Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural labor force

  1. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  2. 75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: The Office of Negotiations and Agreements by phone on (202) 720-6219; by e-mail addressed... other models, that have been successful in reducing child labor and/or forced labor in the global supply chains within the agricultural sector or other industries; (b) The roles and responsibilities that may...

  3. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  4. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  5. Labor Force Trends: A Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devens, Richard M.

    1977-01-01

    This annotated bibliography reflects relevant issues covered in the accompanying article in this issue (CE 506 866). It presents a general outline of recent literature on labor force participation, including underlying secular movements and cyclical analysis. (MF)

  6. Labor Factor Efficiency in the Agricultural Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    R?y, Inna U.; Shakulikova, Gulzada T.; Kozhakhmetova, Gulnar A.; Lashkareva, Olga V.; Bondarenko, Elena G.; Bermukhambetova, Botagoz B.; Baimagambetova, Zamzagul A.; Zhetessova, Mariyam T.; Beketova, Kamar N.; Anafiyaeva, Zhibek

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural problems associated with prospects of the rural population and agriculture in general have recently become an important factor in the modern economic policy development. The urgency of finding ways to improve the labor resource efficiency in agriculture pursuant to the state tasks is determined by the need to restore the agricultural…

  7. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  8. Child Labor in Agriculture. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley

    An estimated 200,000-800,000 children and adolescents work in the United States as migrant agricultural laborers, either alone or with their families. This digest describes the statutory and economic factors contributing to the presence of children in the fields and the impact of this labor on their health and educational progress. The Fair Labor…

  9. Women in the labor force.

    PubMed

    Vatter, R H

    1994-01-01

    Unlike the rate for men, the labor force participation rate for women has increased significantly over the past three decades or so. This trend is expected to continue at least through 2005. Among the reasons for the growing role of women in the labor market are higher levels of educational attainment, improved employment opportunities, changing values in society, and economic pressures and aspirations that require women to assume dual careers as homemakers and family income producers. By the year 2005, it is estimated that women workers will number about 72 million, with more than 63 percent of all women age 16 and over either working or actively looking for work. While traditional occupations such as secretarial and clerical administrative support and professions such as nursing and teaching still predominate, about 4 million women are now in executive, administrative and managerial positions in the private sectors of the economy. As for the types of industry in which women are employed, service industries clearly predominate. Projections suggest that women workers of the future will be older on average, with the fastest growth occurring in the 45-64 age cohort. They will also be a more diverse group as the number of black, Asian and Hispanic women workers grows more rapidly than the number of white non-Hispanic labor force participants.

  10. 76 FR 38110 - Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports. AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of resumption of... National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to resume a currently approved information collection,...

  11. Campesinas: Women Farmworkers in the California Agricultural Labor Force. Report of a Study Project by The California Commission on the Status of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Amy E.

    A one year descriptive study of demographic characteristics, employment situations, and supportive services needs of women farmworkers in the California labor force was conducted in 1977-78. Data were collected in interviews with both employers and 400 women and 200 men engaged in farmwork in Fresno and Imperial Counties. Most of the women were of…

  12. The 1995 Labor Force: A First Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Howard N., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In a look ahead at the 1995 labor force, all three projections--high, middle, and low--indicate that women will account for two-thirds of the growth, most of which will occur in the prime working-age group; the Black labor force will grow twice as fast as the White. (CT)

  13. New Labor Force Projections to 1990. Special Labor Force Report 197.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Howard N., Jr.; Flaim, Paul O.

    Prepared as part of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' periodic reassessment of its projections of the future growth trends of the various sectors of the American economy, new labor force projections to 1990 are presented based on trends in labor force participation as observed through 1975 and on the most recent population projections of the U.S.…

  14. 77 FR 70473 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the email or physical address below by 5 p.m... Trafficking Victims ] Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (``TVPRA of 2005''), Public Law 109-164...

  15. 78 FR 72714 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the email or physical address below by 5 p.m... information above). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Section 105(b)(1) of the Trafficking Victims...

  16. Women in the Labor Force: 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Employment Security Commission, Jackson. Dept. of Research & Statistics.

    There has been a rapid increase in Mississippi women's participation in the labor force, but female participation still lags behind male participation. The 1960s witnessed dramatic increases in younger women's participation. The trend is expected to continue into the late 1970s. Annual 1977 averages showed women made up almost 40% of Mississippi's…

  17. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the production or harvesting of maple sap, or in connection with the raising or harvesting of... constitute agricultural labor. Likewise, services performed in the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar do not constitute agricultural labor. On the other hand, services rendered in...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the production or harvesting of maple sap, or in connection with the raising or harvesting of... constitute agricultural labor. Likewise, services performed in the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar do not constitute agricultural labor. On the other hand, services rendered in...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. An example of this is the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables. However, work in the cutting and drying of fruits or vegetables does not change the commodity from its raw or natural... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Explanation of agricultural labor....

  20. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. An example of this is the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables. However, work in the cutting and drying of fruits or vegetables does not change the commodity from its raw or natural... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explanation of agricultural labor....

  1. 77 FR 9267 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ..., Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the email or physical address below by 5 p.m. March 9, 2012... information above). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Section 105(b)(1) of the Trafficking Victims...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... harvesting of maple sap, the raising or harvesting of mushrooms, or the hatching of poultry, you are doing... doing agricultural labor even though you work on a farm. Work in a mushroom cave or poultry hatchery...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... harvesting of maple sap, the raising or harvesting of mushrooms, or the hatching of poultry, you are doing agricultural labor. If you work in the processing of maple sap into maple syrup or maple sugar you are...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... harvesting of maple sap, the raising or harvesting of mushrooms, or the hatching of poultry, you are doing agricultural labor. If you work in the processing of maple sap into maple syrup or maple sugar you are...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., dairy, poultry, fruit, fur-bearing animal, and truck farms, plantations, ranches, nurseries, ranges... or maple sugar do not constitute agricultural labor. On the other hand, services rendered in...

  6. Evaluating Extension-Based Adult Education for Agricultural Labor Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morera, Maria C.; Monaghan, Paul F.; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Tovar-Aguilar, J. Antonio; Roka, Fritz M.; Asuaje, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Educating farm labor supervisors about the regulations that govern agricultural operations and employment is critical to reducing unintentional violations of workplace safety and labor laws. Cooperative Extension can provide the training needed to professionalize this vital and diverse workforce. One challenge to providing adult education to a…

  7. The Origins of Forced Labor in the Witwatersrand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeti, Moitsadi

    1986-01-01

    Gold mining brought a forced labor system to Witwatersrand, South Africa, in the 1880s as African laborers were rounded up from the hinterland and delivered to the mines. The system produced low wages, high mortality, and the loss of chances for upward mobility. Forced labor persists today in South African mines. (VM)

  8. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  9. Canadian Women's Labor Force Behavior: A Forty Year Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Janet E.; Skrypnek, Berna J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three dimensions of labor force behavior: participation, attachment, and commitment. Presents a picture of trends in Canadian women's labor force behavior over the last 40 years using existing data. Discusses the implications of these trends for family life and corporate and public policy. (JOW)

  10. Report on the Youth Labor Force. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC.

    This report explains the current U.S. regulations governing child labor; provides a detailed look at youth labor in this country, including how it differs among major demographic groups and economic sectors, and over time; and describes the outcomes of young people's work activities, including occupational injuries and fatalities and other…

  11. Report B: 1986 projected population, labor force and unemployment - Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    Report B, the results of the Population, Labor Force and Unemployment Projections Model, contain current socio-economic indicators. For each geographic area, there is one page of summary/background information followed by three tables. These tables contain the population projections, the labor force projections, and the unemployment projections, respectively. These tables are composed of data for the following racial groups: total population, whites, blacks, and other races. Those who call themselves Hispanics may be covered in any of the last three racial groups. For those geographic areas which have provided more than one labor force and/or unemployment control total, the last two tables will appear more than once.

  12. The Volatile Teenage Labor Market: Labor Force Entry, Exit, and Unemployment Flows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph E.; Vanski, Jean E.

    1979-01-01

    Alerts researchers to the potential value and limitations of the gross flow data published in the Department of Labor's Current Population Survey (CPS). Reports on research which used CPS data to analyze patterns of teenage unemployment and labor force participation. (PR)

  13. Nonmetro and Metro Teens in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    Drawing on theories of family organization and labor market structures, it is argued that teenagers are a useful population for research on the effects of race, household characteristics, and local labor markets on labor force participation. Predictive models of labor force participation were applied to a sample of all White and Black 16- to…

  14. EEO External Relevant Labor Force Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Executives (SES) $47,889-50,112). Blue collar (ungraded) levels are Apprentice, Semi -skilled, Journeymen, Leader and Supervisor, with the prevailing...UNGRADED Helper & Apprentice Semi -Skilled Journeymen Leader Supervisor Craftsmen and Operatives Local Local Local Local Local Gardners and Laborers...00cO o 0 C30 000D0 0 LL I I r- 1 -4 i3W a,0 in 4 0 000r 00 040 00000D 0 z -r4 0 A 0- z I- )-L a. ’JL w NC 0k 0 u *Z 0n n N , m 00 %1 - - z 0. .. o. LaJ

  15. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  16. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  17. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  18. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  19. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  20. Disability Benefit Generosity and Labor Force Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Kathleen J; Staubli, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    A key component for estimating the optimal size and structure of disability insurance (DI) programs is the elasticity of DI claiming with respect to benefit generosity. Yet, in many countries, including the United States, all workers face identical benefit schedules, which are a function of one's labor market history, making it difficult to separate the effect of the benefit level from the effect of unobserved preferences for work on individuals' claiming decisions. To circumvent this problem, we exploit exogenous variation in DI benefits in Austria arising from several reforms to its DI and old age pension system in the 1990s and 2000s. We use comprehensive administrative social security records data on the universe of Austrian workers to compute benefit levels under six different regimes, allowing us to identify and precisely estimate the elasticity of DI claiming with respect to benefit generosity. We find that, over this time period, a one percent increase in potential DI benefits was associated with a 1.2 percent increase in DI claiming.

  1. Governor's Task Force on Migrant Labor. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Task Force on Migrant Labor, Detroit, MI.

    Michigan's 9-member Task Force on Migrant Labor, established in 1969, was charged by the governor (1) to develop and provide for carrying out more effective ways to coordinate the functions of state government, to better utilize available resources, and to enforce existing laws; (2) to determine whether existing law in this field is adequate or…

  2. Inter-Agency Task Force on Migrant Labor. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    The Inter-Agency Task Force on Migrant Labor, created in 1970 by the governor of Texas, was charged with the responsibility of cataloging migrant needs, making an inventory of all ongoing Federal and state migrant programs, and developing a state plan to bring into focus all resources at hand to produce some immediate as well as long-range…

  3. Employment and Unemployment in 1976. Special Labor Force Report 199.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarzik, Robert W.; St. Marie, Stephen M.

    Changes in employment and unemployment in 1976, presented through the use of statistical data in tabular and chart forms, is the focus of this report. Protection for the unemployed, labor force trends, and persons of Spanish origin are also discussed under separate minor headings. Under the section on employment, the following subsections are…

  4. Global work force 2000: the new world labor market.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W B

    1991-01-01

    Just as there are global markets for products, technology, and capital, managers must now think of one for labor. Over the next 15 years, human capital, once the most stationary factor in production, will cross national borders with greater and greater ease. Driving the globalization of labor is a growing imbalance between the world's labor supply and demand. While the developed world accounts for most of the world's gross domestic product, its share of the world work force is shrinking. Meanwhile, in the developing countries, the work force is quickly expanding as many young people approach working age and as women join the paid work force in great numbers. The quality of that work force is also rising as developing countries like Brazil and China generate growing proportions of the world's college graduates. Developing nations that combine their young, educated workers with investor-friendly policies could leapfrog into new industries. South Korea, Taiwan, Poland, and Hungary are particularly well positioned for such growth. And industrialized countries that keep barriers to immigration low will be able to tap world labor resources to sustain their economic growth. The United States and some European nations have the best chance of encouraging immigration, while Japan will have trouble overcoming its cultural and language barriers.

  5. Democracy and Female Labor Force Participation: An Empirical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayanpourtehrani, Ghazal; Sylwester, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines associations between female labor force participation (FLFP) and democracy. Using a cross-country, time series (1980-2005) data set, we find evidence that FLFP is lower in democracies. One possible explanation is that dictators promote FLFP above what traditional norms would dictate and so a greater freedom to…

  6. Fertility, Sex Role Attitudes, and Labor Force Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Arland; Camburn, Donald

    1979-01-01

    The 1970 National Fertility Study was used to investigate relationships between sex role attitudes and the childbearing and labor force participation of women. It was found that the most crucial aspect of working and fertility was the extent to which the woman identified the female role as that of housewife and homemaker. (Author)

  7. Maternal and Child Health Issues and Female Labor Force Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Dorothy C.; And Others

    Reviewing health related "costs" of female labor force participation, this paper examines four highly salient maternal and child health issues. Discussion of acute illness in day care settings begins with an overview of studies on day care and illness and focuses on hepatitis A, appropriate sanitation, and indications of research on…

  8. DataTrack 7: Women in the Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC.

    One of a series that compiles and interprets data from a variety of sources on one particular subject of interest to life insurance executives, this report deals with women in the labor force. It can be used in the design of new products and services, to meet changing consumer needs, the selection of new markets and marketing strategies, for the…

  9. Labor Force Study: Elkhart, Indiana. Manpower Report 88-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisack, J. P.; Shell, Kevin D.

    A survey of 379 Elkhart County, Indiana, employers was conducted to determine the local labor force situation. Replies received from 141 employers were analyzed, with the following findings reported: (1) more than 520 job openings existed for unskilled, entry-level jobs, but employers were having trouble filling them because candidates were poorly…

  10. 76 FR 22921 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the e-mail or physical address below by 5 p.m., May 20, 2011. To... information above). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Section 105(b)(1) of the Trafficking Victims...

  11. The Changing Composition of the Military and the Effect on Labor Force Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sider, Hal; Cole, Cheryl

    1984-01-01

    Examines some of the changes in the military that have resulted from the all-volunteer armed forces. Compares labor force data that include the military with traditional statistics that measure the civilian labor market. (SK)

  12. 78 FR 15741 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  13. 77 FR 13635 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  14. 77 FR 12882 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  15. An Analysis of Youth Labor Force Transition Probabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    unlimited. 17. DISTRIBUTION ST ATEMENT l1 II,. *.&.ract .nforod in Block 20. If~dift-rert from, Roparf) Ill. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE.S 19. KEYv WORDS (COnr~mus on...r~oersq side it rleCossary and ldomtf;!y by block n,,nmbor) Transition probabilities, Tr~ansition.r-at-es-_. Time -stability test, Time independence...tet Markov process test, Mvmn in the labor force 20. ABSTRACT tConiI,.,, an, rovof-. side It n.c.essay end Identeify by block nu~mber) Much of the

  16. 77 FR 61780 - Preparation of the 2013 American Indian Population and Labor Force Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Preparation of the 2013 American Indian Population and Labor Force Report AGENCY... Indian Population and Labor Force Report. DATES: Written comments are due November 12, 2012. See the... and written comments concerning preparation of the 2013 American Indian Population and Labor...

  17. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S

    1998-10-01

    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators.

  18. 76 FR 74722 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... CFR Part 422 RIN 0599-AA19 Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations AGENCY: Office of Procurement and Property Management, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The Office of Procurement and Property Management (OPPM)...

  19. Labor Relations: Unions and the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-08

    reflect today’s labor relations environment as commanders still do not understand labor law and the roles of unions. 3 Labor Relations in Federal...current leanings of the administration, it is not likely the uniform services would be considered for exclusion from labor law , at least in the near term...better understanding of labor law and employee relations. Popular with companies in the private sector, business management companies provide a variety

  20. 78 FR 1259 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and...

  1. 76 FR 79711 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and...

  2. Mississippi's physician labor force: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Cossman, Jeralynn Sittig

    2004-01-01

    identified as generalists, Mississippi is only slightly more likely than the nation to have specialists, rather than generalists (see Table Seven). Age structure analysis indicates that Delta physicians are older than physicians elsewhere in the state, that urban physicians are younger than rural physicians, and that our physician labor force is more highly concentrated between the ages of 35 and 54 than in the nation as a whole. Analyses concerning the future of the physician labor force indicate that a near majority of Mississippi's practicing physicians received their MD degree at UMC, but younger physicians are more likely to have been educated out-of-state than older physicians. Those who received their degrees elsewhere and chose to practice in Mississippi are more likely to be specialists (60%) than generalists (40%). Those physicians practicing in the state who were educated in-state are nearly equally as likely to be generalists (47%) as they are to be specialists (53%). Additionally, those approaching retirement are more likely to be generalists, yet the state is recruiting more generalists from recent medical school classes than in the past. Variations in intentions to recruit, relocate, and retire exist. However, most of the substantively important variation is across age groups and time in practice. There is little relevance of specialty or location within the state when examining variation in recruitment, relocation or retirement plans. Given the findings, policy research recommendations focus on improving the retention of UMC's graduates for practice in the state, improving retention of active physicians, increasing the recruitment of physicians from out of state, and easing difficulties associated with working part-time as a step toward retirement. With these changes in policy, it is possible that Mississippi can thwart a physician workforce shortage; however, without changes, with more physicians relocating, retiring early, or opting out of practicing in the

  3. Fertility and patterns of labor force participation among married women.

    PubMed

    Smith-Lovin, L; Tickamyer, A R

    1981-01-01

    Variations in women's response to childbearing and participation in the labor force are examined with the expectation that 2 distinct patterns will emerge clarifying the fertility-work effect. The hypothesis is offered that 1 group of women will drop out entirely at the onset of childbearing, returning to work after the children have grown, if at all. Another group will work almost continuously with almost no gap in labor force participation. Past research, concentrating on averaged direction of causal flow, have obscured this bimodal distribution. 3 problems hamper the study of fertility effects on career discontinuity: detailed work and birth histories covering extended periods of time are scarce, variables often obscure variability, and censored histories are frequent in which the timing of an event may or may not occur until after the survey and therefore cannot be observed. Data for the analysis are from the 1970 EEO survey (Explorations in Equaltiy of Opportunity), a national sample survey of women who were high school sophomores in 1955. Using only complete data from women who were still married to their 1st husbands yielded a sample size of 703. Of these, 39% were working in 1970 and 85% had 2 or more children. Employment status, recorded for each year, was a dichotomous variable distinguishing between no employment during the year and any employment. The fertility variable indicated if a child was or was not adopted or born during the year. The women were much more likely to work before their 1st birth than afterwards, at least during the early adult years covered by this survey. Women who began childbearing while still in high school were more likely to continue working after birth. College graduates were also somewhat more likely to continue working after their 1st birth. 70% of the women worked before their 1st birth, 30% after the onset of childbearing. Work discontinuity, measured by the number of gaps in employment indicate that over 50% of the

  4. Supply, Human Capital, and the Average Quality Level of the Science and Engineering Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Howard P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper explores how institutional and technological change affect the quality of the science and engineering labor force. Sources of imbalance between demand and supply are considered, along with the effects of institutional and technological change. A model is introduced to relate changes in market imbalance to both labor force quality and…

  5. The Future of the Skilled Labor Force: New England's Supply of Recent College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Alicia C.

