extremity injuries.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clinton K; Obremskey, William T; Hsu, Joseph R; Andersen, Romney C; Calhoun, Jason H; Clasper, Jon C; Whitman, Timothy J; Curry, Thomas K; Fleming, Mark E; Wenke, Joseph C; Ficke, James R

    2011-08-01

    During combat operations, extremities continue to be the most common sites of injury with associated high rates of infectious complications. Overall, ∼ 15% of patients with extremity injuries develop osteomyelitis, and ∼ 17% of those infections relapse or recur. The bacteria infecting these wounds have included multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella species and Escherichia coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The goals of extremity injury care are to prevent infection, promote fracture healing, and restore function. In this review, we use a systematic assessment of military and civilian extremity trauma data to provide evidence-based recommendations for the varying management strategies to care for combat-related extremity injuries to decrease infection rates. We emphasize postinjury antimicrobial therapy, debridement and irrigation, and surgical wound management including addressing ongoing areas of controversy and needed research. In addition, we address adjuvants that are increasingly being examined, including local antimicrobial therapy, flap closure, oxygen therapy, negative pressure wound therapy, and wound effluent characterization. This evidence-based medicine review was produced to support the Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update contained in this supplement of Journal of Trauma.

  15. Preventing injuries in workers: the role of management practices in decreasing injuries reporting

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Fariba; Khodabakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Researchers have found that management safety practices may predict occupational injuries and psychological distresses in the workplace. The present study examined the perception of management safety practices related to injuries reporting and its dimensions among workers of Isfahan Steel Company (ESCO). Methods: A self-administered anonymous survey was distributed to 189 workers. The survey included demographic factors, management safety perception, injuries reporting and its components (physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and injuries). The data were analyzed by Multivariate and correlation techniques. Results: The results showed that: 1) there were significant correlations between management safety perception with injuries reporting and its two dimensions namely physical and psychological symptoms; 2) there was no significant relationship between management safety perception and injury; 3) in Multivariate analysis, management safety perception significantly predicted about 26%, 19%, and 28% of the variances of variables of injuries reporting, physical symptoms, and psychological symptoms respectively (P< 0.01). Conclusion: Improving employees’ perception of management safety practices can be important to prevent the development of job injuries and to promote workers’ safety and well-being. PMID:25279379

  16. Aetiology and prevention of injuries in elite young athletes.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Sport participation confers many varied benefits in children and adolescents, such as self-esteem, confidence, team play, fitness, agility and strength. Nevertheless, the age of initiation of intense training is decreasing and programmes which expose children to excessive amounts of exercise increase the risk of injury. We review sports injuries in young athletes and the long-term outcomes. Sports injuries can lead to disturbances in growth such as limb length discrepancy, caused by traumatised physeal growth induced by injury. Osgood-Schlatter lesion may also cause some sequelae such as painful ossicles in the distal patellar tendon. The apophysis can be fragmentised or separated, and this could be an adaptive change to the increased stress typical of overuse activities. These changes produce an osseous reaction even though they are not disabling. Participation in physical exercise at a young age should be encouraged, because of the health benefits, but decreasing the incidence and severity of sports injuries in young athletes is an important component of any athletic programme and may generate a long-term economic impact in health care costs. Active prevention measures are the main weapon to decrease the (re-)injury rate and to increase athletic performance. PMID:21178374

  17. House fire injury prevention update. Part II. A review of the effectiveness of preventive interventions

    PubMed Central

    Warda, L.; Tenenbein, M.; Moffatt, M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective—To evaluate and summarize the house fire injury prevention literature. Methods—MEDLINE (1983 to March 1997) was searched by keyword: fire, burn, etiology, cause, prevention, epidemiology, and smoke detector/alarm. ERIC (1966 to March 1997) and PSYCLIT (1974 to June 1997) were searched by keyword: as above, and safety, skills, education, and training. Other sources included references of retrieved publications, review articles, and books; Injury Prevention hand search; government documents; and internet sources. Sources relevant to residential fire injury prevention were selected, evaluated, and summarized. Results—Forty three publications were selected for review, including seven randomized controlled trials, nine quasiexperiments, two natural experiments, 21 prospective cohort studies, two cross sectional surveys, one case report, and one program evaluation. These studies examined the following types of interventions: school (9), preschool (1), and community based educational programs (5); fire response training programs for children (7), blind adolescents (2), and mentally retarded adults (5) and children (1); office based counseling (4); home inspection programs (3); smoke detector giveaway campaigns (5); and smoke detector legislation (1). Conclusions—This review of house fire prevention interventions underscores the importance of program evaluation. There is a need for more rigorous evaluation of educational programs, particularly those targeted at schools. An evidence based, coordinated approach to house fire injury prevention is critical, given current financial constraints and the potential for program overload for communities and schools. PMID:10518271

  18. 75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... the following individual research announcements: (1) ] CE 10 001 Preventing Unintentional Childhood... Preventing Violence and Violence- Related Injury (R01) Agenda items are subject to change as...

  19. 75 FR 6675 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ..., National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for...

  20. Farm Activities and Agricultural Injuries in Youth and Young Adult Workers.

    PubMed

    DeWit, Yvonne; Pickett, William; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James

    2015-01-01

    Youth and young adults who work in the agricultural sector experience high rates of injury. This study aimed to investigate relations between high-risk farm activities and the occurrence of agricultural injuries in these vulnerable groups. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using written questionnaire data from 1135 youth and young adults from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort. The prevalence of agricultural injury was estimated at 4.9%/year (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 6.2). After adjustment for important covariates, duration of farm work was strongly associated with the occurrence of injury (risk ratio [RR] = 8.0 [95% CI: 1.7, 36.7] for 10-34 vs. <10 hours/week; RR = 10.3 [95% CI: 2.2, 47.5] for those working 35+ hours/week). Tractor maintenance, tractor operation, chores with large animals, herd maintenance activities, and veterinary activities were identified as risk factors for agricultural injury. Risks for agricultural injury among youth and young adults on farms relate directly to the amounts and types of farm work exposures that young people engage in. PMID:26237722

  1. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  2. Injuries to Athletes with Physical Disabilities: Prevention Implications.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, L E

    1986-09-01

    In brief: While athletes with disabilities may not be injured any more often than the able-bodied, the types of injuries they sustain are specific to their disabilities and sports. Wheelchair athletes, for example, are especially susceptible to hypothermia and hyperthermia due to their inactive leg muscles, vasomotor paralysis, and reduced evaporative heat loss and cooling. This review of current literature reveals that high-risk sports are track and field, basketball, and road racing, with soft-tissue injuries the most common among wheelchair athletes. Carpal tunnel syndrome is also a characteristic injury. Many preventive measures are suggested, including prescription of sport chairs tailored to an athlete's body type, disability, and sport.

  3. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program.

    PubMed

    Ejnisman, Benno; Barbosa, Gisele; Andreoli, Carlos V; de Castro Pochini, A; Lobo, Thiago; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Cohen, Moises; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. PMID:27563262

  4. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program.

    PubMed

    Ejnisman, Benno; Barbosa, Gisele; Andreoli, Carlos V; de Castro Pochini, A; Lobo, Thiago; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Cohen, Moises; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity.

  5. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Ejnisman, Benno; Barbosa, Gisele; Andreoli, Carlos V; de Castro Pochini, A; Lobo, Thiago; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Cohen, Moises; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. PMID:27563262

  6. Legislation coverage for child injury prevention in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Scherpbier, Robert; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Xin; Luo, Jiesi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the extent to which effective interventions to prevent unintentional child injury are reflected in the laws and regulations of China. Methods We focused on the six common causes of fatal child injuries – drowning, road traffic injury, falls, poisoning, burns and suffocation. We investigated 27 interventions recommended by the United Nations Children’s Fund, the World Health Organization or the European Child Safety Alliance. We searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Lawyee for Chinese legislations using keywords and synonyms for the 27 interventions. We reviewed the identified legislations for statements specifying the responsible implementation department. Findings Seven national laws, nine regulations of the State Council and 46 departmental regulations were found to relate to at least one of the interventions. Although seven of the 27 internationally recommended interventions were covered by Chinese laws, 10 were not covered by any current Chinese law or regulation. None of the interventions against drowning and falls that we investigated was covered by national laws. The implementation responsibilities for effective interventions were either not specified or were assigned to multiple governmental departments in 11 or 20 legislative documents, respectively. Conclusion In Chinese laws and regulations, interventions proven to prevent major causes of unintentional child injuries are underrepresented and the associated implementation responsibilities are often poorly defined. China should include all such interventions in laws and regulations, and assign implementation responsibility for each to a single department of the national government. PMID:25838612

  7. [Nerve injury following implant placement: prevention, diagnosis and treatment modalities].

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Y; Eliav, E; Nahlieli, O

    2003-07-01

    Nerve injury is a well-known complication following oral and maxillofacial surgery. Direct trauma, inflammation and infection are postoperative neural disturbances main causes. The most inflicted nerves associated with endosseous implant placement are those innervating the mandible: the inferior alveolar nerve, the mental nerve and the lingual nerve. Evaluation of the nerve injury characteristics and severity as early as possible has always imposed a great challenge for clinicians. We demonstrate a reliable yet simple way of dealing with this kind of problem in conjunction with comparing preoperative and postoperative sensation of the chin, the tongue and the lower lip. On the other hand, it is considerably important to take preventive measures for such injuries by using appropriate radiographic images. If a nerve damage has occurred, best prognosis is to be expected by early and appropriate treatment. It is imperative to treat such injuries in four months following the injury, otherwise a permanent nerve damage may occur. Further investigation of nerve damage risks following implant placement should be performed in order to enable patient to decide whether having implants dependent rehabilitation or choosing an alternative. PMID:14515628

  8. Prevention strategies for infant walker-related injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Trinkoff, A; Parks, P L

    1993-01-01

    The estimated number of walker-related injuries to infants increased during the 1980s, and standards for walker design safety remain voluntary with no monitoring to assess compliance. Although banning the walker has been proposed, this prevention strategy has not been employed. The most recent statistics available indicate that there were an estimated 27,804 walker-related injuries requiring emergency room attention among ages 0-4 years in 1991. Results of a survey of parents of 3-12-month-olds indicated considerable use of walkers, with greater use among parents with lower educational levels. Reported reasons for using walkers were for the infant's entertainment, enjoyment, and containment, as well as to help infants learn to walk. The authors recommend the consideration of a series of preventive strategies according to the epidemiologic framework for injury control and prevention designed by William Haddon, Jr. These include, but are not limited to, prohibiting the manufacture and sale of the walker, mandatory standards, redesign of the walker, design of an alternative to the walker, and consumer education to reduce use and to change patterns of use. PMID:8265765

  9. Peripheral nerve injuries in athletes. Treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Lorei, M P; Hershman, E B

    1993-08-01

    Peripheral nerve lesions are uncommon but serious injuries which may delay or preclude an athlete's safe return to sports. Early, accurate anatomical diagnosis is essential. Nerve lesions may be due to acute injury (e.g. from a direct blow) or chronic injury secondary to repetitive microtrauma (entrapment). Accurate diagnosis is based upon physical examination and a knowledge of the relative anatomy. Palpation, neurological testing and provocative manoeuvres are mainstays of physical diagnosis. Diagnostic suspicion can be confirmed by electrophysiological testing, including electromyography and nerve conduction studies. Proper equipment, technique and conditioning are the keys to prevention. Rest, anti-inflammatories, physical therapy and appropriate splinting are the mainstays of treatment. In the shoulder, spinal accessory nerve injury is caused by a blow to the neck and results in trapezius paralysis with sparing of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Scapular winging results from paralysis of the serratus anterior because of long thoracic nerve palsy. A lesion of the suprascapular nerve may mimic a rotator cuff tear with pain a weakness of the rotator cuff. Axillary nerve injury often follows anterior shoulder dislocation. In the elbow region, musculocutaneous nerve palsy is seen in weightlifters with weakness of the elbow flexors and dysesthesias of the lateral forearm. Pronator syndrome is a median nerve lesion occurring in the proximal forearm which is diagnosed by several provocative manoeuvres. Posterior interosseous nerve entrapment is common among tennis players and occurs at the Arcade of Froshe--it results in weakness of the wrist and metacarpophalangeal extensors. Ulnar neuritis at the elbow is common amongst baseball pitchers. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common neuropathy seen in sport and is caused by median nerve compression in the carpal tunnel. Paralysis of the ulnar nerve at the wrist is seen among bicyclists resulting in weakness of grip and

  10. 76 FR 77537 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal..., National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  11. [Bicycle spoke-related injuries in children: emphasise prevention].

    PubMed

    Kramer, William L M; Haaring, Gert-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Three children, a 6-year-old boy and two girls aged 5 and 4 years, were seen at an emergency department due to distal lower-leg injuries sustained from the spokes of bicycle wheels. All three patients had been passengers on rear carrying seats of moving bicycles. Only the third bicyclist had used a special child safety seat. The second girl had drawn her foot up from underneath a strap and suffered a tibial fracture later treated with an osteosynthetic plate. The other two patients recovered after conservative casting treatment. Bicycle spoke-related injuries are sustained when the foot or lower limb makes contact with the spokes of a bicycle wheel and usually by children who are bicycle passengers. In the Netherlands, approximately 4600 children are seen at emergency departments with such injuries each year. Bicycle spoke-related accidents can cause severe damage that can result in lengthy recovery periods. Not only physical complications but also psychological ones can occur. The latter are often overlooked but do deserve proper treatment. The physician treating a spoke-related injury is in a good position to advice parents as to preventive measures, particularly on the use of special child safety seats.

  12. Preventable deaths in patients with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Chun; Song, Kyoung Jun; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Holmes, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the rate of and etiology for preventable deaths in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Methods We conducted a retrospective, multicenter review of patients with TBIs who died within 7 days of their traumatic event from June 2008 to May 2009. Three board certified emergency physicians independently reviewed every case using a structured survey format. Cases were considered preventable deaths only if all physicians independently agreed the death was preventable. Management errors contributing to the preventable death were determined. Results Forty-one patients who died from TBI were eligible. Preventable deaths were identified in nine (22%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11 to 28) cases. Fifty-six management errors were identified including 36 (64%; 95% CI, 50 to 77) in the emergency department and 13 (23%; 95% CI, 13 to 36) in the prehospital phase. Thirty (54%; 95% CI, 40 to 67) management errors were process-related, and 26 (46%; 95% CI, 33 to 60) were structure-related. Conclusion An important and measurable rate of preventable mortality occurs in the initial care of TBI patients. Errors were common and most occurred in the emergency department. In addition, errors were common in the prehospital phase but did not always lead to mortality. When analyzed by type of problem, both process-related and structure-related errors occurred in similar proportions.

  13. Agricultural work related injuries among the farmers of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the most hazardous industries with high rates of accidental death, injury and occurrences of work related illnesses. The main objective of the study is to assess types, categories and number of incident rate of the accidents along with the causes of accidents as well as with the affected parts of the different parts of the body among the agricultural workers. The number of injuries that occurred during 2006-2010 for male and female farmers was 214 and 109, respectively, in West Bengal. The leading external causes of farm injury were hand tools (64.7%)), farm machinery (29.1%) and others (6.2%). The most frequently involved tools in hand injuries were spade and sickle. Fingers of both limbs are the most affected parts of the body followed by feet, ankle, hand, wrist and lower back. From this study it was also observed that the male agricultural workers are much more affected than female agricultural workers. The incident rate among male and female agricultural workers was 8.99 per 1000 workers per year and 7.89 per 1000 workers per year, respectively. So due to injuries in both groups of agricultiral workers, their health, productivity and work performance were consequently affected.

  14. Changing attitudes about self-injury prevention management: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Jeanette; Jones-Bendel, Trish; Portell, Pauline; Kunz, Maureen; Sobotka, Mary Jo; King, Camille; Marek, Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    In the behavioral health environment, nurses often use continuous staff monitoring and, at times, physical restraints, to manage the severity of patients' self-injury. Both options put staff in control, are the most restrictive in nature, and can be financially draining on the hospital's budget. This can result in negative reactions by both patients and staff. It is important to develop a program that will empower patients to control their behavior and allow staff to be aware of their perceptions and attitudes toward patients who self-injure. This article describes the leadership initiative that drove the development, training, and implementation of a self-injury prevention project and the lessons learned by staff.

  15. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA... More Information: Harriette Lynch, Public Health Analyst, Extramural Programs, National Center for...

  16. Child-to-Child Training for Prevention of School Injuries in Odemis, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergün, Sibel; Kalkim, Asli; Dolgun, Eda

    2013-01-01

    Students encounter many risks for injury, which can impact their health and educational success; prevention of these injuries are paramount for school nurses. These article reports results of a study conducted to determine the efficacy of training given to children regarding prevention of school injuries and to compare the effectiveness of…

  17. Preventing School Injuries: A Comprehensive Guide for School Administrators, Teachers, and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Marc

    Every aspect of coping with injuries and preventing injuries in school settings is covered in this book. It examines how and why students are injured and in what situations schools can be held responsible. It also explains how schools can provide a quick, efficient, and effective emergency response to injuries. How to collect injury data, how to…

  18. Preventing childhood unintentional injuries--what works? A literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, T.; Towner, E. M.; Simpson, G.; Jarvis, S. N.

    1996-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this paper is to report on a systematic review of the world literature to provide information about the most effective forms of health promotion interventions to reduce childhood (0-14 years) unintentional injuries. The findings are of relevance to policy makers at a local or national level, to practitioners and researchers. METHODS: The relevant literature has been identified through the use of electronic databases, hand searching of journals, scanning reference lists, and consultation with key informants. RESULTS: Examples of interventions that have been effective in reducing injury include: bicycle helmet legislation, area wide traffic calming measures, child safety restraint legislation, child resistant containers to prevent poisoning, and window bars to prevent falls. Interventions effective in changing behaviour include bicycle helmet education and legislation, child restraint legislation, child restraint loan schemes, child restraint educational campaigns, pedestrian education aimed at the child/parent, provision of smoke detectors, and parent education on home hazard reduction. For the community based campaigns, the key to success has been the sustained use of surveillance systems, the commitment of interagency cooperation and the time needed to develop networks and implement a range of interventions. Education, environmental modification and legislation all have a part to play and their effect in combination is important. CONCLUSION: The design of evaluations in injury prevention needs to be improved so that more reliable evidence can be obtained. Better information is needed on process, so that successful strategies can be replicated elsewhere. There is also a need for literature reviews on effectiveness to be updated regularly and for their findings to be widely disseminated to policy makers, researchers, and practitioners. PMID:9346079

  19. Multicenter assessment of burn team injury prevention knowledge.

    PubMed

    Klas, Karla S; Smith, Sue Jane; Matherly, Annette F; Dillard, B Daniel; Grant, Ernest J; Cusick-Jost, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Engaging burn professionals to utilize "teachable moments" and provide accurate fire safety and burn prevention (FSBP) education is essential in reducing injury incidence. Minimal data is available regarding burn clinicians' evidence-based FSBP knowledge. A committee of prevention professionals developed, pilot-tested, and distributed a 52-question online survey assessing six major categories: demographical information (n = 7); FSBP knowledge (n = 24); home FSBP practices (n = 6); burn center FSBP education (n = 7); self-assessed competence and confidence in providing FSBP education (n = 2); and improving ABA reach (n = 6). Responses with <50% completion of FSBP knowledge section were excluded. Total group's (TG) mean FSBP score of 61.5% was used to define and compare underperformers (UP). After excluding 36 incomplete responses, test scores ranged: TG (n = 427) 21-88% and UP (n = 183) 21-58%. Ten FSBP knowledge questions covering seven topics were incorrectly answered by >50% of TG. ANOVA showed self-reported competence and confidence in providing FSBP education were not good predictors of FSBP scores, but staff with <2 years experience scored lower. Over 90% of TG wants FSBP fact sheets for patient education. Burn professionals have a responsibility to educate patients, families, and communities on FSBP. Team members report competence and confidence in their ability to provide FSBP education. However, this multicenter survey demonstrates the need for professional training on best practices in injury prevention, specifically targeting knowledge gaps on: smoke alarms, fire-safe cigarettes, children's sleepwear, burn/fire epidemiology, fireworks, bathing/scald injuries, and residential sprinklers. Based on these findings, FSBP educational materials will be created. PMID:25094010

  20. 76 FR 7217 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... research and control activities related to injury. Matters to be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss...

  1. Evidence based prevention of hamstring injuries in sport.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J; Hölmich, P

    2005-06-01

    A common soft tissue injury in sports involving sprinting and jumping is the hamstring strain. A major problem with hamstring strains is the high incidence of reinjury. Muscle injuries can be classified as direct or indirect and are typically grouped into three categories according to severity. A number of potential risk factors have been proposed for hamstring strains. Only a few are evidence based and some are mainly based on theoretical assumptions. There is a lack of clinical research on the effectiveness of rehabilitation programmes for hamstring strains. Although the initial treatment of rest, ice, compression, and elevation is accepted for muscle strains, no consensus exists for their rehabilitation. Not much evidence based research has been carried out on prevention of hamstring strain. To our knowledge only two prospective studies have so far been published. As the injuries are common in football and other sports involving sprinting and jumping, there is a need for further research preferably in the form of randomised controlled trials.

  2. Preseason physical examination for the prevention of sports injuries.

    PubMed

    McKeag, D B

    1985-01-01

    The importance of the preseason physical examination and preparticipation evaluation of sports candidates is highlighted because it constitutes one of the few occasions in which the physician can actively prevent sports injuries from occurring. As exercise participation continues to increase on a world-wide basis, an understanding of the goals and objectives of such a pre-exercise evaluation are important. The need is not for a standard evaluation form, but for a consistent understanding of adjusting the evaluation to the age of the candidate, the type of sport to be engaged in and the anticipated level of competition. Essentials of any evaluation are musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and psychological examinations. Examinations should have clearly defined objectives, and factors determining the type of evaluation include: prospective athlete; contemplated exercise programme; and motivation. Different types of implementation are individual examinations, locker room technique and the station technique, each with advantages and disadvantages. A pre-exercise evaluation should always occur before any anticipated change in level of school or competition with an interval or intercurrent history and physical examinations occurring at regular intervals. It is important that examinations take place before the commencement of a sports season so previous injuries and problems can be dealt with; timing is vital. Contents of a pre-exercise physical examination should include history, a physical examination, laboratory testing and additional specific screening evaluations. Finally, assessment of the pre-exercise evaluation and injury prediction will aid physicians in preparticipation evaluations.

  3. Mechanisms of cardiac radiation injury and potential preventive approaches.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Jan; Kura, Branislav; Ravingerová, Táňa; Tribulova, Narcisa; Okruhlicova, Ludmila; Barancik, Miroslav

    2015-09-01

    In addition to cytostatic treatment and surgery, the most common cancer treatment is gamma radiation. Despite sophisticated radiological techniques however, in addition to irradiation of the tumor, irradiation of the surrounding healthy tissue also takes place, which results in various side-effects, depending on the absorbed dose of radiation. Radiation either damages the cell DNA directly, or indirectly via the formation of oxygen radicals that in addition to the DNA damage, react with all cell organelles and interfere with their molecular mechanisms. The main features of radiation injury besides DNA damage is inflammation and increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes and cytokines. Endothelial damage and dysfunction of capillaries and small blood vessels plays a particularly important role in radiation injury. This review is focused on summarizing the currently available data concerning the mechanisms of radiation injury, as well as the effectiveness of various antioxidants, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and cytoprotective substances that may be utilized in preventing, mitigating, or treating the toxic effects of ionizing radiation on the heart. PMID:26030720

  4. Rotator cuff injuries in baseball. Prevention and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Jobe, F W; Bradley, J P

    1988-12-01

    Rotator cuff and ligamentous capsule injuries are common in the young baseball player. In order to understand these injuries, it is important to first appreciate the delicate balance between shoulder mobility and stability as well as the biomechanics of throwing. This background information makes it easy to see how shoulder injuries are really part of a progressive continuum beginning with instability leading to subluxation, and later impingement which can result in a rotator cuff tear. A detailed and precise history and physical is crucial in determining where a patient might be on the continuum. An accurate evaluation will also help appropriately place a patient in one of the following 4 groups: pure impingement, anterior instability due to trauma with secondary impingement, anterior stability due to a hyperelasticity with secondary impingement, and pure anterior instability. A kinesiological repair is the initial treatment of choice. It is the best preventative or early treatment available, and consists of a specific strengthening programme. If this fails (as in only 5 to 10% of the cases), an anatomical repair is instituted. There are 4 basic guidelines when doing this surgery: (a) maintain muscle attachments and proprioceptive fibres; (b) do not shorten the capsule significantly; (c) build up the anterior labrum; and (d) regain full range of motion quickly through abduction splinting and rehabilitation. A postoperative rehabilitation programme is then diligently adhered to, as it is at least as important as the surgery itself.

  5. Preventing falls and fall-related injuries in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David; Healey, Frances; Haines, Terry P

    2010-11-01

    Falls are a widespread concern in hospitals settings, with whole hospital rates of between 3 and 5 falls per 1000 bed-days representing around a million inpatient falls occurring in the United States each year. Between 1% and 3% of falls in hospitals result in fracture, but even minor injuries can cause distress and delay rehabilitation. Risk factors most consistently found in the inpatient population include a history of falling, muscle weakness, agitation and confusion, urinary incontinence or frequency, sedative medication, and postural hypotension. Based on systematic reviews, recent research, and clinical and ethical considerations, the most appropriate approach to fall prevention in the hospital environment includes multifactorial interventions with multiprofessional input. There is also some evidence that delirium avoidance programs, reducing sedative and hypnotic medication, in-depth patient education, and sustained exercise programs may reduce falls as single interventions. There is no convincing evidence that hip protectors, movement alarms, or low-low beds reduce falls or injury in the hospital setting. International approaches to developing and maintaining a fall prevention program suggest that commitment of management and a range of clinical and support staff is crucial to success.

  6. Acute Kidney Injury by Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24–72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639

  7. The new trend in back injury prevention programs

    SciTech Connect

    Rummerfield, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    The reduction in Worker`s Compensation costs through lumbar strengthening programs is now a proven approach. This is the beginning of a new era in injury prevention. Imagine a test for muscle imbalance along with the strength of all the major muscle groups of every person on the mine site. Occupations, such as roof bolters, and operators of haul trucks, dozers, scrapers, continuous miners and shuttle cars could be tested for musculoskeletal strength of the spine and extremities. With this test data you could then compare your findings to the strength norms necessary for that person to perform his/her job task safely. Armed with this information, you could drastically reduce Workers` Compensation costs due to strains and sprains. Earl Hoerner, M.D. and Robert Wainwright, P.T. have consolidated these cutting-edge technologies that will produce the benchmark for industrial injury prevention for the next century. These technologies are available today, waiting to be used in an industrial setting by a management team with vision.

  8. The science of softball: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Flyger, Nicholas; Button, Chris; Rishiraj, Neetu

    2006-01-01

    Whilst the sport of softball has achieved worldwide popularity over the last 100 years, a consideration of the scientific principles underpinning softball is in its infancy. It is clear that the various motor skills associated with softball, such as pitching, batting and fielding, place considerable perceptual and physical demands upon players. Each of these skill categories are examined in more detail by reviewing the biomechanical principles associated with skilled performance. For pitching, a certain amount of information can be gleaned from baseball research; however, the underarm technique required by softball places the highest loads on the arm and shoulder during the accelerative, downward phase of the swing. Kinematic analyses of the bat swing suggest that elite batters have approximately 200 ms to decide whether to swing, and approximately the same duration to complete the swing (resulting in reported bat speeds of up to 40 m/sec). The research conducted on fielding has been limited to a consideration of throwing styles adopted in games. A variety of throwing techniques are adopted in the course of a typical game but elite players commonly adopt a sidearm technique when returning to base as quickly as possible. Data obtained from the National Athletic Training Association indicate a similar level of injury incidence in softball as in baseball. Approximately 17% of injuries are experienced by the pitcher and approximately 25% of all injuries are located in the forearm/wrist/hand joint segments. Sports science and sports medicine research have the potential to contribute significantly to performance enhancement and injury prevention in the future. PMID:16937954

  9. The science of softball: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Flyger, Nicholas; Button, Chris; Rishiraj, Neetu

    2006-01-01

    Whilst the sport of softball has achieved worldwide popularity over the last 100 years, a consideration of the scientific principles underpinning softball is in its infancy. It is clear that the various motor skills associated with softball, such as pitching, batting and fielding, place considerable perceptual and physical demands upon players. Each of these skill categories are examined in more detail by reviewing the biomechanical principles associated with skilled performance. For pitching, a certain amount of information can be gleaned from baseball research; however, the underarm technique required by softball places the highest loads on the arm and shoulder during the accelerative, downward phase of the swing. Kinematic analyses of the bat swing suggest that elite batters have approximately 200 ms to decide whether to swing, and approximately the same duration to complete the swing (resulting in reported bat speeds of up to 40 m/sec). The research conducted on fielding has been limited to a consideration of throwing styles adopted in games. A variety of throwing techniques are adopted in the course of a typical game but elite players commonly adopt a sidearm technique when returning to base as quickly as possible. Data obtained from the National Athletic Training Association indicate a similar level of injury incidence in softball as in baseball. Approximately 17% of injuries are experienced by the pitcher and approximately 25% of all injuries are located in the forearm/wrist/hand joint segments. Sports science and sports medicine research have the potential to contribute significantly to performance enhancement and injury prevention in the future.