    2009-01-01

    One of New England's greatest assets is its skilled labor force, which has historically been an engine of economic growth in the region. But the skilled labor force of the future is growing more slowly in New England than in the rest of the United States. Since 2000, the population of "recent college graduates"--individuals ages 22 to 27…

  6. Explaining the Decline in Teen Labor Force Participation. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 234

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; Park, Kyung-Hong; Sullivan, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Fewer teenagers are participating in the labor force today than at any point since WWII. At just under 44 percent teen labor force participation is 15 percentage points below its peak in the late 1970s. The authors investigate the long-run decline in the work activity of young adults, and the acceleration of this trend during the last five years.…

  7. Sex Differentials in Educational and Labor Force Role Distributions in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, William F.; And Others

    The transformation of the educational and labor force role distribution of Filipino women, both absolutely and relative to Filipino men, under the impact of modernization was examined. The study aimed to: analyze differences in female educational and labor force role distributions by modernization level; compare the female educational and labor…

  8. Intended Childbearing and Labor Force Participation of Young Women: Insights from Non-recursive Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Linda J.; Stolzenberg, Ross M.

    1976-01-01

    Examines simultaneous equation models, using a large national sample of women in their mid twenties: it is found that the number of children a woman plans to bear has only a small effect on intentions to participate in the labor force, although a woman's plans to participate in the labor force has a substantial effect on the total number of…

  9. The Participation of Females in the Labor Force and Rates of Personal Violence (Suicide and Homicide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between participation of married women in labor force and suicide and homicide rates in United States. Found women's labor force participation related to homicide rates, with homicide rates higher in states where greater percentage of married women worked full-time. Suicide rates were more strongly related to indices of…

  10. Literacy in the Labor Force. Results from the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew

    This document, which is based on data gathered during the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS), examines the literacy skills of the U.S. civilian labor force, including the employed and unemployed. The following topics are among those discussed: (1) human resources and the U.S. economy; (2) literacy proficiencies of the nation's labor force;…

  11. Male Labor Force Participation and Social Security in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Labor-force participation among Mexican males in their early retirement years (60 to 64 years of age) has decreased in recent decades, from 94.6 percent in 1960 to 65.2 percent in 2010. Similar trends are evident elsewhere in Latin America, and have occurred in the developed world. Such trends pose challenges to financial sustainability of social security systems as working-age populations decrease and those in retirement increase both because of demographic trends and decisions to take early retirement. In this study, we find that the Mexican social security system provides incentives to retire early. The retirement incentives of the Mexican social security system affect retirement behavior, and may be one of the main contributors to early retirement decisions, particularly for lower-income populations. We simulated the effect of the reform from a Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) to the new Personal Retirement Accounts (PRA) system and we find that the PRA system also provides incentives to early retirement. Further analysis is needed to assess the financial sustainability of the social security system and financial security in old age for the largest cohorts in Mexico that will begin to retire by 2040. PMID:25328441

  12. Male Labor Force Participation and Social Security in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Emma

    2014-04-01

    Labor-force participation among Mexican males in their early retirement years (60 to 64 years of age) has decreased in recent decades, from 94.6 percent in 1960 to 65.2 percent in 2010. Similar trends are evident elsewhere in Latin America, and have occurred in the developed world. Such trends pose challenges to financial sustainability of social security systems as working-age populations decrease and those in retirement increase both because of demographic trends and decisions to take early retirement. In this study, we find that the Mexican social security system provides incentives to retire early. The retirement incentives of the Mexican social security system affect retirement behavior, and may be one of the main contributors to early retirement decisions, particularly for lower-income populations. We simulated the effect of the reform from a Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) to the new Personal Retirement Accounts (PRA) system and we find that the PRA system also provides incentives to early retirement. Further analysis is needed to assess the financial sustainability of the social security system and financial security in old age for the largest cohorts in Mexico that will begin to retire by 2040.

  13. Child labor in agriculture: some new developments to an ancient problem.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Dorianne

    2012-01-01

    Advocates for working children worldwide strive to eradicate the employment that minimizes a child's opportunities for education, good health and future potential. In agriculture, some promising developments in corporate social responsibility may generate partial solutions to child labor problems that have persisted for generations across world regions where food, fiber and fuel are produced. The purpose of this paper is to review these promising developments and propose recommendations in the context of a future of continued agricultural globalization and industrialization.

  14. Problems of Manpower in Agriculture. OECD Documentation in Food and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Problems related to rapid reduction of the agricultural labor force were examined in the 21 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The size and changes of the agricultural labor force, economic forces tending towards change, technical requirements for labor in agriculture, and obstacles hindering economic adjustment of…

  15. Cultural Issues Affecting Labor Force Participation. Background Paper No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriet Pipes

    A major challenge facing U.S. society is how to bring the massive groups of underemployed and unemployed minorities into the mainstream of the labor market. These groups will soon comprise 22 percent of the labor market and will be expected to take over positions requiring increased skill levels, but for generations they have been hindered in…

  16. The role of ethnobotanical skills and agricultural labor in forest clearance: evidence from the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Pascual, Unai; Vadez, Vincent; Huanca, Tomás

    2011-05-01

    Research on the benefits of local ecological knowledge for conservation lacks empirical data on the pathways through which local knowledge might affect natural resources management. We test whether ethnobotanical skills, a proxy for local ecological knowledge, are associated to the clearance of forest through their interaction with agricultural labor. We collected information from men in a society of gatherers-horticulturalist, the Tsimane' (Bolivia). Data included a baseline survey, a survey of ethnobotanical skills (n = 190 men), and two surveys on agricultural labor inputs (n = 466 plots). We find a direct effect of ethnobotanical skills in lowering the extent of forest cleared in fallow but not in old-growth forest. We also find that the interaction between ethnobotanical skills and labor invested in shifting cultivation has opposite effects depending on whether the clearing is done in old-growth or fallow forest. We explain the finding in the context of Tsimane' increasing integration to the market economy.

  17. AGRICULTURAL LABOR--THE PROBLEM, ATTEMPTS AT ORGANIZATION, CURRENT LAWS, AND WHAT ARE THE ISSUES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CALL, DAVID

    THE NUMBER OF HIRED FARM WORKERS IS DECREASING WITH THE INCREASED USE OF LABORSAVING FARM MACHINERY AND TECHNOLOGY WHICH ALLOWS GREATER OUTPUT PER WORKER. THE LOW WAGE SCALE PREVALENT IN AGRICULTURE IS THE MAJOR CAUSE OF THE FARM LABOR PROBLEM. WAGE RATES ARE DIFFICULT TO MEASURE ACCURATELY BECAUSE OF A GREAT DIVERSITY IN METHODS OF PAYMENT AND…

  18. Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers. PMID:18070333

  19. Labor market work and home care's unpaid caregivers: a systematic review of labor force participation rates, predictors of labor market withdrawal, and hours of work.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-12-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for "intensive" caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers.

  20. Why Japanese workers remain in the labor force so long: lessons for the United States?

    PubMed

    Williamson, John B; Higo, Masa

    2009-12-01

    As part of the search for ways to increase labor force participation rates among older workers in the United States, it makes sense to take a close look at evidence from Japan, one of the few industrial countries with a substantially higher labor force participation rate among older workers, particularly men, than the United States. Based mainly on prior studies and original interview data, we first discuss five potential factors which help explain why Japanese workers remain in the labor force as long as they do: (1) perceived economic necessity; (2) the large fraction of workers who are self-employed; (3) a culture that puts a high value on remaining in the labor force throughout the life course; (4) the long healthy life expectancy; and (5) the government's role in facilitating the labor force participation of older workers. We suggest that the Japanese national cultural value on remaining economically productive well into old age clearly underlies the development of the government's legislative initiatives aiming to extend the working lives of older workers. We then outline three policy suggestions for those seeking to increase labor force participation rates among older U.S. workers: (1) increase the financial incentive to workers who remain in the labor force; (2) improve public programs designed to foster efforts by older workers to become self-employed; and (3) increase the extent of government efforts to link older workers to prospective employers.

  1. 76 FR 11286 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2011 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural...

  2. Labor Market Projections Model: a user's guide to the population, labor force, and unemployment projections model at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, E.

    1980-08-01

    In an effort to assist SESA analysts and CETA prime sponsor planners in the development of labor-market information suitable to their annual plans, the Labor Market Projections Model (LMPM) was initiated. The purpose of LMPM is to provide timely information on the demographic characteristics of local populations, labor supply, and unemployment. In particular, the model produces short-term projections of the distributions of population, labor force, and unemployment by age, sex, and race. LMPM was designed to carry out these projections at various geographic levels - counties, prime-sponsor areas, SMSAs, and states. While LMPM can project population distributions for areas without user input, the labor force and unemployment projections rely upon inputs from analysts or planners familiar with the economy of the area of interest. Thus, LMPM utilizes input from the SESA analysts. This User's Guide to LMPM was specifically written as an aid to SESA analysts and other users in improving their understanding of LMPM. The basic method of LMPM is a demographic cohort aging model that relies upon 1970 Census data. LMPM integrates data from several sources in order to produce current projections from the 1970 baseline for all the local areas of the nation. This User's Guide documents the procedures, data, and output of LMPM. 11 references.

  3. Health problems of Maryland's migrant farm laborers.

    PubMed

    Go, V; Baker, T

    1995-08-01

    The health problems of Maryland's agricultural migrant labor force are presented for the information of Maryland's health care providers. Maryland's problems are placed in the context of U.S. and worldwide migrant labor practices.

  4. CGE Simulation Analysis on the Labor Transfer, Agricultural Technical Progress, and Economic Development in Chongqing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Ran, Maosheng

    2014-01-01

    The basic structure of a CGE model dividing Mainland China into two parts, including Chongqing and rest regions, is described. Based on this CGE model, both the unilateral impact and collaborative impact of two policies, agricultural technical progress and supporting policies for improving rural labor transfer on the economic development in Chongqing, are simulated and analyzed. The results demonstrate that compared with the sum of each unilateral policy effect, the collaboration of two policies has more effective impact on facilitating the labor transfer, promoting regional economic growth, and improving income and welfare of urban and rural residents. PMID:24892037

  5. Black Women in the Labor Force. Facts on Working Women No. 90-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    During the 1980s, the population of black women aged 16 years and older in the United States increased by 17.2%, and labor force participation for black women increased by 29%. In 1987, black women accounted for 50% of total black employment. The unemployment rate for black teenagers in 1990 was 30% (versus 10.8% for all black women). Labor force…

  6. U.S. CENSUS OF POPULATION, 1960. SUBJECT REPORTS, LABOR RESERVE--AGE, EDUCATION, OCCUPATION, AND OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMER MEMBERS OF THE LABOR FORCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUNSMAN, HOWARD G.

    DETAILED NATIONAL STATISTICS ARE GIVEN ON VARIOUS SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMBERS OF THE LABOR RESERVE. THE LABOR RESERVE IS COMPRISED OF THOSE PERSONS CLASSIFIED AS NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE AT THE TIME OF THE CENSUS BUT WHO HAD HAD SOME WORK EXPERIENCE WITHIN THE 10 YEARS PRECEDING 1960. THE STATISTICS ARE BASED ON A 5 PERCENT SAMPLE…

  7. Changing Patterns of Labor Force Participation Rates of Nonwhites in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsong, Peter Z. W.

    1974-01-01

    An examination of the redistribution of the black population associated with changes in the population of labor force age and participation in the South as compared with the non-White or the nation as a whole. The sources of growth and change in the labor force between 1940 and 1970 are explored with respect to changes at the total level, by sex,…

  8. Teenagers in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    1994-01-01

    Among youth aged 16-18 living at home in 1980, employment was proportionately higher among whites than blacks and among metropolitan compared to nonmetropolitan youth. Employment of white youth was linked more closely than that of black youth to family resources (income and occupational status) and local labor market characteristics. Discusses…

  9. The peasantariat and politics: migration, wage labor, and agriculture in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Parson, J

    1984-01-01

    This article examines Botswana's wage labor migration in terms of 2 reigning theories: 1) as a dichotomy between traditional and modern society, with workers viewing agriculture as an alternative to more desirable wage employment; or 2) as a subordination of colonial society to capitalist society, with workers drawn from the resulting underdeveloped and impoverished areas and divorced from their agricultural potential. Approximately 90% of Botswanan households have a wage worker; less than 1/4 of households rely on the agricultural economy alone. 80% of the population works in agriculture in some way, but agriculture contributes only 35% of total rural income. Over 50% of households are below the poverty level, and most must rely on a variety of income sources for subsistence. 68% of rural households (Botswana is 84% rural) have absent wage earners while 45% have 1 or more wage earners present. Absent wage earners work mainly in unskilled and semi-skilled jobs in Botswanan towns (44%) and villages (22%), and lands and cattlepost locations (5%) in South African mines (19%), and other jobs in South Africa (8%). Individuals with low socioeconomic status tend to migrate to South Africa; those with higher status move to Botswanan towns. Working for wages has become customary for most Botswanans. This article undermines conventional development theories by showing the close interweaving of the modern and traditional societies, and arguing that traditional retention of communal land rights and cattle ownership served the capitalistic system by becoming the basis for wage earning; previous income source (agriculture) did not disappear, but their use was altered. South African mining returns to the Botswanan government since 1965 largely benefited a growing petty-bourgeois class and marginally improved the life styles of the peasant labor class. Botswana's development depends on the relationship between the peripherial laboring class and the dominating petty-bourgeois and

  10. Intercountry comparisons of labor force trends and of related developments: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mincer, J

    1985-01-01

    This paper is a survey of analyses of women's labor force growth in 12 industrialized countries, presented at a conference in Sussex, England in 1983. The main focus is on growth of the labor force of married women from 1960-1980; trends in fertility, wages, and family instability are discussed. In all countries, wages of women were lower than wages of men, although between 1960 and 1980 labor force rates of married women rose in most of the industrialized countries. 2 factors that are associated with this growth are declines in fertility and increases in divorce rates. The 12 countries studied are: 1) Australia, 2) Britain, 3) France, 4) Germany, 5) Israel, 6) Italy, 7) Japan, 8) Netherlands, 9) Spain, 10) Sweden, 11) US, and 12) USSR. The substitution variables (wages of women or their education) have strong positive effects on labor force participation in most cases, and in most cases the positive wage elasticities exceed the negative income elasticities by a sizable margin. A summary table estimating parameters of the P-function for each country, and their predictive performance in time series, are included. From 1960-1980 the average per country growth in participation of married women was 2.84% per year. Wages of working women, in this same period grew, on average, faster than wages of men in most countries, in part due to selectivity by education in labor force growth. While growth rates of real wages across countries have a weak relation with the differential growth rates of married women's labor force, the relation is strong when country parameters are taken into account. The dominance of the "discouraged" over the "added" workers in female labor force growth appears to be upheld internationally. On the average, total fertility rate dropped from 2.42 in 1970 to 1.85 in 1980. Both fertility declines and the growth of family instability appear to represent lagged effects of longer term developments in the labor force of women. Women's wages are lower than

  11. 77 FR 16157 - Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB58 Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non- Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States;...

  12. 78 FR 1260 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: Prevailing Wage Rates for Certain Occupations Processed Under H-2A...

  13. 78 FR 19019 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: Prevailing Wage Rates for Certain Occupations Processed Under H-2A...

  14. 77 FR 24137 - Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB58 Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non- Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States; Revisions...

  15. Diabetes associated with early labor-force exit: a comparison of sixteen high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Rumball-Smith, Juliet; Barthold, Douglas; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2014-01-01

    The economic burden of diabetes and the effects of the disease on the labor force are of substantial importance to policy makers. We examined the impact of diabetes on leaving the labor force across sixteen countries, using data about 66,542 participants in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the US Health and Retirement Survey; or the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. After matching people with diabetes to those without the disease in terms of age, sex, and years of education, we used Cox proportional hazards analyses to estimate the effect of diabetes on time of leaving the labor force. Across the sixteen countries, people diagnosed with diabetes had a 30 percent increase in the rate of labor-force exit, compared to people without the disease. The costs associated with earlier labor-force exit are likely to be substantial. These findings further support the value of greater public- and private-sector investment in preventing and managing diabetes.

  16. Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether…

  17. Agricultural Child Labor Provisions of FLSA, 1975; Hearing before the Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session (Presque Isle, Maine, January 18, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    A provision of the 1974 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) prohibited children under the age of 12 from working in agriculture, except on their parents' farms. Purpose of this provision was to codify as a matter of national social policy that children under 12 should not work for hire in agriculture or any other industry, where they…

  18. Geographic concentration and driving forces of agricultural land use in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuluan; Li, Xiubin; Xin, Liangjie; Hao, Haiguang

    2012-03-01

    Since the 1990s, China has entered the middle phase of urbanization which leads to the existence of significant geographic concentration of agricultural land use. The average value of regional concentration degree of ten representative crops in China was 59.03%, showing a high degree of geographic concentration in farming. Some typical agriculture provinces in farming have arisen. The degree of geographic concentration in farming has been enhanced, with the average degree of regional concentration of ten crops increasing considerably by 3.83% in 2009 compared to that in 1990 (55.20%). The spatial growing center of farming was found to move westward and northward during 1990-2009. Meanwhile food production concentrated in the Northeast China and main producing area, and cash crops production concentrated in Northwest China. Off-farm employment of rural labor force, commercialization of agricultural product and regional comparative advantage are the main driving forces of geographic concentration of agricultural land use. Governmental policies with regional differences should be considered to promote further development of agriculture.

  19. A Report of the Child Labor Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Bureau of Labor and Industry, Portland.

    A task force studied youth work and its impact on the health, education, and safety of 16- and 17-year-olds. The study covered such issues as the following: effects of work on school performance, work's physical and psychological effects on young people, the effects work can have on young people's preparation for lifelong work, and what steps can…

  20. Females' labor force participation and intimate femicide: an empirical assessment of the backlash hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Avakame, E F

    1999-01-01

    Using data from the Supplementary Homicide Reports in conjunction with 1990 U.S. census data in a cross-sectional analysis, this paper tests the proposition that increased participation of women in the paid labor force will elevate the incidence of females' intimate homicide victimization. In part, results support the backlash hypothesis. Specifically, they suggest that a growth in the female labor force participation rate decreases the poverty rate. Reductions in the poverty rate, in turn, augment the incidence of intimate lethal violence against women. We discuss the theoretical implications of these results.

  1. BINGE DRINKING, SMOKING AND MARIJUANA USE: THE ROLE OF WOMEN's LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION.

    PubMed

    Cunradi, Carol B; Ames, Genevieve M; Xiao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the role of women's labor force participation in relation to binge drinking, smoking and marijuana use among employment age married/cohabiting women. The sample consisted of 956 women who were employed as construction workers (n=104), or were unemployed (n=101), homemakers (n=227) or employed in non-physically demanding occupations (n=524). Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that women construction workers were at elevated risk for smoking and monthly binge drinking; unemployed women were more likely to use marijuana. Women in both categories were at risk for polysubstance use. Additional research is needed to explicate how labor force participation influences women's substance use.

  2. 77 FR 12723 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Administration 20 CFR Part 655 Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture... Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States; Final Rule'', 75 FR 6884, 6891-6901, Feb. 12, 2010 (the 2010... Statistics Survey rather than the FLS to set the AEWR. See ``Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A...

  3. Agricultural development, migrant labor and the resurgence of malaria in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Packard, R M

    1986-01-01

    Much of the research on the recent resurgence of malaria in Third World areas has focused on the problem of vector resistance arising out of the widespread use of pesticides in conjunction with the development of large-scale agricultural projects. Evidence from southern Africa, and particularly from Swaziland, where a resurgence of malaria has occurred in the absence of pesticide-resistant strains of Anopheles mosquitoes, suggests that changes in agroecosystems, labor utilization and settlement patterns, which are also associated with large-scale agricultural development, may play an equally important role in the resurgence of malaria. Renewed efforts to control malaria must, therefore, take account of the social and economic, as well as the biological determinants of this disease.

  4. Falling Further Behind? Child Support Arrears and Fathers' Labor Force Participation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel P; Mincy, Ronald B

    2012-12-01

    This study examines how child support arrears affect fathers' labor force participation. It relies on longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. Findings from analyses of these data suggest that child support arrears result in declines in average weeks worked in the formal labor market in subsequent time periods. These findings are driven by the behaviors of fathers who had relatively high amounts of arrears and no income in the previous year and are mostly robust to tests for selection into no work or low levels of work by fathers. Findings also suggest that arrears obligations that are low relative to income result in increases in the probability that fathers engage in any formal work. Arrears are not statistically significantly related to informal labor force participation. This study highlights both intended and unintended consequences of the growth in arrears under current child support enforcement policies.

  5. Falling Further Behind? Child Support Arrears and Fathers’ Labor Force Participation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Daniel P.; Mincy, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how child support arrears affect fathers’ labor force participation. It relies on longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. Findings from analyses of these data suggest that child support arrears result in declines in average weeks worked in the formal labor market in subsequent time periods. These findings are driven by the behaviors of fathers who had relatively high amounts of arrears and no income in the previous year and are mostly robust to tests for selection into no work or low levels of work by fathers. Findings also suggest that arrears obligations that are low relative to income result in increases in the probability that fathers engage in any formal work. Arrears are not statistically significantly related to informal labor force participation. This study highlights both intended and unintended consequences of the growth in arrears under current child support enforcement policies. PMID:23935220

  6. [Some materials for the study of "labor force differences" of immigrants from outside the European Union].

    PubMed

    Piras, L

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of the productive behavior of immigrants arriving from outside the European Union comprise the phase preceding the immigration, the phase of first permanent residence, and the phase of secondary socialization to labor. The extra-community labor migration carries within itself all the individual cultural patrimony (values, conduct, faith, identity, lifestyle) which are invested into the transformation process and change through contact with the other culture. The differentiated labor-specific evolution of the extra-community migration was analyzed by means of a mathematical formula using the variables of compensation for work (salary), performance (effort), immigration, socialization to work, and the economic impact of differential work contribution, all of which individually and jointly exert an effect on the labor market. In the regular Italian labor market there is, however, a surplus; the irregular (underground) economy is differentiated by the variable of effort that immigrants exert in order to obtain employment. Labor behavior is determined by the competitiveness of the labor force and dangers inherent in leaving one's country and entering a foreign land illegally. Statistically, in the long term, individual situations show a diminishing trend vis-a-vis the risk of repatriation connected to the loss of the residency permit because of gradual integration into the labor market. The initial labor-specific effort (salary/performance) is reduced vis-a-vis a progressive process of socialization owing to work. New lifestyles and consumption patterns are acquired which also facilitate social integration. The human capital of the immigrant increases by progressive acquisition of language and other cultural instruments.

  7. Contributions of Recent Metro/Nonmetro Migrants to the Nonmetro Population and Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Gladys K.

    1978-01-01

    An assessment of contributions of metro/nonmetro migrants to the population and labor force of nonmetro localities is presented in narrative and tables, with data based on special tabulations from the March 1975 Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census. Migrants are described in terms of characteristics (compared by race, sex, age,…

  8. Estimation of the Probability of Labor Force Participation of the AFDC Population-At-Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    probability of labor force participation (LFP) of female family heads with dependent children present, the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC... female and if dependent children were present, which may be viewed as the AFDC pop- ulation-at-risk.l Only those family heads who were in the civilian

  9. Quantifying the Dynamics of Chinese Labor Force: A Life Table Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Dejian

    2007-01-01

    Based on the recent three population censuses of China, in this article, we used life table technique to compute the expected years of working life for the Chinese labor force in the primary, secondary and tertiary industries in 1982, 1990 and 2000. We found, after two decades of economic reform, the expected years of working life in the primary…

  10. Childcare, Eldercare, and Labor Force Participation of Married Women in Urban China, 1982-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer-Fazio, Margaret; Connelly, Rachel; Chen, Lan; Tang, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    We employ Chinese population census data to consider married, urban women's labor force participation decisions in the context of their families. We find that the presence in the household of a parent, parent-in-law, or person aged 75 or older increases prime-age women's likelihood of participating in market work. The presence of preschool-aged…

  11. Labor Force Participation Rates among Working-Age Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes four consecutive years of monthly labor force participation rates reported by the Current Population Survey that included nationally representative samples of the general U.S. population and nationally representative samples of the U.S. population with specifically identified disabilities. Visual impairment is one of the…

  12. Career Plans and Expectations of Young Women and Men: The Earnings Gap and Labor Force Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Francine D.; Ferber, Marianne A.

    1991-01-01

    Responses from 227 of 389 female and 161 of 333 male college business seniors found that, although expecting similar starting salaries, women anticipate considerably lower earnings in subsequent years. The difference was not explained by the number of years women planned to be in the labor force. (SK)

  13. Older Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: Selected Labor Force Characteristics. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert P.

    This report presents the labor force characteristics of older doctoral scientists and engineers using data from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) from 1997. The information presented in the report includes employment, education, and demographic data on all graduate degrees considering the age factor. (YDS)

  14. Socioeconomic Determinants of Urban Poverty Area Workers' Labor Force Participation and Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, James R.

    This study examined how the socioeconomic characteristics of male workers from poverty areas in Saint Louis, Missouri, San Antonio, Texas, and Chicago, Illinois, affect their incomes, hours of employment, unemployment, and labor force participation. The research was based on statistical analysis, using an interaction model, of data from the 1970…

  15. Changes in Labor Force Participation, Employment and In-Migration in Sub-National Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Seymour; Schiffel, Dennis

    The report presents the results of a study which indicate that demographic comparisons of labor force participation rates are most fruitfully made on the basis of sex, age, educational attainment, presence of small children, race, and marital status. Also that the most important demographic comparisons of groups employment (unemployment) rates are…

  16. Socioeconomic Background, Education, and Labor Force Outcomes: Evidence from a Regional US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Cortina, Kai S.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term association of family socioeconomic status (SES), educational, and labor force outcomes in a regional US longitudinal sample (N = 2264). The results offer insights into the mechanisms underlying the role of family SES in transitions from secondary schooling to early work experiences. It was found that the academic…

  17. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  18. Labor Force Experiences of a National Sample of Young Adult Men: The Role of Drug Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine on the following aspects of labor force experience: (1) earnings; (2) stability of employment; (3) gaps between employment spells; and (4) duration of unemployment. Illicit drug use was found to have an impact on all factors except earnings. (JS)

  19. Using the Service Economy to Relieve the Double Burden: Female Labor Force Participation and Service Purchases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oropesa, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    Used national survey data from over 700 respondents to examine how wives' labor force participation affects extent to which families use market economy to provide goods and services traditionally produced by women. Found that full-time working wives were more likely than wives at home to purchase cleaning and meal preparation services. (Author/NB)

  20. Effect of Female Education and Labor Force Ratio on Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turanli, Munevver; Taspinar Cengiz, Dicle; Turanli, Rona; Akdal, Serem

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of women's education and labor force ratio on the level of development in countries. We use a complete dataset covering 44 countries over the period 1990-2010. It comprises the following: education index, the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education, income per capita, human development index,…

  1. Human Capital Endowments and Labor Force Experiences of Southerners: A Ten-Year Perspective. SRDC Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Barfield, Melissa

    This study examines the link between human capital endowments of Southern workers and their labor force experiences over time. Using a national longitudinal survey, the experiences of 4,566 individuals who left high school in 1982 were traced through 1992. Findings show similar patterns of educational attainment between women and men, but African…

  2. Can Social Security Explain Trends in Labor Force Participation of Older Men in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.; Goodstein, Ryan M.

    2010-01-01

    After a long decline, the Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) of older men in the United States leveled off in the 1980s, and began to increase in the late 1990s. We examine how changes in Social Security rules affected these trends. We attribute only a small portion of the decline from the 1960s-80s to the increasing generosity of Social…

  3. Divorced and Separated Women in the Labor Force--An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman

    1978-01-01

    Labor force participation rates for divorced women remained higher than those for women of any other marital status, and divorced women were more apt to be in full-time, better paying occupations, according to employment statistics as of March 1977 for divorced, separated, and married women. (MF)

  4. Are we getting healthier as we grow older? Implications for babyboomer labor force participation.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Deborah J; Passey, Megan E; Earnest, Arul; Gloor, Ian C; Shrestha, Rupendra

    2007-10-01

    The Intergenerational Report (IGR) released by the Department of the Treasury of the Commonwealth of Australia in 2002 highlighted pressures that in the future would threaten the sustainability of the Australian government's budget balance. These pressures result from the growing needs of an aging population and labor shortages that will limit economic growth and taxation revenue. The IGR has become a driving force in planning government policy. The Treasurer has recently said that "the whole economic agenda of the government at the moment is drawn from the IGR." In response, the Prime Minster and Treasurer have promoted deferred or gradual retirement as part of the solution. However, about 50% of men and 20% of women retire early as a result of ill health, indicating that poor health is potentially a limiter of economic growth. This paper reports lower labor force participation among persons with poorer health and that these persons move out of the labor force at a faster rate as they age. A range of measures suggests some decline in health in the pre-retirement age group (those aged from 40 to 64 years). This indicates that better health may be a facilitator of greater labor force participation in the baby boomer cohort. However, there is evidence that improving economic conditions in Australia leading to low unemployment has created an environment more favorable to the employment of older workers with health problems as there has been a rise in labor force participation in these groups, and measures to prevent chronic disease may further increase the employment prospects.

  5. An Assessment of Labor Force Projections through 2018: Will Workers Have the Education Needed for the Available Jobs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Johnson, Hans; Li, Qian; Schiff, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The impending retirement of the baby boom cohort could pose dramatic challenges for the U.S. labor force for at least two reasons. First, the boomers--adults born between 1946 and 1964--are large in number. Second, boomers are relatively well educated. In this report we develop and analyze occupational and labor force projections to the year 2018,…

  6. Welfare Reform and Labor Force Exit by Young, Low-Skilled Single Males.

    PubMed

    Groves, Lincoln H

    2016-04-01

    While the labor market woes of low-skilled male workers in the United States over the past several decades have been well documented, the academic literature identifying causal factors leading to declines in labor force participation (LFP) by young, low-skilled males remains scant. To address this gap, I use the timing and characteristics of welfare-reform policies implemented during the 1990s and fixed-effects, instrumental variable regression modeling to show that policies seeking to increase LFP rates for low-skilled single mothers inadvertently led to labor force exit by young, low-skilled single males. Using data from the Current Population Survey and a bundle of work inducements enacted by states throughout the 1990s as exogenous variation in a quasi-experimental design, I find that the roughly 10 percentage point increase in LFP for low-skilled single mothers facilitated by welfare reform resulted in a statistically significant 2.8 percentage point decline in LFP for young, low-skilled single males. After conducting a series of robustness checks, I conclude that this result is driven entirely by white males, who responded to welfare-reform policies with a 3.7 percentage point decline in labor supply. Young black males, as well as other groups of potentially affected workers, appear to be uninfluenced by the labor supply response of less-educated single mothers to welfare reform. Impacts on young, single white males are large and economically significant, suggesting that nearly 150,000 males departed the formal labor market in response to directed welfare-reform policies.

  7. PRN 2007-3: The Agricultural Handlers Exposure Task Force, L.L.C

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This PR Notice discusses the Agricultural Handlers Exposure Task Force, an industry-wide task force formed to develop mixer, loader, and applicator exposure data for pesticides used in agricultural settings. It includes contacts for more information.

  8. 75 FR 45091 - Notice of Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture... Designated Federal Official. Mr. Schmidt may be contacted at the Department of Agriculture, Natural...

  9. The impact of work-limiting disability on labor force participation.

    PubMed

    Webber, Douglas A; Bjelland, Melissa J

    2015-03-01

    According to the justification hypothesis, non-employed individuals may over-report their level of work limitation, leading to biased census/survey estimates of the prevalence of severe disabilities and the associated labor force participation rate. For researchers studying policies which impact the disabled or elderly (e.g., Supplemental Security Income, Disability Insurance, and Early Retirement), this could lead to significant bias in key parameters of interest. Using the American Community Survey, we examine the potential for both inflated and deflated reported disability status and generate a general index of disability, which can be used to reduce the bias of these self-reports in other studies. We find that at least 4.8 million individuals have left the labor force because of a work-limiting disability, at least four times greater than the impact implied by our replication of previous models.

  10. Women and Minorities in Maine's Labor Force. Publication Series No. WM-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Labor, Augusta. Bureau of Employment Security.

    The 1984 issue of Women and Minorities in Maine's Labor Force is based on data from the 1980 census. The population findings from 1970-1980 are that there was an increase in women from 51.3% to 51.4% of the total population and a minority increase of 80.4%. Spanish ethnics grew by 30% in the population and Blacks by 17%; other minorities include…

  11. The Effect of Minimum Wages on the Labor Force Participation Rates of Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessels, Walter J.

    In light of pressure on Congress to raise the minimum wage from $5.15 to $6.15 per hour, a study looked at the effects such a raise would have on more than 10 million workers, many of them teenagers. The study used quarterly data on the labor force participation rates of teenagers from 1978 through 1999 and other studies to assess the effects of…

  12. 77 FR 41165 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY... Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on critical air quality issues relating to agriculture. Special emphasis will be placed on obtaining a...

  13. Mexican Contract Workers and the U.S. Capitalist Agricultural Labor Process: The Formative Era, 1942-1964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mize, Ronald L., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Rural sociologists have seemingly moved away from an active interest in the plight of migrant farmworkers and the centrality of their labor in the development of U.S. agribusiness. Answering Pfeffer's (1983) call to analyze the different forms of agricultural production, I focus on the key formative period of what I refer to as the U.S. capitalist…

  14. 78 FR 10127 - Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force. SUMMARY... term on the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) which was established by the...

  15. Labor Force Participation in Formal Work-Related Education in 2000-01. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2005-048

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lisa; Bhandari, Rajika; Peter, Katharin; Bills, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Of the many purposes education serves in society, one of the most important is to prepare people for work. In today's economy, education is important not just to help adults enter the labor market, but also to ensure that adults remain marketable throughout their working lives. This report examines how adults in the labor force use formal…

  16. The Effects of Year-Round Schools on the Hospitality Industry's Seasonal Labor Force in the State of Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickeral, Lyn M.; Hubbard, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Data collected from 66 managers in Tennessee tourist attractions indicate that 53 percent of seasonal workers in Tennessee come from the school system. The proposal to implement year-round schools would drastically increase the tourism industry's labor shortage. An alternative labor force needs to be identified and the issue of year-round schools…

  17. Drought, Agriculture, and Labor: Understanding Drought Impacts and Vulnerability in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hazardous drought impacts are a product of not only the physical intensity of drought, but also the economic, social, and environmental characteristics of the region exposed to drought. Drought risk management requires understanding the complex links between the physical and human dimensions of drought. Yet, there is a research gap in identifying and explaining the socio-economic complexities of drought in the context of the first world, especially for economic and socially marginal groups who rely on seasonal and temporary jobs. This research uses the current drought in California as a case study to identify the socioeconomic impacts of drought on farmworker communities in California's San Joaquin Valley, with a specific focus on the relationship between drought and agricultural labor. Through both a narrative analysis of drought coverage in newspaper media, drought policy documents, and interviews with farmworkers, farmers, community based organizations, and government officials in the San Joaquin Valley, this research aims to highlight the different understandings and experiences of the human impacts of drought and drought vulnerability in order to better inform drought risk planning and policy.

  18. Maternal labor force participation and differences by education in an urban birth cohort study – 1998–2010

    PubMed Central

    Pilkauskas, Natasha; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Maternal labor force participation has increased dramatically over the last 40 years, yet surprisingly little is known about longitudinal patterns of maternal labor force participation in the years after a birth, or how these patterns vary by education. OBJECTIVE We document variation by maternal education in mothers’ labor force participation (timing, intensity, non-standard work, multiple job-holding) over the first nine years after the birth of a child. METHODS We use the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N~3000) to predict longitudinal labor force participation in a recent longitudinal sample of mothers who gave birth in large US cities between 1998 and 2000. Families were followed until children were age 9, through 2010. RESULTS Labor force participation gradually increases in the years after birth for mothers with high school or less education, whereas for mothers with some college or more, participation increases between ages 1 and 3 and then remains mostly stable thereafter. Mothers with less than high school education have the highest rates of unemployment (actively seeking work), which remain high compared with all other education groups, whose unemployment declines over time. Compared with all other education groups, mothers with some college have the highest rates of labor force participation, but also high rates of part-time employment, non-standard work, and multiple job-holding. CONTRIBUTION Simple conceptualizations of labor force participation do not fully capture the dynamics of labor force attachment for mothers in terms of intensity, timing of entry, and type of work hours, as well as differences by maternal education.

  19. WORKING AND CARING: THE SIMULTANEOUS DECISION OF LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND INFORMAL ELDERLY AND CHILD SUPPORT ACT IVITIES IN MEXICO.

    PubMed

    van Gameren, Edwin; Velandia Naranjo, Durfari

    2015-11-02

    We analyze factors determining women's decisions to participate in the labor market and provide elderly care and nonfinancial support to their (grand)children. We use data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a survey of people aged 50 and over, applying a three-equation, reduced-form SUR model. Results suggest that care needs are the driving force behind caregiving activities. Traditional roles also appear to be relevant in the labor force participation decision: women with a closer labor market connection when they were young are more likely to work. Simulations of demographic changes illustrate potential effects for future caregiving and participation rates.