  10. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Crain, J.; McFaull, S.; Thompson, W.; Skinner, R.; Do, M. T.; Fréchette, M.; Mukhi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP’s overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools—designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product)—is revealing eCHIRPP’s potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends. PMID:27284703

  11. Preventing Workplace Injuries and Illnesses through Ergonomics. Listening to Our Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosskam, Ellen; Baichoo, Pavan

    1997-01-01

    Ergonomics focuses on the prevention of injuries through proper design of equipment, workstations, and products. The adoption of an ergonomic philosophy in the workplace has demonstrable benefits. (JOW)

  12. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    PubMed Central

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns. PMID:25157305

  13. Partnering Strategies for Childhood Agricultural Safety and Health

    PubMed Central

    Hard, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been the lead federal agency of the national Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative (CAIPI) since the program's inception in 1996 and in this role, collaborated with numerous partners in childhood agricultural injury prevention activities. This collaboration has likely helped achieve the current reduction in childhood agricultural injury. The paper looks at existing groups with past and current childhood agricultural injury prevention activities for partnering strategies that could contribute to reducing the morbidity and mortality of childhood agricultural injuries. Based upon the review, suggestions are made for future partnering strategies to continue progress in this area. PMID:22490034

  14. Preventing non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents: the signs of self-injury program.

    PubMed

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J; Walsh, Barent W; McDade, Moira

    2010-03-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) continues to be a problem among youth and there is a great need for programming aimed at reducing NSSI in adolescents. The signs of self-injury program is the first known NSSI school-based prevention program for adolescents that attempts to increase knowledge, improve help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, and decrease acts of NSSI. A total of five schools implemented the program in selected classrooms (n = 274 adolescents; 51.5% female, mean age = 16.07 years) that consisted of predominantly Caucasian (73%) adolescents. Researchers collected pre-post evaluation surveys of the program and feasibility interviews were conducted with the school guidance personnel who ran the program. Results indicated the prevention program did not produce iatrogenic effects, increased accurate knowledge and improved help-seeking attitudes and intentions among students. No significant changes were found in regards to self-reported formal help-seeking actions. Feasibility responses indicate the program is user-friendly and well received by school personnel. The data offer preliminary evidence that the program may be an effective prevention program for schools.

  15. The spectrum of prevention: developing a comprehensive approach to injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, L.; Swift, S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective—The purpose of this paper is to describe the "spectrum of prevention", a framework for developing multifaceted approaches to injury prevention. The value of the tool is that it can help practitioners develop and structure comprehensive initiatives. Methods—The spectrum is comprised of six inter-related action levels: (1) strengthening individual knowledge and skills, (2) promoting community education, (3) educating providers, (4) fostering coalitions and networks, (5) changing organizational practices, and (6) influencing policy and legislation. Activities at each of these levels have the potential to support each other and promote overall community health and safety. Conclusions—The spectrum of prevention is a tool which can help practitioners and policy leaders move beyond a primarily educational approach to achieve broad community goals through injury prevention strategies that include policy development. This framework has been endorsed and applied in a variety of disciplines, however it has not been formally evaluated, a process that could clarify the scope of its effectiveness. PMID:10518268

  16. Preventing young children's injuries: analysis of data from a population-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Toblin, Robin L; Brenner, Ruth A; Taneja, Gitanjali S; Rossi, Maryann W; Collins, Millicent; Mickalide, Angela D; Overpeck, Mary D; Clinton-Reid, Yvette; Dever, Jill A; Boyle, Kerrie; Trumble, Ann C; Scheidt, Peter C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine prevention strategies for potentially serious injury events among children younger than 3 years of age based upon circumstances surrounding injury events. Surveillance was conducted on all injuries to District of Columbia (DC) residents less than 3 years old that resulted in an Emergency Department (ED) visit, hospitalization, or death for 1 year. Data were collected through abstraction of medical records and interviews with a subset of parents of injured children. Investigators coded injury-related events for the potential for death or disability. Potential prevention strategies were then determined for all injury events that had at least a moderate potential for death or disability and sufficient detail for coding (n = 425). Injury-related events included 10 deaths, 163 hospitalizations, and 2,868 ED visits (3,041 events in total). Of the hospitalizations, 88% were coded as moderate or high potential for disability or death, versus only 21% of the coded ED visits. For potentially serious events, environmental change strategies were identified for 47%, behavior change strategies for 77%, and policy change strategies for 24%. For 46% of the events more than one type of prevention strategy was identified. Only 8% had no identifiable prevention strategy. Prevention strategies varied by specific cause of injury. Potential prevention strategies were identifiable for nearly all potentially serious injury events, with multiple potential prevention strategies identified for a large fraction of the events. These findings support developing multifaceted prevention approaches informed by community-based injury surveillance.

  17. Preventing young children's injuries: analysis of data from a population-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Toblin, Robin L; Brenner, Ruth A; Taneja, Gitanjali S; Rossi, Maryann W; Collins, Millicent; Mickalide, Angela D; Overpeck, Mary D; Clinton-Reid, Yvette; Dever, Jill A; Boyle, Kerrie; Trumble, Ann C; Scheidt, Peter C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine prevention strategies for potentially serious injury events among children younger than 3 years of age based upon circumstances surrounding injury events. Surveillance was conducted on all injuries to District of Columbia (DC) residents less than 3 years old that resulted in an Emergency Department (ED) visit, hospitalization, or death for 1 year. Data were collected through abstraction of medical records and interviews with a subset of parents of injured children. Investigators coded injury-related events for the potential for death or disability. Potential prevention strategies were then determined for all injury events that had at least a moderate potential for death or disability and sufficient detail for coding (n = 425). Injury-related events included 10 deaths, 163 hospitalizations, and 2,868 ED visits (3,041 events in total). Of the hospitalizations, 88% were coded as moderate or high potential for disability or death, versus only 21% of the coded ED visits. For potentially serious events, environmental change strategies were identified for 47%, behavior change strategies for 77%, and policy change strategies for 24%. For 46% of the events more than one type of prevention strategy was identified. Only 8% had no identifiable prevention strategy. Prevention strategies varied by specific cause of injury. Potential prevention strategies were identifiable for nearly all potentially serious injury events, with multiple potential prevention strategies identified for a large fraction of the events. These findings support developing multifaceted prevention approaches informed by community-based injury surveillance. PMID:21904860

  18. Farm Work-Related Injuries and Risk Factors in South Korean Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyocher; Räsänen, Kimmo; Chae, Hyeseon; Kim, Kyungsu; Kim, Kyungran; Lee, Kyungsuk

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is known to be a risk-filled industry in South Korea, as it is worldwide. The aims of this study were to identify the magnitude of farm work-related injuries and evaluate the association between injury and possible risk factors. Farmers, including farm members (N = 16,160), were surveyed. After excluding 7 subjects with missing data in questions about injury, 16,153 farmer responses were used for the analysis. Of the 16,153 farmers, 3.6% answered having at least one farm work-related injury requiring outpatient treatment or hospitalization during 2012. The proportion of injured men (4.3%) was 1.5 times higher than women (2.9%). From an age perspective, the proportion was 1.3% of those aged 49 or below, 2.7% of those aged 50-59, 4.2% of those aged 60-69, 4.2% of those aged 70-79, and 3.1% of those aged 80 or above. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis with a stepwise model (forward) for risk factors (gender, age, farm ownership, farm type, work years in agriculture, work months during 2012, night work experience, and work experience under the influence of alcohol). The increased risk of farm work-related injuries significantly remained associated with age, farm ownership, and experience of night work. Further studies should be conducted to consistently identify injury characteristics, especially for old farmers, considering the crop cultivation in Asian countries. PMID:27428880

  19. An ergonomics approach model to prevention of occupational musculoskeletal injuries.

    PubMed

    Koltan, Altan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prevent occupational musculoskeletal injuries. Our workers stacked boxes of ceramics weighing 10-27 kg, making low back pain common in our enterprise. In all the stacking stations, recommended weight limits (RWL) were separately calculated using the revised National Institute for Occupational Health lifting equation. Since the boxes weighed significantly more than the RWL, we developed a new ergonomic design that completely changed the stacking process. The load put on the workers' waist vertebrae in the new and the old stacking methods was compared to evaluate the success of the new ergonomic design, using Newton's third law of motion. Thanks to the new ergonomic design, the load on the workers' vertebrae decreased by 80%. Due to its simple technology and its very low cost compared to robots, the new ergonomic design can be commonly used in enterprises with repeated and constraining stacking. PMID:19272245

  20. Problem solving to prevent work injuries in supported employment.

    PubMed Central

    Martella, R C; Agran, M; Marchand-Martella, N E

    1992-01-01

    A problem-solving strategy was used to teach three groups of 3 individuals in supported employment how to prevent work-related injuries. The problem-solving strategy was taught in two training phases. The first training phase involved the use of cue cards, and the second involved the withdrawal of the cue cards. Interviews and staged generalization assessments in the participants' natural work environments were conducted before, during, and up to 12 weeks after training. In these assessments, situations were presented that were either similar or dissimilar to situations presented in training. Results of both the interviews and staged assessments indicated that the participants' newly acquired problem-solving skills generalized to similar and dissimilar situations. PMID:1429317

  1. 75 FR 52356 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: National Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Behavioral Surveillance... Disease Registry. Dated: August 18, 2010. Elaine L. Baker, Director, Management Analysis and...

  2. 78 FR 62636 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  3. 78 FR 60875 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  4. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  5. 78 FR 60877 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  6. 78 FR 37542 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  7. 77 FR 61756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  8. Review and Meta-analysis of Emerging Risk Factors for Agricultural Injury.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Rohan; Achutan, Chandran; Haynatzki, Gleb; Rajaram, Shireen; Rautiainen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural injury is a significant public health problem globally. Extensive research has addressed this problem, and a growing number of risk factors have been reported. The authors evaluated the evidence for frequently reported risk factors earlier. The objective in the current study was to identify emerging risk factors for agricultural injury and calculate pooled estimates for factors that were assessed in two or more studies. A total of 441 (PubMed) and 285 (Google Scholar) studies were identified focusing on occupational injuries in agriculture. From these, 39 studies reported point estimates of risk factors for injury; 38 of them passed the Newcastle-Ottawa criteria for quality and were selected for the systematic review and meta-analysis. Several risk factors were significantly associated with injury in the meta-analysis. These included older age (vs. younger), education up to high school or higher (vs. lower), non-Caucasian race (vs. Caucasian), Finnish language (vs. Swedish), residence on-farm (vs. off-farm), sleeping less than 7-7.5 hours (vs. more), high perceived injury risk (vs. low), challenging social conditions (vs. normal), greater farm sales, size, income, and number of employees on the farm (vs. smaller), animal production (vs. other production), unsafe practices conducted (vs. not), computer use (vs. not), dermal exposure to pesticides and/or chemicals (vs. not), high cooperation between farms (vs. not), and machinery condition fair/poor (vs. excellent/good). Eighteen of the 25 risk factors were significant in the meta-analysis. The identified risk factors should be considered when designing interventions and selecting populations at high risk of injury.

  9. Review and Meta-analysis of Emerging Risk Factors for Agricultural Injury.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Rohan; Achutan, Chandran; Haynatzki, Gleb; Rajaram, Shireen; Rautiainen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural injury is a significant public health problem globally. Extensive research has addressed this problem, and a growing number of risk factors have been reported. The authors evaluated the evidence for frequently reported risk factors earlier. The objective in the current study was to identify emerging risk factors for agricultural injury and calculate pooled estimates for factors that were assessed in two or more studies. A total of 441 (PubMed) and 285 (Google Scholar) studies were identified focusing on occupational injuries in agriculture. From these, 39 studies reported point estimates of risk factors for injury; 38 of them passed the Newcastle-Ottawa criteria for quality and were selected for the systematic review and meta-analysis. Several risk factors were significantly associated with injury in the meta-analysis. These included older age (vs. younger), education up to high school or higher (vs. lower), non-Caucasian race (vs. Caucasian), Finnish language (vs. Swedish), residence on-farm (vs. off-farm), sleeping less than 7-7.5 hours (vs. more), high perceived injury risk (vs. low), challenging social conditions (vs. normal), greater farm sales, size, income, and number of employees on the farm (vs. smaller), animal production (vs. other production), unsafe practices conducted (vs. not), computer use (vs. not), dermal exposure to pesticides and/or chemicals (vs. not), high cooperation between farms (vs. not), and machinery condition fair/poor (vs. excellent/good). Eighteen of the 25 risk factors were significant in the meta-analysis. The identified risk factors should be considered when designing interventions and selecting populations at high risk of injury. PMID:27088816

  10. PREVENT: a program of the National Training Initiative on Injury and Violence Prevention.

    PubMed

    Runyan, Carol W; Gunther-Mohr, Carol; Orton, Stephen; Umble, Karl; Martin, Sandra L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2005-12-01

    Training practitioners to use evidence-based approaches to the primary prevention of violence is challenging as a result of the dearth of well-evaluated intervention programs and the lack of familiarity of some practitioners in drawing critically on existing literature. An element of the National Training Initiative in Injury and Violence Prevention, the PREVENT (Preventing Violence Through Education, Networking, and Technical Assistance) program began in late 2003 to train practitioners to address multiple types of violence by encouraging more widespread use of evidence-based approaches to primary prevention. It is intended to reach practitioners involved in addressing violence against women, sexual violence, child maltreatment, youth violence, and suicide in varied community settings. The program uses a combination of varied types of face-to-face training and distance learning coupled with opportunities for networking and technical assistance. Ultimately the program intends to stimulate and facilitate changes in individual, organizational, and cultural awareness and practices fostering primary prevention of violence. The project employs formative, process, and impact evaluation techniques aimed at improving delivery of the training as well as tracking changes in individual and organizations. PMID:16376727

  11. 77 FR 37909 - Meeting: Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ..., FOA CE12-004: Characterizing the Short and Long Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) among Children in the United States (U01); CE12-005: Field Triage of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in... Injury Research (U01); and CE12-007: Research to Prevent Prescription Drug Overdoses (U01). In...

  12. Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-01-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire,…

  13. Strategies for Playground Injury Prevention: An Overview of a Playground Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather; Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Preventing injuries to children, especially debilitating and life threatening, requires an awareness of where these types of injuries occur during the school days. This review examines falls from playground equipment, events that have been identified as the leading causes of nonfatal unintentional injuries for children. Thus, the issue of…

  14. Injury prevention for modern dancers: a pilot study of an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Tracy L; Brayer, Anne; Andrus, Noelle; McIntosh, Scott

    2010-10-01

    Modern dancers suffer a high rate of musculoskeletal injuries. Preventing injury prolongs dance careers and eases financial burden on both individual dancers and dance companies alike. A medical student partnered with Garth Fagan Dance to develop a curriculum to teach principles of injury prevention specific to preprofessional and professional modern dancers. Quantitative assessments showed a significant increase in participant injury prevention knowledge after completion of the course (P < 0.0001). Participants' concern that injury may end their careers showed no significant change after the course (P = 0.35). Injury prevention and dance-related injuries were reported the most often as useful topics while weight management was reported the least often as a useful topic. Qualitative evaluations showed that participants' found a course on injury prevention valuable and desired a course of longer duration that includes a greater number of topics. These findings show that modern dancers perceive an educational course on injury prevention as valuable and retain information presented in the course in the short-term. Further study is warranted to assess changes in injury rates after the course and to continue to improve curriculum content and implementation. PMID:20127158

  15. Aging and Spinal Cord Injury: External Causes of Injury and Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ying; Allen, Victoria; DeVivo, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a consistent trend toward older age at time of spinal cord injury (SCI), little is known about the external causes of SCI in the elderly. Objective: To examine environmental circumstances, documented by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes, at time of SCI among older adults. Method: Data on individuals injured in 2005 or later were retrieved from the National SCI Database. Demographics, injury profiles, and external causes of injury were compared between the study group (age >60 years, n = 1,079) and reference group (age 16–45 years, n = 3,579) using chi-square and Student t tests. Results: Among the elderly, falls were the most common etiology of SCI (60%), followed by transport accidents (24%) and complications of medical and surgical care (12%). In the younger group, transport accidents were the most common etiology of SCI (49%), followed by falls (22%) and assault (21%). Falls on the same level (30%), from stairs and steps (22%), and other slipping, tripping, and stumbling (11%) were the most common mechanisms of falls in the elderly group. Among motor vehicle accidents, car occupant injured in a collision with another car was the most common mechanism of injury among the elderly (28%). Conclusion: There is an urgent need for effective fall prevention programs among the elderly to reduce SCI in this expanding population. Details on the mechanisms of falls and other major causes of SCI among the elderly provided in this study should inform the development of future interventions for high-risk persons, activities, and environments. PMID:26363588

  16. Promoting Health and Preventing Injury in Preschool Children: The Role of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemagno, Sonia A.; Niles, Sheila A.; Shaffer-King, Peggy; Miller, William J.

    2008-01-01

    There is concern that parents under stress may not be effective in promoting health and preventing injury in young children, but research in this area has been limited. To explore this issue, a study was conducted to look at the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and actions taken to promote health and to prevent injury in…

  17. Toppled television sets and head injuries in the pediatric population: a framework for prevention.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael D; Parker, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to children caused by falling televisions have become more frequent during the last decade. These injuries can be severe and even fatal and are likely to become even more common in the future as TVs increase in size and become more affordable. To formulate guidelines for the prevention of these injuries, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on injuries related to toppling televisions. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar according to the Cochrane guidelines for all studies involving children 0-18 years of age who were injured by toppled TVs. Factors contributing to injury were categorized using Haddon's Matrix, and the public health approach was used as a framework for developing strategies to prevent these injuries. The vast majority (84%) of the injuries occurred in homes and more than three-fourths were unwitnessed by adult caregivers. The TVs were most commonly large and elevated off the ground. Dressers and other furniture not designed to support TVs were commonly involved in the TV-toppling incident. The case fatality rate varies widely, but almost all deaths reported (96%) were due to brain injuries. Toddlers between the ages of 1 and 3 years most frequently suffer injuries to the head and neck, and they are most likely to suffer severe injuries. Many of these injuries require brain imaging and neurosurgical intervention. Prevention of these injuries will require changes in TV design and legislation as well as increases in public education and awareness. Television-toppling injuries can be easily prevented; however, the rates of injury do not reflect a sufficient level of awareness, nor do they reflect an acceptable effort from an injury prevention perspective. PMID:26416669

  18. Toppled television sets and head injuries in the pediatric population: a framework for prevention.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael D; Parker, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to children caused by falling televisions have become more frequent during the last decade. These injuries can be severe and even fatal and are likely to become even more common in the future as TVs increase in size and become more affordable. To formulate guidelines for the prevention of these injuries, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on injuries related to toppling televisions. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar according to the Cochrane guidelines for all studies involving children 0-18 years of age who were injured by toppled TVs. Factors contributing to injury were categorized using Haddon's Matrix, and the public health approach was used as a framework for developing strategies to prevent these injuries. The vast majority (84%) of the injuries occurred in homes and more than three-fourths were unwitnessed by adult caregivers. The TVs were most commonly large and elevated off the ground. Dressers and other furniture not designed to support TVs were commonly involved in the TV-toppling incident. The case fatality rate varies widely, but almost all deaths reported (96%) were due to brain injuries. Toddlers between the ages of 1 and 3 years most frequently suffer injuries to the head and neck, and they are most likely to suffer severe injuries. Many of these injuries require brain imaging and neurosurgical intervention. Prevention of these injuries will require changes in TV design and legislation as well as increases in public education and awareness. Television-toppling injuries can be easily prevented; however, the rates of injury do not reflect a sufficient level of awareness, nor do they reflect an acceptable effort from an injury prevention perspective.

  19. A three-phase analysis of the prevention of recreational softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Janda, D H; Wojtys, E M; Hankin, F M; Benedict, M E; Hensinger, R N

    1990-01-01

    Recreational sports injuries are expensive to society. Prevention of such injuries must be a major public health goal. In a previous retrospective study, base sliding was found to be responsible for 71% of recreational softball injuries. Because most injuries occurred during rapid deceleration against stationary bases, quick-release (break-away) bases were evaluated as a means to modify this mechanism of injury. In a prospective study, 633 softball games were played on a break-away base fields and 627 games were played on stationary base fields. Forty-five sliding injuries occurred on the stationary base diamonds (1 injury for every 13.9 games) and only two sliding injuries occurred on the break-away fields (1 injury for every 316.5 games). The medical costs for injuries on the stationary base fields was 79 times greater than that on the break-away fields. In a 1035 game follow-up study performed on all fields equipped with break-away bases, two sliding injuries occurred (1 injury for every 517.5 games). Installing break-away bases in fields used by recreational leagues would achieve a significant reduction of serious softball injuries (98%) and, therefore, should be mandatory. Based on our findings, the Centers for Disease Control has estimated 1.7 million injuries would be prevented nationally per year, saving $2.0 billion per year nationally in acute medical care costs.

  20. The role of accident theory in injury prevention - time for the pendulum to swing back.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Ragnar

    2012-01-01

    Injury prevention is a branch of safety sciences. While comprehensive theoretical developments occurred in the wider field in the last decades, little of these developments reached and influenced the injury prevention community. Instead, a clear retro trend 'back to basics' is seen among injury prevention scholars, especially to Dr William Haddon's pioneering work some 50 years ago. This paper intends to draw attention to this polarisation and discuss possible explanations. It is argued that the strong campaign against the accident concept among leading injury prevention groupings became a serious hindrance for theoretical exchange. The underlying process is interpreted in terms of a struggle for ownership over this truly interdisciplinary field of research, unfortunately at the expense of theoretical stagnation in injury prevention circles and lessened interest in collaboration from other scientific areas. This paper is written as a tribute to Professor Leif Svanström and his scientific contributions, with special regard to his genuine interest in interdisciplinary research.

  1. Safety in High School Supervised Agricultural Experiences: Teachers' Training and Students' Injury Awareness.

    PubMed

    Pate, M L; Lawver, R G; Sorensen, T J

    2016-01-01

    This research study sought to gather evidence of school-based agriculture teachers' hazard perceptions, safety practices, training experiences, and awareness of student injuries related to supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs. Teachers agreed that students should follow safety guidelines developed by the National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Safety and Health during SAE work. Approximately 66% (f = 153) of teachers reported having general training in first aid, CPR, and AED. Twenty participants (8.6%) indicated having no safety certifications or training. Abrasions, lacerations, bites/stings, and burns accounted for a majority of the student SAE-related injuries that were reported. There were 82 participants (35.5%) who stated that no injuries had been reported or they were not aware of any injuries that occurred. The majority of teachers (66%) had received some form offirst aid or first response training, but fewer teachers had received safety training for ATVs (f = 25, 10.8%), tractors (f = 48, 20.7%), and livestock (f = 39, 16.8%). Results indicated a disparity between required safe work habits and the types of hazardous tasks students should be allowed to complete alone while participating in SAE activities. It appears most responding teachers in this study agreed to allow students to operate equipment and machinery alone. Recommendations for teachers include attending professional development training specific to SAE safety and keeping records of any risk assessments conducted during SAE supervision. Further development of best practices for SAE supervision and safety are needed to assist agricultural education professionals in protecting and shaping our future leaders in agriculture.

  2. 76 FR 3908 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Director... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  3. 75 FR 77645 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Director, Extramural Research... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  4. 76 FR 13414 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pilot...

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    2011-03-11

    ... Blackman, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: March...

  5. 76 FR 49771 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    2011-08-11

    ..., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  6. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dana Redford, Acting Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  7. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    2013-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  8. 78 FR 19489 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances...

  9. 77 FR 36544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  10. 77 FR 7164 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Agency...

  11. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and... Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  12. 78 FR 25743 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  13. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Building Assistance for High Impact HIV Prevention, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) PS14-1403...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Times and...

  14. The role of warmup in muscular injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Safran, M R; Garrett, W E; Seaber, A V; Glisson, R R; Ribbeck, B M

    1988-01-01

    This study is an attempt to provide biomechanical support for the athletic practice of warming up prior to an exercise task to reduce the incidence of injury. Tears in isometrically preconditioned (stimulated before stretching) muscle were compared to tears in control (nonstimulated) muscle by examining four parameters: 1) force and 2) change of length required to tear the muscle, 3) site of failure, and 4) length-tension deformation. The tibialis anterior (TA), the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and flexor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from both hindlimbs of rabbits comprised our experimental model. Isometrically preconditioned TA (P less than 0.001), EDL (P less than 0.005), and FDL (P less than 0.01) muscles required more force to fail than their contralateral controls. Preconditioned TA (P less than 0.05), EDL (P less than 0.001), and FDL (P less than 0.01) muscles also stretched to a greater length from rest before failing than their nonpreconditioned controls. The site of failure in all of the muscles was the musculotendinous junction; thus, the site of failure was not altered by condition. The length-tension deformation curves for all three muscle types showed that in every case the preconditioned muscles attained a lesser force at each given increase in length before failure, showing a relative increase in elasticity, although only the EDL showed a statistically significant difference. From our data, it may be inferred that physiologic warming (isometric preconditioning) is of benefit in preventing muscular injury by increasing the and length to failure and elasticity of the muscle-tendon unit. PMID:3377095

  15. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kai C.; Liu, Jie J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  16. Preventing Musculoskeletal Sports Injuries in Youth: A Guide for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... major injury. Childhood Sports Injuries: A Common and Serious Problem Like Raoul, more than 38 million children ... ll spend more time having fun in the game and be less likely to be sidelined with ...

  17. The prevention of softball injuries: the experience at Yokota.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, M T; Brown, T; Boatman, J; Houston, W T

    1990-01-01

    Softball injuries occur in a predictable pattern. Review of Emergency Room records at Yokota AB Hospital for three summers showed a high incidence of ankle injuries. Sliding is the cause of many of these injuries. Common sense interventions should reduce the incidence of softball injury. Use of low profile bases or the outlawing of sliding are reasonable interventions that should be considered by policy makers.

  18. Cause and Prevention of Playground Injuries and Litigation; Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.; Sweeney, Theodora B.

    This study examined 187 playground injuries and 13 fatalities that resulted in lawsuits between 1981 and 1995, taken from the files of two expert witnesses on playground safety who testified in the cases. The data are presented by geographic location, nature of injuries, cause of injuries/fatalities, playground equipment implicated, location of…

  19. Windsurfing Injuries: Added Awareness for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Daryl A.; Dietz, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    With proper training and safety precautions, windsurfing is relatively safe, but its unique equipment and unpredictable environmental conditions can produce serious injuries. Clinicians may see fall-related ankle injuries, tarsometatarsal injuries, or anterior shoulder dislocations; chronic low-back pain from torso stress; skin lacerations; and…

  20. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Prevention of Pediatric Overuse Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Decoster, Laura C.; Loud, Keith J.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Parker, J. Terry; Sandrey, Michelle A.; White, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide certified athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with recommendations on best practices for the prevention of overuse sports injuries in pediatric athletes (aged 6–18 years). Background: Participation in sports by the pediatric population has grown tremendously over the years. Although the health benefits of participation in competitive and recreational athletic events are numerous, one adverse consequence is sport-related injury. Overuse or repetitive trauma injuries represent approximately 50% of all pediatric sport-related injuries. It is speculated that more than half of these injuries may be preventable with simple approaches. Recommendations: Recommendations are provided based on current evidence regarding pediatric injury surveillance, identification of risk factors for injury, preparticipation physical examinations, proper supervision and education (coaching and medical), sport alterations, training and conditioning programs, and delayed specialization. PMID:21391806

  1. [Safety handles for ski sticks to prevent eye, hand and stomach injuries (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Payer, H

    1980-12-01

    Eye injuries caused by ski stick handles are rare but serious. The material and shape of the handle can be designed to prevent serious injury without adversely affecting function. Even at winter temperatures polyurethane remains moderately malleable and shock-absorbent; it is light, and is a poor heat conductor, so that the hands do not get cold quickly. The end of the handle is 8 cm in diameter; attached to this is an adjustable loop which fits around the hand. The loop opens on impact. It is thus impossible for the orbit to sustain injury and there is less danger to other injury-prone regions of the body such as the neck and stomach. The anatomically designed handles, with wide thumb supports, help prevent hand injuries, and in particular thumb injuries, to a large extent. Such injuries have occurred frequently in the past.

  2. A survey of tooth injury experience and attitudes to prevention in a group of Singapore schoolboys.

    PubMed

    Teo, C S; Stokes, A N; Loh, T; Bagramian, R A

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 246 boys aged 12-17 years (mean 13.8 years) determined the sports played, dental injury experience, knowledge and usage of and attitudes towards mouthguard wearing. Most played basketball and soccer. Twenty-one suffered 1 injury episode, 7-2 and 10-3 or more tooth injuries. Twenty-six subluxations, 19 fractures and 1 avulsion were reported. The sports with the highest prevalence of dental injury were boxing and wrestling (33%), soccer (20%), and basketball (19%). While 144 (56%) of boys knew about mouthguards, none wore one. Only 64 (25%) would wear a mouthguard if given one. Most dental injuries were minor, but four high-risk sports (> 19% injury prevalence) would justify preventive measures, including education for injury prevention and encouragement of mouthguard use.

  3. [Repetitive strain injury (RSI): occurrence, etiology, therapy and prevention].