  20. WORKING AND CARING: THE SIMULTANEOUS DECISION OF LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND INFORMAL ELDERLY AND CHILD SUPPORT ACT IVITIES IN MEXICO*

    PubMed Central

    van Gameren, Edwin; Velandia Naranjo, Durfari

    2016-01-01

    We analyze factors determining women’s decisions to participate in the labor market and provide elderly care and nonfinancial support to their (grand)children. We use data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a survey of people aged 50 and over, applying a three-equation, reduced-form SUR model. Results suggest that care needs are the driving force behind caregiving activities. Traditional roles also appear to be relevant in the labor force participation decision: women with a closer labor market connection when they were young are more likely to work. Simulations of demographic changes illustrate potential effects for future caregiving and participation rates. PMID:26924883

  1. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Logan, John R; Rivera Drew, Julia A

    2011-02-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants.

  2. 78 FR 69365 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY...: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on critical air quality issues in relation to agriculture. Special emphasis will be placed...

  3. 75 FR 48929 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY...; (919) 541-5400. The Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on air quality issues relating to agriculture. Additionally, the Livestock and Poultry Subcommittee...

  4. 76 FR 27003 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY...: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on critical air quality issues in relation to agriculture. Special emphasis will be placed...

  5. Improving health and safety conditions in agriculture through professional training of Florida farm labor supervisors.

    PubMed

    Morera, Maria C; Monaghan, Paul F; Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Roka, Fritz M; Asuaje, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Because farm labor supervisors (FLSs) are responsible for ensuring safe work environments for thousands of workers, providing them with adequate knowledge is critical to preserving worker health. Yet a challenge to offering professional training to FLSs, many of whom are foreign-born and have received different levels of education in the US and abroad, is implementing a program that not only results in knowledge gains but meets the expectations of a diverse audience. By offering bilingual instruction on safety and compliance, the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) FLS Training program is helping to improve workplace conditions and professionalize the industry. A recent evaluation of the program combined participant observation and surveys to elicit knowledge and satisfaction levels from attendees of its fall 2012 trainings. Frequency distributions and dependent- and independent-means t-tests were used to measure and compare participant outcomes. The evaluation found that attendees rated the quality of their training experience as either high or very high and scored significantly better in posttraining knowledge tests than in pretraining knowledge tests across both languages. Nonetheless, attendees of the trainings delivered in English had significantly higher posttest scores than attendees of the trainings delivered in Spanish. As a result, the program has incorporated greater standardization of content delivery and staff development. Through assessment of its program components and educational outcomes, the program has documented its effectiveness and offers a replicable approach that can serve to improve the targeted outcomes of safety and health promotion in other states.

  6. 75 FR 8917 - Notice of a Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of a Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of a meeting..., Natural Resources Conservation Service, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 6165 South...

  7. AIDS Knowledge among Latinos: Findings from a Community and Agricultural Labor Camp Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urizar, Guido G., Jr.; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2003-01-01

    A study examining AIDS awareness among northern California Latinos surveyed 817 Latinos from a community and 188 Latino men from migrant labor camps. Misconceptions about AIDS transmission were highest among Latinos with low educational attainment, particularly men from labor camps, older Latinos, and Latinos with low educational attainment who…

  8. Bt cotton and employment effects for female agricultural laborers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kouser, Shahzad; Abedullah; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-25

    The literature about economic and social impacts of Bt cotton adoption on farm households in developing countries is growing. Yet, there is still uncertainty about wider implications of this technology for rural development, including effects for landless rural laborers. Bt-related yield advantages may lead to intensified production and higher demand for labor. Building on farm survey data collected in Pakistan and using double-hurdle regression models, we analyze employment effects of Bt cotton adoption. Model estimates show that Bt adoption has increased the demand for hired labor by 55%. Manual harvesting, which is common in Pakistan, is a labor-intensive activity primarily carried out by female laborers. Accordingly, gender disaggregation shows that the employment-generating effects are particularly strong for women, who often belong to the most disadvantaged groups of rural societies. These results suggest that Bt technology can contribute to additional employment income for the poor and to more equitable rural development.

  9. Women's labor force transitions in connection with childbirth: a panel data comparison between Germany, Sweden and Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, S S; Wetzels, C M; Vlasblom, J D; Dex, S

    1996-01-01

    "In this paper we make use of the panel aspects of the German GSOEP, the Swedish HUS and the British BHPS data...[to analyze] labor force transitions triggered by child births of different birth orders.... We find that German and British women have even higher full-time labor force participation than Swedish women 12 months before the birth of the first child. The difference is more pronounced for second and third births than for first births. We suggest that these differences are caused by different family policy regimes where Germany can be characterized as a breadwinner regime and Sweden a regime oriented towards equal role sharing of father and mother. Our results on determinants of being in the labor force both after and before the birth of a child as well as determinants of the tempo of entering the labor force after birth show that women's own human capital is important both in Germany and Great Britain, whereas in Sweden also less educated women have entered the labor force by the time the child is 2 years old."

  10. 78 FR 60317 - Notice of Updates to the Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... qualitative research to determine the current situation of child labor in the Namibian charcoal industry. The... eliminated. In the 2012-2013 research period, ILAB staff reviewed four items currently on the List to... these items, as discussed below, and continues to conduct research on the fourth item, salt...

  11. 77 FR 5714 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 48 CFR Part 422 RIN 0599-AA19 Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition..., Departmental Management, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Direct Final rule; withdrawal. SUMMARY: Due to...

  12. 76 FR 74755 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 48 CFR Part 422 RIN 0599-AA19 Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition... Agriculture. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Office of Procurement and Property Management (OPPM) of...

  13. 77 FR 5750 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 48 CFR Part 422 RIN 0599-AA19 Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition..., Departmental Management, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Office...

  14. Trends in Labor Force Participation: How Much is Due to Changes in Pensions?

    PubMed Central

    Rohwedder, Susann

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, beginning in the late 1980s there was a substantial increase in the labor force participation of men and women in their 60s. Over the same time period the type of pension plans offered by employers shifted strongly from defined benefit plans to defined contribution plans. Defined benefit plans typically have optimal retirement ages embedded in their structure which induce early retirement, whereas defined contribution plans do not favor any particular retirement age. Based on panel data, this paper quantifies the increase in participation due to the change in pension structure. The main result is that the pension changes account for a considerable part of the increase, but other factors also made a contribution. PMID:21857886

  15. 76 FR 52932 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY... Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on critical air quality issues relating to... between agricultural production and air quality. The meeting ] is open to the public; a draft agenda...

  16. 77 FR 1913 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    .... SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on critical air quality issues related to agriculture. Special emphasis will be placed... Environmental Protection Agency Updates D. Air Quality Issues/Concerns Discussions Exceptional Events...

  17. The Labor Market in the Central California Raisin Industry: Five Years after IRCA. California Agricultural Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Andrew; And Others

    This report examines the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) on the raisin industry's labor market, and provides educators with background on California migrant workers and their deteriorating working conditions. Because the raisin harvest lasts only 3-4 weeks but employs 40,000-50,000 workers, any effects of IRCA on…

  18. Labor force participation and human capital increases in an aging population and implications for U.S. research investment.

    PubMed

    Manton, Kenneth G; Lowrimore, Gene R; Ullian, Arthur D; Gu, Xiliang; Tolley, H Dennis

    2007-06-26

    The proportion of the United States labor force >/=65 years of age is projected to increase between 2004 and 2014 by the passing of age 65 of the large post-World War II baby boom cohorts starting in 2010 and their greater longevity, income, education, and health [Toossi M (2005) Mon Labor Rev 128(11):25-44]. The aging of the U.S. labor force will continue to at least 2034, when the largest of the baby boom cohorts reaches age 70. Thus, the average health and functional capacity of persons age 65+ must improve for sufficient numbers of elderly persons to be physically and cognitively capable of work. This will require greater investments in research, public health, and health care. We examine how disability declines and improved health may increase human capital at later ages and stimulate the growth of gross domestic product and national wealth.

  19. Labor force participation and human capital increases in an aging population and implications for U.S. research investment

    PubMed Central

    Manton, Kenneth G.; Lowrimore, Gene R.; Ullian, Arthur D.; Gu, XiLiang; Tolley, H. Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The proportion of the United States labor force ≥65 years of age is projected to increase between 2004 and 2014 by the passing of age 65 of the large post-World War II baby boom cohorts starting in 2010 and their greater longevity, income, education, and health [Toossi M (2005) Mon Labor Rev 128(11):25–44]. The aging of the U.S. labor force will continue to at least 2034, when the largest of the baby boom cohorts reaches age 70. Thus, the average health and functional capacity of persons age 65+ must improve for sufficient numbers of elderly persons to be physically and cognitively capable of work. This will require greater investments in research, public health, and health care. We examine how disability declines and improved health may increase human capital at later ages and stimulate the growth of gross domestic product and national wealth. PMID:17573526

  20. The Prediction of Labor Force Status: Implications from International Adult Skill Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-16-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tongyun; von Davier, Matthias; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    This report investigates the prediction of labor force status using observed variables, such as gender, age, and immigrant status, and more importantly, measured skill variables, including literacy proficiency and a categorical rating of educational attainment based on the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), the 2003 Adult Literacy…

  1. The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Labor Force Participation and Earnings. Working Paper: 1146-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; And Others

    The primary focus of this paper is on the impact an early birth has on later labor force participation and earnings of women. Variables affecting the participation of women in a given year and factors affecting the total work experience are discussed in detail. These include: hours worked, annual earnings, hourly wages, occupational status, race,…

  2. Technological Advance in an Expanding Economy: Its Impact on a Cross-Section of the Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Eva; And Others

    In 1967 the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan conducted a nationwide survey to determine the impact of changes in machine technology on a cross-section of the labor force. Although many studies have been made about automation, this study was larger in scope than most research and made use of cross-sectional analysis to show the…

  3. Intergenerational relations in a context of industrial transition: a study of agricultural labor from migrants in Nang Rong, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Martin

    2008-03-01

    This work investigates intergenerational relations in a rural setting experiencing the transition from rural subsistence to urban industrial economy. Help with harvesting rice from migrant children to their aging parents is used to illustrate changes that occur. The setting is Nang Rong, Thailand, an agricultural region that has experienced social, economic, and demographic transformations in the last three decades. In Nang Rong, out-migrants are young adults. Their parents, who remain in rural villages, are approaching ages where it becomes difficult to do agricultural labor. The migration of young adults contributes to a loss of household labor which puts pressure on households to meet their basic subsistence needs. Rice harvest help from returning or visiting migrants impacts intergenerational relations between adult children and parents. Results show that migrants are more likely to help with the rice harvest if their origin household owns securely titled land, and if the migrant has lower human capital achievements. Parents may use land as a strategic bequest to elicit support, which is consistent with an intergenerational bargaining perspective.

  4. Migrant Agricultural Labor in Wisconsin: A Short History. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Muirragui, Eileen

    Examining the relationship between certain sectors of Wisconsin agriculture and their need for seasonal workers, the paper traces the use of farm workers of European origin in the early 1900's through their replacement in the 1930's by Hispanic migrants (Mexican nationals and people of Mexican heritage living in southern Texas) and the use of…

  5. The Dacha Debate: Household Agriculture and Labor Markets in Post-Socialist Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Caleb

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines the relationship among household agriculture, wages and household structure using panel data on urban households from 1994-2003. Experts using cross-sectional data differ on whether Russian "dachas" or garden houses are a survival strategy that households use in times of economic difficulty or a hobby of the more…

  6. 75 FR 44214 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    .... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on air quality issues relating to agriculture. Additionally, the Livestock and Poultry... Report. (2) Air Quality Standards Subcommittee Report. (3) Greenhouse Gases and Bioenergy...

  7. 76 FR 20305 - Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... systems in recognized ISO Standards, such as ISO 17021, ISO Guide 65, ISO 9001, and ISO 19011, or other... programs should be based upon management systems, capable of supporting and demonstrating consistent... and record control, management reviews, personnel qualification criteria, audit procedures,...

  8. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability.

  9. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  10. Agricultural Handling and Processing Industries; Data Pertinent to an Evaluation of Overtime Exemptions Available under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report covers the major agricultural handling and processing industries qualifying for partial overtime exemption under the Fair Labor Standards Act and evaluates the need for such exemptions. Questionnaires which were sent to firms in various processing industries provide data on nearly 4,000 processors. The results show that existing…

  11. Agricultural Handling and Processing Industries; Data Pertinent to an Evaluation of Overtime Exemptions Available under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Volume II, Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Definitions of terms used in the Fair Labor Standards Act and statistical tables compiled from a survey of agricultural processing firms comprise this appendix, which is the second volume of a two volume report. Volume I is available as VT 012 247. (BH)

  12. The Aftermath of the Bracero: A Study of the Economic Impact on the Agricultural Hired Labor Market of Michigan from the Termination of Public Law 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John Dancer

    To test the "stoop labor" hypotheses that the supply response of domestic migrants to increased wages would be inelastic, this study examined wage adjustment in Michigan agriculture after 1964, supply response to wage changes in the pickle industry, and acreage decline and capital substitution following the termination of the bracero…

  13. Entomopathogenic and plant pathogenic nematodes as opposing forces in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Eric; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are responsible for substantial damages within the agriculture industry every year, which is a challenge that has thus far gone largely unimpeded. Chemical nematicides have been employed with varying degrees of success, but their implementation can be cumbersome, and furthermore they could potentially be neutralising an otherwise positive effect from the entomopathogenic nematodes that coexist with plant-parasitic nematodes in soil environments and provide protection for plants against insect pests. Recent research has explored the potential of employing entomopathogenic nematodes to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes, while providing their standard degree of protection against insects. The interactions involved are highly complex, due to both the three-organism system and the assortment of variables present in a soil environment, but a strong collection of evidence has accumulated regarding the suppressive capacity of certain entomopathogenic nematodes and their mutualistic bacteria, in the context of limiting the infectivity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Specific factors produced by certain entomopathogenic nematode complexes during the process of insect infection appear to have a selectively nematicidal, or at least repellant, effect on plant-parasitic nematodes. Using this information, an opportunity has formed to adapt this relationship to large-scale, field conditions and potentially relieve the agricultural industry of one of its most substantial burdens.

  14. Alternatives for Mobilizing Soviet Central Asian Labor: Outmigration and Regional Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    23 The Paradox of Agricultural Mechanization ............................ 24 The Politics of W ater...elsewhere. they aire unlikely to be fired 11-om their present position&. even if they aire redundant. THE PARADOX OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION In theory...anti where this labor is only marginally mobile. this surplus labor force can only increase. To heighten this paradox , Central Asian planners have

  15. Labor-Force Participation, Policies & Practices in an Aging America: Adaptation Essential for a Healthy & Resilient Population.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Lisa F; Börsch-Supan, Axel; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Population aging in the United States poses challenges to societal institutions while simultaneously creating opportunities to build a more resilient, successful, and cohesive society. Work organization and labor-force participation are central to both the opportunities and challenges posed by our aging society. We argue that expectations about old age have not sufficiently adapted to the reality of aging today. Our institutions need more adaptation in order to successfully face the consequences of demographic change. Although this adaptation needs to focus especially on work patterns among the "younger elderly," our society has to change its general attitudes toward work organization and labor-force participation, which will have implications for education and health care. We also show that work's beneficial effects on well-being in older ages are often neglected, while the idea that older workers displace younger workers is a misconception emerging from the "lump of labor" fallacy. We conclude, therefore, that working at older ages can lead to better quality of life for older people and to a more productive and resilient society overall.

  16. Hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI) is a novel mechanism underlying the strengthening of labor contractions, produced by hypoxic stresses.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Mohammed; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan

    2015-08-04

    For successful birth, contractions need to become progressively stronger. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, however. We have found that a novel mechanism, hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI), is switched on selectively, at term, and is essential to strengthening contractions. HIFI is initiated as contractions cyclically reduce blood flow and produce repeated hypoxic stresses, with associated metabolic and transcriptomic changes. The increases in contractility are a long-lasting, oxytocin-independent, intrinsic mechanism present only in the full-term pregnant uterus. HIFI is inhibited by adenosine receptor antagonism and blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 signaling, and partially reproduced by brief episodes of acidic (but not alkalotic) pH. HIFI explains how labor can progress despite paradoxical metabolic challenge, and provides a new mechanistic target for the 1 in 10 women suffering dysfunctional labor because of poor contractions.

  17. Family Migration and Labor Force Outcomes: Sex Differences in Occupational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shauman, Kimberlee A.; Noonan, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical analyses of sex differences in the career consequences of family migration have focused on adjudicating between the human capital and the gender-role explanations but have ignored the potential influence of gender inequality in the structure of the labor market. In this paper we estimate conditional difference-in-difference models with…

  18. A Study of the Participation of Women in the Health Care Industry Labor Force. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebowitz, Ann, Ed.

    A study was conducted to explore the relationship between socioeconomic and personal circumstances of women in health occupations and their labor market behavior. Using a conceptual framework (the Life Patterning Process), discussions were held in six states with a total of 279 women representing five health occupations: registered nurses,…

  19. Trends in the Higher Education Labor Force: Identifying Changes in Worker Composition and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education is a labor-intensive industry whose primary service, instruction, is delivered by a lecturer, accompanied by administrative support and various other services. Growing student enrollment necessitates some additional staffing; however, one would think that the recent and ongoing technological boom would have lessened the labor…

  20. Statement of the National Education Association on Migrant Education Before the Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor of the House Committee on Education and Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Roy O.

    Migrant farmworkers suffer from low wages, seasonal work, unemployment, limited coverage under labor legislation, health and housing needs, low skill levels, and undereducation. These are further complicated by their high mobility and, in many instances, by language and cultural differences. Prior to 1962, no significant legislation or programs…

  1. Labor-Force Participation, Policies & Practices in an Aging America: Adaptation Essential for a Healthy & Resilient Population

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Lisa F.; Börsch-Supan, Axel; Avendano, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Population aging in the United States poses challenges to societal institutions while simultaneously creating opportunities to build a more resilient, successful, and cohesive society. Work organization and labor-force participation are central to both the opportunities and challenges posed by our aging society. We argue that expectations about old age have not sufficiently adapted to the reality of aging today. Our institutions need more adaptation in order to successfully face the consequences of demographic change. Although this adaptation needs to focus especially on work patterns among the “younger elderly,” our society has to change its general attitudes toward work organization and labor-force participation, which will have implications for education and health care. We also show that work’s beneficial effects on well-being in older ages are often neglected, while the idea that older workers displace younger workers is a misconception emerging from the “lump of labor” fallacy. We conclude, therefore, that working at older ages can lead to better quality of life for older people and to a more productive and resilient society overall. PMID:28042166

  2. Immigration, labor force integration and the pursuit of self-employment.

    PubMed

    Mata, F; Pendakur, R

    1999-01-01

    A correspondence analysis was used to examine the entire working life cycle of Canadian-born male age-education cohorts and immigrant male age-education cohorts who arrived during 1945-61. Data were drawn from the 1961 and 1971 census databases as well as the 1981 and 1991 public individual files. Findings support the existence of a split labor market based on immigrant status, particularly at the low end of the schooling spectrum. In 1961, immigrants with low levels of schooling were closely associated with the wage construction sector, whereas Canadian-born males below the high school level would most likely gravitate towards consumer services. Meanwhile, immigrants with a high school education were likely to be in consumer services; whereas, Canadian-born males with a high school education were closely aligned with public administration and distributive services. Moreover, immigrants with higher levels of schooling were less likely to work in ethnically dominated markets, while immigrants with low schooling moved into the self-employed construction sector. The existence of a split in the labor market was evident among workers with lower levels of schooling compared with university-educated workers.

  3. Advances in research on structural characterisation of agricultural products using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongli; Cheng, Fang

    2011-03-30

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has many unique features compared with other conventional microscopies, such as high magnification with high resolution, minimal sample preparation, acquiring 2D and 3D images at the same time, observing ongoing processes directly, the possibility of manipulating macromolecules, etc. As a nanotechnology tool, AFM has been used to investigate the nanostructure of materials in many fields. This mini-review focuses mainly on its latest application to characterise the macromolecular nanostructure and surface topography of agricultural products. First the fundamentals of AFM are briefly explained. Then the macromolecular nanostructure information on agricultural products from AFM images is introduced by exploring the structure-function relationship in three aspects: agricultural product processing, agricultural product ripening and storage, and genetic and environmental factors. The surface topography characterisation of agricultural products using AFM is also discussed. The results reveal that AFM could be a powerful nanotechnology tool to acquire a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of structure and quality variations of agricultural products, which could be instructive in improving processing and storage technologies, and AFM is also helpful to reveal the essential nature of a product at nanoscale.

  4. Economic and labor market forces matter for worker well-being.

    PubMed

    Tay, Louis; Harter, James K

    2013-07-01

    In light of recent interest in societal subjective well-being, policies that seek to improve the economy and labor markets need to address the question of whether economic factors matter for worker well-being, specifically job satisfaction. In a worldwide representative poll of 136 nations, economic factors are associated with job satisfaction beyond demographic and job factors. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that higher national GDP and job optimism was associated with job satisfaction, whereas higher unemployment was associated with job dissatisfaction. Mediational analyses revealed that economic variables (GDP and job optimism) were partially mediated by job satisfaction in predicting life satisfaction; full mediation was found for unemployment. In a second study, time series regression of monthly data from a nationally representative poll in the United States from 2008 to 2011 revealed that unemployment rate was significantly associated with job dissatisfaction over time. There was some evidence that prior unemployment rates predicted job satisfaction at a higher level than job satisfaction predicted unemployment rates, suggesting that economic factors lead to job (dis)satisfaction rather than the converse. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  5. The Dilemmas of Modernizing Peasant Agriculture in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, Joseph A.

    In 1965, the Nigerian government charged Nigerian agriculture with the long term developmental task of providing: (1) an adequate and well balanced food supply for the increasing population; (2) agricultural raw materials for domestic industries; (3) agricultural export earnings; (4) employment for the increasing labor force; and (5) capital for…

  6. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  7. The Status of Deaf Women: A Comparative Look at the Labor Force, Educational and Occupational Attainments of Deaf Female Secondary Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod-Gallinger, Janet

    This study examined the relative status of 4,917 deaf male and female respondents (mean age of 25) on the Secondary School Graduate Followup Program for the Deaf survey from the years 1982 through 1989. Graduates were asked questions pertaining to their labor force participation, continuing education activities, occupations, income, and job…

  8. [Migrants from bordering countries in the labor force of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, 1980-1996].

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1997-04-01

    Data from the 1991 Argentine census indicate that migrants from neighboring countries at that date were maintaining patterns of entry into the labor force of Buenos Aires consistent with past tendencies. Migrants tended to be employed in less skilled manufacturing industries, construction, commerce, and domestic work, often filling positions rejected by the native population because of low wages and poor working conditions. Profound changes in the Argentine economy since 1991 have included rising unemployment and underemployment and a loss of productive jobs in industry and construction. A comparison of the occupational structure of migrants from neighboring countries and of the total population for the years 1980, 1991, and 1996 demonstrates that important changes in sectorial employment have occurred among both the native and immigrant populations, with the immigrant population increasingly relegated to ever smaller sectors of the labor market offering less attractive employment. Nearly half of the 841,697 persons immigrating in 1991 from countries bordering Argentina settled in the Buenos Aires metropolitan region, comprising 42.8% of foreigners in the metropolitan area and 3.7% of the total regional population. Of the population from border countries residing in Buenos Aires, 43% are Paraguayan, 28% Uruguayan, 15% Bolivian, 12% Chilean, and 2% Brazilian. The unemployment rate in Buenos Aires fluctuated between 4% and 6% during 1974-92, but it rose to 10.6% in 1993 and then to 18% in 1996. The underemployment rate rose from 4.6% in 1983 to 8.2% in 1993 and 12.6% in 1996.

  9. 78 FR 69541 - Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States, 75 FR 6884 (Feb. 12, 2010). The effect of... rulemaking (NPRM). 74 FR 45906 (Sept. 4, 2009). After considering comments from the public on the...

  10. Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways with Agricultural Climate Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, P.; Müller, C.; Calvin, K. V.; Thomson, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) have formed the basis for much of the current scientific understanding of future climate change impacts and mitigation. However, the emissions scenarios underlying the RCPs were produced by integrated assessment models that did not include impacts of future climate change on the modeled evolution of the agricultural and energy systems. Given the prominent role of bioenergy in greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, and given the importance of land-use-related emissions in determining future atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it is possible that agricultural climate impacts may cause significant changes to the means and costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This study builds on several international modeling exercises aimed at improving understanding of climate change impacts--CMIP-5 and ISI-MIP--that have generated global gridded climate impacts on yields of major agricultural crops in each of the four RCPs. We use the climate outcomes from the HadGEM2-ES climate model, and the agricultural yield outcomes from the LPJmL crop growth model to inform inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model, allowing analysis of how agricultural climate impacts may affect the long-term global and regional strategies for achieving the greenhouse gas concentration pathways of the RCPs. Our results indicate that for this combination of models and emissions scenarios, strongly negative climate impacts on several major commodity classes--prominently cereals and oil seeds, and particularly in the high-radiative-forcing RCPs--lead to a long-term increase in cropland and therefore land-use-related CO2 emissions. All else equal, this increases the emissions mitigation burden on the rest of the system, and therefore increases total net costs of emissions mitigation. However, the future climate change impacts on C4 bioenergy crops tend to be positive, limiting the shock of agricultural climate impacts on the modeled energy supply and

  11. The Impact of Changing Climate on Ammonia Emissions from Agriculture and the Associated Climate Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Riddick, S. N.; Hess, P. G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest anthropogenic source of ammonia (NH3) on a global scale with major contributions from the application of synthetic fertilizer and manure from livestock. While strict controls are placed on the emissions of many industrial pollutants, NH3 concentrations are expected to increase this century. In addition to future expansion of agricultural activities that could lead to greater NH3 emissions, NH3 emissions are affected by changes in temperature and precipitation. Here we use a newly developed agricultural N pathways model running in a global terrestrial model (Community Land Model v4.0) to estimate future NH3 emissions from manure and synthetic fertilizer application, and the impact of changing climate on these emissions and other N pathways (runoff, denitrification, etc.). We include future increases in the application of manure and synthetic fertilizer that are consistent with a middle-of-the-road projection of population growth and per capita caloric intake. Combined with atmospheric forcing that follows RCP8.5, NH3 emissions increase by about 50% and 90% between years 2010 and 2100 from synthetic fertilizer and manure, respectively. Roughly 25% of this increase can be attributed to the changing climate, mainly increased global temperatures over the 21st century. We show associated changes in ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosol concentrations and radiative forcings, the results of a set of additional simulations using the Community Atmosphere Model v5.0 and an offline radiative transfer scheme. This work suggests that projections of global NH3 concentrations need to take changes in climate into account.

  12. The Effect of Breast Cancer Fear Levels of Female Seasonal Agricultural Laborers on Early-Diagnosis Behaviors and Perceptions of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Polat, Perihan; Ersin, Fatma

    2017-04-03

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of breast cancer fear levels of female seasonal agricultural laborers between ages 40 and 60 on breast cancer early-diagnosis behaviors and perceptions. This is a cross-sectional study. The data of the study were collected between February and September 2014 in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. A sample of the study group consisted of 350 women. The data were assessed by using SPSS 16.0 statistics package software. Descriptive statistics, t test, chi-square, and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. Considering that breast cancer fear levels are effective on the breast cancer early-diagnosis behaviors and health beliefs, it can be recommended for the health care staff to carry out initiative works to reduce the fear levels.

  13. MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOUGLASS, M.R.; AND OTHERS

    CONDITIONS AND PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYMENT OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS AND MIGRANTS IN COLORADO ARE PRESENTED. THE FIVE MAJOR SEASONAL FARM LABOR STATE EMPLOYMENT AREAS ARE SURVEYED ACCORDING TO (1) THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SEASONAL FARM LABOR (4) TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, (5) COMMUNITY ATTITUDES AND…

  14. 76 FR 48902 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Child Labor, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking, Room S-5317, 200 Constitution.... Department of Labor, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Room S- 5317, 200... for the Elimination of Child Labor. 3. Originator: Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and...

  15. Driving forces of heavy metal changes in agricultural soils in a typical manufacturing center.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Menglong; Li, Fangbai; Wang, Qi; Chen, Junjian; Yang, Guoyi; Liu, Liming

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in 2002 and 2012 in agricultural soils in Dongguan, a manufacturing center in southern China, were analyzed to determine the impact of rapid economic development on soil pollution. The level of pollution was assessed using the Nemerow synthetic pollution index (NPI), and its changing characteristics and driving forces were analyzed using multivariate statistical and geostatistical methods. The results indicate that the mean NPI was 0.79 in 2002 and 0.84 in 2012, which indicates aggravated heavy metal contamination in the agricultural soils. The concentrations of Cd and Zn increased 54.7 and 20.8 %, respectively, whereas Hg and Pb decreased 35.3 and 24.5 %, respectively. Cr, As, Cu, and Ni remained relatively stable. The Hg and Cd concentrations were highly correlated with soil types (P < 0.01), the secondary industrial output per unit of land (P < 0.01), proportion of cereal fields (P < 0.01), proportion of vegetable fields (P < 0.01), population density (P < 0.05), and road density (P < 0.05). The Pb and As concentrations were greatly influenced by soil types (P < 0.01), river density (P < 0.01), fertilizer rate (P < 0.01), and road density (P < 0.05). Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni concentrations were primarily driven by soil types (P < 0.01), river density (P < 0.01), and fertilizer rate (P < 0.05).

  16. An Enterprise Model of Rising Ship Costs: Loss of Learning Due to Time between Ships and Labor Force Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    worked as a Programmer/Analyst at SAIC in support of NASA programs. She was Manager of the Risk and Cost Analysis Department and worked mainly in...the experience-level problem, and built a Markov Chain model for labor experience. We know, for example, that layoffs were LIFO (last-in-first-out

  17. The Racial Wage Gap: The Importance of Labor Force Attachment Differences across Black, Mexican, and White Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antecol, Heather; Bedard, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Labor market attachment differs significantly across young black, Mexican, and white men. Although it has long been agreed that potential experience is a poor proxy for actual experience for women, many view it as an acceptable approximation for men. Using the NLSY, this paper documents the substantial difference between potential and actual…

  18. Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways in a World with Agricultural Climate Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, G. Page; Mueller, C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-02-28

    This study assesses how climate impacts on agriculture may change the evolution of the agricultural and energy systems in meeting the end-of-century radiative forcing targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We build on the recently completed ISI-MIP exercise that has produced global gridded estimates of future crop yields for major agricultural crops using climate model projections of the RCPs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). For this study we use the bias-corrected outputs of the HadGEM2-ES climate model as inputs to the LPJmL crop growth model, and the outputs of LPJmL to modify inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our results indicate that agricultural climate impacts generally lead to an increase in global cropland, as compared with corresponding emissions scenarios that do not consider climate impacts on agricultural productivity. This is driven mostly by negative impacts on wheat, rice, other grains, and oil crops. Still, including agricultural climate impacts does not significantly increase the costs or change the technological strategies of global, whole-system emissions mitigation. In fact, to meet the most aggressive climate change mitigation target (2.6 W/m2 in 2100), the net mitigation costs are slightly lower when agricultural climate impacts are considered. Key contributing factors to these results are (a) low levels of climate change in the low-forcing scenarios, (b) adaptation to climate impacts, simulated in GCAM through inter-regional shifting in the production of agricultural goods, and (c) positive average climate impacts on bioenergy crop yields.

  19. PRN 94-9: Announcing the Formation of Two Industry-Wide Task Forces: Agricultural Reentry Task Force and Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Notice announces two industry-wide Task Forces being formed in response to generic exposure data requirements. It contains EPA's policy on a registrant's options for, and responsibilities when joining Task Force as a way to satisfy data requirements.

  20. Climate Forcing Datasets for Agricultural Modeling: Merged Products for Gap-Filling and Historical Climate Series Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Goldberg, Richard; Chryssanthacopoulos, James

    2014-01-01

    The AgMERRA and AgCFSR climate forcing datasets provide daily, high-resolution, continuous, meteorological series over the 1980-2010 period designed for applications examining the agricultural impacts of climate variability and climate change. These datasets combine daily resolution data from retrospective analyses (the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, MERRA, and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, CFSR) with in situ and remotely-sensed observational datasets for temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation, leading to substantial reductions in bias in comparison to a network of 2324 agricultural-region stations from the Hadley Integrated Surface Dataset (HadISD). Results compare favorably against the original reanalyses as well as the leading climate forcing datasets (Princeton, WFD, WFD-EI, and GRASP), and AgMERRA distinguishes itself with substantially improved representation of daily precipitation distributions and extreme events owing to its use of the MERRA-Land dataset. These datasets also peg relative humidity to the maximum temperature time of day, allowing for more accurate representation of the diurnal cycle of near-surface moisture in agricultural models. AgMERRA and AgCFSR enable a number of ongoing investigations in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) and related research networks, and may be used to fill gaps in historical observations as well as a basis for the generation of future climate scenarios.

  1. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology.

  2. Bibliography Relating to Agricultural Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruesink, David C.; Batson, T. Brice

    Over 1,000 bibliographies, books, dissertations, proceedings, bulletins, unpublished materials, United States Government documents, and periodicals are listed. In general material from only the last 5 years is included, unless specific literature pertaining to a particular topic was deemed important enough to be utilized. Though emphasis is on…

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IN OHIO, A DIGEST OF A PH.D. DISSERTATION. RESEARCH SERIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BENDER, RALPH E.; HALTERMAN, JERRY J.

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP CURRICULUMS NEEDED IN TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IN OHIO. A QUESTIONNAIRE TO INVENTORY THE LABOR FORCE WAS ADMINISTERED TO INDIVIDUALS, FIRMS, BUSINESSES, AND AGENCIES EMPLOYING PERSONS IN AREAS REQUIRING AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND FARM MECHANICS. ANOTHER TO COLLECT INFORMATION…

  4. A tale of two contexts: U.S. migration and the labor force trajectories of Mexican women1

    PubMed Central

    Flippen, Chenoa A.; Parrado, Emilio A.

    2015-01-01

    Even though women have long participated in Mexico-U.S. migration studies assessing the labor market implications of international mobility for women are rare. Especially lacking are studies that follow a life-course approach and compare employment trajectories across contexts and in connection with other transitions. Using life-history data collected in Mexico and the United States, we explore the impact of migration on women’s employment, focusing on how the determinants of employment vary across contexts. We show that U.S. residence eliminates or even reverses the employment returns to education found in Mexico, and that the constraints imposed on women’s work by marriage are actually stronger in the U.S. context. We also explicitly connect migration to other life-course events, documenting how the impact of context varies not only by marital status but also by where women’s unions were formed. PMID:26843706

  5. Multiple Jobholders in May 1979. Women's Share of Moonlighting Nearly Doubles During 1969-79. Special Labor Force Report 239.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekscenski, Edward S.

    1981-01-01

    Findings are presented from a May 1969 survey on the growing number of "moonlighters" in the work force: (1) one in twenty workers held more than one job during the survey week; (2) three of every ten multiple jobholders were women, nearly double the proportion of 1969; (3) the number of men with multiple jobs remained about the same; (4) the…

  6. Labor Induction

    MedlinePlus

    ... for labor and delivery, the cervix begins to soften (ripen), thin out, and open. These changes usually ... cervix is a process that helps the cervix soften and thin out in preparation for labor. Medications ...

  7. FARM LABOR ORGANIZING 1905-1967, A BRIEF HISTORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TOONI, LINDA LEWIS; AND OTHERS

    AGRICULTURAL LABORERS HAVE BEEN INEFFECTIVE IN ORGANIZING A LABOR UNION. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT WRITTEN IN 1935 ORIGINALLY HAD PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL LABORERS, BUT IT WAS DELETED BEFORE FINAL PASSAGE. EARLY ORGANIZING ATTEMPTS OCCURRED IN THE LATE YEARS OF THE 19TH CENTURY WHEN CHINESE IMMIGRANTS ORGANIZED PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATIONS…

  8. Traction and braking force on three surfaces of agricultural tire lug

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to determine the performance of an agricultural tractor drive tire on soil and in particular, to investigate performance aspects of tire lugs. A 160/85R14 radial-ply tractor drive tire was used. Pressure sensors were mounted in the leading lug side and the traili...

  9. GCM Hindcasts for SST Forced Climate Variability over Agriculturally Intensive Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Shah, Kathryn P.; Chandler, Mark A.; Rind, David

    1998-01-01

    The ability to forecast seasonal climate is of great practical interest. One of the most obvious benefits would be agriculture, for which various preparations (planting, machinery, irrigation, manpower) would be enabled. The expectation of being able to make such forecasts far enough in advance (on the order of 9 months) hinges on components of the system with the longest persistence or predictability. The mixed results of El Nino forecasts has raised the hope that tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST) fall into this category. For agriculturally-relevant forecasts to be made, and utilized, requires several conditions. The SST in the regions that affect agricultural areas must be forecast successfully, many months in advance. The climate response to such sea surface temperatures must then be ascertained, either through the use of historical empirical studies or models (e.g., GCMS). For practical applications, the agricultural production must be strongly influenced by climate, and farmers on either the local level or through commercial concerns must be able to adjust to using such forecasts. In a continuing series of papers, we will explore each of these components. This article concerns the question of utilizing SST to forecast the climate in several regions of agricultural production. We optimize the possibility of doing so successfully by using observed SST in a hindcast mode (i.e., a perfect forecast), and we also use the globally observed values (rather than just those from the tropical Pacific, for which predictability has been shown). This then is the ideal situation; in subsequent papers we will explore degrading the results by using only tropical Pacific SSTs, and then using only

  10. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  11. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  12. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  13. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  14. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  15. Nevada Works: Building Bridges for Success. A Statewide Conference To Evaluate and Plan for Current and Future Labor Force Preparation in Nevada. Proceedings of the Governor's Conference on Employment and Training (Reno, Nevada, November 2, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    These proceedings begin with a general summary of a conference to encourage collaboration among those involved to prepare a labor force with which Nevada could continue to be economically competitive. Highlights are provided of these presentations: "Opening Remarks" (Jessie Emmett); "The Dynamic West: A Region in Transition"…

  16. The Hired Farm Working Force of 1974. A Statistical Report. Agricultural Economic Report No. 297.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Gene A.