    PubMed

    Bongers, P M; de Vet, H C W; Blatter, B M

    2002-10-19

    In the Netherlands, work related upper-limb disorders are called Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI). RSI is not a diagnosis but a catch-all term for symptoms and signs located in the neck, upper back, shoulder, arm, elbow, hand, wrist and fingers. These symptoms may include pain, stiffness, tingling, clumsiness, loss of co-ordination, loss of strength, skin discoloration and temperature differences. Each year, 8% of working Dutch citizens take time off work due to RSI symptoms. Although the number of people claiming disability benefit due to RSI is limited, this figure has risen consecutively over the last three years. There is consensus that repetitive work at a high frequency and possibly accompanied by exertion of force is accompanied by RSI symptoms. There are indications of a relation between visual display unit use and these symptoms. However, these relations have not been established in a longitudinal study of adequate quality. High perceived job stress and a high workload are thought to be related to RSI, and women report more symptoms than men. There is insufficient information available on the role of different coping styles, perfectionism and dealing with symptoms. There is little information on the underlying mechanisms in the development of RSI, the diagnostics, therapy and prevention. In view of the lack of clear diagnostic criteria, suggestions have been made for a standardised description of the symptoms involved in the syndrome. A multidisciplinary treatment is likely to have the most effect. In terms of prevention, an integrated approach aimed at improving the working posture, reduction of static load and job stress and at individual factors is assumed to be the most effective.

  4. The health profile of professional soccer players: future opportunities for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Piero; Taioli, Emanuela

    2012-12-01

    Injuries are a major adverse event during a soccer player's career; they require medical and surgical treatment and rehabilitation and thus may interrupt the player's activity, often with severe physical and psychological sequel. Specialists have tried to identify the risk factors for injuries, in an attempt to discover predictors that could be prevented and or eliminated before the injury occurs, but the results are scarce. This article reviews the epidemiology of the frequency and occurrence of injuries in Italian soccer players, reports a list of preventable risk factors that are associated with injuries, and identifies preventable risk factors. We have identified personal factors (age, previous traumatic events, physical and biological characteristics of the player, life style habits such as smoking, alcohol, and diet, changes in physical-athletic aspects of the players, such as increased muscle strength, and use of medications) as possible risk factors for injuries. However, environmental factors such as changes in training techniques, field composition, and shoes structure may also have a major influence. This summary indicates that appropriate preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent injuries in professional soccer players. Professionals who are in close contacts with the players should be informed of the predictors of injuries and should be trained to intervene and plan appropriate preventive measures. PMID:22344052

  5. The Status of Legal Authority for Injury Prevention Practice in State Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Thombley, Melisa L.; Kohn, Melvin A.; Jesada, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the potential for public health strategies to decrease the substantial burden of injuries, injury prevention infrastructure in state health departments is underdeveloped. We sought to describe the legal support for injury prevention activities at state health departments. We searched the Lexis database for state laws providing authority for those activities, and categorized the scope of those laws. Only 10 states have authority that covers the full scope of injury prevention practice; in the others, legal authority is piecemeal, nonspecific, or nonexistent. More comprehensive legal authority could help health departments access data for surveillance, work with partners, address sensitive issues, and garner funding. Efforts should be undertaken to enhance legal support for injury prevention activities across the country. PMID:22515850

  6. Evidence-Based Practice in Primary Prevention of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A spinal cord injury (SCI) not only causes paralysis, but also has long-term impact on physical and mental health. There are between 236,000 to 327,000 individuals living with the consequences of SCI in the United States, and the economic burden on the individuals sustaining the injury, their support network, and society as a whole is significant. The consequences of SCI require that health care professionals begin thinking about primary prevention. Efforts are often focused on care and cure, but evidence-based prevention should have a greater role. Primary prevention efforts can offer significant cost benefits, and efforts to change behavior and improve safety can and should be emphasized. Primary prevention can be applied to various etiologies of injury, including motor vehicle crashes, sports injuries, and firearm misuse, with a clear goal of eliminating unnecessary injury and its life-changing impact. PMID:23678282

  7. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: Part 2, a meta-analysis of neuromuscular interventions aimed at injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D

    2006-03-01

    Female athletes have a 4 to 6 times higher incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury than do male athletes participating in the same landing and pivoting sports. This greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury, coupled with a geometric increase in participation (doubling each decade), has led to a significant rise in anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes. The gender gap in anterior cruciate ligament injury, combined with evidence that the underpinnings of this serious health problem are neuromuscular in nature, leads to the development of neuromuscular interventions designed to prevent injury. A systematic review of the published literature yielded 6 published interventions targeted toward anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention in female athletes. Four of 6 significantly reduced knee injury incidence, and 3 of 6 significantly reduced anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence in female athletes. A meta-analysis of these 6 studies demonstrates a significant effect of neuromuscular training programs on anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence in female athletes (test for overall effect, Z = 4.31, P < .0001). Examination of the similarities and differences between the training regimens gives insight into the development of more effective and efficient interventions. The purpose of this "Current Concepts" review is to highlight the relative effectiveness of these interventions in reducing anterior cruciate ligament injury rates and to evaluate the common training components between the training studies. In addition, the level of rigor of these interventions, the costs and the difficulty of implementation, the compliance with these interventions, and the performance benefits are discussed. This review summarizes conclusions based on evidence from the common components of the various interventions to discuss their potential to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury risk and assess their potential for combined use in more effective

  8. Child safety seats for the prevention of traffic injuries.

    PubMed

    Collar, M

    2001-05-01

    It's an old joke among new parents in Labor and Delivery: How many people did it take to install your car seat? Although the remark elicits chuckles from new moms and dads, using a child safety seat--and using it correctly--is no laughing matter. More children between the ages of one and ten die in automobile crashes than from any other type of injury or disease. In the under-one-year age group, this health risk is second only to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Some physicians, knowing how complicated child safety seats can be to use, may be reluctant to give advice to parents on their use. In addition, the potential liability of dispensing incorrect information may be enough to make some doctors reluctant to do so. However, there are some basic tips that physicians can and should be passing on to parents. Most parents place great trust in their child's physician; asking about the child's transportation and advocating proper child safety seat use is an effective prevention technique. PMID:11424724

  9. Ketogenesis prevents diet-induced fatty liver injury and hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David G.; Ercal, Baris; Huang, Xiaojing; Leid, Jamison M.; d’Avignon, D. André; Graham, Mark J.; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Patti, Gary J.; Crawford, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum disorders affect approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. However, the drivers of progressive steatohepatitis remain incompletely defined. Ketogenesis can dispose of much of the fat that enters the liver, and dysfunction in this pathway could promote the development of NAFLD. Here, we evaluated mice lacking mitochondrial 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMGCS2) to determine the role of ketogenesis in preventing diet-induced steatohepatitis. Antisense oligonucleotide–induced loss of HMGCS2 in chow-fed adult mice caused mild hyperglycemia, increased hepatic gluconeogenesis from pyruvate, and augmented production of hundreds of hepatic metabolites, a suite of which indicated activation of the de novo lipogenesis pathway. High-fat diet feeding of mice with insufficient ketogenesis resulted in extensive hepatocyte injury and inflammation, decreased glycemia, deranged hepatic TCA cycle intermediate concentrations, and impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis due to sequestration of free coenzyme A (CoASH). Supplementation of the CoASH precursors pantothenic acid and cysteine normalized TCA intermediates and gluconeogenesis in the livers of ketogenesis-insufficient animals. Together, these findings indicate that ketogenesis is a critical regulator of hepatic acyl-CoA metabolism, glucose metabolism, and TCA cycle function in the absorptive state and suggest that ketogenesis may modulate fatty liver disease. PMID:25347470

  10. Ketogenesis prevents diet-induced fatty liver injury and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Cotter, David G; Ercal, Baris; Huang, Xiaojing; Leid, Jamison M; d'Avignon, D André; Graham, Mark J; Dietzen, Dennis J; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Patti, Gary J; Crawford, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum disorders affect approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. However, the drivers of progressive steatohepatitis remain incompletely defined. Ketogenesis can dispose of much of the fat that enters the liver, and dysfunction in this pathway could promote the development of NAFLD. Here, we evaluated mice lacking mitochondrial 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMGCS2) to determine the role of ketogenesis in preventing diet-induced steatohepatitis. Antisense oligonucleotide-induced loss of HMGCS2 in chow-fed adult mice caused mild hyperglycemia, increased hepatic gluconeogenesis from pyruvate, and augmented production of hundreds of hepatic metabolites, a suite of which indicated activation of the de novo lipogenesis pathway. High-fat diet feeding of mice with insufficient ketogenesis resulted in extensive hepatocyte injury and inflammation, decreased glycemia, deranged hepatic TCA cycle intermediate concentrations, and impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis due to sequestration of free coenzyme A (CoASH). Supplementation of the CoASH precursors pantothenic acid and cysteine normalized TCA intermediates and gluconeogenesis in the livers of ketogenesis-insufficient animals. Together, these findings indicate that ketogenesis is a critical regulator of hepatic acyl-CoA metabolism, glucose metabolism, and TCA cycle function in the absorptive state and suggest that ketogenesis may modulate fatty liver disease.

  11. The science of fencing: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Roi, Giulio S; Bianchedi, Diana

    2008-01-01

    In this review we analyse the data from the literature on fencing with the aim of creating a psychobiological and multi-factorial model of fencing performance. Fencing is an open-skilled combat sport that was admitted to the first modern Olympic Games in Athens (1896). It is mainly practised indoors, with three different weapons: the foil, the sabre and the épée, each contested with different rules. A fencing international tournament may last between 9 and 11 hours. Bouts represent only 18% of total competition time, with an effective fight time of between 17 and 48 minutes. The physical demands of fencing competitions are high, involving the aerobic and anaerobic alactic and lactic metabolisms, and are also affected by age, sex, level of training and technical and tactical models utilized in relation to the adversary. The anthropometrical characteristics of fencers show a typical asymmetry of the limbs as a result of the practice of an asymmetrical sport activity. Fencing produces typical functional asymmetries that emphasize the very high level of specific function, strength and control required in this sport. Moreover, the physical demands of fencing are closely linked to the perceptual and psychological ones, and all are subjected to a continuous succession of changes during the bouts based on the behaviour of the opponent. For this reason it is difficult to identify a significant relationship between any one physiological characteristic and performance, and performance is more likely to be influenced by perceptual and neuro-physiological characteristics. Fencers need to anticipate the opponent and to mask their true intentions with a game of feints and counter-feints, which must be supported by an adequate psycho-physical condition to prevent central and peripheral fatigue. Fencing is not particularly dangerous; however, there is a fine line between a fatal lesion and a simple wound from a broken blade. The suggestions for injury prevention fall into three

  12. The effectiveness of back pain and injury prevention programs in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Gatty, Carolyn M; Turner, Mynde; Buitendorp, Dinice J; Batman, Heather

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace cause thousands of injuries and cost industry billions of dollars yearly. Work injury prevention programs have been developed and implemented as a means for cost containment. A variety of preventive strategies have been investigated in primary research. The purpose of this review article is to examine the effectiveness of back injury and pain prevention programs in the workplace. Nine studies published between 1995 and 2000 were reviewed and analyzed. Studies used primarily one of three types of preventive strategies: 1) back belts, 2) education and task modification, and 3) education and task modification with workstation redesign. The effectiveness of back belts to prevent back pain and injury remains inconclusive. Positive outcomes were associated with studies reporting high compliance that used job-specific and individualized/small group education and training approaches. Themes that arose following a critical review of primary research studies are discussed.

  13. Public Health Models for Preventing Child Maltreatment: Applications From the Field of Injury Prevention.

    PubMed

    Scott, Debbie; Lonne, Bob; Higgins, Daryl

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary approaches to child protection are dominated by individualized forensically focused interventions that provide limited scope for more holistic preventative responses to children at risk and the provision of support to struggling families and communities. However, in many jurisdictions, it is frequently shown, often through public inquiries and program reviews, that investigatory and removal approaches are failing in critically important ways, particularly regarding reducing the inequities that underpin neglect and abuse. Consequently, there have been increasing calls for a public health model for the protection of children, although there is often a lack of clarity as to what exactly this should entail. Yet, there are opportunities to learn from public health approaches successfully used in the field of injury prevention. Specifically, we advocate for the use of Haddon's Matrix, which provides a detailed theoretical and practical framework for the application of a comprehensive and integrated public health model to guide intervention program design and responses to child protection risk factors. A broad overview of the application of Haddon's Matrix's principles and methods is provided with examples of program and intervention design. It is argued that this framework provides the range of interventions necessary to address the complex social and structural factors contributing to inequity and the maltreatment of children. It also provides the foundation for a holistic and integrated system of prevention and intervention to contribute to system-level change and address child maltreatment. PMID:27580666

  14. Public Health Models for Preventing Child Maltreatment: Applications From the Field of Injury Prevention.

    PubMed

    Scott, Debbie; Lonne, Bob; Higgins, Daryl

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary approaches to child protection are dominated by individualized forensically focused interventions that provide limited scope for more holistic preventative responses to children at risk and the provision of support to struggling families and communities. However, in many jurisdictions, it is frequently shown, often through public inquiries and program reviews, that investigatory and removal approaches are failing in critically important ways, particularly regarding reducing the inequities that underpin neglect and abuse. Consequently, there have been increasing calls for a public health model for the protection of children, although there is often a lack of clarity as to what exactly this should entail. Yet, there are opportunities to learn from public health approaches successfully used in the field of injury prevention. Specifically, we advocate for the use of Haddon's Matrix, which provides a detailed theoretical and practical framework for the application of a comprehensive and integrated public health model to guide intervention program design and responses to child protection risk factors. A broad overview of the application of Haddon's Matrix's principles and methods is provided with examples of program and intervention design. It is argued that this framework provides the range of interventions necessary to address the complex social and structural factors contributing to inequity and the maltreatment of children. It also provides the foundation for a holistic and integrated system of prevention and intervention to contribute to system-level change and address child maltreatment.

  15. Effectiveness of foot orthoses for treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries : a review.

    PubMed

    Hume, Patria; Hopkins, Will; Rome, Keith; Maulder, Peter; Coyle, Greg; Nigg, Benno

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare professionals prescribe foot orthoses (FOs) for treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries, but previous reviews of the effectiveness of FOs have been inconclusive. We have therefore performed a review emphasizing the magnitude of treatment effects to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of FOs in the treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries.Qualifying studies were mainly controlled trials, but some uncontrolled clinical trials of patients with chronic injuries were analysed separately. Injuries included plantar fasciitis, tibial stress fractures and patellofemoral pain syndrome; these were included because of the large treatment costs for these frequent injuries in New Zealand. Outcomes were pain, comfort, function and injury status. Continuous measures were expressed as standardized differences using baseline between-subject standard deviations, and magnitudes were inferred from the intersection of 90% confidence intervals with thresholds of a modified Cohen scale. Effects based on frequencies were expressed as hazard ratios and their magnitudes were inferred from intersection of confidence intervals with a novel scale of thresholds.The effects of FOs for treatment of pain or injury prevention were mostly trivial. FOs were not effective in treating or preventing patellofemoral pain syndrome. Some studies showed moderate effects for treatment of plantar fasciitis. Only a few studies showed moderate or large beneficial effects of FOs in preventing injuries.Customized semi-rigid FOs have moderate to large beneficial effects in treating and preventing plantar fasciitis and posterior tibial stress fractures, and small to moderate effects in treating patellofemoral pain syndrome. Given the limited randomized controlled trials or clinical controlled trials available for the injuries of interest, it may be that more or less benefit can be derived from the use of FOs, but many studies did not provide enough information for the standardized effect

  16. Inpatient hospital outcomes following injury in Suriname: lessons for prevention.

    PubMed

    Pracht, Etienne

    2014-03-01

    Traumatic injury is an important and indiscriminant contributor to mortality. Hypothesizing that outcomes from severe injuries do not vary by demographic factors or socioeconomic status, this research analyzed the relationship between race, ethnicity, injury characteristics, and fatality following hospitalization in Suriname. Data were obtained for all hospital episodes in 2008 from the only hospital within the greater Paramaribo area that provides emergency department services. A logistic regression was used to analyze the subset of 544 non-elderly adult trauma victims to assess the contribution of patient demographics and anatomic injury severity to outcome, which was defined as mortality during acute hospitalization. The specific demographics included were patient age, gender, race, and insurance status. Injury severity was measured using the International Classification Injury Severity Score. The results indicate that age, insurance status, injury type, and injury severity were significant predictors for survival. While the uninsured experienced a higher rate of mortality, the model suggests this result is not due to physiologic reasons but behavioral and socioeconomic. The higher mortality is driven by greater injury severity, which increases not only the mortality rate but also the cost of care. Injury severity itself, independent of all other factors, is the most important contributor. The results suggest that a reduction of 10% in injury severity, around the mean, would reduce the probability of mortality by 70%. This suggests that targeting risk-taking behavior, perhaps relating to compliance with safety practices (e.g. seat belt and helmet laws), driver education, and road safety measures can play important roles in reducing mortality and morbidity from injury in Suriname.

  17. 75 FR 13769 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... More Information: Donald Blackman, PhD., Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  18. 76 FR 12122 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease...

  19. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Health Analyst, National Center for Chronic Disease and Health Promotion, Office of the Director... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: TIME AND DATE: 8:30 a.m.-6...

  20. 75 FR 29561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Information: Donald Blackman, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: May 20, 2010. Andre Tyler, Acting...

  1. 76 FR 4911 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Building Capacity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Building Capacity for State-Based Occupational Health Surveillance... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  2. 77 FR 22326 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 1 p.m.-2 p.m... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  3. 76 FR 27327 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Virologic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Among Humans, Funding Opportunity Announcement, IP11-001 Correction: The notice was published in the... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  4. 77 FR 39498 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Project (SIP): Assessing the Pregnancy Prevention Needs of HIV-Infected Young Women of Reproductive Age...) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  5. 75 FR 46952 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Behavioral Surveillance... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  6. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Research on Use of Mobile Applications (``app'') to Increase HIV Testing Behavior and HIV Prevention with... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  7. 75 FR 28261 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved Diagnostics for Lyme Borreliosis, Funding Opportunity... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  8. 77 FR 34045 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative Research... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates: 8 a.m.-5 p.m., July...

  9. Prevention and treatment of common eye injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jorge O; Lavina, Adrian M; Agarwal, Anita

    2003-04-01

    Sports have become increasingly popular and account for numerous eye injuries each year. The sports that most commonly cause eye injuries, in order of decreasing frequency, are basketball, water sports, baseball, and racquet sports. Sports are classified as low risk, high risk, and very high risk. Sports-related eye injuries are blunt, penetrating, and radiation injuries. The use of eye protection has helped to reduce the number and severity of eye injuries. The American Society for Testing and Materials has established performance standards for selected eyewear. Consultation with an eye care professional is recommended for fitting protective eyewear. The functionally one-eyed, or monocular, athlete should take extra precautions. A preparticipation eye examination is helpful in identifying persons who may be at increased risk for eye injury. Sports-related eye injuries should be evaluated on site with an adequate examination of the eye and adnexa. Minor eye injuries may be treated on site. The team physician must know which injuries require immediate referral to an ophthalmologist and the guidelines for returning an athlete to competition.

  10. Child-to-child training for prevention of school injuries in Odemis, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ergün, Sibel; Kalkim, Asli; Dolgun, Eda

    2013-10-01

    Students encounter many risks for injury, which can impact their health and educational success; prevention of these injuries are paramount for school nurses. These article report results of a study conducted to determine the efficacy of training given to children regarding prevention of school injuries and to compare the effectiveness of instructor-to-child training to that of the child-to-child training method in affecting student attitudes toward the prevention of school injuries. An interventional teaching program was developed with the objective of positively impacting students' attitudes toward preventing school injuries. The health care training using instructor-to-child and child-to-child training produced a similar effect in changing the attitudes of students with respect to preventing school injuries. Given the high ratio of children to school nurses within the school systems in Turkey, nurses could consider the use of child-to-child training to supplement their own health care training to support changes in students' attitudes toward prevention of school injuries.

  11. Residential building stakeholders' attitudes and beliefs regarding nail gun injury risks and prevention.

    PubMed

    Albers, James T; Hudock, Stephen D; Lowe, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are ubiquitous at residential construction sites across the United States. These tools are noted for the traumatic injuries that can occur from their operation. Different trigger mechanisms on these tools are associated with different levels of risk. Residential building subcontractors and workers, both native-born and immigrant, were brought together in focus groups to discuss their attitudes and beliefs regarding risk factors for nail gun injury as well as barriers to the adoption of safer technology. Participants' comments are organized first by influences on traumatic injury occurrence or prevention and later by sociotechnical system category. Participants attributed influences on injury risk to personal and external causation factors in all sociotechnical system categories; however, participants more frequently described influences on injury prevention as related to workers' behaviors, rather than to external factors. A discussion of these influences with respect to attribution theory and sociotechnical models of injury causation is presented.

  12. Prevention of iatrogenic inferior alveolar nerve injuries in relation to dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Renton, T

    2010-09-01

    This article aims to review current hypotheses on the aetiology and prevention of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injuries in relation to dental procedures. The inferior alveolar nerve can be damaged during many dental procedures, including administration of local anaesthetic, implant bed preparation and placement, endodontics, third molar surgery and other surgical interventions. Damage to sensory nerves can result in anaesthesia, paraesthesia, pain, or a combination of the three. Pain is common in inferior alveolar nerve injuries, resulting in significant functional problems. The significant disability associated with these nerve injuries may also result in increasing numbers of medico-legal claims. Many of these iatrogenic nerve injuries can be avoided with careful patient assessment and planning. Furthermore, if the injury occurs there are emerging strategies that may facilitate recovery. The emphasis of this review is on how we may prevent these injuries and facilitate resolution in the early post surgical phase. PMID:21133047

  13. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING STAKEHOLDERS’ ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS REGARDING NAIL GUN INJURY RISKS AND PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    ALBERS, JAMES T.; HUDOCK, STEPHEN D.; LOWE, BRIAN D.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are ubiquitous at residential construction sites across the United States. These tools are noted for the traumatic injuries that can occur from their operation. Different trigger mechanisms on these tools are associated with different levels of risk. Residential building subcontractors and workers, both native-born and immigrant, were brought together in focus groups to discuss their attitudes and beliefs regarding risk factors for nail gun injury as well as barriers to the adoption of safer technology. Participants’ comments are organized first by influences on traumatic injury occurrence or prevention and later by sociotechnical system category. Participants attributed influences on injury risk to personal and external causation factors in all sociotechnical system categories; however, participants more frequently described influences on injury prevention as related to workers’ behaviors, rather than to external factors. A discussion of these influences with respect to attribution theory and sociotechnical models of injury causation is presented. PMID:24704813

  14. Distracted driving and implications for injury prevention in adults.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Jane; Grell, Jennifer; Lohrman, Nicole; Stehly, Christy; Stoltzfus, Jill; Wainwright, Gail; Hoff, William S

    2013-01-01

    Distracted driving, a significant public safety issue, is typically categorized as cell phone use and texting. The increase of distracted driving behavior (DDB) has resulted in an increase in injury and death. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and perception of DDB in adults. A 7-question SurveyMonkey questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of adults. Standard demographics included age, gender, and highest levels of education. Primary outcome questions were related to frequency of DDB, and overall perceptions specific to distracted driving. Results were compared on the basis of demographics. Chi-square testing and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance were applied, with statistical significance defined as P ≤ .05. There were 1857 respondents to the survey: 1721 were aged 23-64 years (93%); 1511 were women (81%); 1461 had high school education or greater (79%). A total of 168 respondents (9%) reported being involved in a car accident while distracted. The highest reported frequency of DDB included cell phone use (69%), eating/drinking (67%), and reaching for an object in the care (49%). Younger age (18-34 years) and higher level of education (bachelor's degree or greater) were statistically associated with these DDB; gender demonstrated no statistical significance. Text messaging was reported by 538 respondents (29%), with a statistically significant association with age (18-34 years), higher education (bachelor's degree or greater), and gender (males). A total of 1143 respondents (63%) believed that they could drive safely while distracted. This study demonstrates that DDB in adults is not restricted to reading and sending text messages. Moreover, these results indicated that people fail to perceive the dangers inherent in distracted driving. Prevention and outreach education should not be limited to texting and cell phone use but should target all forms of DDB. The age group 18-34 years should be the primary target in the

  15. Distracted driving and implications for injury prevention in adults.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Jane; Grell, Jennifer; Lohrman, Nicole; Stehly, Christy; Stoltzfus, Jill; Wainwright, Gail; Hoff, William S

    2013-01-01

    Distracted driving, a significant public safety issue, is typically categorized as cell phone use and texting. The increase of distracted driving behavior (DDB) has resulted in an increase in injury and death. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and perception of DDB in adults. A 7-question SurveyMonkey questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of adults. Standard demographics included age, gender, and highest levels of education. Primary outcome questions were related to frequency of DDB, and overall perceptions specific to distracted driving. Results were compared on the basis of demographics. Chi-square testing and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance were applied, with statistical significance defined as P ≤ .05. There were 1857 respondents to the survey: 1721 were aged 23-64 years (93%); 1511 were women (81%); 1461 had high school education or greater (79%). A total of 168 respondents (9%) reported being involved in a car accident while distracted. The highest reported frequency of DDB included cell phone use (69%), eating/drinking (67%), and reaching for an object in the care (49%). Younger age (18-34 years) and higher level of education (bachelor's degree or greater) were statistically associated with these DDB; gender demonstrated no statistical significance. Text messaging was reported by 538 respondents (29%), with a statistically significant association with age (18-34 years), higher education (bachelor's degree or greater), and gender (males). A total of 1143 respondents (63%) believed that they could drive safely while distracted. This study demonstrates that DDB in adults is not restricted to reading and sending text messages. Moreover, these results indicated that people fail to perceive the dangers inherent in distracted driving. Prevention and outreach education should not be limited to texting and cell phone use but should target all forms of DDB. The age group 18-34 years should be the primary target in the

  16. Hazard Patterns and Injury Prevention with Infant Walkers and Strollers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Phillip M.; And Others

    Mindful of the potential hazards associated with products intended for young children, this article examines pediatric accidents involving strollers and walkers. According to the latest figures available from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the United States (NEISS), more than 11,800 stroller injuries in 1987 were serious…

  17. Therapeutic hypothermia and frostbite injury: a preventable source.

    PubMed

    Lohana, Parkash; Hart, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Frostbite injury from cold exposure is not uncommon. The application of ice pack is well known in clinical practice; however, its improper use can pose danger to the patient. We report a case of frostbite injury due to prolonged use of ice packs in a ventilated patient. PMID:21680308

  18. Emergency presentations by vulnerable road users: implications for injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Meuleners, L B; Lee, A H; Haworth, C

    2006-01-01

    Most emergency presentations by vulnerable road users were the result of collisions that did not involve a motor vehicle. Many injuries occurred off‐road without police attendance. Hence, reliance on official police records would underestimate the magnitude and scope of these injuries. Suggestions to provide a safer road environment are given. PMID:16461413

  19. Inferior alveolar nerve injury in implant dentistry: diagnosis, causes, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Alhassani, Ahmed Ali; AlGhamdi, Ali Saad Thafeed

    2010-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve injury is one of the most serious complications in implant dentistry. This nerve injury can occur during local anesthesia, implant osteotomy, or implant placement. Proper understanding of anatomy, surgical procedures, and implant systems and proper treatment planning is the key to reducing such an unpleasant complication. This review discusses the causes of inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis, prevention, and management. PMID:20545547

  20. Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2013-05-01

    Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention

  1. Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2013-05-01

    Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention

  2. A hazardous life - our role in injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rachel

    2012-04-01

    Having an active toddler has certainly made me far more aware of injuries, or more accurately, hazards with the potential for injury. Everyday situations and household objects suddenly become deathtraps and I find myself muddling along a line between being overly protective and overly relaxed. My approach varies according to some quasi-scientific factors such as 'probability of injury' and 'severity of possible injury'. However, it also varies with 'convenience' factors such as 'in a hurry so bad timing for a fall right now' or 'she keeps climbing that so should let her fall while I'm here so she understands the danger'. The most injury prone times are when I'm multitasking, she's tired or other caregivers are present with no clear delineation of responsibility.

  3. Child unintentional injury prevention in Eastern Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Soori, Hamid; Khodakarim, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unintentional injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The issue of child injuries in the EMR is a major public health concern. Objectives: This study aimed to present the epidemiological pattern of children's unintentional injuries in this region and compare the results for the EMR member states and the global status based on the findings of the World Report. Materials and Methods: This is a secondary analysis and focuses on unintentional injuries specifically road traffic injuries, drowning, burns, falls and poisoning, and adjusted for countries from EMR. Results: About 12% of all deaths due to unintentional injuries taking place globally under the age of 20 years took place in EMR with 113 327 deaths which is about 19% higher than the world rate (45.5 Vs. 38.8 per 100 000). In EMR the top five leading causes of death due to childhood unintentional injuries are reported to be from road traffic injuries (17.4 per 100 000), drowning (6.8 per 100 000), burns (4.5 per 100 000), falls (2.9 per 100 000) and poisoning (1.6 per 100 000). Estimated mortality showed that boys were more likely to be killed than girls. However, there was no significant difference for by age group. Conclusions: Injuries are the leading cause of death and disability among children in the EMR and that injury programmes focusing on major risk factors need to be integrated into other child health strategies, with ministries of health playing a pivotal role. PMID:27051620

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with traumatic brain injury. The characteristics and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are discussed, emphasizing that TBI is often related to lifestyles where alcohol and other drug abuse and risk taking…

  5. 77 FR 58847 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... research and control activities related to injury. Matters To Be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss the... to the BSC. There will be 15 minutes allotted for public comments at the end of the open...