    Information is given on the number, characteristics, employment, and earnings of persons 14 years of age and over who performed hired farm wagework at any time during 1974. The brief analysis highlights some of the most pertinent changes and trends in the size and composition of the hired farm working force. Data were obtained through a survey…

  17. The Hired Farm Working Force of 1975. Agricultural Economic Report No. 355.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Gene; Smith, Leslie Whitener

    The report presents data on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of persons 14 years of age and over who did hired farmwork during 1975, and summarizes the pertinent changes and trends in the size, composition, earnings, and employment patterns of the hired farm working force. Information is given on the Spanish-origin, white,…

  18. THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE OF 1966, A STATISTICAL REPORT. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REPORT NO. 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    INFORMATION ON THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE, AND ON THE EMPLOYMENT AND CASH EARNINGS FROM FARM AND NONFARM WAGE WORK FOR 1966 IS PRESENTED. THE DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM THE ANNUAL SURVEY CONDUCTED FOR THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE BY THE BUREAU OF CENSUS. THE SAMPLE INCLUDED APPROXIMATELY 35,000 HOUSEHOLDS INTERVIEWED…

  19. Native Americans and Wage Labor: Ethnohistorical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Alice, Ed.; Knack, Martha C., Ed.

    This book reconsiders a largely ignored fact of North American Indian economic life--the place of wage labor in the culture and history of Native Americans. Case studies examine social networks of Native agricultural laborers, the decline of Native communities from self-sufficient producers to lower-class wage laborers, vocational education in…

  20. State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a summary, by state jurisdiction, of labor legislation during 1985. Legislation covered such topics as wages, equal employment opportunity, background clearance, occupational safety and health, employment and training, child labor, industrial homework, hours, agriculture, labor relations, plant closings, worker privacy, private employment…

  1. Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  2. 75 FR 38835 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    .... Department of Labor, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Room S- 5317, 200... for the Elimination of Child Labor. 3. Originator: Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking of the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB/OCFT). 4. Background: The award is to...

  3. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...

  4. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...

  5. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...

  6. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...

  7. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...

  8. Youth in Force in the Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Dottie L.; Walsh, Gene

    Five Alaskan communities, Ketchikan, Palmer, McGrath, Dillingham, and Kotzebue, were selected as demonstration sites for the Balance of State (BOS) Youth Employment Training Program (YETP), which addressed in-school and out-of-school youth through assessment, career guidance, work-study, and out-of-school programs. An analysis of need showed that…

  9. Infusing a Global Perspective into the Study of Agriculture: Student Activities. Volume 1. Developed by the National Task Force on International Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A., Ed.

    The need to develop an awareness of the global nature of the agriculture industry is one of the major issues that students must begin to understand. A packet of instructional materials was developed to help teachers infuse a global perspective into units of instruction about agriculture and related topics. This document offers a series of…

  10. Education: The Key to Labor Market Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Janet L.

    Although education is the key to labor market success, it never has been a sufficient condition for that goal. In addition to the changing educational attainment of U.S. workers, the shifts in the demographic composition of the labor force and in the very conditions and expectations of the workplace have made the task of efficient use of labor a…

  11. 76 FR 54835 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ...The Department of Labor (Department or DOL) is proposing to revise the child labor regulations issued pursuant to the Fair Labor Standards Act, which set forth the criteria for the permissible employment of minors under 18 years of age in agricultural and nonagricultural occupations. The proposal would implement specific recommendations made by the National Institute for Occupational Safety......

  12. The Impact of Federal Commodity Donations on the School Lunch Program. Department of Agriculture. Report to the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Department of Agriculture's program for purchasing and distributing commodities for the school lunch program was reviewed in 15 school districts, one very large, one medium sized, and one small school district in each of five states--California, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The objectives of the review were to (1) assess the…

  13. A Hard Look at USDA's Rural Development Programs. The Report of the Rural Revitalization Task Force to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture Graduate School, Washington, DC.

    This report addresses current economic conditions in rural America and offers recommendations about the role the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) can play in providing rural development. The Task Force identifies issues for rural policy in the 1990's focusing on economic development. Current rural programs are described and…

  14. International labor migration and domestic labor supply.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, R

    1992-04-01

    "This paper constructs a dynamic, general equilibrium framework to study the relationship between international labor migration and domestic labor supply. The general equilibrium nature of the model enables us to endogenize the pattern of labor migration. The effect of labor migration on domestic wage rates and labor supply is shown to depend on the pattern of labor migration. If the substitution effect dominates the income effect in labor supply, the domestic supply of labor necessarily decreases in response to an inflow of migrants....Similarly, if the dominant effect is the income effect, the immigration of labor necessarily increases the domestic supply of labor."

  15. Women's labour force participation and socioeconomic development: the case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, C; Aghajanian, A

    1980-03-01

    Changes in labor force participation of Malay, Chinese and Indian women in the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in Peninsular Malaysia, based on the 1957 and 1970 censuses, are analyzed. Brief discussions of the relation between economic development and female labor force participation, the socioeconomic development and ethnic composition of Malaysia, and past research on women's labor force participation in Peninsular Malaysia provide background for the analysis. The overall participation rate of women aged 15 to 64 rose from 31% in 1957 to 37% in 1970, with most of the increase among younger women. Participation rates rose for Malay women at all ages, dropped sharply for Indian women at all ages, and rose for Chinese women below age 40 but declined thereafter. Trends in Chinese female labor force activity seem to fit the developmental model most closely; Malay employment in agriculture among middle-aged women probably appeared to increase due to underestimation in the 1957 census; and Indian participation declined due to a sharp curtailment of the entire plantation labor force. Cross sectional analysis using the 1970 2% census sample demonstrates that rural residence, low educational level, and married status are associated with employment in the traditional and modern agricultural sectors. Higher educational attainment, urban residence, and delayed marriage are associated with employment in the modern non-agricultural sector. Chinese women had higher proportions in the modern sector.

  16. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.578 Financial management of labor housing. The requirements established in subpart G of this...

  17. The Migrant Farm Work Force: Differences in Attachment to Farmwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitener, Leslie A.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates extent of diversity and segmentation within United States migrant farm labor force by examining differences in migrants' attachment to farmwork. Finds three groups of migrants with differing levels of dependence on agriculture differentiated by demographic (age, minority status, region) and employment (earnings) variables. (NEC)

  18. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  19. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  20. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  1. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  2. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  3. Inducing labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... inducing labor is to "break the bag of waters" or rupture the membranes. Your health care provider will do a pelvic exam and will guide a small plastic probe with a hook on the end through your cervix to create a hole in the membrane. This does not hurt you ...

  4. The Labor Shortage--Poverty and Educational Aspects. Hearings on Examining Alternatives Available in Coping with a Projected Labor Shortage in the Future while Facing a Poverty Surplus and Educational Gaps in the Work Force before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, First Session (January 26 and 27, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document comprises hearings on the poverty and educational aspects of the labor shortage. Twenty witnesses testified, including Secretary of the U.S. Department of Labor Elizabeth Dole, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education Lauro F. Cavazos, legislators, program administrators, and three working mothers. Testimony included the…

  5. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  6. Causality between Literacy and Labor Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Shahrukh R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Utilizes the Granger causality test to estimate case and effect relationships between literacy and labor productivity in Pakistani manufacturing and agricultural sectors. Despite data set limitations, literacy appears to "cause" labor productivity to increase in the manufacturing sector. (27 references) (MLH)

  7. 29 CFR 500.41 - Farm labor contractor is responsible for actions of his farm labor contractor employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER... Wage and Hour Division, Employment Standards Administration, a written statement that includes the...

  8. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  9. 29 CFR 500.8 - Prohibition on interference with Department of Labor officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on interference with Department of Labor officials. 500.8 Section 500.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions §...

  10. Staff Report on the Guaranteed Student Loan Program, Belmont Task Force Recommendations. Prepared for the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Recommendations of the Belmont Task Force concerning the problem of student loan defaults are offered to the U.S. House of Representatives. The task force concludes that the purpose of the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program has changed significantly in the last decade. While originally established as a loan of convenience for middle-income…

  11. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... performance of work by his crew and his authority to determine the wage rates paid to his workers. (c)...

  12. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... performance of work by his crew and his authority to determine the wage rates paid to his workers. (c)...

  13. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... performance of work by his crew and his authority to determine the wage rates paid to his workers. (c)...

  14. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... performance of work by his crew and his authority to determine the wage rates paid to his workers. (c)...

  15. Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Workers, 1972: S. 3762 -- To Extend the Program for Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Migrant Workers. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 2d Session, August 1, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    On August 1, 1972, the Subcommittee heard testimony on bill S. 3762 which would extend the program for health services for domestic agricultural migrant workers. The bill would extend the migrant health program for 5 years, with $100 million authorized for fiscal year 1973 and a $25 million increase for each of the following years. S. 3762…

  16. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  17. World and regional labour force trends and prospects.

    PubMed

    Ypsilantis, J N

    1974-01-01

    Changes in fertility during 1970-1985 will not have any effect on the composition of the world work force until 1985 because the people who will be of working age at that time have already been born. However, fertility for this period will directly influence the size of the age group 15-30 in the year 2000. Moreover, fertility trends for this period will have an indirect effect on participation of women in the labor force. The number of people in the labor force has proportionately followed total population. Just as total population is projected to increase in the single decade 1970-1980 by an amount equal to its size in 1750, so the labor force will increase by 360 million during the 1980's (its original size in 1750). By the end of the present century the world labor force may well number some 2,6000 million, reaching 3,000 million by the year 2010; 4,000 million by 2030; 5,000 million by 2070; and stabilizing at about 5,200 million by the end of the 21st century. There will be great regional variations. Increases will range from 20-35% in Europe and the U.S.S.R. to 100-120% in South Asia, Africa, and Latin America. For East Asia and North America the increases may amount to 60% by the year 2000 and 100% by 2050. In 1970 less developed regions had 2/3 the world's labor force; by 2000 they will have 3/4. In 1970 about 20% of the labor force in more developed regions were working in agriculture while in less developed regions 2/3 were so engaged. In other terms, in more developed regions 10 farmers supported 108 persons while in less developed regions 10 farmers supported only 38. According to Food and Agriculture Organization projections, by 2000 only 3.5% of the labor force in developed regions and 43.5% in less developed regions will be in agriculture. Differences in gross national product between regions is striking. In 1970 the less developed regions contained 70% of world population, 67% of the world labor force, 87% of the world agricultural labor, and

  18. California's Agribusiness and the Farm Labor Question: The Transition from Asian to Mexican Labor, 1919-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joon K.

    2012-01-01

    During the interwar period, California's labor-intensive agriculture transitioned from reliance on diverse immigrants to preference for Mexicans. Political movements to restrict immigration, the Great Depression, and labor unrest compelled farm employers to search for labor that could be used flexibly and deported easily. To achieve this…

  19. BUREAU OF MIGRANT LABOR REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YERSAK, CHARLES G.

    A GRADUAL REDUCTION IN MIGRANT LABOR HAS OCCURRED IN NEW JERSEY BECAUSE OF MECHANIZATION AND URBANIZATION. THIS REDUCTION IS REFLECTED IN FEWER ACTIVE CAMPS THAT HOUSE WORKERS. THE TREND IS AWAY FROM THE USE OF FRAME BUILDINGS AND NEW CAMPS BEING BUILT ARE CONSTRUCTED OF CINDER BLOCK. THE MIGRANT FORCE IS LARGELY COMPOSED OF NEGROES FROM THE SOUTH…

  20. 77 FR 59417 - Notice of Publication of 2012 Update to the Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (TVPRA). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Director, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S....'' ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) carries out this mandate....

  1. 75 FR 78754 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Notice of Publication of 2010 Update to the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department... of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) carries out the mandates of section 105(b... required to develop and make available to the public the List pursuant to the Trafficking...

  2. The Labor Market Problems of Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roner, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    This study concludes that older workers do not have especially high unemployment rates, but when they become unemployed, they are less likely to find a job and more likely to leave the labor force in discouragement. (Author/SSH)

  3. Migraine headache and labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rees, Daniel I; Sabia, Joseph J

    2015-06-01

    While migraine headache can be physically debilitating, no study has attempted to estimate its effects on labor market outcomes. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the effect of being diagnosed with migraine headache on labor force participation, hours worked, and wages. Ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates suggest that migraines are associated with reduced labor force participation and lower wages among females. A negative association between migraine headache and the wages of female respondents is also obtained using an instrumental variables (IV) approach, although the IV estimates are imprecise relative to the OLS estimates.

  4. 29 CFR 500.226 - Service upon attorneys for the Department of Labor-number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service upon attorneys for the Department of Labor-number of copies. 500.226 Section 500.226 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER...

  5. 29 CFR 500.4 - Effect of prior judgments and final orders obtained under the Farm Labor Contractor Registration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of prior judgments and final orders obtained under the Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act. 500.4 Section 500.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL...

  6. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  7. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  8. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  9. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  10. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  11. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  12. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  13. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  14. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  15. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  16. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  17. REPORT OF THE JOINT LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE ON MIGRANT LABOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislature, Albany.

    RESULTS OF THE COMMITTEE'S STUDY AND OBSERVATION OF THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF LABOR FORCE IMPORTATION FOR PLANTING, HARVESTING, AND PROCESSING OF FIELD AND ORCHARD CROPS IN NEW YORK STATE ARE REPORTED. MAJOR SECTIONS INCLUDE--(1) TRENDS IN FARM LABOR FOR 1963, (2) PUBLIC HEALTH, (3) SOCIAL WELFARE, (4) LABOR CAMP HOUSING AND SANITATION,…

  18. DEFENSE MANAGEMENT. Industry Practices Can Help Military Exchanges Better Assure That Their Goods Are Not Made by Child or Forced Labor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    eliminating sweatshops in the United States. However, we reported on the "widespread existence" of sweatshops within the United States in the 1980s and 1990s.6...Monte, California, and found sweatshop working conditions-workers were confined behind razor wire fences and forced to work 20 hours a day for 70 cents...association, the El Monte raid provoked a public outcry and galvanized the U.S. government’s efforts against sweatshops . Concern in the United States about

  19. Statistical aspects of modeling the labor curve.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Troendle, James; Grantz, Katherine L; Reddy, Uma M

    2015-06-01

    In a recent review by Cohen and Friedman, several statistical questions on modeling labor curves were raised. This article illustrates that asking data to fit a preconceived model or letting a sufficiently flexible model fit observed data is the main difference in principles of statistical modeling between the original Friedman curve and our average labor curve. An evidence-based approach to construct a labor curve and establish normal values should allow the statistical model to fit observed data. In addition, the presence of the deceleration phase in the active phase of an average labor curve was questioned. Forcing a deceleration phase to be part of the labor curve may have artificially raised the speed of progression in the active phase with a particularly large impact on earlier labor between 4 and 6 cm. Finally, any labor curve is illustrative and may not be instructive in managing labor because of variations in individual labor pattern and large errors in measuring cervical dilation. With the tools commonly available, it may be more productive to establish a new partogram that takes the physiology of labor and contemporary obstetric population into account.

  20. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  1. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  2. Labor Market Characteristics and the Labor Force Participation of Individuals,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Bass, 1970, pp. 38-47. Durkheim , Emile , Les Regles del la Methode Sociologieque, Paris, F. Alcan, 1895. Fuguitt, Glenn and Stanley Lieberson...and conditioned by the cultural (e.g., Durkheim , 1895) or material (e.g., Marx and Engels, 1922) conditions of the collectivities in which people live

  3. The Empirical Study on the Labor Export of Three Gorges Reservoir Area in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bangyong

    There are many large surplus labor force in the three gorges reservoir area, export of labor services is one way to tackle the problem of employment of the surplus-labor and increase farmers income, export of labor is also a effective way to solve three rural issues. This paper analyzes the need for the development of service economy, study the problems of export of labor services, at last the author give some suggestion to develop labor economy.

  4. Imported Talent: Foreign Immigration and the New England Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Trubs'kyy, Mykhaylo; Fogg, Neeta P.

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of foreign immigration on population and labor force growth during the 1990s varied widely across U.S. geographic regions, divisions and states. New England was far more dependent than nearly all other regions on the new wave of foreign immigrants to achieve its population growth and labor force growth during the past decade. In fact,…

  5. 76 FR 61115 - Notice of Publication of 2011 Update to The Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor at (202.../programs/ocft/tvpra.htm . ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) carries... and make available to the public the List pursuant to the Trafficking Victims...

  6. Expansion of agricultural oasis in the Heihe River Basin of China: Patterns, reasons and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin in the arid region of northwestern China. An agricultural oasis is a typical landscape in arid regions providing precious fertile soil, living space and ecological services. The agricultural oasis change has been one of the key issues in sustainable development in recent decades. In this paper, we examined the changes in the agricultural oasis in HRB and analyzed the socio-economic and climatic driving forces behind them. It was found that the agricultural oasis in HRB expanded by 25.11% and 14.82% during the periods of 1986-2000 and 2000-2011, respectively. Most of the newly added agricultural oases in HRB were converted from grassland (40.94%) and unused land (40.22%). The expansion in the agricultural oasis mainly occurred in the middle reaches of HRB, particularly in the counties of Shandan, Minle, Jinta and Jiuquan city. Changes in the rural labor force, annual temperature and precipitation have significant positive effects on agricultural oasis changes, while the ratio of irrigated agricultural oases has significant negative effects on agricultural oasis changes. The agricultural oasis expansion in HRB is the combined effect of human activity and climate change.

  7. Tips for labor coaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... some tips for getting prepared. Before the big day Arrives Labor coaches should go to childbirth classes ... get through her labor and delivery. When the day Arrives You might be at the hospital for ...

  8. Between hearth and labor market: the recruitment of peasant women in the Andes.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, S A

    1990-01-01

    To cover subsistence requirements, peasant women from the Peruvian Andes increasingly are being forced to engage in income-generating activities, including domestic service, marketing, manufacturing, and herding. In many cases, recruitment into waged labor involves migration from rural communities. Case studies of the placement of peasant women in external labor markets illustrate the complex micro- and macro-level factors that determine the mix of productive and reproductive labor. The sexual division of labor in the domestic economy and community is the critical in regulating the length of absence of peasant women from the home, the types of jobs taken, and the migratory destination. In 1 such case study, 56 women from the village of Kallarayan (all of whom had migrated at some point) were interviewed during 13 months of fieldwork in 1984-85. There is no paid employment in Kallarayan, so 14% of the village's population is involved in migration to urban areas or commercial agricultural areas in jungle valleys at any point. Male migration is high in the 11-40-year age group, but becomes seasonal once men marry. Female migrants tend to remain away from the village for longer periods, but are almost exclusively single. Recruitment of peasant women into paid labor is achieved by 5 types of agents: family, godparents and friends, authority figures, recruiting agents, and employers. Peasant girls under 15 years of age tend to be allocated to external labor markets (largely domestic services) by parents and godparents; after 15 years, however, when children are considered to reach adulthood, there is a shift toward self-motivated migration or recruitment by employers and agents. The eldest daughter typically enters migration at age 14 years and sacrifices her education, while younger siblings remain in the home longer. In all but the poorest families, female migration for waged labor ends with marriage.

  9. Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... and eat during labor, which can provide needed energy later. Yet some doctors advise laboring women to avoid solid food as a precaution should a cesarean delivery be needed. Ask your doctor about eating during labor. While at home, time your contractions and keep your doctor up ...

  10. 77 FR 12883 - Announcement of Public Briefings on the Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in...-agricultural employment. See Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States,...

  11. 29 CFR 500.231 - Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Administrative Proceedings Procedures Before Administrative Law Judge § 500.231 Appearances; representation of the Department of...

  12. Merchange of Labor. The Mexican Bracero Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galarza, Ernesto

    The subject of this study is the more or less seasonal influx of Mexican (bracero) laborers to work in agriculture in California between 1942 and 1960. The migration began as a joint effort between the governments of Mexico and the United States to ease the manpower shortage created by World War II. Dire needs of these migrants, and their…

  13. Teaching about Child Labor and International Human Rights. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamot, Gregory E.; Jensen, Elizabeth S.

    An estimated 246 million children between the ages of 5 and 17 work in the agricultural, industrial, and craft sectors worldwide. Approximately 180 million of these children work under the worst forms of child labor as defined by the International Labor Organization (2002). In spite of conventions and protocols designed to eradicate the worst…

  14. 20 CFR 655.32 - Labor certification determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labor certification determinations. 655.32 Section 655.32 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY... Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the...

  15. 20 CFR 655.55 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification. 655.55 Section 655.55 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the...

  16. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  17. 29 CFR 570.71 - Occupations involved in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupations involved in agriculture. 570.71 Section 570.71... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION 1-Occupations in Agriculture... agriculture. (a) Findings and declarations of fact as to specific occupations. The following occupations...

  18. 29 CFR 570.71 - Occupations involved in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupations involved in agriculture. 570.71 Section 570.71... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION 1-Occupations in Agriculture... agriculture. (a) Findings and declarations of fact as to specific occupations. The following occupations...

  19. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  20. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  1. 29 CFR 570.71 - Occupations involved in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupations involved in agriculture. 570.71 Section 570.71... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION 1-Occupations in Agriculture... agriculture. (a) Findings and declarations of fact as to specific occupations. The following occupations...

  2. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  3. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  4. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Gutierrez, S.; Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  5. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gutierrez, S; Borondo, J; Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Tarquis, A M; Benito, R M

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  6. FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    result, the share of females and elderly persons in the working-age population has increased. For the periods 1900-1930 and 1930-1950, the relation...occupations and the characteristics of women as active workers. in section IV a procedure is adopted for testing the relation between the growth of the

  7. New England's Vital Resource: The Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, John C., Ed.; Bernstein, Melvin H., Ed.

    A collection of analyses and projections is presented that explores the challenges posed by a rapidly evolving economy and the critical issue of manpower policy facing New England and the nation. New England was able to move from traditional industry to high technology because its colleges and universities supplied basic research and trained…

  8. Demographic Trends Affecting the Future Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Karl E.

    This report reviews recent population and manpower projections and examines how they take into account certain unexpected shifts in demographic, social, and economic behavior. It also assesses how well the particular circumstances, trends, and problems of the nation's major minority groups have been brought into the purview of the projection…

  9. Nonmetropolitan Underemployment and Labor-Force Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Costanzo, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the roles of demographic composition, education, and industrial mix in explaining metro-nonmetropolitan differences in underemployment. Documents higher prevalence of "discouraged workers," unemployment, and underemployment in nonmetropolitan areas. Shows educational composition is single most important component accounting for…

  10. Labor Force Participation of Older College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Cathy

    1994-01-01

    A profile of older college graduates can be constructed from special tabulations provided by the National Center for Education Statistics' 1989-90 Recent College Graduate Survey. Findings indicate the following: one in six bachelor's degree recipients was 30 years old or older; four in five were interested in further education; professional fields…

  11. Industrial labor relations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Industrial Labor Relations Manual provides internal guidelines and procedures to assist NASA Field Installations in dealing with contractor labor management disputes, Service Contract Act variance hearings, and to provide access of Labor Union Representatives to NASA for the purpose of maintaining schedules and goals in connection with vital NASA programs. This manual will be revised by page changes as revisions become necessary. Initial distribution of this manual has been made to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.

  12. Caesar Chavez: Labor Leader. Hispanic Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedeno, Maria E.

    Written for young people, this book traces the accomplishments of Cesar Chavez, a labor leader who fought to improve the lives of Mexican-American farmworkers in California. Chavez was born in 1927 in the Gila Valley, Arizona. When Chavez was 10, his family lost their farm and was forced to move to California and become migrant workers. Chavez and…

  13. Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

  14. General Semantics in the Labor Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Jo

    This paper provides a review of some basic general semantic principles and then applies them to the area of prenatal classes and labor room practices. It first presents an overview of the principle that language is not a neutral factor in human perceptions but an active, reactive force. Next, it looks at the relationship between language and…

  15. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  16. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  17. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  18. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  19. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  20. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  1. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  2. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  3. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  4. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  5. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  6. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  7. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  8. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  9. Local Produce, Foreign Labor: Labor Mobility Programs and Global Trade Competitiveness in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preibisch, Kerry L.

    2007-01-01

    Temporary visa workers are increasingly taking on a heightened profile in Canada, entering the workforce each year in greater numbers than immigrant workers with labor mobility rights (Sharma 2006). This paper examines the incorporation of foreign workers in Canadian horticulture under the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP). I argue that…

  10. PROBLEMS OF MIGRANT LABOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLS, FOREST

    PRESENT MIGRANT LABOR PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN PROPOSED ARE PRESENTED. THE FIRST PROBLEM AREA IS PROVIDING EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN. THIS IS HINDERED BY THE PROBLEM OF SECURING COMPLIANCE WITH MINIMUM EDUCATION LAWS AND BY LAWS PROHIBITING EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN DURING SCHOOL HOURS. A SECOND PROBLEM AREA IS THAT OF CHILD LABOR.…

  11. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical risk factors for preterm labor and premature birth Getting late or no prenatal care . Prenatal care is medical ... your everyday life for preterm labor and premature birth Smoking , drinking ... having little education, low income, being unemployed or having little support from ...

  12. Can Graduate Students Re-Energize the Labor Movement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Deeb-Paul, II

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, issues pertaining to graduate student union organizing have been at the center of several political battles and court cases. This attention is, at least in part, due to the growth of graduate student unions at a time when organized labor's influence is receding in other, more traditionally unionized sectors of the labor force. As…

  13. Labor Markets and Economic Incorporation among Recent Immigrants in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The questions asked in the paper are whether and to what extent the employment situation among recent third-country immigrants differs across European Union countries and how it is related to these countries' labor market characteristics. The European Labor Force Survey data for the 1990s are used to disentangle the roles that the individual…

  14. [Immigrants and the labor market: a new age of immigration?].

    PubMed

    Dechaux, J

    1991-04-01

    Trends in migration to France since the 1974 legislation restricting immigration are described. The author notes that the growing integration of pre-1974 immigrants into the labor force and society is accompanied by a growth in illegal immigration. He concludes that the present situation concerning immigrant labor remains fluid, and that the characteristics of immigrants are extremely diverse. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  15. Women in Workplace: Vocational Education and Segregated Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna; Burge, Penny L.

    The United States and Finland show a clear gender stratification in work life. The uneven, gender-biased division of labor has been maintained, even though about half of the total U.S. and Finnish labor force are women. In both countries, female students tend to make traditional occupational choices that prepare them for low-paying fields where…

  16. Child labor still with us after all these years.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, P J; McCammon, J B

    1997-01-01

    Child labor is a major threat to the health of children in the United States. The U.S. Department of Labor estimates that more than four million children are legally employed and that another one to two million are employed under illegal, often exploitative conditions. Across the United States, child labor accounts for 20,000 workers compensation claims, 200,000 injuries, thousands of cases of permanent disability, and more than 70 deaths each year. Agriculture and newspaper delivery are the two most hazardous areas of employment for children and adolescents. Poverty, massive immigration, and relaxation in enforcement of Federal child labor law are the three factors principally responsible for the last two decades' resurgence of child labor in the United States. Control of the hazards of child labor will require a combination of strategies including vigorous enforcement, education, and public health surveillance.

  17. Child labor still with us after all these years.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; McCammon, J B

    1997-01-01

    Child labor is a major threat to the health of children in the United States. The U.S. Department of Labor estimates that more than four million children are legally employed and that another one to two million are employed under illegal, often exploitative conditions. Across the United States, child labor accounts for 20,000 workers compensation claims, 200,000 injuries, thousands of cases of permanent disability, and more than 70 deaths each year. Agriculture and newspaper delivery are the two most hazardous areas of employment for children and adolescents. Poverty, massive immigration, and relaxation in enforcement of Federal child labor law are the three factors principally responsible for the last two decades' resurgence of child labor in the United States. Control of the hazards of child labor will require a combination of strategies including vigorous enforcement, education, and public health surveillance. Images p466-a p467-a p468-a PMID:10822472

  18. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity.

    PubMed

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie

    2016-08-01

    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas.

  19. Advances in labor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Cynthia A

    2010-01-01

    The pain of childbirth is arguably the most severe pain most women will endure in their lifetimes. The pain of the early first stage of labor arises from dilation of the lower uterine segment and cervix. Pain from the late first stage and second stage of labor arises from descent of the fetus in the birth canal, resulting in distension and tearing of tissues in the vagina and perineum. An array of regional nerve blocks, systemic analgesic, and nonpharmacologic techniques are currently used for labor analgesia. Nonpharmacologic methods are commonly used, but the effectiveness of these techniques generally lacks rigorous scientific study. Continuous labor support has been shown to decrease the use of pharmacologic analgesia and shorten labor. Intradermal water injections decrease back labor pain. Neuraxial labor analgesia (most commonly epidural or combined spinal-epidural) is the most effective method of pain relief during childbirth, and the only method that provides complete analgesia without maternal or fetal sedation. Current techniques commonly combine a low dose of local anesthetic (bupivacaine or ropivacaine) with a lipid soluble opioid (fentanyl or sufentanil). Neuraxial analgesia does not increase the rate of cesarean delivery compared to systemic opioid analgesia; however, dense neuraxial analgesia may increase the risk of instrumental vaginal delivery. PMID:21072284

  20. [Foreign agricultural proletariat and seasonal migrations: Haitian workers in the Dominican agriculture].

    PubMed

    Lozano, W

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the massive entry of Haitian agricultural workers into rice, coffee, and other agricultural production in the Dominican Republic over the past 15 years are analyzed using data from surveys conducted in 1985 and 1987. Unlike the classic Latin American cases of labor migration, the movement of Haitian workers to the Dominican Republic crosses national borders and involves a landless proletariat rather than peasant farmers seeking to supplement their subsistence. Most of the Haitians finding work in coffee and rice cultivation were former sugar cane workers with several years of residence in the Dominican Republic who were forced out of sugar cane cutting by the collapse of the industry in the 1980s. Although Haitians have been employed in Dominican agriculture since the early 1900s, their massive movement to crops of great labor demand other than sugar began in the 1980s. Most of the Haitian workers in rice and coffee are illiterate men with no more than 3 years of primary education. Their average age is 28.4 years for coffee and 29.1 for rice workers. 40% of coffee workers and 53% of rice workers had children. The survey found a greater proportion of migrants from the North zone of Haiti than have previous studies, probably because of the accelerating crisis in the peasant economy in the North and the curtailment of movement to the Bahamas. The technical and social organization of agricultural work goes far in explaining migratory flows. Rice cultivation has heavy labor demands year round, while demand for labor in coffee cultivation is concentrated between August-December. The more complex and better paying jobs in rice cultivation are performed primarily by Dominican workers, who have formed a landless agricultural proletariat in place for at least 2 generations. Dominican workers thus meet the condition of staying in place all year that is not completely possible for Haitian workers. No such ethnic separation occurs in the coffee harvest, and

  1. The Economic Evolution of Rural America. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation of the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (May 22, June 13, June 19, July 1, 1985). Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Part 2 of this congressional hearing contains the testimony and prepared statements of 31 witnesses on the topics of rural community resources, the rural labor force, rural finance, and rural education to assist the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation in identifying the problems and potential of America's rural economy. With emphasis on…

  2. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  3. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum in Labor

    PubMed Central

    Benlamkadem, Said; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema also known as Hamman's syndrome is a very rare complication of labor that is often related to the valsalva maneuver during the labor. In most case, Hamman's syndrome is a self-limiting condition, rarely complicated unless there are underlying respiratory diseases. Chest X-ray can be a useful early diagnostic technique in severe clinical presentation. We report an uneventful pregnancy in a primigravid parturient, which was complicated in the late second stage of labor by the development of subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and mild pneumothorax. Spontaneous recovery occurred after four days of conservative management. This condition shows the major interest of labor analgesia especially locoregional techniques. PMID:28316849

  4. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  5. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  7. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  8. PROGRESS IN MEETING PROBLEMS OF MIGRATORY LABOR IN MARYLAND, FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NYSTROM, PAUL E.; AND OTHERS

    THE VEGETABLE AND FRUIT INDUSTRIES OF MARYLAND HAVE LONG BEEN DEPENDENT UPON MIGRATORY LABOR FOR THE SEASONAL LABOR REQUIRED IN HARVESTING AND PROCESSING OPERATIONS. THIS LABOR FORCE COMES TO THE STATE IN THE SPRING OR SUMMER, IS EMPLOYED IN VARIOUS CAMPS IN MARYLAND AND STATES IN THE NORTH, AND MIGRATES SOUTH FOLLOWING THE HARVEST OF LATE…

  9. Women Workers in South Africa: Participation, Pay and Prejudice in the Formal Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carolyn

    Although concern over labor market inequities in South Africa has focused almost exclusively on racial differences in labor force participation and pay, gender also has been important, since women do not enjoy the same access, opportunities, and rewards in the formal labor market as men, especially among races traditionally subject to…

  10. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Merchandise Produced by Convict, Forced, Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  11. The Rhetoric of "Job Market" and the Reality of the Academic Labor System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Marc

    2003-01-01

    One way of describing the recent movement of thought about the academic labor system is as a series of waves. A "first wave" of labor consciousness emerged before 1970, propelling the self-organization of the academic work force, especially in public institutions, where more than half the faculty are unionized. This labor awareness was…

  12. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  13. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions.

  14. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.105 “Primary” and...

  15. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.105 “Primary” and...

  16. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.105 “Primary” and...

  17. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.105 “Primary” and...

  18. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.105 “Primary” and...

  19. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal... of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

  20. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal... of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

  1. Second stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yvonne W; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' definition of prolonged second stage diagnoses 10% to 14% of nulliparous and 3% to 3.5% of multiparous women as having a prolonged second stage. The progression of labor in modern obstetrics may have deviated from the current labor norms established in the 1950s, likely due to differences in obstetric population characteristics and variation in clinical practice. Optimal management of the second stage in women with and without epidural remains debatable. Although prolonged second stage is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity, conflicting data exist regarding the duration of second stage and associated neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  2. 75 FR 8402 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... origin, that the Department, in consultation and cooperation with the Departments of State and Treasury... calamity, fire, flood, famine, earthquake, violent epidemic or epizootic diseases, invasion by...

  3. Cultivating Labor Management Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    In many districts, the notion of labor groups and district administration working together conjures descriptions of war and battle rather than cooperation and collaboration. However, in San Juan Unified School District, the headline, "Union and District Exhibit Positive Partnership" exemplifies the changing relationship between teacher…

  4. Labor Market Progeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  5. Intersectionality at Work: Determinants of Labor Supply among Immigrant Latinas.

    PubMed

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2014-06-01

    This article borrows from the intersectionality literature to investigate how legal status, labor market position, and family characteristics structure the labor supply of immigrant Latinas in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. The analysis takes a broad view of labor force participation, analyzing the predictors of whether or not women work; whether and how the barriers to work vary across occupations; and variation in hours and weeks worked among the employed. I also explicitly investigate the extent to which family constraints interact with other social characteristics, especially legal status, in shaping women's labor market position. Results highlight that immigrant Latinas experience multiple, interrelated constraints on employment owing to their position as low-skill workers in a labor market highly segregated by gender and nativity, to their status as members of a largely undocumented population, and as wives and mothers in an environment characterized by significant work-family conflict.

  6. Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figart, Deborah M.

    Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women…

  7. Labor on Campus: Academic Library Service to Labor Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidle, Deborah Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Examines academic library service to labor groups, particularly in the area of Internet training. Results of an informal survey of 53 academic libraries in schools with labor study programs in the United States and Canada indicate that few provide direct services to labor unions, and provides an example of one that does at Cornell University.…

  8. Child Labor in America's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  9. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  10. Labor and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.; Nelkin, D.

    1980-03-01

    The AFL-CIO is officially pro-nuclear, but tensions within unions are taking issue over ideological differences. The Labor movement, having looked to nuclear power development as an economic necessity to avoid unemployment, has opposed efforts to delay construction or close plants. As many as 42% of union members or relatives of members, however, were found to oppose new power plants, some actively working against specific construction projects. The United Mine Workers and Teamsters actively challenged the nuclear industry while the auto workers have been ambivalent. The differences between union orientation reflects the history of unionism in the US and explains the emergence of social unionism with its emphasis on safety and working conditions as well as economic benefits. Business union orientation trends to prevail during periods of prosperity; social unions during recessions. The labor unions and the environmentalists are examined in this conext and found to be hopeful. 35 references. (DCK)

  11. 20 CFR 655.208 - Temporary labor certification applications involving fraud or willful misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employer or agent in writing of this referral. The OFLC Administrator shall continue to process the... Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.208... reasons therefor stated in writing....

  12. On the Season: Aspects of the Migrant Labor System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelkin, Dorothy

    The 3 essays on migrants in this study draw upon a survey of 181 migrants from 12 crews and of the crew leaders and growers associated with these crews, a small survey of an agricultural community, field notes of 16 undergraduate students who lived and worked in 14 migrant labor camps for 5 to 10 weeks, and interviews by 8 additional students with…

  13. FARM LABOR COSTS AND FOOD PRICES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    TO MEASURE THE IMPACT OF THE DECLINE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL WORKER EMPLOYMENT ON FARM-LABOR COSTS, FOOD PRICES, AND RETURN TO THE FARMER, AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF THE 1964-65 CHANGES IN THESE FACTORS FOR SELECTED CALIFORNIA CROPS. TOMATOES, LETTUCE, STRAWBERRIES, CANTALOUPES, CELERY, LEMONS, AND ASPARAGUS, WHICH ACCOUNTED FOR 71 PERCENT OF THE…

  14. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  15. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  16. Women in American Agriculture, a Selected Bibliography. Library List 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Agricultural Library (USDA), Washington, DC.