  6. Primary Care Opportunities to Prevent Unintentional Home Injuries: A Focus on Children and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Eileen M.; Mack, Karin; Shields, Wendy C.; Lee, Robin P.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are a persistent public health problem in the United States. A new health care landscape has the potential to create a clinical environment that fosters greater involvement by health care providers in injury prevention. The aim of this article is to provide evidence supporting the need for engagement by primary care providers in unintentional home injury prevention along with examples of how this could be accomplished. We know a great deal about what population groups are at risk for certain types of injuries. We also know that many injuries can be prevented through policies, programs, and resources that ensure safe environments and promote safe behaviors. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries) initiative comprises clinical decision support tools and educational materials for health care providers. Two effective interventions that have demonstrated a reduction in falls among children are the redesign of baby walkers (engineering) and the mandated use of window guards (enforcement). Primary care clinicians can play a key role in promoting their patient’s safety. Taken collectively, a focused attention on preventing unintentional home injuries by primary care providers can contribute to the reduction of injuries and result in optimal health for all. PMID:27141210

  7. Preventing Unintentional Firearm Injury in Children: The Need for Behavioral Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2004-01-01

    Unintentional firearm injury in children is a problem in the United States that warrants attention. Recent research has identified several risk factors for such injuries and has developed prevention strategies for reducing their occurrence. Many of these programs, however, have not been evaluated or have been shown to be ineffective. Research on…

  8. 76 FR 67192 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal.... Matters To Be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss the recommendations provided by the expert panel...

  9. Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities.

    PubMed

    Fagher, Kristina; Forsberg, Anna; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Our knowledge of sports-related injuries in para-sport is limited and there are no data on how Paralympic athletes themselves perceive an injury. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities. Eighteen Swedish Paralympic athletes with vision impairment, intellectual impairment, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, dysplasia and neuromuscular disorder, representing 10 different para-sports, were interviewed. The qualitative phenomenographic method was used to interpret the data. The analysis revealed nine categories of perceptions of experiences. The athletes perceived that their impairments were involved in the cause and consequential chains associated with a sports-related injury. Other categories that denoted and described these injuries were: sport overuse, risk behaviour, functional limitations, psychological stressors, the normalised pain, health hazards, individual possibilities to prevent sports-related injuries and unequal prerequisites. This qualitative study revealed that Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries are complex and multifactorial, and in several ways differ from able-bodied athletes. This needs to be considered in the sports health and safety work within the Paralympic Movement as well as in the design of future injury surveillance systems and preventive programmes.

  10. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention.

  11. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. PMID:26991566

  12. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada's children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver's licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action. PMID:27399745

  13. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action. PMID:27399745

  14. The Importance of Physical Fitness for Injury Prevention: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This report examines associations between injuries and flexibility, stretching, warm-up, and body composition. Military studies show that either too much or too little flexibility increases injury risk. Static stretching prior to exercise does not appear to reduce the overall injury incidence, although further research is needed on some types of injuries. Static stretching also appears to reduce strength and power (explosive strength). Warm-up (low intensity activity prior to exercise or sports) appears to reduce injury risk. Body mass index (BMI; weight in kg/ height in m²) is a surrogate measure of body fat because it is highly related to laboratory measures of body fat. However, Soldiers can also have a high BMI because of higher muscle mass. If high BMI reflects a larger percentage of body fat relative to height, injury risk might be increased because the additional fat would increase the intensity of physical activity, leading to more rapid fatigue and repetitive stress on the musculoskeletal system. Low BMI could reflect a paucity of fat or muscle/ bone, or both. Low BMI may make Soldiers more susceptible to injury if they lack the muscle mass or strength in the supportive structures (ligaments, bones) required to perform certain physical tasks, and if they overexert or overuse the available muscle mass or supportive structures. Studies in basic combat training show that both high and low BMI increases injury risk. However, studies among active duty Soldiers only show that injury risk increases as BMI increases, possibly because very few active duty Soldiers have very low BMI (i.e., less than 18 kg/m²).

  15. Preventive Effects of Eccentric Training on Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury in Professional Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Seagrave, Richard A.; Perez, Luis; McQueeney, Sean; Toby, E. Bruce; Key, Vincent; Nelson, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the second most common injury causing missed days in professional baseball field players. Recent studies have shown the preventive benefit of eccentric conditioning on the hamstring muscle group in injury prevention. Specifically, Nordic-type exercises have been shown to decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in professional athletes. Purpose: This was a prospective study performed in coordination with a single Major League Baseball (MLB) organization (major and minor league teams) that targeted the effects of Nordic exercises on the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in the professional-level baseball player. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: The daily workouts of 283 professional baseball players throughout all levels of a single MLB organization were prospectively recorded. The intervention group participated in the Nordic exercise program and was compared with a randomly selected control group of professional athletes within the organization not participating in the exercise program. The incidence of hamstring injuries in both groups was compared, and the total number of days missed due to injury was compared with the 2 previous seasons. Results: There were 10 hamstring injuries that occurred during the 2012 season among the 283 professional athletes that required removal from play. There were no injuries that occurred in the intervention group (n = 65, 0.00%; P = .0381). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 hamstring injury was 11.3. The average repetitions per week of the injured group were assessed at multiple time points (2, 4, 6, and total weeks) prior to injury. There were significantly fewer repetitions per week performed in the injured group at all time points compared with overall average repetitions per week in the noninjured group (P = .0459, .0127, .0164, and .0299, respectively). After beginning the Nordic exercise program, there were 136 total days

  16. What Can I Do to Help Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Congress: Epidemiology and Rehabilitation Report to Congress: Military Personnel TBI in the US: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations ... sustaining a traumatic brain injury, including: Buckling your child in the car using a child safety seat, ...

  17. Prevention of overuse injuries in young baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Parks, Eric D; Ray, Tracy R

    2009-11-01

    With millions of athletes participating in baseball in the United States annually, overuse injuries are common occurrences. Epidemiological studies, including surveys of orthopaedic surgeons, coaches, and athletes, indicate that injuries such as those to the ulnar collateral ligament are increasing in incidence. Many risk factors for throwing injuries have been proposed-including the immature skeleton, throwing mechanics, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, pitch type, velocity, and counts-but little evidence is available to support the majority of these factors. Recent studies have shown that pitch volume and overuse are central factors that lead to shoulder and elbow injuries in the young throwing athlete. Pitching while fatigued and in spite of arm pain has also been implicated.

  18. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  19. Preventing recurring injuries from violence: the risk of assault among Cleveland youth after hospitalization.

    PubMed Central

    Litacker, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although interpersonal violence has increased among urban youth, its epidemiology remains unclear. To prevent such violence, identifying the susceptible population is important. METHODS: Medical records for 998 patients aged 5 to 25 years at an urban hospital were reviewed to compare data for patients admitted for assault-related injuries, those admitted for unintentional injuries, and those for problems other than injuries. RESULTS: Those initially admitted for treatment of assault were found to be at greater risk of subsequent treatment for assault than those admitted for noninjuries. CONCLUSIONS: Admission for injuries caused by violence may increase risk for future assaults; hospitalization may offer an opportunity to interrupt these patterns. PMID:8916535

  20. Training on a knife's edge: how to balance triathlon training to prevent overuse injuries.

    PubMed

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    The sport of triathlon offers athletes the chance to build and/or maintain cardiovascular fitness across 3 endurance disciplines. Swimming, biking, and running each have a host of overuse injuries that can occur as a result of overtraining. High running mileage, a history of previous injury, inadequate warm up or cool down, and an increase in the years of triathlon experience are a few of the factors that have been linked to triathlon overuse injuries. Early identification of overtraining symptoms and a corresponding reallocation of balance between each discipline, perhaps with an emphasis on increasing swimming, may help prevent many overuse injuries.

  1. Ocular injuries in basketball and baseball: what are the risks and how can we prevent them?

    PubMed

    Heimmel, Mark R; Murphy, Marjorie A

    2008-01-01

    Ocular trauma is a frequent result of sports-related injury during basketball and baseball. A screening sideline examination should be performed immediately to assess vision and evaluate the severity of damage. The team physician should be able to treat minor injuries and identify vision-threatening trauma for immediate referral. Injuries range from minor, including corneal abrasion and foreign bodies, to more severe, including hyphema, orbital fracture, and globe rupture. Resultant damage may be vision-threatening and permanent. Most of these injuries can be prevented with full-time use of sport-specific protective eyewear. Physicians should recommend appropriate eye protection and counsel patients accordingly.

  2. Hamstring exercises for track and field athletes: injury and exercise biomechanics, and possible implications for exercise selection and primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Pehlivanidis, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Sofia; Valle, Xavier; Malliaras, Peter; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-09-01

    Hamstring strain injuries are the most prevalent muscle injuries in track and field (TF). These injuries often cause prolonged symptoms and a high risk of re-injury. Strengthening of the hamstring muscles has been recommended for injury prevention. The authors review the possible role of eccentric training in TF hamstring injury prevention and introduce exercise classification criteria to guide clinicians in designing strengthening programmes adapted to TF. The principles exposed may serve as a foundation for future development and application of new eccentric programmes to decrease the high incidence of this type of injury in other sports.

  3. Can orthotic insoles prevent lower limb overuse injuries? A randomized-controlled trial of 228 subjects.

    PubMed

    Mattila, V M; Sillanpää, P J; Salo, T; Laine, H-J; Mäenpää, H; Pihlajamäki, H

    2011-12-01

    Lower limb overuse injuries are common among people who are exposed to physical stress. Orthotic shoe insoles are widely used to prevent lower limb overuse injuries. Here, we conducted a randomized-controlled study to examine whether the use of orthotic insoles prevents lower limb overuse injuries. Participants (n=228) were randomly assigned to use (n=73) or not to use (n=147) orthotic insoles. The insoles were molded to the shape of the foot to provide support during physical activity. The main outcome measure in the present study was the physician-diagnosed lower limb overuse injury. Thirty-four (46.6%) subjects in the insole group were diagnosed with a lower limb overuse injury compared with 56 (38.1%) in the control group (P=0.29) during the 6-month study period. When body mass index and the results of a 12-min running test and muscle strength were adjusted in a Cox's regression model, the hazard ratio for lower limb overuse injury in the insole group was 1.3 (95% confidence intervals: 0.8-2.1) compared with the control group. Use of orthotic insoles was not associated with a decrease in lower limb overuse injuries. Our findings suggest that routine use of orthotic insoles does not prevent physical-stress-related lower limb injuries in healthy young male adults.

  4. Equestrian injury is costly, disabling, and frequently preventable: the imperative for improved safety awareness.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Kristina; Houchen-Wise, Emily; Peck, Ellen; Mayberry, John

    2013-01-01

    Horse-related injury can be severe and disabling. We investigated the causes, severity, and costs of equestrian injury with the goal of injury prevention. A retrospective review of horse-related injuries from 2001 to 2008 identified 231 patients with a mean age of 38 years and a mean Injury Severity Score of 11 (range, 1 to 45). Mean length of stay was 5.5 days. Fifty-nine patients (25%) required 84 surgeries. Helmet use was 20 per cent and of the 172 patients not wearing a helmet while mounted, 38 per cent received potentially preventable head injuries. There were three deaths of which two were the result of intracranial hemorrhage in riders not wearing a helmet. Mean hospital charge was $29,800 for a total of $6.9 million. Ninety-one patients completed a survey regarding causation and disability. Thirty-four per cent reported wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Forty per cent reported that poor environmental factors contributed, 30 per cent reported poor horse and rider pairing, and 9 per cent reported equipment failure. Fifty-nine per cent reported long-term disabilities. Compared with the general population, respondents had diminution in their ability to perform usual daily activities associated with physical problems, diminution in social function, and higher bodily pain. We conclude that equestrian injury is costly, disabling, and frequently preventable.

  5. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach.

    PubMed

    Cools, Ann M; Johansson, Fredrik R; Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4) preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD); rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength. PMID:26537804

  6. Modeling the Injury Prevention Impact of Mandatory Alcohol Ignition Interlock Installation in All New US Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Flannagan, Carol A. C.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the injury prevention impact and cost savings associated with alcohol interlock installation in all new US vehicles. Methods. We identified fatal and nonfatal injuries associated with drinking driver vehicle crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System’s General Estimates System data sets (2006–2010). We derived the estimated impact of universal interlock installation using an estimate of the proportion of alcohol-related crashes that were preventable in vehicles < 1 year-old. We repeated this analysis for each subsequent year, assuming a 15-year implementation. We applied existing crash-induced injury cost metrics to approximate economic savings, and we used a sensitivity analysis to examine results with varying device effectiveness. Results. Over 15 years, 85% of crash fatalities (> 59 000) and 84% to 88% of nonfatal injuries (> 1.25 million) attributed to drinking drivers would be prevented, saving an estimated $342 billion in injury-related costs, with the greatest injury and cost benefit realized among recently legal drinking drivers. Cost savings outweighed installation costs after 3 years, with the policy remaining cost effective provided device effectiveness remained above approximately 25%. Conclusions. Alcohol interlock installation in all new vehicles is likely a cost-effective primary prevention policy that will substantially reduce alcohol-involved crash fatalities and injuries, especially among young vulnerable drivers. PMID:25790385

  7. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach.

    PubMed

    Cools, Ann M; Johansson, Fredrik R; Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4) preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD); rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.

  8. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Ann M.; Johansson, Fredrik R.; Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4) preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD); rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength. PMID:26537804

  9. Overcoming the organization-practice barrier in sports injury prevention: A nonhierarchical organizational model.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Ö; Jacobsson, J; Timpka, T

    2015-08-01

    The organization of sports at the national level has seldom been included in scientific discussions of sports injury prevention. The aim of this study was to develop a model for organization of sports that supports prevention of overuse injuries. The quality function deployment technique was applied in seminars over a two-season period to develop a national organizational structure for athletics in Sweden that facilitates prevention of overuse injuries. Three central features of the resulting model for organization of sports at the national level are (a) diminishment of the organizational hierarchy: participatory safety policy design is introduced through annual meetings where actors from different sectors of the sporting community discuss training, injury prevention, and sports safety policy; (b) introduction of a safety surveillance system: a ubiquitous system for routine collection of injury and illness data; and (c) an open forum for discussion of safety issues: maintenance of a safety forum for participants from different sectors of the sport. A nonhierarchical model for organization of sports at the national level - facilitated by modern information technology - adapted for the prevention of overuse injuries has been developed. Further research is warranted to evaluate the new organizational model in prospective effectiveness studies.

  10. Effects of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention in physical education teachers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies. PMID:26848872

  11. An evaluation of a "best practices" musculoskeletal injury prevention program in nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J; Wolf, L; Bell, J; Evanoff, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To conduct an intervention trial of a "best practices" musculoskeletal injury prevention program designed to safely lift physically dependent nursing home residents. Design: A pre-post intervention trial and cost benefit analysis at six nursing homes from January 1995 through December 2000. The intervention was established in January 1998 and injury rates, injury related costs and benefits, and severity are compared for 36 months pre-intervention and 36 months post-intervention. Participants: A dynamic cohort of all nursing staff (n = 1728) in six nursing homes during a six year study period. Intervention: "Best practices" musculoskeletal injury prevention program consisting of mechanical lifts and repositioning aids, a zero lift policy, and employee training on lift usage. Main outcome measures: Injury incidence rates, workers' compensation costs, lost work day injury rates, restricted work day rates, and resident assaults on caregivers, annually from January 1995 through December 2000. Results: There was a significant reduction in resident handling injury incidence, workers' compensation costs, and lost workday injuries after the intervention. Adjusted rate ratios were 0.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.55) for workers' compensation claims, 0.54 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.73) for Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 200 logs, and 0.65 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.86) for first reports of employee injury. The initial investment of $158 556 for lifting equipment and worker training was recovered in less than three years based on post-intervention savings of $55 000 annually in workers' compensation costs. The rate of post-intervention assaults on caregivers during resident transfers was down 72%, 50%, and 30% based on workers' compensation, OSHA, and first reports of injury data, respectively. Conclusions: The "best practices" prevention program significantly reduced injuries for full time and part time nurses in all age groups, all lengths of

  12. 76 FR 4703 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001...

  13. 75 FR 77645 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001 Panel D, Initial Review In accordance...

  14. 76 FR 13621 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family...

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    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family History and Diamond Blackfan Anemia, DD11- 010,...

  15. 76 FR 28438 - Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC)

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    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) The meeting announced below concerns RFA CE10-004,...

  16. 78 FR 29754 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

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    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the...

  17. 78 FR 37542 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

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    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) Correction: This notice was published in...

  18. 77 FR 31018 - Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC)

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    2012-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) The meeting announced below concerns Research Grants...

  19. 75 FR 1062 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

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    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the...

  20. 78 FR 35036 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

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    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) Correction: This notice was published in...

  1. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    2013-02-12

    ... Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, FOA DP 13-001, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2... to ``Prevalence and Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, FOA DP 13-001, initial review.'' Contact... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  2. 77 FR 39497 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Projects (SIPs): Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN)--Coordinating Center, SIP12-061 and Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network...

  3. 77 FR 28393 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Cholera and HIV/AIDS Response, FOA GH12-001, and Research and Technical Assistance for Public Health Laboratories in Haiti to Support Post Earthquake Reconstruction, Cholera and HIV/AIDS Response, FOA...

  4. 76 FR 367 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Minority HIV...

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    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Minority HIV/AIDS Research Initiative (MARI) To Build Capacity in Black and Hispanic Communities and Among Black and Hispanic Researchers To Conduct...

  5. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Capacity Building Assistance for High Impact...

  6. 76 FR 9020 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Ability of...

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    ...) Technologies To Reduce the Entomological Risk of Lyme Disease, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK11-005... (ITM) Technologies To Reduce the Entomological Risk of Lyme Disease, FOA CK11-005.'' Contact Person for... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  7. 75 FR 28625 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Assessment...

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Assessment of Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome, Funding...-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome,'' FOA CK10-004. Contact Person for More Information: Maurine Goodman,...

  8. 76 FR 67458 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Emerging..., Georgia 30337, Telephone: (770) 997-1100. Contact Person For More Information: Amy Yang, Ph.D.,...

  9. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  10. 77 FR 31018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This notice concerns..., initial review, published in the Federal Register on October 2, 2013 (FR Volume 78, Number 191, Page...

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  13. 78 FR 69682 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of...

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    2013-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Board of Scientific...

  14. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health...

  15. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National...

  16. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  17. 77 FR 44618 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    2012-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns the World...

  18. 78 FR 35035 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

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    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Centers...

  19. 77 FR 48986 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    2012-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  20. 76 FR 52330 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  1. 78 FR 36785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers...

  2. 78 FR 60879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National...

  3. 76 FR 10908 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal Vitamin D Status and Preterm Birth, DP11-002,...

  4. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Behavioral Surveillance For Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA),...

  5. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Feasibility Study to Link Data from the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP... Disadvantaged Communities, SIP11-041, Feasibility Study to Link Data from the National Breast and...

  6. 75 FR 27561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... dictate. Contact Person For More Information: Jane Suen, Dr.P.H., M.S., National Center for Injury... Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Date: 1 p.m.-4 p.m., July 8... Services Office Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  7. Prevention of elbow injuries in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Weber, Adam; Hassell, Nina; Andrews, James R

    2009-01-01

    There is concern among sports medicine practitioners that the number of youth baseball pitchers with elbow injuries appears to be increasing. Research points to overuse as the principle risk factor. The risk of elbow pain in youth pitchers is correlated with the number of pitches thrown in a game and in a season. Adolescents who competitively pitch more than 85 pitches per game, more than 8 months out of a year, or with arm fatigue are several times more likely to require elbow surgery. Poor pitching mechanics also appear to contribute to injury risk. Existing research does not show a significant correlation between curveballs and injury. Adults should help youth pitchers avoid fatigue, overuse, and improper mechanics. If elbow pain develops, the youth pitcher should be evaluated by a sports medicine physician.

  8. Resistance training for performance and injury prevention in golf

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J

    2006-01-01

    This introductory resistance training program is designed to minimize injury risk, improve golf swing speed and the overall fitness of recreational golfers. This article aims to introduce to the Chiropractor the basic concepts sport specific resistance training, periodization models of resistance training and proposes a year round conditioning resistance training program specific to golf. The exercises have been chosen based on the best biomechanical evidence to minimize injury risk and on the research supporting the use of movement specific training adaptations. Upper body strength exercises are performed standing to develop both trunk and hip stabilizing musculature and the primary movement of the golf swing. PMID:17549167

  9. The Purley train crash mechanism: injuries and prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Fothergill, N J; Ebbs, S R; Reese, A; Partridge, R J; Mowbray, M; Southcott, R D; Hashemi, K

    1992-01-01

    On the afternoon of Saturday 4th March 1989 two trains, both bound for London Victoria Station, collided. Part of the rear train rolled down a steep railway embankment and jack-knifed against a tree. The mechanism of the crash and the injuries sustained by the 55 victims who were seen in the A&E Department of the Mayday University Hospital are described. Improvements in signalling technology and design of rolling stock which may reduce both the risk of collision and severity of injury in future accidents are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1388485

  10. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of lightning injuries: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris; Engeln, Anna; Johnson, Eric L; McIntosh, Scott E; Zafren, Ken; Islas, Arthur A; McStay, Christopher; Smith, William R; Cushing, Tracy

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and prevention of lightning injuries. These guidelines include a review of the epidemiology of lightning and recommendations for the prevention of lightning strikes, along with treatment recommendations organized by organ system. Recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original WMS Practice Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Lightning Injuries published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2012;23(3):260-269. PMID:25498265

  11. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of lightning injuries: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris; Engeln, Anna; Johnson, Eric L; McIntosh, Scott E; Zafren, Ken; Islas, Arthur A; McStay, Christopher; Smith, William R; Cushing, Tracy

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and prevention of lightning injuries. These guidelines include a review of the epidemiology of lightning and recommendations for the prevention of lightning strikes, along with treatment recommendations organized by organ system. Recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original WMS Practice Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Lightning Injuries published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2012;23(3):260-269.

  12. Injury of the Internal Carotid Artery During Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery: Prevention and Management Protocol.

    PubMed

    AlQahtani, AbdulAziz; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Nicolai, Piero; Prevedello, Daniel M; Locatelli, Davide; Carrau, Ricardo L

    2016-02-01

    Injury of the internal carotid artery during endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery is a feared and perilous scenario. This article discusses perioperative strategies to prevent or manage an internal carotid artery injury to optimize outcomes. Meticulous preoperative planning is crucial in preventing its occurrence and minimizing its consequences. An effective plan of action relies on a well-prepared protocol, availability of proper instruments and devices, and an experienced multidisciplinary team. Intraoperative control of hemorrhage and stabilization of the patient's cardiovascular status is followed by an angiography and endovascular treatment whenever possible. Close clinical and radiologic monitoring of the patient prevents early and late complications.

  13. Clinical and biomechanical perspectives on pressure injury prevention research: The case of prophylactic dressings.

    PubMed

    Gefen, A; Kottner, J; Santamaria, N

    2016-10-01

    In this perspective paper, we discuss clinical and biomechanical viewpoints on pressure injury (or pressure ulcer) prevention research. We have selected to focus on the case of prophylactic dressings for pressure injury prevention, and the background of the historical context of pressure injury research, as an exemplar to illuminate some of the good and not so good in current biomechanical and clinical research in the wound prevention and care arena. Investigators who are conducting medical or clinical research in academia, in medical settings or in industry to determine the efficacy of wound prevention and care products could benefit from applying some basic principles that are detailed in this paper, and that should leverage the research outcomes, thereby contributing to setting higher standards in the field.

  14. Rationale and implementation of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention warm-up programs in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Bien, Daniel P

    2011-01-01

    The sex disparity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk and the subsequent adverse effects on knee joint health, psychosocial well-being, and financial costs incurred have produced a surge in research on risk factors and interventions designed to decrease this disparity and overall incidence. Biomechanical and neuromuscular differences have been identified throughout the trunk and lower extremity that may increase noncontact ACL injury risk in female athletes. Evidence demonstrates that many risk factors are modifiable with intervention programs and that athletic performance measures can be enhanced. No universally accepted ACL injury prevention program currently exists, and injury prevention programs are diverse. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs introduced in a warm-up format offer multiple benefits, primarily, improved compliance based on improved practicality of implementation. However, drawbacks of warm-up style formats also exist, most notably that a lack of equipment and resources may preclude measurable improvements in athletic performance that foster improved compliance among participants. The purpose of this review is to analyze the current literature researching possible biomechanical and neuromuscular risk factors in noncontact ACL injury in female athletes and the most effective means of implementing critical elements of a program to decrease ACL injury risk in female athletes while improving athletic performance. Hip and hamstring training, core stabilization, plyometrics, balance, agility, neuromuscular training with video and verbal feedback to modify technique, and stretching appear to be essential components of these programs. Further research is critical to determine ideal training program volume, intensity, duration, and frequency.

  15. Prediction and prevention of musculoskeletal injury: a paradigm shift in methodology

    PubMed Central

    Quatman, C E; Quatman, C C; Hewett, T E

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods employed to study musculoskeletal injury mechanisms and joint biomechanics utilise in vivo or in vitro techniques. The advent of new technology and improved methods has also given rise to in silico (computer modelling) techniques. Under the current research paradigm, in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods independently provide information regarding the mechanisms and prevention of musculoskeletal injury. However, individually, each of these methods has multiple, inherent limitations and is likely to provide incomplete answers about multifactorial, complex injury conditions. The purpose of this treatise is to review current methods used to study, understand, and prevent musculoskeletal injury and to develop new conceptual-methodological frameworks that may help create a paradigm shift in musculoskeletal injury prevention research. We term the fusion of these three techniques in simulacra amalgama, or simply in sim, meaning a “union of models done on the likeness of phenomena.” Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury will be employed as a model example for the utility and applicability of the proposed, synthesised approach. Shifting the current experimental paradigm to incorporate a multifaceted, multidisciplinary, integration of in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods into the proposed in sim approaches may provide a platform for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationships between complex joint biomechanics and observed injury mechanisms. PMID:19884108

  16. Prediction and prevention of musculoskeletal injury: a paradigm shift in methodology.

    PubMed

    Quatman, C E; Quatman, C C; Hewett, T E

    2009-12-01

    Traditional methods employed to study musculoskeletal injury mechanisms and joint biomechanics utilise in vivo or in vitro techniques. The advent of new technology and improved methods has also given rise to in silico (computer modelling) techniques. Under the current research paradigm, in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods independently provide information regarding the mechanisms and prevention of musculoskeletal injury. However, individually, each of these methods has multiple, inherent limitations and is likely to provide incomplete answers about multifactorial, complex injury conditions. The purpose of this treatise is to review current methods used to study, understand, and prevent musculoskeletal injury and to develop new conceptual-methodological frameworks that may help create a paradigm shift in musculoskeletal injury prevention research. We term the fusion of these three techniques in simulacra amalgama, or simply in sim, meaning a "union of models done on the likeness of phenomena." Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury will be employed as a model example for the utility and applicability of the proposed, synthesised approach. Shifting the current experimental paradigm to incorporate a multifaceted, multidisciplinary, integration of in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods into the proposed in sim approaches may provide a platform for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationships between complex joint biomechanics and observed injury mechanisms.

  17. Nylon shock absorber prevents injury to parachute jumpers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Nylon shock absorbers reduce the canopy-opening shock of a parachute to a level that protects the wearer from injury. A shock absorber is mounted on each of the four risers between the shroud lines and the harness. Because of their size and location, they pose no problem in repacking the chute and harness after a jump.

  18. Review of musculoskeletal injuries and prevention in the endoscopy practitioner.

    PubMed

    Harvin, Glenn

    2014-08-01

    Practitioners of endoscopy often experience musculoskeletal pain and injury (most often in the back, neck, shoulders, hands, wrists, and thumbs) that are associated with the minute and repetitive strain that is placed on these areas during endoscopic procedures. This review of the current documentation of endoscopy-related pain and injuries among practitioners finds that such problems are widespread and specific in kind as well as strongly correlated with high procedure volume and procedure duration. Research on the nature and impact of cumulative trauma and overuse syndromes in other professions such as dentistry, pianists, production labor, and athletics is brought to bear on the work of the endoscopist. A more thorough understanding of the nature and prevalence of work-related pain and injury sustained by endoscopists should inform further development of ergonomic practices and equipment design. This article reviews current recommendations for ergonomic design in the endoscopy procedure space and finds that reported compliance with those recommendations is quite low. Strategies for the management of the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to the practice of endoscopy include compliance with currently recommended ergonomic practices, education of trainees in ergonomic technique when practicing endoscopy, and research toward the modification and development of more ergonomic endoscopes and procedure spaces. PMID:24798940

  19. Spinal Injuries in the Aquatics Environment, Part I: Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Gerald M.

    1987-01-01

    Water-related activities are the number one cause of spinal cord injuries resulting from sports and recreation activities. This article discusses principles of safe diving; principles of safe water sliding; ways to reduce springboard diving accidents; factors contributing to springboard diving accidents; and safety recommendations for open water…

  20. Therapeutic strategies for preventing skeletal muscle fibrosis after injury

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Koyal; Corona, Benjamin T.; Walters, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle repair after injury includes a complex and well-coordinated regenerative response. However, fibrosis often manifests, leading to aberrant regeneration and incomplete functional recovery. Research efforts have focused on the use of anti-fibrotic agents aimed at reducing the fibrotic response and improving functional recovery. While there are a number of mediators involved in the development of post-injury fibrosis, TGF-β1 is the primary pro-fibrogenic growth factor and several agents that inactivate TGF-β1 signaling cascade have emerged as promising anti-fibrotic therapies. A number of these agents are FDA approved for other conditions, clearing the way for rapid translation into clinical treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of muscle's host response to injury with special emphasis on the cellular and non-cellular mediators involved in the development of fibrosis. This article also reviews the findings of several pre-clinical studies that have utilized anti-fibrotic agents to improve muscle healing following most common forms of muscle injuries. Although some studies have shown positive results with anti-fibrotic treatment, others have indicated adverse outcomes. Some concerns and questions regarding the clinical potential of these anti-fibrotic agents have also been presented. PMID:25954202

  1. Newspaper media reporting of motor vehicle crashes in Singapore: an opportunity lost for injury prevention education?

    PubMed

    Heng, Kenneth W J; Vasu, Alicia

    2010-06-01

    Newspaper media advocacy can help steer public attention away from motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries as a personal problem to that of a social and public health issue. If used properly, newspaper media is potentially a powerful mass educator on MVC prevention. However, there is often a conflict of interest in which newspapers, in an attempt to boost readership and revenue, may over-emphasize and sensationalize the human-interest aspect of an MVC story. The aim of this study is to examine newspaper articles of MVCs in Singapore to assess how our newspaper media coverage portray MVCs and identify factors that mitigate injury and educate the public on injury prevention measures. Details of the MVC were extracted from 12 months of newspaper coverage in Singapore. Two independent coders were used to establish inter-rater reliability. From 1 January to 31 December 2007, 201 articles about MVCs were published. About 74.1% of articles assigned blame to a particular road user, negligence on either road user was implied in 56.7% of articles, and road safety messages were mentioned in 8% of the articles. The mainstream communication tone used was positive for law enforcement (71.1%) and neutral towards injury prevention or road safety messages (89.1%). Newspaper media reporting of MVCs in Singapore generally does not include injury prevention messages or highlight injury-mitigating measures. This is a lost opportunity for public education. Collaboration between public health practitioners and newspaper media is required to address this issue.

  2. Orthopedic Injuries: Protocols to Prevent and Manage Patient Falls.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Lynn C; Revell, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    Health care organizations must adopt a culture of safety and implement effective fall prevention protocols. The teach-back method is a useful strategy for health providers to determine patient understanding of information taught to maintain a safe environment and prevent falls. Purposeful rounding is a proactive approach to ensure that patient assessments are accurate and research supports that patients use the call light less when nurses participate in hourly rounding. This article provides the reader with evidence-based fall prevention interventions, tips for using the teach-back method, and fall prevention tools to safely care for patients of all ages.

  3. Injury patterns in aviation-related fatalities. Implications for preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Baker, S P

    1997-09-01

    Autopsy data from individual aviation crashes have long been used in aviation safety research in the form of case reports and case series studies. Injuries sustained from aviation crashes, however, have not been well documented at a national level. This study examines the injury patterns for persons who died in aviation crashes in the United States and the implications for preventive strategies. Death certificate data for all aviation-related fatalities for the years 1980 (n = 1,543) and 1990 (n = 1.011) were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. The immediate cause of death and all injury diagnoses recorded on the death certificates were analyzed in relation to year of injury, crash category, and type of victim. Despite a 34% reduction in the number of aviation-related fatalities between 1980 and 1990, injury patterns were fairly stable. Multiple injuries were listed as the immediate cause of death in 42% of the fatalities, followed by head injury (22%); internal injury of thorax, abdomen, or pelvis (12%); burns (4%); and drowning (3%). Head injuries were most common among children. The majority (86%) died at the scene or were dead on arrival at the hospital. Eighteen percent of the victims were reported to have sustained a single injury, with head injury being the cause of death in nearly a third of these fatalities. Blunt injuries resulting from deceleration forces, in particular head injury, are still the most important hazard threatening occupants' survival in aviation crashes. To further reduce aviation-related fatalities requires more effective restraint systems and other improvements in aircraft design. PMID:9290873

  4. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  5. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations: Design and conduct of clinical trials for primary prevention of osteoarthritis by joint injury prevention in sport and recreation.

    PubMed

    Emery, C A; Roos, E M; Verhagen, E; Finch, C F; Bennell, K L; Story, B; Spindler, K; Kemp, J; Lohmander, L S

    2015-05-01

    The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform the design, conduct and analytical approaches to RCTs evaluating the preventative effect of joint injury prevention strategies. Recommendations regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of RCTs evaluating injury prevention interventions were established based on the consensus of nine researchers internationally with expertise in epidemiology, injury prevention and/or osteoarthritis (OA). Input and resultant consensus was established through teleconference, face to face and email correspondence over a 1 year period. Recommendations for injury prevention RCTs include context specific considerations regarding the research question, research design, study participants, randomization, baseline characteristics, intervention, outcome measurement, analysis, implementation, cost evaluation, reporting and future considerations including the impact on development of PTOA. Methodological recommendations for injury prevention RCTs are critical to informing evidence-based practice and policy decisions in health care, public health and the community. Recommendations regarding the interpretation and conduct of injury prevention RCTs will inform the highest level of evidence in the field. These recommendations will facilitate between study comparisons to inform best practice in injury prevention that will have the greatest public health impact.

  6. An injury prevention strategy for teen restaurant workers. Washington State's ProSafety project.

    PubMed

    Ward, Julie A; de Castro, A B; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E

    2010-02-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers.

  7. Guarding the precious smile: incidence and prevention of injury in sports: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish

    2014-07-01

    The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or kickboxing, but also for seemingly less dangerous sports such as football. Amongst the different types of mouthguards, the most acceptable and safe ones are the custom-fabricated mouthguards, in particular the pressure-laminated ones. In general, mouthguard usage is less than the dental profession would recommend. As much of progress has been made in this area, need for the use of mouthguard needs to be emphasized and promoted by the dental profession. PMID:25214744

  8. Strategies for prevention of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Pakistan: situational analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death among productive age group. Using systems approach framework (SAF), current preventive strategies for RTI control were reviewed in Pakistan. A review of the literature was done using four international search engines. Only ten studies on preventive strategies for RTI stemming from Pakistan were found. The first Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) surveillance system for road traffic injuries was established in urban city (Karachi) in Pakistan has shown promise for injury control and should be scaled up to other cities. Enforcement of traffic laws on seat-belt and helmet wearing is poor. National Highway and Motorway Police Ordinance (2000) was one of the few legislative measure so far taken in Pakistan. Using SAF, efforts are required to implement interventions targeting human, vehicle design and also making environment safer for road users.

  9. Guarding the Precious Smile: Incidence and Prevention of Injury in Sports: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or kickboxing, but also for seemingly less dangerous sports such as football. Amongst the different types of mouthguards, the most acceptable and safe ones are the custom-fabricated mouthguards, in particular the pressure-laminated ones. In general, mouthguard usage is less than the dental profession would recommend. As much of progress has been made in this area, need for the use of mouthguard needs to be emphasized and promoted by the dental profession. PMID:25214744

  10. Guarding the precious smile: incidence and prevention of injury in sports: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish

    2014-07-01

    The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or kickboxing, but also for seemingly less dangerous sports such as football. Amongst the different types of mouthguards, the most acceptable and safe ones are the custom-fabricated mouthguards, in particular the pressure-laminated ones. In general, mouthguard usage is less than the dental profession would recommend. As much of progress has been made in this area, need for the use of mouthguard needs to be emphasized and promoted by the dental profession.

  11. An injury prevention strategy for teen restaurant workers. Washington State's ProSafety project.

    PubMed

    Ward, Julie A; de Castro, A B; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E

    2010-02-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  12. Propofol Prevents Hippocampal Neuronal Loss and Memory Impairment in Cerebral Ischemia Injury Through Promoting PTEN Degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Du, Ye-Mu; Xu, Feng; Liu, Dai; Wang, Yuan-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Neuroprotective effect of propofol against cerebral ischemia injury was widely investigated. However, its mechanisms remain unclear. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway is supposed as a cell survival pathway, and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is a negative regulator of AKT phosphorylation. Whether PTEN was involved in the protective effect of propofol against cerebral ischemia injury was not elucidated. In this study, the function of PTEN in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia injury was investigated. Our data showed that propofol promoted the PTEN degradation in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia injury and concurrently activated AKT phosphorylation. The increase of ubiquitinated PTEN caused by cerebral ischemia injury were degraded in propofol-pretreated rats. Moreover, we evidenced that proteasome activity was stimulated in propofol-treated rats. These data pointed that PTEN degradation was facilitated in the acute phase after propofol treatment possibly through activating ubiquitin-proteasome system. Therefore, we applied PTEN inhibitor-bpV before cerebral ischemia injury. Like propofol, bpV pretreatment also mitigated cerebral ischemia injury-induced cell loss in CA1 region and memory impairment. Taken together, our data suggest that PTEN degradation is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia injury and propofol facilitates PTEN degradation to prevent hippocampal neuronal loss and memory deficit in cerebral ischemia injury.

  13. Propofol Prevents Hippocampal Neuronal Loss and Memory Impairment in Cerebral Ischemia Injury Through Promoting PTEN Degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Du, Ye-Mu; Xu, Feng; Liu, Dai; Wang, Yuan-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Neuroprotective effect of propofol against cerebral ischemia injury was widely investigated. However, its mechanisms remain unclear. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway is supposed as a cell survival pathway, and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is a negative regulator of AKT phosphorylation. Whether PTEN was involved in the protective effect of propofol against cerebral ischemia injury was not elucidated. In this study, the function of PTEN in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia injury was investigated. Our data showed that propofol promoted the PTEN degradation in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia injury and concurrently activated AKT phosphorylation. The increase of ubiquitinated PTEN caused by cerebral ischemia injury were degraded in propofol-pretreated rats. Moreover, we evidenced that proteasome activity was stimulated in propofol-treated rats. These data pointed that PTEN degradation was facilitated in the acute phase after propofol treatment possibly through activating ubiquitin-proteasome system. Therefore, we applied PTEN inhibitor-bpV before cerebral ischemia injury. Like propofol, bpV pretreatment also mitigated cerebral ischemia injury-induced cell loss in CA1 region and memory impairment. Taken together, our data suggest that PTEN degradation is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia injury and propofol facilitates PTEN degradation to prevent hippocampal neuronal loss and memory deficit in cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:27480093

  14. Prevention of deep tissue injury through muscle contractions induced by intermittent electrical stimulation after spinal cord injury in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Leandro R.; Twist, Elizabeth; Seres, Peter; Thompson, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe medical complication that commonly affects those with spinal cord injury. It is caused by prolonged external loading of the muscles, entrapping them between a bony prominence and the support surface. The entrapment causes excessive mechanical deformation and increases in interstitial pressure, leading to muscle breakdown deep around the bony prominences. We proposed the use of intermittent electrical stimulation (IES) as a novel prophylactic method for the prevention of DTI. In this study, we assessed the long-term effectiveness of this technique in pigs that had received a partial spinal cord injury that paralyzed one hindlimb. The pigs recovered for 2 wk postsurgery, and subsequently, their paralyzed limbs were loaded to 25% of their body weights 4 h/day for 4 consecutive days each week for 1 mo. One group of pigs (n = 3) received IES during the loading, whereas another group (n = 3) did not. DTI was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and postmortem histology. In the group that did not receive IES, MRI assessments revealed signs of tissue damage in 48% of the volume of the loaded muscle. In the group that did receive IES, only 8% of the loaded muscle volume showed signs of tissue damage. Similar findings were found through postmortem histology. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that IES may be an effective technique for preventing the formation of DTI in loaded muscles after spinal cord injury. PMID:23172030

  15. New PPE Policy Will Help Prevent Injuries | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley Shoemaker, Guest Writer In January 2013, a revised policy on personal protective equipment (PPE) was approved for all government and contractor employees at NCI at Frederick. This new policy was driven by a high number of eye injuries at NCI at Frederick (56 between 2007 and 2012) that were directly related to inadequate PPE. The Occupational Safety and Health Act states that each employer is responsible for identifying hazards in the workplace and determining what kind of PPE is necessary.

  16. Aluminum Citrate Prevents Renal Injury from Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Besenhofer, Lauren M.; Cain, Marie C.; Dunning, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol–treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate’s interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  17. Risk factors and prevention strategies of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Laible, Catherine; Sherman, Orrin H

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of women playing sports has increased significantly. The passage of Title IX in 1972 had a significant effect in encouraging female participation in sports. This increase in women's sports participation also led to a rise in noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. As ACL injuries in young female athletes have be- come a public health issue, much research has been done on risk factors and prevention strategies.

  18. Prevention of liver ischemia reperfusion injury by a combined thyroid hormone and fish oil protocol.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Marcelo; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Romanque, Pamela; Covarrubias, Natalia; Anghileri, Fiorella; Fernández, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Tapia, Gladys

    2012-09-01

    Several preconditioning strategies are used to prevent ischemia-reperfusion (IR) liver injury, a deleterious condition associated with tissue resection, transplantation or trauma. Although thyroid hormone (T₃) administration exerts significant protection against liver IR injury in the rat, its clinical application is controversial due to possible adverse effects. Considering that prevention of liver IR injury has also been achieved by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation to rats, we studied the effect of n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation plus a lower dose of T₃ against IR injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving fish oil (300 mg/kg) for 3 days followed by a single intraperitoneal dose of 0.05 mg T₃/kg were subjected to 1 h of ischemia followed by 20 h of reperfusion. Parameters of liver injury (serum transaminases, histology) and oxidative stress (liver contents of GSH and oxidized proteins) were correlated with fatty acid composition, NF-κB activity, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and haptoglobin expression. IR significantly modified liver histology; enhanced serum transaminases, TNF-α response or liver oxidative stress; and decreased liver NF-κB activity and haptoglobin expression. Although IR injury was not prevented by either n-3 PUFA supplementation or T₃ administration, substantial decrease in liver injury and oxidative stress was achieved by the combined protocol, which also led to increased liver n-3 PUFA content and decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios, with recovery of NF-κB activity and TNF-α and haptoglobin expression. Prevention of liver IR injury achieved by a combined protocol of T₃ and n-3 PUFA supplementation may represent a novel noninvasive preconditioning strategy with potential clinical application. PMID:22137030

  19. Patient positioning and prevention of injuries in patients undergoing laparoscopic and robot-assisted urologic procedures.

    PubMed

    Sukhu, Troy; Krupski, Tracey L

    2014-04-01

    Positioning injuries in the perioperative period are one of the inherent risks of surgery, but particularly in robot-assisted urologic surgery, and can result in often unrecognized morbidity. Injuries such as upper or lower extremity peripheral neuropathies occur via neural mechanisms and injuries such as compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis, ischemic optic neuropathy, and acute arterial occlusion occur via vascular mechanisms. The risk of injury may be exacerbated by operative and patient-related risk factors. Patient-related risk factors include ASA class and BMI, while surgery-related risk factors include physical orientation of the patient and operative length. These injuries can be prevented or reduced by joint effort of the surgeon, anesthesiologist, and operating room staff.

  20. UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING ACL INJURIES: CURRENT BIOMECHANICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS - UPDATE 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin R.; Hoogenboom, Barbara J.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    This invited clinical commentary summarizes the current state of knowledge in the area of prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. ACL injuries occur with a four to six fold greater incidence in female compared to male athletes playing the same high risk sports. The combination of increased risk of ACL injury and a 10-fold increase in sports participation since the enactment of Title IX in 1972 has led to an almost epidemic rise in ACL injuries in female athletes. Examination of the mechanisms responsible for this sex disparity in ACL rupture accelerated in the last two decades. A summary of these findings and a synthesis and framework for understanding the results of the intense investigation of this research are detailed herein. This clinical commentary focuses on the current understanding, identification and interventional targeting of the primary neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors associated with the ACL injury mechanism in high-risk individuals. PMID:21655382

  1. Assessing injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents to more effectively prevent fatal bicycle injuries in Japan.

    PubMed

    Gomei, Sayaka; Hitosugi, Masahito; Ikegami, Keiichi; Tokudome, Shogo

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents and patient outcome or type of vehicle involved in order to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicycle injuries. Hospital records were reviewed for all patients from 2007 to 2010 who had been involved in a traffic accident while riding a bicycle and were subsequently transferred to the Shock Trauma Center of Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital. Patient outcomes and type of vehicle that caused the injury were examined. The mechanism of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the patient were determined. A total of 115 patients' records were reviewed. The mean patient age was 47.1 ± 27.4 years. The average ISS was 23.9, with an average maximum AIS (MAIS) score of 3.7. The ISS, MAIS score, head AIS score, and chest AIS score were well correlated with patient outcome. The head AIS score was significantly higher in patients who had died (mean of 4.4); however, the ISS, MAIS score, and head AIS score did not differ significantly according to the type of vehicle involved in the accident. The mean head AIS scores were as high as 2.4 or more for accidents involving any type of vehicle. This study provides useful information for forensic pathologists who suspect head injuries in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents. To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities from traffic accidents, helmet use should be required for all bicyclists.

  2. The training—injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    Background There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury. Main thesis This paper describes the ‘Training-Injury Prevention Paradox’ model; a phenomenon whereby athletes accustomed to high training loads have fewer injuries than athletes training at lower workloads. The Model is based on evidence that non-contact injuries are not caused by training per se, but more likely by an inappropriate training programme. Excessive and rapid increases in training loads are likely responsible for a large proportion of non-contact, soft-tissue injuries. If training load is an important determinant of injury, it must be accurately measured up to twice daily and over periods of weeks and months (a season). This paper outlines ways of monitoring training load (‘internal’ and ‘external’ loads) and suggests capturing both recent (‘acute’) training loads and more medium-term (‘chronic’) training loads to best capture the player's training burden. I describe the critical variable—acute:chronic workload ratio—as a best practice predictor of training-related injuries. This provides the foundation for interventions to reduce players risk, and

  3. Preventing unintentional injuries in the home using the Health Impact Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Mack, Karin A; Liller, Karen D; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-04-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire, scald, and poisoning-related injuries, this article illustrates the utility of an approach that incorporates a social-environmental perspective in identifying and selecting interventions to improve the health and safety of individuals. Injury prevention efforts to prevent home injuries benefit from multilevel modifications of behavior, public policy, laws and enforcement, the environment, consumer products and engineering standards, as demonstrated with Frieden's Health Impact Pyramid. A greater understanding, however, is needed to explain the associations between tiers. While interventions that include modifications of the social environment are being field-tested, much more work needs to be done in measuring social-environmental change and in evaluating these programs to disentangle what works best.

  4. Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-01-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire, scald, and poisoning-related injuries, this article illustrates the utility of an approach that incorporates a social–environmental perspective in identifying and selecting interventions to improve the health and safety of individuals. Injury prevention efforts to prevent home injuries benefit from multilevel modifications of behavior, public policy, laws and enforcement, the environment, consumer products and engineering standards, as demonstrated with Frieden’s Health Impact Pyramid. A greater understanding, however, is needed to explain the associations between tiers. While interventions that include modifications of the social environment are being field-tested, much more work needs to be done in measuring social–environmental change and in evaluating these programs to disentangle what works best. PMID:25829110

  5. 75 FR 35360 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... programs, OSHA issued the Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines in 1989 (54 FR 3908). These..., including: Management leadership and employee participation; hazard identification and assessment; hazard..., and hazard identification tools); 4. Hazard prevention and control (including items such as...

  6. Household Safety: Preventing Injuries from Firearms (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... room a child shouldn't enter to prevent wandering into places that haven't been properly childproofed. ... the activities that develop your child's body and mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  7. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation: Let's Get It Right.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E

    2015-10-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are among the most common and functionally disabling conditions in orthopaedics and sports medicine. As professionals, we need to do a better job of screening individuals to determine who is at greatest risk of sustaining an ACL injury, as well as implementing injury prevention programs. We also need to do a better job with programs that return individuals to their preinjury activity levels, including implementing thorough functional testing to determine if a patient is ready to return to sports or strenuous activities post-ACLR.

  8. Evaluation of RugbySmart: a rugby union community injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon M; Quarrie, Ken L; Hume, Patria A

    2009-05-01

    RugbySmart, a rugby union injury prevention programme, was launched in New Zealand in 2001. It was compulsory for all coaches and referees to complete RugbySmart requirements annually in order to continue coaching or refereeing. After 5 years of implementation the programme partners, Accident Compensation Corporation and New Zealand Rugby Union, evaluated RugbySmart to determine its effectiveness in reducing injuries. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of RugbySmart on reducing injury rates per 100,000 players and resulting injury prevention behaviours. The RugbySmart programme was associated with a decrease in injury claims per 100,000 players in most areas the programme targeted; the programme had negligible impact on non-targeted injury sites. The decrease in injury claims numbers was supported by results from the player behaviour surveys pre- and post-RugbySmart. There was an increase in safe behaviour in the contact situations of tackle, scrum and ruck technique. PMID:18356104

  9. Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Bigdeli, Maryam; Saadat, Soheil; Mohammadi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy). The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy) prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety.

  10. History of Injury and Violence as public health problems and emergence of the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control at CDC.

    PubMed

    Sleet, David A; Baldwin, Grant; Marr, Angela; Spivak, Howard; Patterson, Sara; Morrison, Christine; Holmes, Wendy; Peeples, Amy B; Degutis, Linda C

    2012-09-01

    Injuries and violence are among the oldest health problems facing humans. Only within the past 50 years, however, has the problem been addressed with scientific rigor using public health methods. The field of injury control began as early as 1913, but wasn't approached systematically or epidemiologically until the 1940s and 1950s. It accelerated rapidly between 1960 and 1985. Coupled with active federal and state interest in reducing injuries and violence, this period was marked by important medical, scientific, and public health advances. The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) was an outgrowth of this progress and in 2012 celebrated its 20th anniversary. NCIPC was created in 1992 after a series of government reports identified injury as one of the most important public health problems facing the nation. Congressional action provided the impetus for the creation of NCIPC as the lead federal agency for non-occupational injury and violence prevention. In subsequent years, NCIPC and its partners fostered many advances and built strong capacity. Because of the tragically high burden and cost of injuries and violence in the United States and around the globe, researchers, practitioners, and decision makers will need to redouble prevention efforts in the next 20 years. This article traces the history of injury and violence prevention as a public health priority-- including the evolution and current structure of the CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.

  11. Prevention of Sports Injuries by Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Bryhn, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Sport injuries are common and costly for the professional athlete, the "weekend warrior," and the community. Acute injuries are treated according to current guidelines with the aim of bringing the athlete back into the arena. These guidelines have not taken into account new scientific results of the inflammatory process following a trauma. The 4 hallmarks of inflammation, namely, pain, swelling, redness, and heat, are results of an adequate inflammatory response with the aim of bringing the affected tissue back to restitution (Latin: restitutio ad integrum). Cooling of the affected limb and anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used but may deter healing. The healing process is governed by fatty acids of the omega-3 and omega-6 series. In order to facilitate healing, these fatty acids have to be present in significant amounts in the affected tissues before the trauma occurs. This is particularly relevant for marine omega-3 fatty acids, which are often running low due to insignificant intake of seafood, common in individuals practicing sports. High-energy sports often lead to head and brain trauma. Continuous head traumata may even result in later mental defects. Saturation of brain cells with omega-3 fatty acids, in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may facilitate healing after brain trauma, thereby counteracting negative long-term results. The present understanding of a normal inflammatory process leading to restitution will be discussed along with data from recent scientific trials.

  12. Injury Prevention Practices as Depicted in G- and PG-Rated Movies, 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tongren, J. Eric; Gilchrist, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. The use of recommended safety practices can reduce injuries. Children often learn behaviors from media exposure. Children’s movies released in 1995–2007 infrequently depicted appropriate injury prevention practices. The aim of this study was to determine if injury prevention practices in children’s movies have improved. The top grossing 25 G-and PG-rated movies in the United States per year for 2008–2012 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Movies or scenes were excluded if they were animated, not set in the present day, fantasy, documentary, or not in English. Injury prevention practices involving riding in a motor vehicle, walking, boating, bicycling, and four other activities were recorded for characters with speaking roles. Fifty-six (45 %) of the 125 movies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 603 person-scenes were examined involving 175 (29 %) children and 428 (71 %) adults. Thirty-eight person-scenes involved crashes or falls, resulting in four injuries and no deaths. Overall, 59 % (353/603) of person-scenes showed appropriate injury prevention practices. This included 313 (70 %) of 445 motor-vehicle passengers who were belted; 15 (30 %) of 50 pedestrians who used a crosswalk, 2 (7 %) of 30 boaters who wore personal flotation devices, and 8 (29 %) of 28 bicyclists who wore helmets. In comparison with previous studies, there were significant increases in usage of seat belts, crosswalks, personal flotation devices, and bicycle helmets. However, 41 % of person-scenes still showed unsafe practices and the consequences of those behaviors were infrequently depicted. PMID:25476034

  13. Injury Prevention Practices as Depicted in G- and PG-Rated Movies, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Andrew R; Tongren, J Eric; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. The use of recommended safety practices can reduce injuries. Children often learn behaviors from media exposure. Children's movies released in 1995-2007 infrequently depicted appropriate injury prevention practices. The aim of this study was to determine if injury prevention practices in children's movies have improved. The top grossing 25 G- and PG-rated movies in the United States per year for 2008-2012 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Movies or scenes were excluded if they were animated, not set in the present day, fantasy, documentary, or not in English. Injury prevention practices involving riding in a motor vehicle, walking, boating, bicycling, and four other activities were recorded for characters with speaking roles. Fifty-six (45%) of the 125 movies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 603 person-scenes were examined involving 175 (29%) children and 428 (71%) adults. Thirty-eight person-scenes involved crashes or falls, resulting in four injuries and no deaths. Overall, 59% (353/603) of person-scenes showed appropriate injury prevention practices. This included 313 (70%) of 445 motor-vehicle passengers who were belted; 15 (30%) of 50 pedestrians who used a crosswalk, 2 (7%) of 30 boaters who wore personal flotation devices, and 8 (29%) of 28 bicyclists who wore helmets. In comparison with previous studies, there were significant increases in usage of seat belts, crosswalks, personal flotation devices, and bicycle helmets. However, 41% of person-scenes still showed unsafe practices and the consequences of those behaviors were infrequently depicted.

  14. Effectiveness of Knee Injury and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jamie E.; Yang, Heidi Y.; Goczalk, Melissa G.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Losina, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Objective Individuals frequently involved in jumping, pivoting or cutting are at increased risk of knee injury, including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. We sought to use meta-analytic techniques to establish whether neuromuscular and proprioceptive training is efficacious in preventing knee and ACL injury and to identify factors related to greater efficacy of such programs. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of studies published in English between 1996 and 2014. Intervention efficacy was ascertained from incidence rate ratios (IRRs) weighted by their precision (1/variance) using a random effects model. Separate analyses were performed for knee and ACL injury. We examined whether year of publication, study quality, or specific components of the intervention were associated with efficacy of the intervention in a meta-regression analysis. Results Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and were used in the meta-analysis. The mean study sample was 1,093 subjects. Twenty studies reported data on knee injury in general terms and 16 on ACL injury. Maximum Jadad score was 3 (on a 0–5 scale). The summary incidence rate ratio was estimated at 0.731 (95% CI: 0.614, 0.871) for knee injury and 0.493 (95% CI: 0.285, 0.854) for ACL injury, indicating a protective effect of intervention. Meta-regression analysis did not identify specific intervention components associated with greater efficacy but established that later year of publication was associated with more conservative estimates of intervention efficacy. Conclusion The current meta-analysis provides evidence that neuromuscular and proprioceptive training reduces knee injury in general and ACL injury in particular. Later publication date was associated with higher quality studies and more conservative efficacy estimates. As study quality was generally low, these data suggest that higher quality studies should be implemented to confirm the preventive efficacy of such programs. PMID:26637173

  15. A cost-outcome approach to pre and post-implementation of national sports injury prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A

    2007-12-01

    In New Zealand (NZ), the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) has developed a pre and post-implementation cost-outcome formulae for sport injury prevention to provide information regarding the success of a prevention programme. The ACC provides for the cost of all personal injuries in NZ and invests in prevention programmes to offset 1.6 million annual claims that cost $NZD 1.9 billion. The ACC invests in nine national community sport injury prevention programmes that represent 40% of sport claims and costs. Pre-implementation is used to determine the decision whether to invest in implementation and to determine the level of such investment for the injury prevention programme. Post-implementation is calculated two ways: unadjusted, assuming ceteris paribus; and adjusted assuming no prevention programme was in place. Post-implementation formulae provide a return on investment (ROI) for each dollar invested in the programme and cost-savings. The cost-outcome formulae approach allows ACC to manage expectations of the prevention programme as well as when it will provide a ROI, allowing it to take a long-term view for investment in sport injury prevention. Originally developed for its sport injury prevention programmes, the cost-outcome formulae have now been applied to the other prevention programmes ACC invests in such as home, road and workplace injury prevention. PMID:17353149

  16. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of chemical injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Werner, Charles L; Gubler, K Dean

    2005-01-01

    Chemical injuries are commonly encountered following exposure to acids and alkali, including hydrofluoric acid, formic acid, anhydrous ammonia, cement, and phenol. Other specific agents that cause chemical burns include white phosphorus, elemental metals, nitrates, hydrocarbons, and tar. Even though there are more than 65,000 chemicals available on the market, and an estimated 60,000 new chemicals produced each year, the potential deleterious effects of these chemicals on humans are still unknown. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act contains extensive provisions for emergency planning and the rights of communities to know about toxic chemical releases. Since 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has maintained an active, state-based Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system to describe the public health consequences risked by access to hazardous chemicals. Most chemical agents damage the skin by producing a chemical reaction rather than hyperthermic injury. Although some chemicals produce considerable heat as a result of an exothermic reaction when they come in contact with water, their ability to produce direct chemical changes on the skin accounts for the most skin injury. Specific chemical changes depend on the agent, including acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizing and reducing agents, desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The concentration of toxic agent and duration of its contact primarily determine degree of skin destruction. Hazardous materials (hazmats) are substances that may injure life and damage the environment if improperly handled. HAZMAT accidents are particularly dangerous for responding personnel, who are in danger from the moment of arrival on the scene until containment of the accident. Consequently, the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act mandates community preparedness for dealing with hazmat accidents. Paramedics and members of the hazmat response team

  17. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of chemical injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Werner, Charles L; Gubler, K Dean

    2005-01-01

    Chemical injuries are commonly encountered following exposure to acids and alkali, including hydrofluoric acid, formic acid, anhydrous ammonia, cement, and phenol. Other specific agents that cause chemical burns include white phosphorus, elemental metals, nitrates, hydrocarbons, and tar. Even though there are more than 65,000 chemicals available on the market, and an estimated 60,000 new chemicals produced each year, the potential deleterious effects of these chemicals on humans are still unknown. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act contains extensive provisions for emergency planning and the rights of communities to know about toxic chemical releases. Since 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has maintained an active, state-based Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system to describe the public health consequences risked by access to hazardous chemicals. Most chemical agents damage the skin by producing a chemical reaction rather than hyperthermic injury. Although some chemicals produce considerable heat as a result of an exothermic reaction when they come in contact with water, their ability to produce direct chemical changes on the skin accounts for the most skin injury. Specific chemical changes depend on the agent, including acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizing and reducing agents, desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The concentration of toxic agent and duration of its contact primarily determine degree of skin destruction. Hazardous materials (hazmats) are substances that may injure life and damage the environment if improperly handled. HAZMAT accidents are particularly dangerous for responding personnel, who are in danger from the moment of arrival on the scene until containment of the accident. Consequently, the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act mandates community preparedness for dealing with hazmat accidents. Paramedics and members of the hazmat response team

  18. [Anatomical rationale for lingual nerve injury prevention during mandibular block].

    PubMed

    Semkin, V A; Dydikin, S S; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2015-01-01

    The topographic and anatomical study of lingual nerve structural features was done. It was revealed that during mandibular anesthesia possible lingual nerve injury can occur if puncture needle is lower than 1 cm. of molars occlusal surface level. The position of the lingual nerve varies withmandible movements. At the maximum open mouth lingual nerve is not mobile and is pressed against the inner surface of the mandibular ramus by the medial pterygoid muscle and the temporal muscle tendon. When closing the mouth to 1.25±0.2 cmfrom the physiological maximum, lingual nerve is displaced posteriorly from the internal oblique line of the mandible and gets mobile. On the basis of topographic and anatomic features of the lingual nervestructure the authors recommend the re-do of inferior alveolar nerve block, a semi-closed mouth position or the use the "high block techniques" (Torus anesthesia, Gow-Gates, Vazirani-Akinozi). PMID:26271698

  19. E coding: a missing link for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Halpern, J S

    1993-06-01

    E codes are a practical, detailed, and feasible method of collecting much needed information about trauma morbidity. Emergency care providers are the key to ensuring accurate information because of their ability to obtain specific information from prehospital personnel or family. Charting the information on the emergency record will simplify the task for medical records coders, researchers, epidemiologists, and public health officials. The detailed information used for E codes is not just research trivia, but rather beneficial information for all emergency providers. A specific plan of care can be developed to address the medical and social needs of each patient. This in turn may help to reduce future injuries, whether they are caused by high-risk behaviors or repetitive abuse situations.

  20. Aggression, Violence and Injury in Minor League Ice Hockey: Avenues for Prevention of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Ilie, Gabriela; Mullen, Sarah J.; Pauley, Christopher R.; Stulberg, Jennifer R.; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Background In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13–15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey. Results Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player’s social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players’ need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors. Conclusion This study provides a better understanding of the players’ motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules. PMID:27258426

  1. Traffic-related pedestrian injuries amongst expatriate workers in Qatar: a need for cross-cultural injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Zarour, Ahmad; Parchani, Ashok; Abdulrahman, Husham; Asim, Mohammad; Peralta, Ruben; Consunji, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Qatar is a rapidly developing country in which expatriate workers constitute the majority of population. Also, Qatar is an example of right-sided road driving convention (RDC) country. The aim of our study is to analyse the traffic-related pedestrian injuries (TRPI) amongst expatriates in relation to RDC. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of TRPI patients who were admitted to the only Level I trauma centre in Qatar between 2009 and 2011 was performed. Demographics, country of origin, time of injury, injury severity score (ISS), RDC, morbidity and mortality were analysed. Of the 4997 injured patients, 601 (12%) were pedestrians. Of these, 92% were expatriates. The mean age was 31.8 ± 17 and 64% of them were 18-45 years old. Mean ISS was higher in those who were injured on weekends (15.4 ± 10) in comparison to working days (13.5 ± 10) (p = 0.04). The overall mortality was 15%. Sixty-seven percent of those who died were from left RDC countries. Expatriate workers, originally from left RDC countries are disproportionately affected by TRPI. This group of injured patients requires focused injury prevention programmes that are culture and language appropriate.

  2. Traffic-related pedestrian injuries amongst expatriate workers in Qatar: a need for cross-cultural injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Zarour, Ahmad; Parchani, Ashok; Abdulrahman, Husham; Asim, Mohammad; Peralta, Ruben; Consunji, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Qatar is a rapidly developing country in which expatriate workers constitute the majority of population. Also, Qatar is an example of right-sided road driving convention (RDC) country. The aim of our study is to analyse the traffic-related pedestrian injuries (TRPI) amongst expatriates in relation to RDC. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of TRPI patients who were admitted to the only Level I trauma centre in Qatar between 2009 and 2011 was performed. Demographics, country of origin, time of injury, injury severity score (ISS), RDC, morbidity and mortality were analysed. Of the 4997 injured patients, 601 (12%) were pedestrians. Of these, 92% were expatriates. The mean age was 31.8 ± 17 and 64% of them were 18-45 years old. Mean ISS was higher in those who were injured on weekends (15.4 ± 10) in comparison to working days (13.5 ± 10) (p = 0.04). The overall mortality was 15%. Sixty-seven percent of those who died were from left RDC countries. Expatriate workers, originally from left RDC countries are disproportionately affected by TRPI. This group of injured patients requires focused injury prevention programmes that are culture and language appropriate. PMID:24392875

  3. Injury prevention in male veteran football players - a randomised controlled trial using "FIFA 11+".

    PubMed

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Bizzini, Mario; Meyer, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The warm-up programme "FIFA 11+" has been shown to reduce football injuries in different populations, but so far veteran players have not been investigated. Due to differences in age, skill level and gender, a simple transfer of these results to veteran football is not recommended. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of the "FIFA 11+" in veteran football players. Twenty veteran football teams were recruited for a prospective 9-month (1 season) cluster-randomised trial. The intervention group (INT, n = 146; 45 ± 8 years) performed the "FIFA 11+" at the beginning of each training session, while the control group (CON, n = 119; 43 ± 6 years) followed its regular training routine. Player exposure hours and injuries were recorded according to an international consensus statement. No significant difference was found between INT and CON in overall injury incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.91 [0.64-1.48]; P = 0.89). Only severe injuries reached statistical significance with higher incidence in CON (IRR: 0.46 [0.21-0.97], P = 0.04). Regular conduction (i.e. once a week) of the "FIFA 11+" did not prevent injuries in veteran footballers under real training and competition circumstances. The lack of preventive effects is likely due to the too low overall frequency of training sessions.

  4. Injury prevention in male veteran football players - a randomised controlled trial using "FIFA 11+".

    PubMed

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Bizzini, Mario; Meyer, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The warm-up programme "FIFA 11+" has been shown to reduce football injuries in different populations, but so far veteran players have not been investigated. Due to differences in age, skill level and gender, a simple transfer of these results to veteran football is not recommended. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of the "FIFA 11+" in veteran football players. Twenty veteran football teams were recruited for a prospective 9-month (1 season) cluster-randomised trial. The intervention group (INT, n = 146; 45 ± 8 years) performed the "FIFA 11+" at the beginning of each training session, while the control group (CON, n = 119; 43 ± 6 years) followed its regular training routine. Player exposure hours and injuries were recorded according to an international consensus statement. No significant difference was found between INT and CON in overall injury incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.91 [0.64-1.48]; P = 0.89). Only severe injuries reached statistical significance with higher incidence in CON (IRR: 0.46 [0.21-0.97], P = 0.04). Regular conduction (i.e. once a week) of the "FIFA 11+" did not prevent injuries in veteran footballers under real training and competition circumstances. The lack of preventive effects is likely due to the too low overall frequency of training sessions. PMID:25370591

  5. Wilderness medical society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris; Engeln, Anna; Johnson, Eric; McIntosh, Scott E; Zafren, Ken; Islas, Arthur A; McStay, Christopher; Smith, William 'Will' R; Cushing, Tracy

    2012-09-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and prevention of lightning injuries. These guidelines include a review of the epidemiology of lightning strikes and recommendations for the prevention of lightning strikes, along with treatment recommendations organized by organ system. Recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians.

  6. Dichloroacetate prevents restenosis in preclinical animal models of vessel injury.

    PubMed

    Deuse, Tobias; Hua, Xiaoqin; Wang, Dong; Maegdefessel, Lars; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger; Bolaños, Juan P; Rakovic, Aleksandar; Spin, Joshua M; Stubbendorff, Mandy; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Länger, Florian; Zeller, Tanja; Schulte-Uentrop, Leonie; Stoehr, Andrea; Itagaki, Ryo; Haddad, Francois; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Kiefmann, Rainer; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Velden, Joachim; Klein, Christine; Yeung, Alan; Robbins, Robert C; Tsao, Philip S; Schrepfer, Sonja

    2014-05-29

    Despite the introduction of antiproliferative drug-eluting stents, coronary heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States. In-stent restenosis and bypass graft failure are characterized by excessive smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and concomitant myointima formation with luminal obliteration. Here we show that during the development of myointimal hyperplasia in human arteries, SMCs show hyperpolarization of their mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and acquire a temporary state with a high proliferative rate and resistance to apoptosis. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2 (PDK2) was identified as a key regulatory protein, and its activation proved necessary for relevant myointima formation. Pharmacologic PDK2 blockade with dichloroacetate or lentiviral PDK2 knockdown prevented ΔΨm hyperpolarization, facilitated apoptosis and reduced myointima formation in injured human mammary and coronary arteries, rat aortas, rabbit iliac arteries and swine (pig) coronary arteries. In contrast to several commonly used antiproliferative drugs, dichloroacetate did not prevent vessel re-endothelialization. Targeting myointimal ΔΨm and alleviating apoptosis resistance is a novel strategy for the prevention of proliferative vascular diseases. PMID:24747400

  7. Can ring finger injuries be prevented by pre-weakened rings? Three clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Matheron, A S; Hendriks, S; Gouzou, S; Liverneaux, P A; Facca, S

    2014-06-01

    Prevention of finger trauma can be directly related to the manufacture of pre-weakened rings. We report on three clinical cases of finger injuries caused by pre-weakened rings. Lesions were less severe than conventional ring finger injuries, such as those caused by iron fences. Surgery was required in all three cases and chronic cold sensitivity was noted in one case. This small series advocates the imposition of a ring manufacturing standard at the European level. Given this lack of consensus, the idea is to prevent injuries by developing rings with intentional weak points that open automatically in case of trauma. These pre-weakened rings have never been subject to clinical study to demonstrate their potential safety.

  8. Child Pedestrian Injury: A Review of Behavioral Risks and Preventive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Davis, Aaron L.; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian injury is among the leading causes of pediatric death in the United States and much of the world. This paper is divided into two sections. First, we review the literature on behavioral risk factors for child injury. Cognitive and perceptual development risks are discussed. The roles of distraction, temperament and personality, and social influences from parents and peers are presented. We conclude the first section with brief reviews of environmental risks, pedestrian safety among special populations, and the role of sleep and fatigue on pediatric pedestrian safety. The second section of the review considers child pedestrian injury prevention strategies. Categorized by mode of presentation, we discuss parent instruction strategies, school-based instruction strategies (including crossing guards), and streetside training techniques. Technology-based training strategies using video, internet, and virtual reality are reviewed. We conclude the section on prevention with discussion of community-based interventions. PMID:23066380

  9. Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Weisburd, David L

    2015-03-18

    Focused deterrence strategies are a relatively new addition to a growing portfolio of evidence-based violent gun injury prevention practices available to policy makers and practitioners. These strategies seek to change offender behavior by understanding the underlying violence-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring violent gun injury problems and by implementing a blended strategy of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. Consistent with documented public health practice, the focused deterrence approach identifies underlying risk factors and causes of recurring violent gun injury problems, develops tailored responses to these underlying conditions, and measures the impact of implemented interventions. This article reviews the practice, theoretical principles, and evaluation evidence on focused deterrence strategies. Although more rigorous randomized studies are needed, the available empirical evidence suggests that these strategies generate noteworthy gun violence reduction impacts and should be part of a broader portfolio of violence prevention strategies available to policy makers and practitioners.

  10. Can ring finger injuries be prevented by pre-weakened rings? Three clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Matheron, A S; Hendriks, S; Gouzou, S; Liverneaux, P A; Facca, S

    2014-06-01

    Prevention of finger trauma can be directly related to the manufacture of pre-weakened rings. We report on three clinical cases of finger injuries caused by pre-weakened rings. Lesions were less severe than conventional ring finger injuries, such as those caused by iron fences. Surgery was required in all three cases and chronic cold sensitivity was noted in one case. This small series advocates the imposition of a ring manufacturing standard at the European level. Given this lack of consensus, the idea is to prevent injuries by developing rings with intentional weak points that open automatically in case of trauma. These pre-weakened rings have never been subject to clinical study to demonstrate their potential safety. PMID:24857635

  11. Common injuries and ailments of the female athlete; pathophysiology, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Hilibrand, Miryl J; Hammoud, Sommer; Bishop, Meghan; Woods, Daniel; Fredrick, Robert W; Dodson, Christopher C

    2015-11-01

    With increasing numbers of women competing in high school and collegiate athletics, it is important that physicians become familiar with injury patterns and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. Observations and clinical data have elucidated unique biomechanical, anatomic and hormonal factors that predispose skeletally mature female athletes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, patellofemoral disorders and lower extremity stress fractures. Additionally, younger female athletes are particularly at risk of developing components of the "Female Athlete Triad" (more recently included under the syndrome of "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport" [RED-S]): disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions has led to the development of programs that can treat their underlying causes, decrease susceptibility to injury, and improve the long-term health of the female athlete. This paper is intended to provide physicians with a review of the sex-specific etiology, prevention and treatment of injuries common to the female athlete. PMID:26458108

  12. Prevention Practice Differences Among Persons With Spinal Cord Injuries Who Rarely Versus Frequently Sustain Pressure Ulcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael L.; Marini, Irmo; Slate, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are common among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and not only are costly to treat but also affect the quality of life of those affected by them. Despite a plethora of literature on prevention, there are few wellness studies focusing on the practices of people who do not develop pressure ulcers. This preliminary study sought to…

  13. Acute kidney injury: intravenous fluid to prevent contrast-induced AKI.

    PubMed

    Weisbord, Steven D; Palevsky, Paul M

    2009-05-01

    Trials that compared sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury have yielded highly conflicting results. The authors of a recent meta-analysis endeavored to provide a definitive assessment of the relative efficacy of these two intravenous fluids.

  14. Prevention of Home-Related Injuries of Preschoolers: Safety Measures Taken by Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khameesa, Nedaa A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the extent of safety measures taken by mothers to prevent serious injuries to their pre-school children in the home, and the factors that influence mothers' behaviour in taking these safety measures. Design: A self-completion questionnaire based on a Five Level Likert Scale was used in the study.…

  15. 78 FR 64505 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... and Control. Matters to be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss the recommendations provided by the... strategies needed to guide the Center's focus. The BSC members will also discuss potential topics for...

  16. Can Stretching Prior to Exercise and Sports Improve Performance and Prevent Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracko, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines data from research on stretching as it relates to enhanced performance and injury prevention so that fitness, exercise, and sports performance professionals can make informed decisions about stretching programs for clients. The paper notes that stretching is a misunderstood component of fitness and sports training. Few studies show…

  17. Progress in preventing injuries: a content analysis of national policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Nikesh; Mitis, Francesco; Sethi, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a content analysis of national policies to address violence and injury prevention in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region so as to inform where future improvements can be made. Multiple search methods were used to identify national policies for violence and injury prevention. Application of a framework based on a WHO guide was used for policy analysis. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was additionally conducted. One hundred and twenty-three national policies were identified; of these, 80 were available in English language and analysed further. Most national policies had been developed after 2003. The majority of policies fulfilled most of the WHO criteria for effective policy-making. Policy areas requiring improvement include quantifying objectives, targeting the socio-economic gap in injury burden and increased focus on primary prevention. Results from the MCA confirmed the ones obtained with the descriptive statistics. Encouraging progress is being made in formulating national policy for violence and injury prevention within the WHO European Region. There are specific areas that warrant increasing attention in future policy development.

  18. Sports Safety. Accident Prevention and Injury Control in Physical Education, Athletics, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter, Ed.

    This anthology of articles concerned with injury in sports and safety procedures is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to general discussions of safety and a guiding philosophy for accident prevention. Part Two develops articles on administration and supervision, including discussions of health examination, legal liability, facilities,…

  19. Computer-Based Instruction and the Web for Delivering Injury Prevention Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie L.; Harrington, Susan S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 10 injury prevention computer-based training modules tested by 120 participants from 65 facilities that provide care or support to elderly people needing long-term care. The training was delivered either on CD-ROM or at a Web site. A repeated measures analysis was performed with module scores on a pretest and…

  20. Healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes and counselling on injury prevention for preschool children in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Crnica, Vanja; Mujkić, Aida; Young, Tracy; Miškulin, Maja; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-11-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults in Croatia. Research has indicated that health care providers can be effective in reducing the risk for traumatic injury through anticipatory guidance, but successful guidance requires that providers have injury knowledge and informed safety attitudes. This is the first study in Croatia to identify health care provider's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anticipatory guidance on injury prevention for children. A stratified, random sample of licensed Croatian healthcare providers was mailed a survey, with a response of rate of 39.5 %. Participants included pediatricians, family physicians, gynecologists, each with a focus on primary care, and community nurses. Participants filled out a 15-minute paper-and-pencil survey that tested their knowledge of injury risks and prevention strategies, assessed their safety-prone attitudes, and measured the extent to which they counselled their patients on injury prevention. Pediatricians had the highest knowledge of injury risks and intervention approaches, with an average correct score of six out of ten (significantly higher than all other provider types). Knowledge was highest regarding infant fall risk and lowest for safe sleep positions. Pediatricians and community nurses had the highest safety-prone attitudes. Safety prone attitudes were strongest for transportation safety and weakest for safe sleeping position for all providers. Community nurses reported the highest level of patient counselling, followed by pediatricians. Both factual education and support in translating knowledge into everyday practice are necessary for health care providers. Implementing anticipatory guidance for child safety is a promising approach in Croatia.

  1. Status report - The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Crain, J; McFaull, S; Thompson, W; Skinner, R; Do, M T; Fréchette, M; Mukhi, S

    2016-06-01

    This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP's overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools-designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product)-is revealing eCHIRPP's potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends. PMID:27284703

  2. Preventing Kidney Injury in Children with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Larijani, Faezeh Javadi; Moghtaderi, Mastaneh; Hajizadeh, Nilofar; Assadi, Farahnak

    2013-01-01

    The most common cause of neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD) in newborn infants is myelomeningocele. The pathophysiology almost always involves the bladder detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (DSD), which if untreated can cause severe and irreversible damage to the upper and lower urinary tracts. Early diagnosis and adequate management of NBD is critical to prevent both renal damage and bladder dysfunction and to reduce chances for the future surgeries. Initial investigation of the affected newborn infant includes a renal and bladder ultrasound, measurement of urine residual, determination of serum creatinine level, and urodynamics study. Voiding cystogram is indicated when either hydronephrosis or DSD is present. The main goal of treatment is prevention of urinary tract deterioration and achievement of continuance at an appropriate age. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) in combination with anticholinergic (oxybutynin) and antibiotics are instituted in those with high filling and voiding pressures, DSD and/or high grade reflux immediately after the myelomeningocele is repaired. Botulium toxin-A injection into detrusor is a safe alternative in patients with insufficient response or significant side effects to anticholinergic (oral or intravesical instillation) therapy. Surgery is an effective alternative in patients with persistent detrusor hyperactivity and/or dyssynergic detrusor sphincter despites of the CIC and maximum dosage of anticholinergic therapy. Children with NBD require care from a multidisciplinary team approach consisting of pediatricians, neurosurgeon, urologist, nephrologists, orthopedic surgeon, and other allied medical specialists. PMID:24498490

  3. Risk factors and injury prevention in elite athletes: a descriptive study of the opinions of physical therapists, doctors and trainers

    PubMed Central

    Saragiotto, Bruno T.; Di Pierro, Carla; Lopes, Alexandre D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in elite athletes. Understanding what professionals who work with patients with sports injuries think about prevention has been suggested as an important aspect to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent sports injuries. Objectives To describe and characterize the opinions of physical therapists, physicians and trainers on 'risk factors' and 'prevention of injury' in elite athletes. Method This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with members of the medical and technical department of the Brazilian delegation who participated in the Pan American Games of Guadalajara 2011. The interview was conducted using two questions: 1) "What do you think can cause injuries in athletes participating in your sport?" 2) "What do you do to prevent injuries in your sport?" The interviews were analyzed in two stages, the identification of thematic units, followed by the categorization and grouping of thematic units. Results We interviewed a total of 30 professionals. Regarding question 1, the main factors attributed as responsible for injury were over-training and incorrect sports techniques. Regarding question 2, the main reported strategies used to prevent injuries were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. Conclusions The main factors affecting the appearance of lesions were over-training, incorrect sports technique, inadequate nutrition and factors related to the athlete's behavior. The main injury prevention strategies were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. PMID:24845023

  4. Perceptions of injury causes and solutions in a Johannesburg township: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Butchart, A; Kruger, J; Lekoba, R

    2000-02-01

    As with other diseases, citizen perceptions of injury causes and solutions are important determinants of their response to the problem. This study explores qualitative responses to questions about the causes and solutions for injuries due to violence, transport, and unintentional burns, falls and other causes from 1,075 residents in six neighbourhoods of a low-income area in Johannesburg, South Africa. These included council houses, council apartment blocks and informal settlements. Data were analysed using content analytic procedures. Perceived causes of injury varied sharply between neighbourhoods. Violence was seen as an outcome of unemployment, socialisation, drug abuse and drug dealing in the formal housing areas, while in the informal settlements it was attributed to unemployment, poor housing and environmental conditions, and excessive alcohol consumption. In the formal housing areas, suggested solutions for violence emphasised increased policing and other repressive measures that contradicted the attribution of causes to environmental factors. In the informal areas, solutions were more congruent with perceived causes, emphasising housing development, education and employment. Perceived causes and solutions for transport injuries reflected the specific context of each neighbourhood, and indicated strong support for the implementation of environmental modifications to reduce the speed of motor vehicles and thus the number of pedestrian injuries. Where perceived causes and solutions for violence and transport-related injuries were located beyond the community in the broader environment, unintentional injuries due to other causes were seen as more in the sphere of potential personal control, except in the informal areas where electrification and formal housing provision were the most commonly suggested solutions. Popular constructions of the causes and solutions for major categories of injury are important in shaping injury prevention responses, and their

  5. An integrated program for the prevention and management of musculoskeletal work injuries.

    PubMed

    Rhomberg, S; Wolf, L; Evanoff, B

    1995-01-01

    With rising health care costs and a dynamic health care structure in the USA, many medical and rehabilitation professionals are seeking cost effective strategies to assist employers in preventing and managing musculoskeletal work injuries. An integrated approach based on the classic three component model of preventive medicine which includes primary, secondary and tertiary prevention is discussed. This approach includes ergonomics, medical injury treatment and rehabilitation services to provide a comprehensive occupational health program. The manner in which these services are packaged for purchase by industry is shifting from a fee-for-service system to a capitated program with the provider coordinating service delivery at risk. The incentives for successful outcomes are tremendous. Challenges in carrying out this program are presented as well as discussion of approaches to overcome these barriers. PMID:24441115

  6. Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ Injury Prevention Program in the Collegiate Male Soccer Player

    PubMed Central

    Silvers-Granelli, Holly; Mandelbaum, Bert; Adeniji, Ola; Insler, Stephanie; Bizzini, Mario; Pohlig, Ryan; Junge, Astrid; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Background The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program has been shown to be an effective injury prevention program in the female soccer cohort, but there is a paucity of research to demonstrate its efficacy in the male population. Hypothesis To examine the efficacy of the FIFA 11+ program in men's collegiate United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I and Division II soccer. Study Design Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods Before the commencement of the fall 2012 season, every NCAA Division I and Division II men's collegiate soccer team (N = 396) was solicited to participate in this research study. Human ethics review board approval was obtained through Quorum Review IRB. Sixty-five teams were randomized: 34 to the control group (CG; 850 players) and 31 to the intervention group (IG; 675 players). Four teams in the IG did not complete the study, reducing the number for analysis to 61. The FIFA 11+ injury prevention program served as the intervention and was utilized weekly. Athlete-exposures (AEs), compliance, and injury data were recorded using a secure Internet-based system. Results In the CG, 665 injuries (mean ± SD, 19.56 ± 11.01) were reported for 34 teams, which corresponded to an incidence rate (IR) of 15.04 injuries per 1000 AEs. In the IG, 285 injuries (mean ± SD, 10.56 ± 3.64) were reported for 27 teams, which corresponded to an IR of 8.09 injuries per 1000 AEs. Total days missed because of injury were significantly higher for the CG (mean ± SD, 13.20 ± 26.6 days) than for the IG (mean ± SD, 10.08 ± 14.68 days) (P = .007). There was no difference for time loss due to injury based on field type (P = .341). Conclusion The FIFA 11+ significantly reduced injury rates by 46.1% and decreased time loss to injury by 28.6% in the competitive male collegiate soccer player (rate ratio, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.49-0.59]; P < .0001) (number needed to treat = 2.64). PMID:26378030

  7. Burn injury and prevention in the Lebanon War, 1982.

    PubMed

    Shafir, R; Nili, E; Kedem, R

    1984-04-01

    Measures taken during the Lebanon War, 1982, to prevent and minimize the extent and severity of tank-crew combat burns proved to be of value. Since 98% of tank crewmen who were burned were wearing fireproof suits at the time, only 12% sustained abdominal burns; 77% had facial burns, as none of them were wearing fireproof masks. Only 9% of the burned soldiers who wore fireproof gloves sustained hand burns, compared with 75% who did not wear the gloves. A comparison of the extent of tank-crew burns in the Lebanon War and the October 1973 War revealed that 51% of the burns in 1982 were minor, compared with 21% in 1973. Of the burns sustained in 1973, 29% covered greater than 40% of the body surface area, compared with 18% in 1982.

  8. Preventing alcohol-related traffic injury: a health promotion approach.

    PubMed

    Howat, Peter; Sleet, David; Elder, Randy; Maycock, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    The conditions that give rise to drinking and driving are complex, with multiple and interrelated causes. Prevention efforts benefit from an approach that relies on the combination of multiple interventions. Health promotion provides a useful framework for conceptualizing and implementing actions to reduce drinking and driving since it involves a combination of educational, behavioral, environmental, and policy approaches. This review draws on data from a range of settings to characterize the effectiveness of various interventions embedded within the health promotion approach. Interventions considered part of the health promotion approach include: (1) economic interventions (2) organizational interventions, (3) policy interventions, and (4) health education interventions, including the use of media, school and community education, and public awareness programs. Effective health promotion strengthens the skills and capabilities of individuals to take action and the capacity of groups or communities to act collectively to exert control over the determinants of alcohol-impaired driving. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of some components of health promotion, including economic and retailer interventions, alcohol taxation, reducing alcohol availability, legal and legislative strategies, and strategies addressing the servers of alcohol. There is also evidence for the effectiveness of sobriety checkpoints, lower BAC laws, minimum legal drinking age laws, and supportive media promotion programs. Other interventions with moderate evidence of effectiveness include restricting alcohol advertising and promotion, and actions involving counter advertising. Health education interventions alone that have insufficient evidence for effectiveness include passive server training programs, school drug and alcohol education programs, community mobilization efforts, and health warnings. Because each intervention builds on the strengths of every other one, ecological

  9. Preventing alcohol-related traffic injury: a health promotion approach.

    PubMed

    Howat, Peter; Sleet, David; Elder, Randy; Maycock, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    The conditions that give rise to drinking and driving are complex, with multiple and interrelated causes. Prevention efforts benefit from an approach that relies on the combination of multiple interventions. Health promotion provides a useful framework for conceptualizing and implementing actions to reduce drinking and driving since it involves a combination of educational, behavioral, environmental, and policy approaches. This review draws on data from a range of settings to characterize the effectiveness of various interventions embedded within the health promotion approach. Interventions considered part of the health promotion approach include: (1) economic interventions (2) organizational interventions, (3) policy interventions, and (4) health education interventions, including the use of media, school and community education, and public awareness programs. Effective health promotion strengthens the skills and capabilities of individuals to take action and the capacity of groups or communities to act collectively to exert control over the determinants of alcohol-impaired driving. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of some components of health promotion, including economic and retailer interventions, alcohol taxation, reducing alcohol availability, legal and legislative strategies, and strategies addressing the servers of alcohol. There is also evidence for the effectiveness of sobriety checkpoints, lower BAC laws, minimum legal drinking age laws, and supportive media promotion programs. Other interventions with moderate evidence of effectiveness include restricting alcohol advertising and promotion, and actions involving counter advertising. Health education interventions alone that have insufficient evidence for effectiveness include passive server training programs, school drug and alcohol education programs, community mobilization efforts, and health warnings. Because each intervention builds on the strengths of every other one, ecological

  10. Strategies for prevention of acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Santos, Eduesley; Marcusso, Marila Eduara Fátima; Rodrigues, Amanda Oliveira; de Queiroz, Fernanda Gomes; de Oliveira, Larissa Bertacchini; Rodrigues, Adriano Rogério Baldacin; Palomo, Jurema da Silva Herbas

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and increased length of stay in the intensive care unit. Considering the high prevalence of acute kidney injury and its association with worsened prognosis, the development of strategies for renal protection in hospitals is essential to reduce the associated high morbidity and mortality, especially for patients at high risk of developing acute kidney injury, such as patients who undergo cardiac surgery. This integrative review sought to assess the evidence available in the literature regarding the most effective interventions for the prevention of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. To select the articles, we used the CINAHL and MedLine databases. The sample of this review consisted of 16 articles. After analyzing the articles included in the review, the results of the studies showed that only hydration with saline has noteworthy results in the prevention of acute kidney injury. The other strategies are controversial and require further research to prove their effectiveness. PMID:25028954

  11. Automation of Workplace Lifting Hazard Assessment for Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Existing methods for practically evaluating musculoskeletal exposures such as posture and repetition in workplace settings have limitations. We aimed to automate the estimation of parameters in the revised United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, a standard manual observational tool used to evaluate back injury risk related to lifting in workplace settings, using depth camera (Microsoft Kinect) and skeleton algorithm technology. Methods A large dataset (approximately 22,000 frames, derived from six subjects) of simultaneous lifting and other motions recorded in a laboratory setting using the Kinect (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States) and a standard optical motion capture system (Qualysis, Qualysis Motion Capture Systems, Qualysis AB, Sweden) was assembled. Error-correction regression models were developed to improve the accuracy of NIOSH lifting equation parameters estimated from the Kinect skeleton. Kinect-Qualysis errors were modelled using gradient boosted regression trees with a Huber loss function. Models were trained on data from all but one subject and tested on the excluded subject. Finally, models were tested on three lifting trials performed by subjects not involved in the generation of the model-building dataset. Results Error-correction appears to produce estimates for NIOSH lifting equation parameters that are more accurate than those derived from the Microsoft Kinect algorithm alone. Our error-correction models substantially decreased the variance of parameter errors. In general, the Kinect underestimated parameters, and modelling reduced this bias, particularly for more biased estimates. Use of the raw Kinect skeleton model tended to result in falsely high safe recommended weight limits of loads, whereas error-corrected models gave more conservative, protective estimates. Conclusions Our results suggest that it may be possible to produce reasonable estimates of

  12. Lowering blood ammonia prevents hepatocyte injury and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guanmin; Yu, Zujiang; Yan, Jingya; Li, Jingjing; Shen, Shen; Jia, Bin; Guan, Kelei; Gao, Xiaojuan; Kan, Quancheng

    2015-01-01

    To study hepatocyte injure through establishing the rat model of acute hepatic failure (ALF). ALF rat model was established by administration with D-galactosamine and LPS, and then giving lowering blood ammonia (LBA) treatment. Besides, the intervention groups were injected with ornithine and aspartate. The control groups were injected saline. Blood ammonia, ALT, AST, TNF-α and IL-6 in blood samples were test at 12 hrs and 24 hrs after treatment with LBA. Hepatocyte apoptosis were tested by TUNEL and DNA Ladder. Expression of P53 and SPP1 were detected by RT-PCR. Results: showed that blood ammonia in hepatic failure group and intervention group compared with blank control group was significantly increased at 12 h, 24 h; intervention group compared with hepatic failure group was significantly reduced (P<0.05). Serum ALT, AST in 24 h group were higher than 12 h. 12 h intervention group was decreased compared with hepatic failure group, but there was no significant statistically difference (P>0.05). 24 h intervention group compared with hepatic failure group was significantly reduced (P<0.05). Except the control group, DNA ladder and the TUNEL results showed hepatocyte apoptosis rate increased in 24 h compared with 12 h. Intervention group compared with hepatic failure group was significantly reducing (P<0.05). IL-6, TNF-α, p53 expression levels were increased with time (24 h>12 h). The hepatic failure and intervention group compared with blank control group was significantly increased; Intervention group compared with hepatic failure group was significantly reducing (P<0.05). SPP1 gene was high expression in ALF rat model. SPP1 level in hepatic failure and intervention group compared with control group was significantly increased, and intervention group compared with hepatic failure group was significantly reducing (P<0.05). In conclusion, hepatocyte apoptosis is an important pathological change in ALF rat mode, and lowing ammonia can reduce liver injury and

  13. Case-control study on the prevention of occupational eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chi-Kung; Yen, Ya-Lin; Chang, Cheng-Hsien; Chiang, Hung-Che; Shen, Ying-Ying; Chang, Po-Ya

    2008-01-01

    The risk factors for occupational eye injuries have never been published in Taiwan. We conducted a case-control study to analyze the differences among workers on their knowledge, attitude to and practice (KAP) of occupational accident prevention. In the study, a statistical model was also set up for predicting the occupational problem. Subjects, including 31 cases of work-related eye injuries and 62 controls, completed a structured questionnaire on KAP, which revealed that 80.6% and 62.7% of workers in the case and control groups, respectively, did not wear eye protection during work. Furthermore, we found that temporary employment (OR, 10.7; 95% CI, 3.03-36.16) and fewer than 10 years of education (OR, 4.44; 95% CI, 1.73-11.44) were the major risk factors for occupational eye injuries. In addition, we developed a logistic regression model with four predictors (temporary employment, education years less than 10, poor management of industrial health and safety in the workplace, and poor attitude towards accident prevention) for the occurrence of occupational eye injuries. In conclusion, in Taiwan, compulsory regulation of wearing eye protection during work, good education, management of work safety and hygiene and employee (especially temporary worker) commitment to safety and health are strongly recommended prevention strategies.

  14. Fathers' views on their financial situations, father-child activities, and preventing child injuries.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Lise L; Oliffe, John L; Brussoni, Mariana; Creighton, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are a leading public health problem for children, particularly among those living at lower socioeconomic levels. Parents play an important preventive role, and the aim of this study was to examine fathers' views on the role of their family financial situation in preventing children's injuries. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 fathers of children 2 to 7 years living in western Canada. Questions solicited fathers' views about their financial situation and their child injury prevention efforts. Data analysis was underpinned by masculinity theory and guided by constant comparative grounded theory methods. Findings included that fathers living with fewer financial limitations emphasized use of safety equipment and aligned themselves with provider and protector masculine ideals. Fathers with moderate financial constraint described more child-centered safety efforts and efforts to manage finances. Those facing greatest constraint demonstrated aspects of marginalized masculinities, whereby they acknowledged their economic provider limitations while strongly aligning with the protector role. These findings hold relevance for development of interventions aimed at reducing child injury risk inequities. Taking into account how masculinities may shape their beliefs and practices can inform design of father-centered interventions for men living at different points on the socioeconomic spectrum.

  15. Sports injuries in young athletes: long-term outcome and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2010-06-01

    Physical activity plays a significant role in the physical and emotional well-being of a child. In the past 15 to 20 years, there has been a dramatic increase in sports participation at a young age, which has offered numerous health benefits, including self-esteem, confidence, team play, fitness, agility, and strength. Children are playing sports at younger ages. This article assesses the long-term outcome of sports injuries in young athletes, with suggestions on how to prevent such injuries. There are no definitive epidemiological data on withdraw from sports activities due to injury in young athletes. Disturbed physeal growth as a result of injury can result in length discrepancy, angular deformity, or altered joint mechanics, and may cause significant long-term disability. Sequelae of Osgood-Schlatter lesion include painful ossicle in the distal patellar tendon. Fragmentation or separation of the apophysis appears to be the result of adaptive changes to the increased stress that occurs in overuse activities. The presence of these changes undeniably demonstrates an osseous reaction, although they are not disabling. Promotion of a physically active lifestyle is encouraged worldwide, particularly with regard to the many health benefits. Reduction of only a moderate proportion of all sports injuries is of significance for the young athletes' health and could have a long-term economic impact on health care costs. It is therefore important to convince medical doctors, physical therapists, athletic trainers and coaches, as well as athletes of the necessity to implement active prevention measures in their therapy and training programs, thus decreasing the injury and re-injury rate and enhancing athletic performance. PMID:20631461

  16. Evaluation, management, rehabilitation, and prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injury: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Micheo, William; Hernández, Liza; Seda, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is essential for both static and dynamic stability of the knee. It is commonly injured during sports activities by noncontact mechanisms that include landing with the knee in valgus and extension, sudden deceleration, change of direction, and rotation. Several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors predispose athletes to this injury, especially women. Early diagnosis, treatment directed to protect secondary knee structures, and rehabilitation play an important role in the management of ACL injury. Despite a lack of scientifically validated and published guidelines to help clinicians decide between conservative or surgical treatment, criteria such as pain, recurrent instability, injury to secondary structures, and desired level of activity should be considered. Accelerated rehabilitation protocols for patients who have and have not undergone an operation are available and recommended with goals of reducing complications such as recurrent injury, loss of motion, residual weakness, and associated osteoarthritis. However, injury prevention protocols could be the next big step in management of ACL injury with emphasis on reducing modifiable risk factors in susceptible individuals who participate in sports.

  17. [The forensic medical assessment of injury prevention characteristics of limited-lethality weapons].

    PubMed

    Makarov, I Iu; Kovalev, A V; Kutsenko, K I; Evteeva, I A

    2012-01-01

    The results of analysis of the data presented in the special literature and normative legal documentation indicate that the forensic medical aspects of the injuries inflicted by gunshots of limited-lethality weapons either need to be clarified or remain virtually unexplored. There is the long overdue necessity to consolidate efforts of forensic medical experts and specialists from other agencies and institutions for the comprehensive solution of the problems related to the injury prevention characteristics of limited-lethality weapons and participation in the interdepartmental activities for the improvement of the legislation regulating weapon trafficking. PMID:23272558

  18. [The forensic medical assessment of injury prevention characteristics of limited-lethality weapons].

    PubMed

    Makarov, I Iu; Kovalev, A V; Kutsenko, K I; Evteeva, I A

    2012-01-01

    The results of analysis of the data presented in the special literature and normative legal documentation indicate that the forensic medical aspects of the injuries inflicted by gunshots of limited-lethality weapons either need to be clarified or remain virtually unexplored. There is the long overdue necessity to consolidate efforts of forensic medical experts and specialists from other agencies and institutions for the comprehensive solution of the problems related to the injury prevention characteristics of limited-lethality weapons and participation in the interdepartmental activities for the improvement of the legislation regulating weapon trafficking.

  19. Efficacy of injury prevention related coach education within netball and soccer.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A; Tunstall, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, Netball New Zealand and New Zealand Football adapted a generic 10-point action plan for sports injury prevention, SportSmart, to create NetballSmart and SoccerSmart, as part of their coach education programmes. A small-size descriptive study was conducted in both sports, to assess the efficacy of integrating sports injury prevention into coach education. NetballSmart was evaluated at the end of 2005, via a telephone survey of 217 coaches (53% response rate) who had attended a NetballSmart course earlier in the year. SoccerSmart was evaluated at the start of 2007, via an Internet questionnaire completed by 71 coaches (20% response rate) who had attended a SoccerSmart course in 2006. The evaluations focused on the quality and use of the course resource material, as well as assessing the extent to which coaches had incorporated injury prevention behaviours into player practices. After attending a NetballSmart course, 89% of coaches changed the way they coached, with 95% reported using knowledge from the course and passing it on to players. Ninety-six percent of football/soccer coaches also changed the way they coached, with most change relating to warm-up/cool-down and stretch (65%), technique (63%), fitness (60%) and nutrition/hydration (58%) practices. Although this was a descriptive study in nature, with a small sample size, we conclude that integration of injury prevention content within coach education courses and resources may be a viable and effective strategy to help community coaches--and therefore community players--help reduce their risk of injury. PMID:19059806

  20. Efficacy of injury prevention related coach education within netball and soccer.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A; Tunstall, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, Netball New Zealand and New Zealand Football adapted a generic 10-point action plan for sports injury prevention, SportSmart, to create NetballSmart and SoccerSmart, as part of their coach education programmes. A small-size descriptive study was conducted in both sports, to assess the efficacy of integrating sports injury prevention into coach education. NetballSmart was evaluated at the end of 2005, via a telephone survey of 217 coaches (53% response rate) who had attended a NetballSmart course earlier in the year. SoccerSmart was evaluated at the start of 2007, via an Internet questionnaire completed by 71 coaches (20% response rate) who had attended a SoccerSmart course in 2006. The evaluations focused on the quality and use of the course resource material, as well as assessing the extent to which coaches had incorporated injury prevention behaviours into player practices. After attending a NetballSmart course, 89% of coaches changed the way they coached, with 95% reported using knowledge from the course and passing it on to players. Ninety-six percent of football/soccer coaches also changed the way they coached, with most change relating to warm-up/cool-down and stretch (65%), technique (63%), fitness (60%) and nutrition/hydration (58%) practices. Although this was a descriptive study in nature, with a small sample size, we conclude that integration of injury prevention content within coach education courses and resources may be a viable and effective strategy to help community coaches--and therefore community players--help reduce their risk of injury.

  1. Groin injuries in athletes--development of clinical entities, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Hölmich, Per

    2015-12-01

    The doctoral thesis is based on eight papers published in peer-reviewed journals and a review of the literature. The papers are published between 1997 and 2013 in cooperation with Sankt Elisabeth Hospital, Herlev Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre Hospital, Amager Hospital, Copenhagen Trial Unit, and Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen. Groin injuries in sport are very common and in football they are among the most common and most time-consuming injuries. These injuries are treated very differently around the world. There is no consensus in the literature regarding definitions, examination methods, diagnosis or treatment and in general the level of evidence is very low. There is a need for identification of the painful anatomical structures, how to examine them and how to define clinical entities to develop effective treatment and prevention. The aim of these studies were: - To review the literature to create an overview of the ideas and the knowledge in order to plan future studies in this field. - Develop and test clinical examination techniques of the relevant tendons and muscles in the region. - Since no evidence-based diagnosis exist; to develop a set of clinical entities to identify the different groups of patients. - To test the effect of a dedicated exercise program developed for treatment of long-standing adductor-related groin pain in athletes in a randomised clinical trial comparing it to the treatment modalities used at that time. - To examine the long-term effect of the above mentioned training program for treatment of long-standing adductor-related groin pain. - To develop a training program for prevention of groin injuries in soccer and test it in a randomised clinical trial. - To describe the occurrence and presentation in clinical entities of groin injuries in male football and to examine the characteristics of these injuries. - Evaluate if radiological signs of femuro-acetabular impingement (FAI) or dysplasia affect the

  2. Advances in sports medicine. Prevention of head and neck injuries in football.

    PubMed

    Reid, S E; Reid, S E

    1981-01-01

    Statistics on catastrophic head and neck injuries in football provide a more realistic indication of the incidence of serious injuries occurring on the football field than do the fatality figures. These statistics, however, provide no clues for preventing such injuries. Moreover, research using head models, anesthetized animals, cadaveric heads, and estimates of brain tolerance to impact based on studies of actual injuries to the heads of humans has produced conflicting data with respect to the goal of improving the safety record of the sport. To reconcile the data and to provide some solutions to the problem of serious injuries on the playing field, we reviewed the data collected in the laboratory and correlated it with the information obtained from telemetry studies. As a result of combining these two data sources, we concluded that injuries on the playing field occur at either end of the spectrum of offered resistance: when too much resistance is offered and when little or no resistance is offered. We demonstrated that, by avoiding either of these extremes, serious injuries to the head and neck can be reduced considerably. Finally, we discussed the importance of preprogrammed responses by the experienced, well-conditioned athlete. These allow the athlete to avoid either extreme of resistance and, thereby, protect him from injury. Clearly, the data obtained from laboratory and telemetry studies will prove instrumental in effecting changes in the sport of football. As a result of these studies, we can hope for alterations in the design of the helmet, enlightened coaching techniques, and rule revisions--all of which will serve to make football a safe sport.

  3. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine prevents oxidative stress and renal injury in hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Karahan, M A; Yalcin, S; Aydogan, H; Büyükfirat, E; Kücük, A; Kocarslan, S; Yüce, H H; Taskın, A; Aksoy, N

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin and dexmedetomidine have been shown to have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. However, their protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether curcumin or dexmedetomidine prevents renal tissue from injury that was induced by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups: sham, control, curcumin (CUR) group (200 mg/kg curcumin, n = 10), dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, n = 10), and curcumin-dexmedetomidine (CUR-DEX) group (200 mg/kg curcumin and 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine). Curcumin and dexmedetomidine were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the end of 4 h ischemia, just 5 min before reperfusion. The extremity re-perfused for 2 h and then blood samples were taken and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured, and renal tissue samples were histopathologically examined. The TAC activity levels in blood samples were significantly lower in the control than the other groups (p < 0.01 for all comparisons). The TOS activity levels in blood samples were significantly higher in Control group and than the other groups (p <  0.01 for all comparison). The OSI were found to be significantly increased in the control group compared to others groups (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Histopathological examination revealed less severe lesions in the sham, CUR, DEX, and CUR-DEX groups, compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Rat hind limb ischemia-reperfusion causes histopathological changes in the kidneys. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and renal histopathologic injury in an acute hind limb I/R rat model. PMID:26983591

  4. Preventable in-hospital medical injury under the "no fault" system in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Davis, P; Lay-Yee, R; Briant, R; Scott, A

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the pattern of preventable in-hospital medical injury under the "no fault" system and to assess the level of serious preventable patient harm. Design: Cross sectional survey using a two stage retrospective assessment of medical records conducted by structured implicit review. Setting: General hospitals with over 100 beds providing acute care in New Zealand. Participants: A sample of 6579 patients admitted in 1998 to 13 hospitals selected by stratified systematic list sample. Main outcome measures: Occurrence, preventability, and impact of adverse events. Results: Over 5% of admissions were associated with a preventable in-hospital event, of which nearly half had an element of systems failure. The elderly, ethnic minority groups, and particular clinical areas were at higher risk. The chances of a patient experiencing a serious preventable adverse event subsequent to hospital admission were just under 1%, a figure close to published results from comparable studies under tort. On average, these events required an additional 4 weeks in hospital. System related issues of protocol use and development, communication, and organisation, as well as requirements for consultation and education, were pre-eminent. Conclusions: The risk of serious preventable in-hospital medical injury for patients in New Zealand, a well established "no fault" jurisdiction, is within the range reported in comparable investigations under tort. PMID:12897357

  5. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 2: a review of prevention programs aimed to modify risk factors and to reduce injury rates.

    PubMed

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Myer, Gregory D; Silvers, Holly J; Samitier, Gonzalo; Romero, Daniel; Lázaro-Haro, Cristina; Cugat, Ramón

    2009-08-01

    Soccer is the most commonly played sport in the world, with an estimated 265 million active soccer players participating in the game as on 2006. Inherent to this sport is the higher risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) relative to other sports. ACL injury causes a significant loss of time from competition in soccer, which has served as the strong impetus to conduct research that focuses to determine the risk factors for injury, and more importantly, to identify and teach techniques to reduce this injury in the sport. This research emphasis has afforded a rapid influx of literature aimed to report the effects of neuromuscular training on the risk factors and the incidence of non-contact ACL injury in high-risk soccer populations. The purpose of the current review is to sequence the most recent literature relating the effects of prevention programs that were developed to alter risk factors associated with non-contact ACL injuries and to reduce the rate of non-contact ACL injuries in soccer players. To date there is no standardized intervention program established for soccer to prevent non-contact ACL injuries. Multi-component programs show better results than single-component preventive programs to reduce the risk and incidence of non-contact ACL injuries in soccer players. Lower extremity plyometrics, dynamic balance and strength, stretching, body awareness and decision-making, and targeted core and trunk control appear to be successful training components to reduce non-contact ACL injury risk factors (decrease landing forces, decrease varus/valgus moments, and increase effective muscle activation) and prevent non-contact ACL injuries in soccer players, especially in female athletes. Pre-season injury prevention combined with an in-season maintenance program may be advocated to prevent injury. Compliance may in fact be the limiting factor to the overall success of ACL injury interventions targeted to soccer players regardless of gender. Thus

  6. Obstetrical Anal Sphincter Injuries (OASIS): Prevention, Recognition, and Repair.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Marie-Andrée; Pierce, Marianne; Alter, Jens-Erik W; Chou, Queena; Diamond, Phaedra; Epp, Annette; Geoffrion, Roxana; Harvey, Marie-Andrée; Larochelle, Annick; Maslow, Kenny; Neustaedter, Grace; Pascali, Dante; Pierce, Marianne; Schulz, Jane; Wilkie, David; Sultan, Abdul; Thakar, Ranee

    2015-12-01

    Objectif : Analyser les données probantes traitant des lésions obstétricales du sphincter anal (LOSA) en ce qui concerne leur diagnostic, les techniques visant leur réparation et les résultats de l’intervention. Formuler des recommandations permettant d’éclairer les conseils offerts aux patientes ayant connu des LOSA en ce qui a trait à la voie d’accouchement à privilégier dans le cadre des grossesses subséquentes. Options : Les fournisseurs de soins obstétricaux qui comptent des patientes ayant connu des LOSA disposent de l’option de réparer le sphincter anal en faisant appel à la méthode de suture « bout à bout » (end-to-end) ou à la méthode « en paletot » (overlapping). Ils pourraient également être appelés à conseiller des femmes ayant déjà connu des LOSA en ce qui a trait à la voie d’accouchement à privilégier pour les grossesses subséquentes. Issues : Le critère d’évaluation était la continence anale à la suite d’une réparation primaire de LOSA et à la suite d’un accouchement subséquent. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans Medline, EMBASE et The Cochrane Library en mai 2011 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. anal canal, obstetrics, obstetric labour complication, pregnancy complication, treatment outcome, surgery, quality of life) et de mots clés (p. ex. obstetrical anal sphincter injur*, anus sphincter, anus injury, delivery, obstetrical care, surgery, suturing method, overlap, end-to-end, feces incontinence) appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux études observationnelles et aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs. Aucune restriction n’a été imposée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en septembre 2014. La littérature grise (non

  7. Employee perspectives on the role of supervisors to prevent workplace disability after injuries.

    PubMed

    Shaw, William S; Robertson, Michelle M; Pransky, Glenn; McLellan, Robert K

    2003-09-01

    After workplace injuries, supervisors can play an important role in aiding workers, accessing health care services, and providing reasonable accommodation. However, few studies have identified those aspects of supervisor involvement most valued by employees for postinjury recovery and return to work. As part of needs assessment for a supervisory training program, 30 employees from four companies were interviewed about the role of supervisors to prevent workplace disability after injuries. From interview notes, 305 employee statements were extracted for analysis. An affinity mapping process with an expert panel produced 11 common themes: accommodation, communicating with workers, responsiveness, concern for welfare, empathy/support, validation, fairness/respect, follow-up, shared decision-making, coordinating with medical providers, and obtaining coworker support of accommodation. Interpersonal aspects of supervision may be as important as physical work accommodation to facilitate return to work after injury. PMID:12966688

  8. Predictors of sustaining burn injury: does the use of common prevention strategies matter?

    PubMed

    Taira, Breena R; Cassara, Guy; Meng, Hongdao; Salama, Michael N; Chohan, Jasmine; Sandoval, Steven; Singer, Adam J

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of burn injury has decreased over the past several decades. Although this has been largely attributed to increased prevention awareness, few studies evaluate the effectiveness of implementing standard burn prevention strategies in preventing burn injury. The authors hypothesized that patients who sustain burns use burn prevention strategies less frequently than those who do not. This was a case-control study composed of a prospective survey questionnaire and retrospective burn registry query, which was performed in a suburban academic medical center with a burn unit. All burn patients seen by the burn service in the year 2008 and a nonrandom sample of nonburned emergency department patients and visitors during the same time period were enrolled. Demographics included age, gender, income, education, house type, insurance status, and prevention strategy usage including smoke alarms, carbon monoxide detectors, fire extinguishers, and escape plans. The primary outcome of interest in this study was burn injury. Chi-square tests were used to compare rates, Student's t-tests were used to compare mean values of continuous variables between burn patients and others, and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the strongest predictors of sustaining burn injury. One hundred ninety-four burn patients and 348 nonburned emergency department patients and visitors were surveyed. Burn patients reported the same rates of smoke alarm usage (96.9 vs 96.3%, P = .692), carbon monoxide detectors (75.3 vs 67.2%, P = .05), and higher rates of fire extinguisher ownership (80.4 vs 72.7%, P = .045) when compared with others. In multivariable analysis, the strongest predictor of sustaining burn injury was less than high school education (odds ratio [OR] 3.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-10.27), whereas English as a primary language (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.89), a graduate degree (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.42), income >$50,000 (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29-0.72), and

  9. Predictors of sustaining burn injury: does the use of common prevention strategies matter?

    PubMed

    Taira, Breena R; Cassara, Guy; Meng, Hongdao; Salama, Michael N; Chohan, Jasmine; Sandoval, Steven; Singer, Adam J

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of burn injury has decreased over the past several decades. Although this has been largely attributed to increased prevention awareness, few studies evaluate the effectiveness of implementing standard burn prevention strategies in preventing burn injury. The authors hypothesized that patients who sustain burns use burn prevention strategies less frequently than those who do not. This was a case-control study composed of a prospective survey questionnaire and retrospective burn registry query, which was performed in a suburban academic medical center with a burn unit. All burn patients seen by the burn service in the year 2008 and a nonrandom sample of nonburned emergency department patients and visitors during the same time period were enrolled. Demographics included age, gender, income, education, house type, insurance status, and prevention strategy usage including smoke alarms, carbon monoxide detectors, fire extinguishers, and escape plans. The primary outcome of interest in this study was burn injury. Chi-square tests were used to compare rates, Student's t-tests were used to compare mean values of continuous variables between burn patients and others, and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the strongest predictors of sustaining burn injury. One hundred ninety-four burn patients and 348 nonburned emergency department patients and visitors were surveyed. Burn patients reported the same rates of smoke alarm usage (96.9 vs 96.3%, P = .692), carbon monoxide detectors (75.3 vs 67.2%, P = .05), and higher rates of fire extinguisher ownership (80.4 vs 72.7%, P = .045) when compared with others. In multivariable analysis, the strongest predictor of sustaining burn injury was less than high school education (odds ratio [OR] 3.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-10.27), whereas English as a primary language (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.89), a graduate degree (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.42), income >$50,000 (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29-0.72), and

  10. Curcumin augments lung maturation, preventing neonatal lung injury by inhibiting TGF-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Reiko; Li, Yishi; Torday, John S.

    2011-01-01

    There is no effective intervention to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Curcumin has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and it modulates signaling of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), an important molecule in the pathobiology of BPD. However, its role in the prevention of BPD is not known. We determined 1) if curcumin enhances neonatal lung maturation, 2) if curcumin protects against hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury, and 3) if this protection is mediated by blocking TGF-β. Embryonic day 19 fetal rat lung fibroblasts were exposed to 21% or 95% O2 for 24 h following 1 h of treatment with curcumin. Curcumin dose dependently accelerated e19 fibroblast differentiation [increased parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor, PPARγ, and adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) levels and triolein uptake] and proliferation (increased thymidine incorporation). Pretreatment with curcumin blocked the hyperoxia-induced decrease (PPARγ and ADRP) and increase (α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin) in markers of lung injury/repair, as well as the activation of TGF-β signaling. In a separate set of experiments, neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to 21% or 95% O2 for 7 days with or without intraperitoneal administration of curcumin. Analysis for markers of lung injury/repair [PTHrP receptor, PPARγ, ADRP, fibronectin, TGF-β receptor (activin receptor-like kinase 5), and Smad3] and lung morphology (radial alveolar count) demonstrated that curcumin effectively blocks TGF-β activation and hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Therefore, curcumin accelerates lung maturation by stimulating key alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and prevents hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury, possibly by blocking TGF-β activation, suggesting that it is a potential intervention against BPD. PMID:21821729

  11. Compliant flooring to prevent fall-related injuries: a scoping review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Jurkowski, Michal P; Dymarz, Ania C; Mackey, Dawn C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fall-related injuries can have serious consequences for older adults, including increased risk of dependence in daily activities and mortality. Compliant flooring is a passive intervention that may reduce the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries in healthcare settings, including acute and long-term care, but few sites have implemented compliant flooring, in part because synthesised evidence about key performance aspects has not been available. Methods and analysis We will conduct a scoping review to address the question: what is presented about the biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and workplace safety associated with compliant flooring systems that aim to prevent fall-related injuries? We will conduct a comprehensive and systematic literature search of academic databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, MEDLINE (Ovid), SportDiscus and Web of Science) and grey literature (clinical trial registries, theses/dissertations, abstracts/conference proceedings and relevant websites). 2 team members will independently screen records (first titles and abstracts, then full text) and extract data from included records. Numerical and narrative analyses will be presented by theme (biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, workplace safety). Ethics and dissemination This scoping review responds to the information needs of healthcare decision-makers tasked with preventing fall-related injuries. This review will summarise evidence about compliant flooring as a potential intervention for preventing fall-related injuries in older adults and identify gaps in evidence and new avenues for research. Results will be especially useful in long-term care, but also applicable in acute care, assisted living and home care. We will disseminate the review's findings via open-access publications, conference presentations, a webinar, a Stakeholder Symposium and a Knowledge-to-Action Report. PMID:27531731

  12. Esophageal mucosal injury with low-dose aspirin and its prevention by rabeprazole.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Nishino, Masafumi; Kodaira, Chise; Yamade, Mihoko; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Tanaka, Tatsuo; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Hishida, Akira; Furuta, Takahisa

    2010-03-01

    Aspirin is used widely as an antithrombotic drug for the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Although aspirin increases the risk for gastrointestinal mucosal injury, the effect on esophageal mucosa is unclear. This study investigates whether aspirin induces esophageal mucosal injury and whether a proton-pump inhibitor can prevent such injury in relation to CYP2C19 genotypes. Fifteen healthy Japanese volunteers are dosed for 7 days in a 5-way randomly crossover trial: placebo, aspirin 100 mg, rabeprazole 10 mg, and aspirin 100 mg plus rabeprazole 10 mg either once daily or 4 times per day. All subjects undergo endoscopy and 24-hour intragastric pH monitoring on day 7. With the aspirin regimen, esophageal mucosal disorders occur in 7 patients (46.7%) (5, grade M; 2, grade A). The median 24-hour pH differs significantly among subjects who develop grade M or A gastroesophageal reflux disease and those who do not develop gastroesophageal reflux disease; the median pH in grade A gastroesophageal reflux disease is significantly lower (1.5 [range, 1.1-1.9]) than that in patients without gastroesophageal reflux disease (5.6 [range, 0.8-8.4], P = .04). Rabeprazole significantly inhibits acid secretion irrespective of CYP2C19 genotypes and decreases the incidence of aspirin-related esophageal injury and symptoms according to increasing pH value. Aspirin induces esophageal mucosal injury in an acid-dependent manner. Concomitant proton-pump inhibitor therapy may prevent advanced effects of low-dose aspirin. PMID:19940233

  13. Prevention of bile peritonitis by laparoscopic evacuation and lavage after nonoperative treatment of liver injuries.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Glen A; Richardson, J David; Brown, Aaron L; Christmas, A Britton; Miller, Frank B; Harbrecht, Brian G; Carrillo, Eddy H

    2007-06-01

    One of the major lessons learned in the World War II experience with liver injuries was that bile peritonitis was a major factor in morbidity and mortality; the nearly uniform drainage of liver injuries in the subsequent operative era prevented this problem. In the era of nonoperative management, patients who do not require operative treatment for hemodynamic instability may develop large bile and/or blood collections that are often ignored or inadequately drained by percutaneous methods. These inadequately treated bile collections may cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome and/or respiratory distress. We present an experience with laparoscopic evacuation of major bile/blood collections that may prevent the inflammatory sequelae of bile peritonitis. Patients usually underwent operation between 3 and 5 days postinjury (range, 2-18) if CT demonstrated large fluid collections throughout the abdomen/pelvis not amenable to percutaneous drainage. Most patients had signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, respiratory compromise, or elevated bilirubin. The bile and retained hematoma was evacuated from around the liver and closed-suction drainage was placed. Twenty-eight patients underwent laparoscopic evacuation/lavage of bile collections (about 4% of total blunt liver injuries). The majority (75%) had Grade IV or V injury. The amount of evacuated fluid ranged from 300 to 3800 mL. Other adjunctive procedures (endoscopic retrograde pancreaticocholangiography, angiography, and laparotomy) were occasionally required. There were no complications related to the procedure. Most patients had a dramatic decline in tachycardia, temperature, white blood cell count, serum bilirubin, and pain. Respiratory failure also resolved in most patients. Large bile and/or blood accumulations are present in a subset of patients with severe liver injuries treated nonoperatively. Delayed laparoscopic evacuation of these collections prevents bile peritonitis and decreases

  14. Strategies for optimizing military physical readiness and preventing musculoskeletal injuries in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Williams, Thomas J; Deuster, Patricia A; Butler, Nikki L; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-01

    With downsizing of the military services and significant budget cuts, it will be more important than ever to optimize the health and performance of individual service members. Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) represent a major threat to the health and fitness of Soldiers and other service members that degrade our nation's ability to project military power. This affects both financial (such as the economic burden from medical, healthcare, and disability costs) and human manpower resources (Soldiers medically unable to optimally perform their duties and to deploy). For example, in 2012, MSIs represented the leading cause of medical care visits across the military services resulting in almost 2,200,000 medical encounters. They also result in more disability discharges than any other health condition. Nonbattle injuries (NBIs) have caused more medical evacuations (34%) from recent theaters of operation than any other cause including combat injuries. Physical training and sports are the main cause of these NBIs. The majority (56%) of these injuries are the direct result of physical training. Higher levels of physical fitness protect against such injuries; however, more physical training to improve fitness also causes higher injury rates. Thus, military physical training programs must balance the need for fitness with the risks of injuries. The Army has launched several initiatives that may potentially improve military physical readiness and reduce injuries. These include the US Army Training and Doctrine Command's Baseline Soldier Physical Readiness Requirements and Gender Neutral Physical Performance Standards studies, as well as the reimplementation of the Master Fitness Trainer program and the Army Medical Command's Soldier Medical Readiness and Performance Triad Campaigns. It is imperative for military leaders to understand that military physical readiness can be enhanced at the same time that MSIs are prevented. A strategic paradigm shift in the military's approach

  15. Strategies for optimizing military physical readiness and preventing musculoskeletal injuries in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Williams, Thomas J; Deuster, Patricia A; Butler, Nikki L; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-01

    With downsizing of the military services and significant budget cuts, it will be more important than ever to optimize the health and performance of individual service members. Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) represent a major threat to the health and fitness of Soldiers and other service members that degrade our nation's ability to project military power. This affects both financial (such as the economic burden from medical, healthcare, and disability costs) and human manpower resources (Soldiers medically unable to optimally perform their duties and to deploy). For example, in 2012, MSIs represented the leading cause of medical care visits across the military services resulting in almost 2,200,000 medical encounters. They also result in more disability discharges than any other health condition. Nonbattle injuries (NBIs) have caused more medical evacuations (34%) from recent theaters of operation than any other cause including combat injuries. Physical training and sports are the main cause of these NBIs. The majority (56%) of these injuries are the direct result of physical training. Higher levels of physical fitness protect against such injuries; however, more physical training to improve fitness also causes higher injury rates. Thus, military physical training programs must balance the need for fitness with the risks of injuries. The Army has launched several initiatives that may potentially improve military physical readiness and reduce injuries. These include the US Army Training and Doctrine Command's Baseline Soldier Physical Readiness Requirements and Gender Neutral Physical Performance Standards studies, as well as the reimplementation of the Master Fitness Trainer program and the Army Medical Command's Soldier Medical Readiness and Performance Triad Campaigns. It is imperative for military leaders to understand that military physical readiness can be enhanced at the same time that MSIs are prevented. A strategic paradigm shift in the military's approach

  16. Pilot evaluation of an adolescent risk and injury prevention programme incorporating curriculum and school connectedness components.

    PubMed

    Chapman, R L; Buckley, L; Sheehan, M; Shochet, I M

    2013-08-01

    School connectedness is an important protective factor for adolescent risk-taking behaviour. This study examined a pilot version of the Skills for Preventing Injury in Youth (SPIY) programme, combining teacher professional development (PD) for increasing school connectedness (connectedness component) with a risk and injury prevention curriculum for early adolescents (curriculum component). A process evaluation was conducted on the connectedness component, involving assessments of programme reach, participant receptiveness and initial use, and a preliminary impact evaluation was conducted on the combined connectedness and curriculum programme. The connectedness component was well received by teacher participants, who saw benefits for both themselves and their students. Classroom observation also showed that teachers who received PD made use of the programme strategies. Grade 8 students who participated in the SPIY programme were less likely to report violent behaviour at 6-month follow-up than were control students, and trends also suggested reduced transport injuries. The results of this research support the use of the combined SPIY connectedness and curriculum components in a large-scale effectiveness trial to assess the impact of the programme on students' connectedness, risk-taking and associated injuries.

  17. CXCR₄antagonism as a therapeutic approach to prevent acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Zuk, A; Gershenovich, M; Ivanova, Y; MacFarland, R T; Fricker, S P; Ledbetter, S

    2014-10-01

    We examined whether antagonism of the CXCR₄receptor ameliorates the loss of renal function following ischemia-reperfusion. CXCR₄is ubiquitously expressed on leukocytes, known mediators of renal injury, and on bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Plerixafor (AMD3100, Mozobil) is a small-molecule CXCR₄antagonist that mobilizes HSCs into the peripheral blood and also modulates the immune response in in vivo rodent models of asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment with plerixafor before and after ischemic clamping ameliorated kidney injury in a rat model of bilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were significantly reduced 24 h after reperfusion, as were tissue injury and cell death. Plerixafor prevented the renal increase in the proinflammatory chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL5 and the cytokine IL-6. Flow cytometry of kidney homogenates confirmed the presence of significantly fewer leukocytes with plerixafor treatment; additionally, myeloperoxidase activity was reduced. AMD3465, a monocyclam analog of plerixafor, was similarly renoprotective. Four weeks postreperfusion, long-term effects included diminished fibrosis, inflammation, and ongoing renal injury. The mechanism by which CXCR₄inhibition ameliorates AKI is due to modulation of leukocyte infiltration and expression of proinflammatory chemokines/cytokines, rather than a HSC-mediated effect. The data suggest that CXCR₄antagonism with plerixafor may be a potential option to prevent AKI. PMID:25080523

  18. Pilot evaluation of an adolescent risk and injury prevention programme incorporating curriculum and school connectedness components.

    PubMed

    Chapman, R L; Buckley, L; Sheehan, M; Shochet, I M

    2013-08-01

    School connectedness is an important protective factor for adolescent risk-taking behaviour. This study examined a pilot version of the Skills for Preventing Injury in Youth (SPIY) programme, combining teacher professional development (PD) for increasing school connectedness (connectedness component) with a risk and injury prevention curriculum for early adolescents (curriculum component). A process evaluation was conducted on the connectedness component, involving assessments of programme reach, participant receptiveness and initial use, and a preliminary impact evaluation was conducted on the combined connectedness and curriculum programme. The connectedness component was well received by teacher participants, who saw benefits for both themselves and their students. Classroom observation also showed that teachers who received PD made use of the programme strategies. Grade 8 students who participated in the SPIY programme were less likely to report violent behaviour at 6-month follow-up than were control students, and trends also suggested reduced transport injuries. The results of this research support the use of the combined SPIY connectedness and curriculum components in a large-scale effectiveness trial to assess the impact of the programme on students' connectedness, risk-taking and associated injuries. PMID:23503569

  19. Zinc Supplementation Prevents Alcoholic Liver Injury in Mice through Attenuation of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhanxiang; Wang, Lipeng; Song, Zhenyuan; Saari, Jack T.; McClain, Craig J.; Kang, Y. James

    2005-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is associated with zinc decrease in the liver. Therefore, we examined whether dietary zinc supplementation could provide protection from alcoholic liver injury. Metallothionein-knockout and wild-type 129/Sv mice were pair-fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 12 weeks, and the effects of zinc supplementation on ethanol-induced liver injury were analyzed. Zinc supplementation attenuated ethanol-induced hepatic zinc depletion and liver injury as measured by histopathological and ultrastructural changes, serum alanine transferase activity, and hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α in both metallothionein-knockout and wild-type mice, indicating a metallothionein-independent zinc protection. Zinc supplementation inhibited accumulation of reactive oxygen species, as indicated by dihydroethidium fluorescence, and the consequent oxidative damage, as assessed by immunohistochemical detection of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine and quantitative analysis of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl in the liver. Zinc supplementation suppressed ethanol-elevated cytochrome P450 2E1 activity but increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver, without affecting the rate of blood ethanol elimination. Zinc supplementation also prevented ethanol-induced decreases in glutathione concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity and increased glutathione reductase activity in the liver. In conclusion, zinc supplementation prevents alcoholic liver injury in an metallothionein-independent manner by inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (P450 2E1) and enhancing the activity of antioxidant pathways. PMID:15920153

  20. Factors influencing the implementation of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention strategies by girls soccer coaches.

    PubMed

    Joy, Elizabeth A; Taylor, John R; Novak, Melissa A; Chen, Michael; Fink, Barbara P; Porucznik, Christina A

    2013-08-01

    Women are 3 times more likely to injure their anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) while playing soccer than men. ACL injury prevention programs (IPPs) involving stretching and strengthening drills can reduce the incidence of ACL injury when incorporated into routine training. The rate of implementation among coaches is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of implementation of ACL IPP, to identify factors that influence implementation, and to acquire information to assist in design dissemination and implementation strategies. Study subjects were coaches of woman soccer players aged 11-22 years in Utah (n = 756). Data were gathered using a Web-based survey followed by a qualitative study in which "best practice coaches"-coaches who met criteria for successful implementation of ACL IPP-were interviewed via telephone. A minority of survey respondents, 19.8% (27/136), have implemented ACL IPP. Factors associated with successful implementation include length of coaching experience and presence of additional support staff such as a strength and conditioning coach or athletic trainer. Best practice coaches (14/136) unanimously agreed on the following: (a) there are performance-enhancing benefits of ACL IPP, (b) education on ACL injury prevention should be required for licensure, and (c) dissemination and implementation will require soccer associations to enact policies that require IPPs. In conclusion, a minority of girls soccer coaches have implemented ACL IPP and those that have do so because they believe that prevention improves performance and that soccer organizations should enact policies requiring ACL injury prevention education and implementation. Efforts to implement ACL IPP should be driven by soccer organizations, emphasize performance-enhancing benefits, and engage additional coaching staff.

  1. Evaluation of the ThinkFirst Canada, Smart Hockey, brain and spinal cord injury prevention video

    PubMed Central

    Cook, D; Cusimano, M; Tator, C; Chipman, M; Macarthur, C

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The ThinkFirst Canada Smart Hockey program is an educational injury prevention video that teaches the mechanisms, consequences, and prevention of brain and spinal cord injury in ice hockey. This study evaluates knowledge transfer and behavioural outcomes in 11–12 year old hockey players who viewed the video. Design: Randomized controlled design. Setting: Greater Toronto Minor Hockey League, Toronto Ontario. Subjects: Minor, competitive 11–12 year old male ice hockey players and hockey team coaches. Interventions: The Smart Hockey video was shown to experimental teams at mid-season. An interview was conducted with coaches to understand reasons to accept or refuse the injury prevention video. Main outcome measures: A test of concussion knowledge was administered before, immediately after, and three months after exposure to the video. The incidence of aggressive penalties was measured before and after viewing the video. Results: The number of causes and mechanisms of concussion named by players increased from 1.13 to 2.47 and from 0.67 to 1.22 respectively. This effect was maintained at three months. There was no significant change in control teams. There was no significant change in total penalties after video exposure; however, specific body checking related penalties were significantly reduced in the experimental group. Conclusion: This study showed some improvements in knowledge and behaviours after a single viewing of a video; however, these findings require confirmation with a larger sample to understand the sociobehavioural aspects of sport that determine the effectiveness and acceptance of injury prevention interventions. PMID:14693901

  2. Kava, the anxiolytic herb: back to basics to prevent liver injury?

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Sarris, Jerome; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The use of the anxiolytic herb kava has caused toxic liver injury in Western countries and economic problems in South Pacific Islands due to tthe regulatory ban on kava. This analysis shows poor quality of kava raw material as a cause for its toxicity and suggests preventative measures by going back to the traditional use of kava for the sake of the patients and the South Pacific economy. PMID:21284704

  3. Can we prevent accidental injury to adolescents? A systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, J.; Coleman, P.; Nicholl, J.; Harper, R.; Kent, G.; Wild, D.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: As part of the Department of Health strategy The Health of the Nation, a systematic review of published and unpublished literature relating to the effectiveness of interventions in reducing accidental injury in the population aged 15-24 years was carried out. METHODS: The literature was reviewed under the standard setting headings of road, work, home, and sports and leisure, and graded for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation using a scale published in the UK national epidemiologically based needs assessment programme. RESULTS: The most effective measures appear to be legislative and regulatory controls in road, sport, and workplace settings. Environmental engineering measures on the road and in sports have relatively low implementation costs and result in fewer injuries at all ages. There is little evidence that purely educational measures reduced injuries in the short term. Community based approaches may be effective in all age groups, and incentives to encourage safer behaviour hold promise but require further evaluation. The potential of multifactorial approaches seems greater than narrowly based linear approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Few interventions to reduce injury in adolescents have been rigorously evaluated using good quality randomised controlled trials, and where such evidence is available, fewer have been shown to be definitely worthwhile. Many studies relied on surrogate measures rather than actual injury rates, and substantial issues relating to the efficacy or implementation of preventive measures in adolescent and young adult populations remain unresolved. PMID:9346041

  4. Fall prevention in our healthiest patients: assessing risk and preventing injury for moms and babies.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Ann D

    2015-01-01

    Attention is needed in preventing patient falls in newborns and in obstetric units of hospitals. The majority of prenatal, postpartum, and newborn falls are preventable. Little effort has been made to address fall risk during the prenatal period, during labor, and after delivery in the postpartum period for moms and babies. Risk factors for falls in these populations have been identified, and targeted risk assessments and fall prevention interventions have been developed to eliminate these falls. Evidence demonstrates success in reducing falls with a variety of low-cost but high-return initiatives, comprising prenatal education, patient and family engagement, implementation of unique fall risk assessment tools, postpartum mobility assessments, and changes in patient rounding frequency.

  5. Prevention and Screening Programs for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Eric; Redler, Lauren; Fabricant, Peter D.; Mandelbaum, Bert R.; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Wang, Y. Claire

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common among young athletes. Biomechanical studies have led to the development of training programs to improve neuromuscular control and reduce ACL injury rates as well as screening tools to identify athletes at higher risk for ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these training methods and screening strategies for preventing ACL injuries. Methods: A decision-analysis model was created to evaluate three strategies for a population of young athletes participating in organized sports: (1) no training or screening, (2) universal neuromuscular training, and (3) universal screening, with neuromuscular training for identified high-risk athletes only. Risk of injury, risk reduction from training, and sensitivity and specificity of screening were based on published data from clinical trials. Costs of training and screening programs were estimated on the basis of the literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed on key model parameters to evaluate their effect on base case conclusions. Results: Universal neuromuscular training of all athletes was the dominant strategy, with better outcomes and lower costs compared with screening. On average, the implementation of a universal training program would save $100 per player per season, and would reduce the incidence of ACL injury from 3% to 1.1% per season. Screening was not cost-effective within the range of reported sensitivity and specificity values. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Given its low cost and ease of implementation, neuromuscular training of all young athletes represents a cost-effective strategy for reducing costs and morbidity from ACL injuries. While continued innovations on inexpensive and accurate screening methods to identify high-risk athletes remain of interest, improving existing training protocols and implementing neuromuscular training into routine training for all young athletes is warranted. PMID

  6. Needle stick injuries among dental students: risk factors and recommendations for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gaballah, Kamis; Warbuton, Dorothy; Sihmbly, Kamal; Renton, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs) sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King's College London (KCL) Dental Institute. Materials and methods A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA) and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surface or during disposal. Results This report showed that students are at the highest risk of NSIs at the fourth year of their 5-year BDS course. About one-third of injuries were reported among this group of students followed by year 5 students (25%). Oral surgery clinics were the major source of incident reporting when compared with other specialised dental clinics within the institute. The left hands of the students were the most frequently affected by such injuries and then the right hands of student dental nurses. The attempt of needle recapping of conventional syringes was the least reported mechanism of injuries and constituted only 15% of the total injuries and mainly occurred in third year students. The most frequent injuries among student nurses were during disposal of the needle. Conclusion Less NSIs occur when using safety syringes. A non-recapping policy with immediate disposal of either the conventional or safety syringe systems after injection would prevent all clearance-related NSIs sustained by nurses. To avoid NSIs, education plays a vital role particularly with effective implementation of the change to safety syringes with appropriate training. PMID:22741025

  7. 75 FR 7284 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  8. 75 FR 34458 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned review group: Time...

  9. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the...

  10. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned review...

  11. 75 FR 55803 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Epi-Centers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Epi-Centers for the Prevention of Healthcare- Associated...

  12. 75 FR 69686 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel: Epi-Centers for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel: Epi-Centers for the Prevention of Healthcare-Associated...

  13. Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. Objective To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Methods Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Results Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). Conclusions These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. PMID:26399611

  14. Injury prevention practices as depicted in G and PG rated movies: the sequel

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, L; Ballesteros, M; Pelletier, A; Wolf, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the depiction of injury prevention practices in children's movies released during 1998–2002 is different from an earlier study, which found that characters were infrequently depicted practicing recommended safety behaviors. Methods: The top 25 G (general audience) and PG (parental guidance suggested) rated movies per year from 1998–2002 comprised the study sample. Movies or scenes not set in the present day, animated, documentary, or not in English were excluded; fantasy scenes were also excluded. Injury prevention practices of motor vehicle occupants, pedestrians, bicyclists, and boaters were recorded for characters with speaking roles. Results: Compared with the first study, the proportion of scenes with characters wearing safety belts increased (27% v 35%, p<0.01), the proportion of scenes with characters wearing personal flotation devices decreased (17% v 0%, p<0.05), and no improvement was noted in pedestrian behavior or use of bicycle helmets. Conclusions: Despite a modest increase in safety belt usage, appropriate injury prevention practices are still infrequently shown in top grossing G and PG rated movies. The authors recommend that the entertainment industry incorporate safe practices into children's movies. Parents should call attention to the depiction of unsafe behaviors in movies and educate children to follow recommended safety practices. PMID:16326770

  15. Implementation of a Tailored Kiosk-Based Injury Prevention Program in Pediatric Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Julia; Nansel, Tonja R.; Weaver, Nancy L.; Williams, Janice; Botello-Harbaum, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study identified behavioral and organizational barriers and facilitators related to the implementation of a clinic-based pediatric injury prevention program. Safe N′ Sound (SNS), an evidence-based tailored injury prevention program designed for pediatric primary care, was implemented in five pediatric clinics in North Carolina. Office managers participated in structured interviews; health care providers participated in focus groups. Waiting room observations were conducted in participating clinics. Qualitative data captured perceptions of program implementation, including experience in integrating the program into clinical practice, usage by parents and providers, and recommendations for improving implementation. Reported facilitators of program use included usefulness and likeability of customized materials by parents and physicians and alignment with clinic priorities for injury prevention. Barriers included perceived staff burden despite the program’s low staff requirements. Consequently, practices experienced difficulty integrating the program into the waiting room environment and within existing staff roles. Recommendations included formalizing staff roles in implementation. Waiting room observations supported greater technology maintenance and staff involvement. Findings suggest a dynamic relationship between program implementation and the adopting organization. In addition to considering characteristics of the intervention, environment, and personnel in intervention development, implementation may require customization to the organization’s capacity. PMID:24127301

  16. On the importance of planned health education. Prevention of ski injury as an example.

    PubMed

    Kok, G; Bouter, L M

    1990-01-01

    The planning of health education aimed at preventing sports injuries is often incomplete and not stated explicitly. In most instances, the evaluation is incomplete or nonexistent. We present a theoretical framework for planning and evaluating health education, illustrating the main points by using as an example the health education for downhill skiers. Systematic planning consists of analyzing the magnitude of the problem and the behavioral risk factors, studying behavior determinants, designing an optimal intervention, and implementing the intervention. The evaluation phase deals with the effects on these five levels (implementation, intervention, determinants, behavior, and incidence of injury). Some common pitfalls are mentioned and special attention is given to the study of determinants of behavior and to the design of the intervention. The importance of pretesting health education material and the community approach in educating sports participants is underlined. Health education, together with regulations and facilities, constitutes the health promotion strategy in the prevention of sports injuries. For most sports, there seems to be a strong need for further research on the etiology and determinants of behavior before effective prevention can be realized.

  17. Psychological and psychophysiological factors in prevention and treatment of cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kappes, B; Mills, W; O'Malley, J

    1993-01-01

    Cold injured patients in Alaska come from many sources. Although sport and work continues to provide large numbers of cold injured, most severe repeat injuries tend to reflect other biopsychosocial consequences. Certain behaviors can increase the probability of injury, however all persons living in cold climates are potential candidates. One can decrease risk by education, knowledge and intelligent behavior. Proper respect for adequate protection and hydration seem to be critical factors. Understanding the psychological, physiological and psychophysiological aspects of the cold environment performer helps refine the prevention and treatment strategies for cold injury. Skill training with bio-behavioral methods, such as thermal biofeedback, and the value of medical psychotherapy appear to offer continued promise by facilitating physiologic recovery from injury, as well as assisting in long term rehabilitation. Both approaches increase the likelihood of a favorable healing response by soliciting active patient participation. Medical Psychotherapy for traumatic injuries can also help identify and manage cognitive emotional issues for families and patients faced with the permanent consequences of severe thermal injuries. Thermal biofeedback therapy has the potential benefit of encouraging greater self-reliance and responsibility for self-regulating overall health by integrating self-management skills regarding physiology, diet and lifestyle. Inpatient and outpatient biofeedback training offers specific influence over vascular responses for healing, as well as providing an effective tool for pain management. Interest in cold region habitation has continued to expand our study of human tolerance to harsh, extreme environments. Biological, psychological, sociological, and anthropological views on adaptation, habituation, acclimatization, and injury in cold environments acknowledges the role of development, learning and educated responses to cold environments. The study of

  18. Time to add a new priority target for child injury prevention? The case for an excess burden associated with sport and exercise injury: population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F; Wong Shee, Anna; Clapperton, Angela

    2014-01-01

    hospital costs, bed-day usage and YLD impacts) for sports injury compared with road traffic injury for children aged <15 years indicates an urgent need to prioritise sports injury prevention in this age group. PMID:24993758

  19. [Custom-made mouthguards and prevention of orofacial injuries in sports].

    PubMed

    Badel, Tomislav; Jerolimov, Vjekoslav; Pandurić, Josip; Carek, Vlado

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sports dentistry has become even greater due to the role that sports have in modern society. As the risk of sports-related injuries appears already in the period of children's play and is constantly present in various risk-related sporting activities, the role of dental profession has become extremely important. Custom-made mouthguards are the most highly recommended mouthguards used for successful prevention of orofacial and dental injuries. It is important to inform athletes of the best characteristics of a custom-made mouthguard such as retention, comfort, fit, ease of speech, resistance to tearing, ease of breathing as well as good protection of the teeth, gingiva and lips. The shape and surface of the mouthguard which encloses the teeth, the gingival and the hard palate can vary depending on the anatomical features of the athlete's jaw, his/her dental arch, the type of sports activity, as well as the materials used in the manufacture of the mouthguard. Mouthguards should not extend distally further than the first molars because some athletes complain of the vomiting reflex. In addition, mouthguards may interfere with breathing. They should reach the mucogingival border labially and extend a few millimeters palatally in order to provide the best protection for the labial gingival and good retention. The labial flange should extend up to 2 mm of the vestibular reflection. The palatal flange should extend about 10 mm above the gingival margin thus enclosing the greatest part of the anterior palate surface with a slight narrowing distally not further than the first molars. Materials used in the manufacture of mouthguards should satisfy a number of physical, mechanical and biological requirements. Essential properties of materials used in the manufacture of mouthguards include water absorption, density, thickness as well as temperature transmission, energy absorption and drawing strength (tensile strength) of custom-made mouthguards. Such

  20. Unintentional Home Injury Prevention in Preschool Children; a Study of Contributing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Younesian, Somaye; Mahfoozpour, Soad; Ghaffari Shad, Ensieh; Kariman, Hamid; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Different factors such as parents’ knowledge and attitudes regarding preventive measures (PM) have a great role in reducing children unintentional home injuries. The present study aims to evaluate the contributing factors of unintentional home injury prevention in preschool victims presented to the emergency department. Methods: The subjects consisted of all the mothers of preschool children who were presented to the emergency department of Imam Hossein and Shohadaie-Hafte-Tir Hospitals, with unintentional home injuries, from March 2011 to February 2012. The participants were divided into two groups according to implementation of preventive measures status. The significant confounding factors of PM application was determined by chi-squared test and entered into the backward multivariate logistic regression model. Results: 230 mothers with the mean age of 29.4 ± 5.2 years were evaluated. 225 (97.83%) of them were still married, 74 (32.17%) had high school education or higher, 122 (53.04%) were homemakers, and 31 (13.49%) worked outside the home for at least 8 hours daily. High level of knowledge (OR = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.002‒0.32; P = 0.002), appropriate attitude (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03‒0.51; P = 0.01), having at least three children (OR = 7.2; 95% CI: 1.1‒32.9; P = 0.04), daily absence of mother for at least 8 hours (OR = 9.2; 95% CI: 2.2‒35.46; P = 0.002), and a history of home injury during the previous 3 weeks (OR = 8.3; 95% CI: 2.1‒41.3; P = 0.001) were independent factors which influenced application of preventive measures. Conclusion: Increasing mothers’ knowledge level and improving their attitudes were facilitating factors and mothers’ absence from the house for more than 8 hours a day and having at least 3 children were obstacles to application of preventive measures. In addition, a history of same injury during the previous 3 weeks increased the risk of repeated event. PMID:27274516