    More than 250 citations of materials about women in agriculture in the U.S. are contained in this partially annotated bibliography. It covers women engaged as landowners, farm managers, agricultural laborers and working in such agricultural industries as beekeeping, silk culture, and butter production. Other references concern women in…

  17. A Modest Interdisciplinary Overview of the Farm Labor Problem with Some Suggestions for Future Research Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David E., Jr.

    It is stated that the United States is experiencing in the agricultural sector two simultaneous surpluses which together are referred to as the "farm problem:" these are surpluses of products and labor. The primary reasons for the labor surplus are relatively rapid adoption of technological innovations, the approximation of a competitive…

  18. PROGRESS IN MEETING PROBLEMS OF MIGRATORY LABOR IN MARYLAND, THIRD ANNUAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NYSTROM, PAUL E.; AND OTHERS

    NUMEROUS CHANGES IN MARYLAND AGRICULTURE HAD A PRONOUNCED EFFECT UPON THE LABOR MOVEMENT. AMONG THEM WERE--CROP YIELDS, CROP PRICES AND THE RESULTANT EFFECT UPON CROP ACREAGE, MECHANIZATION OF TILLAGE, THINNINGS, AND HARVEST PROCEDURES. DESPITE INCREASED MECHANIZATION, GREATER ACREAGES MIGHT DEMAND A RATHER CONSTANT SUPPLY OF LABOR. PROBLEMS IN…

  19. A University of a New Type: University Combines Education with Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The educational program of a communist labor university in South China's Kiangsi Province is described. Classes in agriculture, forestry, accounting, animal husbandry, and farm machinery are offered on a part-work, part-study basis which combines education with productive labor. (SM)

  20. Labor contractors: a conceptual overview.

    PubMed

    Martin, P M

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of labor brokering or contracting that helps to explain why employers turn to foreign workers to fill certain vacant jobs, and how the presence of foreign workers brought to a country by labor contractors can affect the size and duration of migration flows. The major conclusion is that East Asian policies that aim to avoid the settlement of unskilled foreign workers also make labor brokering a prominent feature of labor migration and migrant labor markets in the region."

  1. 76 FR 42709 - Submission for OMB Review; Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...; Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor AGENCY: Department of... acquisition of products produced by forced or indentured child labor. DATES: Submit comments on or before... on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor, by any of the...

  2. Assessing the Impact of Education and Marriage on Labor Market Exit Decisions of Women. Working Paper 2010-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Pitts, M. Melinda; Walker, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    During the late 1990s, the convergence of women's labor force participation rates to men's rates came to a halt. This paper explores the degree to which the role of education and marriage in women's labor supply decisions also changed over this time period. Specifically, this paper investigates women's decisions to exit the labor market upon the…

  3. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  4. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  5. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  6. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  7. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  8. 29 CFR 401.7 - Labor dispute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.7 Labor dispute. Labor dispute includes any controversy concerning terms, tenure, or conditions of employment, or concerning the association or representation...

  9. Levobupivacaine for labor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Makhni, Reena; Sethi, Savinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Combined spinal-epidural analgesia has become the preferred technique for labor analgesia as it combines the benefits of both spinal analgesia and flexibility of epidural catheter. Study was carried out with the primary aim to compare levobupivacaine and ropivacaine with fentanyl in terms of onset and duration of sensory block and to know maternal and fetal outcome. Materials and Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 primipara of the American Society of Anesthesiologists health status Class I and II with singleton pregnancy in active stage of labor were randomly allocated into two groups of 30 each. Group A received 3 mg intrathecal levobupivacaine with 25 μg fentanyl followed by epidural top-ups of 14 ml of levobupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 30 μg whereas Group B received 4 mg intrathecal ropivacaine with 25 μg fentanyl followed by epidural top-ups of 14 ml of ropivacaine 0.2% with fentanyl 30 μg. Patients were monitored for sensory and motor block characteristics, hemodynamics, maternal and fetal outcome, side effects, and complications. These characteristics were analyzed using the “Chi-square tests” and “unpaired t-test.” Results: Onset of analgesia was rapid in Group A (4.72 ± 0.54 min) as compared to Group B (5.58 ± 0.49 min). Duration of analgesia was also prolonged in Group A (117.00 ± 11.86 min) as compared to Group B (90.17 ± 8.85 min). Patients remained hemodynamically stable and side effects, and complications were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: Levobupivacaine with fentanyl leads to early onset and prolonged duration of analgesia as compared to ropivacaine with fentanyl during labor analgesia. PMID:27746539

  10. Acupuncture and Acupressure in Labor.

    PubMed

    Schlaeger, Judith M; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth M; Bussell, Jeanie L; Takakura, Nobuari; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Takayama, Miho; Wilkie, Diana J

    2017-01-01

    Acupuncture and acupressure, 2 modalities of Traditional Chinese Medicine, are based on reducing pain and symptoms of disease through balancing yin and yang. Acupuncture and acupressure have been used in China for reduction of labor pain, labor augmentation, and other intrapartum indications for more than 2 millennia. This article presents a review of the current literature that has addressed the effects of acupuncture and acupressure on intrapartum events. Studies of acupuncture have demonstrated that acupuncture may reduce labor pain, the use of pharmacologic agents, the use of forceps and vacuum-assisted births, and the length of labor. Studies that examined the effect of acupuncture on labor that is induced or augmented for premature rupture of membranes have found that acupuncture may increase the degree of cervical ripening but does not reduce the amount of oxytocin or epidural analgesia administration, nor does it shorten length of induced labor. Acupressure may reduce labor pain and labor duration, but acupressure has not been found to increase cervical ripening or induce labor. There are insufficient studies about acupuncture and acupressure and their effects on labor at this time, and there is need for further research. Areas of uncertainty include efficacy, optimal point selection, best techniques, and length of time for point stimulation.

  11. The Multicultural Work Force. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    White males represent only 46 percent of the U.S. work force. Within a few years, 75 percent of those entering the labor force will be women and minorities, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. The work force is getting smaller as well as changing in nature. To attract and keep the most qualified and productive workers, businesses must make…

  12. Energy and American agriculture. [Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, M.; Webb, K.

    1980-01-01

    Agricultural energy consumption is examined and found to be remarkably efficient. The trend toward more energy-intensive farming practices, however, suggests that production costs could be contained without lowering output if some less energy-intensive inputs were substituted. Energy use has enabled US agriculture to achieve an unprecedented level of productivity, which can be maintained with support from a national policy that incorporates regional production differences. Caution is advised against pursuing a labor-intensive alternative instead of end-use efficiency and alternative energy sources. 3 figures, 7 tables (DCK)

  13. Compensating differentials, labor market segmentation, and wage inequality.

    PubMed

    Daw, Jonathan; Hardie, Jessica Halliday

    2012-09-01

    Two literatures on work and the labor market draw attention to the importance of non-pecuniary job amenities. Social psychological perspectives on work suggest that workers have preferences for a range of job amenities (e.g. Halaby, 2003). The compensating differentials hypothesis predicts that workers navigate tradeoffs among different job amenities such that wage inequality overstates inequality in utility (Smith, 1979). This paper joins these perspectives by constructing a new measure of labor market success that evaluates the degree to which workers' job amenity preferences and outcomes match. This measure of subjective success is used to predict workers' job satisfaction and to test the hypothesis that some degree of labor force inequality in wages is due to preference-based tradeoffs among all job amenities. Findings demonstrate that the new measure predicts workers' job satisfaction and provides evidence for the presence of compensating differentials in the primary and intermediate, but not secondary, labor markets.

  14. Understanding Microbial Divisions of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheren; Claessen, Dennis; Rozen, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Divisions of labor are ubiquitous in nature and can be found at nearly every level of biological organization, from the individuals of a shared society to the cells of a single multicellular organism. Many different types of microbes have also evolved a division of labor among its colony members. Here we review several examples of microbial divisions of labor, including cases from both multicellular and unicellular microbes. We first discuss evolutionary arguments, derived from kin selection, that allow divisions of labor to be maintained in the face of non-cooperative cheater cells. Next we examine the widespread natural variation within species in their expression of divisions of labor and compare this to the idea of optimal caste ratios in social insects. We highlight gaps in our understanding of microbial caste ratios and argue for a shift in emphasis from understanding the maintenance of divisions of labor, generally, to instead focusing on its specific ecological benefits for microbial genotypes and colonies. Thus, in addition to the canonical divisions of labor between, e.g., reproductive and vegetative tasks, we may also anticipate divisions of labor to evolve to reduce the costly production of secondary metabolites or secreted enzymes, ideas we consider in the context of streptomycetes. The study of microbial divisions of labor offers opportunities for new experimental and molecular insights across both well-studied and novel model systems. PMID:28066387

  15. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or management of livestock, bees, poultry, fur-bearing animals, or wildlife; or (iii) The raising or... performed by carpenters, painters, mechanics, farm supervisors, irrigation engineers, bookkeepers, and...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., shearing, feeding, caring for, training, or management of livestock, bees, poultry, fur-bearing animals, or..., services performed by carpenters, painters, mechanics, farm supervisors, irrigation engineers,...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... water for farming purposes; (5) The production or harvesting of maple sap or the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar (but not the subsequent blending or other processing of such sirup...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... water for farming purposes; (5) The production or harvesting of maple sap or the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar (but not the subsequent blending or other processing of such sirup...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... water for farming purposes; (5) The production or harvesting of maple sap or the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar (but not the subsequent blending or other processing of such sirup...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., shearing, feeding, caring for, training, or management of livestock, bees, poultry, fur-bearing animals, or... operation, management, conservation, improvement, or maintenance of any such farms or its tools or equipment... or maintenance of ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways used exclusively for supplying or...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or management of livestock, bees, poultry, fur-bearing animals, or wildlife; or (iii) The raising or..., management, conservation, improvement, or maintenance of any of such farms or its tools or equipment; or (ii...) The operation or maintenance of ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways, not owned or operated...

  2. Food Processing and Agriculture. Wisconsin Annual Farm Labor Report, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Employment Service, Madison.

    A yearly report on the migrant farm worker situation in Wisconsin evaluates the year 1968 in relation to past years and makes projections for the future. Comparisons are made of trends in year-round employment practices, seasonal food processing, the cherry industry, and the cucumber industry. The report includes a discussion on the social aspects…

  3. Current trends in state child labor legislation and enforcement.

    PubMed

    Beyer, D

    1993-09-01

    There is much current child labor law activity, none of it reflecting concern with occupational health hazards. The focus of the legislation is on time for and dedication to education as youth's foremost priority. The only areas of state legislative change that could affect children's health and safety in the workplace are a general movement toward monetarily increasing fines and penalties and some minor inclusions of agricultural restrictions on young workers. Enforcement efforts are in all cases a primary indication of state commitment to child labor law protections, and these efforts are decreasing.

  4. Organized Labor in the United States. Labor-Management Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Joseph B.

    These two lesson plans deal with the historical role of government in resisting and/or protecting the activities of organized labor and the goals and methods of both management and labor. They are multiclass activities and may be used alone or together. The first lesson plan provides materials for a trial to be conducted by the students. The topic…

  5. Fifty years of population growth and absorption of labor in Brazil: from 1950 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Paiva, P D

    1997-01-01

    For a long time, the Brazilian population has grown at a relatively high rate, and only recently has the process of demographic transition intensified in the country. While the associated decline in fertility could result in a future decline in the size of the working-age population, it could also lead to an increase in female participation in the labor market. Brazil's economy is performing well, with gross domestic product (GDP) growing at an average annual rate of 7.1% during 1947-80. Marked growth in industrial employment opportunities has accompanied this growth in GDP. The size of the informal sector, however, has not decreased in similar proportion, while the 1981-83 economic crisis caused urban employment levels to drop, especially in industry and construction. Moreover, the level of rural-urban migration has increased and the agricultural employment index has fallen. The author evaluates past growth trends of the Economically Active Population (EAP) and of employment in Brazil, and assesses the potential growth of the labor force until the year 2000.

  6. Comparison the Effects of Health Indicators on Male and Female Labor Supply, Evidence from Panel Data of Eastern Mediterranean Countries 1995-2010

    PubMed Central

    HOMAIE RAD, Enayatollah; HADIAN, Mohamad; GHOLAMPOOR, Hanie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Skilled labor force is very important in economic growth. Workers become skilled when they are healthy and able to be educated and work. In this study, we estimated the effects of health indicators on labor supply. We used labor force participation rate as the indicator of labor supply. We categorized this indicator into 2 indicators of female and male labor force participation rates and compared the results of each estimate with the other. Methods This study was done in eastern Mediterranean countries between 1995 and 2011. We used a panel cointegration approach for estimating the models. We used Pesaran cross sectional dependency, Pesaran unit root test, and Westerlund panel cointegration for this issue. At the end, after confirmation of having random effect models, we estimated them with random effects. Results Increasing the fertility rate decreased the female labor supply, but increased the male labor supply. However, public health expenditures increased the female labor supply, but decreased the male labor supply because of substitution effects. Similar results were found regarding urbanization. Gross domestic product had a positive relationship with female labor supply, but not with male labor supply. Besides, out of pocket health expenditures had a negative relationship with male labor supply, but no significant relationships with female labor supply. Conclusion The effects of the health variables were more severe in the female labor supply model compared to the male model. Countries must pay attention to women’s health more and more to change the labor supply. PMID:26060746

  7. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  9. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is...

  10. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is...

  11. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is...

  12. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is...

  13. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is...

  14. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  15. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  16. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  17. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  18. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  19. The Political Economy of the Mexican Farm Labor Program, 1942-64

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joon

    2004-01-01

    The Mexican Farm Labor Program brought in an unprecedented number of Mexican workers to perform harvesting jobs in U.S. agriculture between 1942 and 1964. A political economy perspective is used to examine the process by which U.S. agriculture has come to depend on Mexican workers.

  20. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  1. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  2. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  3. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  4. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  5. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  6. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  7. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  8. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  9. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  10. Health hazards to children in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Wilk, V A

    1993-09-01

    Children comprise a significant portion of the agricultural workforce and are exposed to many workplace hazards, including farm machinery, pesticides, poor field sanitation, unsafe transportation, and fatigue from doing physically demanding work for long periods. Migrant farmworker children face the additional hazard of substandard or nonexistent housing in the fields. Children account for a disproportionate share of agricultural workplace fatalities and disabling injuries, with more than 300 deaths and 27,000 injuries per year. The most common cause of fatal and nonfatal injury among children in agriculture is farm machinery, with tractors accounting for the greatest number. Remedies to the problems of child labor must take into account family economics and the need for child care. Labor law reform and rigorous enforcement of existing laws and of workplace health and safety requirements are vital to better protect the children and adults working in agriculture.

  11. The Rural Community College as an Administrative Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nathan T.; Cejda, Brent D.

    2007-01-01

    External culture acts as a powerful force on rural community colleges and the presidents that lead them. This article examines whether rural community colleges comprise an administrative labor market, based on the careers of 69 chief academic officers employed in rural community colleges. Findings indicate the characteristics of both an…

  12. The Youth Labor Market in the Context of Social Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, I. N.

    2011-01-01

    Many young people in Russia find it difficult to move into employment, and given the importance of a more efficient labor force for Russia's economic future, more needs to be done by the Russian government to improve the situation. Under current conditions, the state's activity in regard to solving issues of protecting the interests of young…

  13. Work and Crime: The Effects of Labor Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Pitchford, Susan R.

    1997-01-01

    Data from a National Longitudinal Survey of Youth subsample (aged 18-21 in the first survey year) indicate that criminal involvement is related positively to time out of the labor force and negatively to workers' expectations of job duration and to student status. Results suggest that the stability of good jobs or academic involvement inhibits…

  14. Sweatshops in the Sun - Child Labor on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald B.

    In 1970 about a fourth of the country's farm workers were underage, working and living in conditions which are "sub-sub-substandard" in most parts of the country. These workers are often swindled or exploited by labor contractors or crew men. Since the work is seasonal, families are forced to travel great distances, under difficult circumstances,…

  15. Labor and Higher Education: Impetus to New Alliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Lois; Davis, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Labor unions and academic institutions are joining forces to reach the large population of working adults who have been left out of the mainstream of higher education. Some educational methods are described and ways to finance continuing programs are suggested. (Author/MLW)

  16. Working in America: A Blueprint for the New Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman, Paul; Kochan, Thomas A.; Locke, Richard; Piore, Michael J.

    The evolution of jobs and the job market in the United States was examined in a 3-year project during which a task force consisting of 25 representatives of the education, labor, business, and policy sectors organized 17 workshops and commissioned working papers from experts. The project began by examining how recent changes in the world of work…

  17. College/Labor Union Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 1,054 institutions by the AACJC Service Center for Community College-Labor Union Cooperation concluded that while substantial joint undertakings exist between unions and community colleges, in many cases labor and community colleges are waiting for the other party to make the first move. (JG)

  18. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…

  19. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."

  20. The Division of Household Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna D.; Huber, Joan

    A study was conducted to test the following hypotheses concerning division of household labor (DOHL) between husbands and wives: (1) the division of household labor is somewhat affected by the availability of time, especially the wife's time; (2) there are strong effects of relative power, as measured by market-related resources, marital…

  1. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  2. EPIDURAL ANALGESIA IN LABOR - CONTROVERSIES.

    PubMed

    Bilić, Nada; Djaković, Ivka; Kličan-Jaić, Katarina; Rudman, Senka Sabolović; Ivanec, Željko

    2015-09-01

    Labor pain is one of the most severe pains. Labor is a complex and individual process with varying maternal requesting analgesia. Labor analgesia must be safe and accompanied by minimal amount of unwanted consequences for both the mother and the child, as well as for the delivery procedure. Epidural analgesia is the treatment that best meets these demands. According to the American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology and American Society of Anesthesiologists, mother's demand is a reason enough for the introduction of epidural analgesia in labor, providing that no contraindications exist. The application of analgesics should not cease at the end of the second stage of labor, but it is recommended that lower concentration analgesics be then applied. Based on the latest studies, it can be claimed that epidural analgesia can be applied during the major part of the first and second stage of labor. According to previous investigations, there is no definitive conclusion about the incidence of instrumental delivery, duration of second stage of labor, time of epidural analgesia initiation, and long term outcomes for the newborn. Cooperation of obstetric and anesthesiology personnel, as well as appropriate technical equipment significantly decrease the need of instrumental completion of a delivery, as well as other complications encountered in the application of epidural analgesia. Our hospital offers 24/7 epidural analgesia service. The majority of pregnant women in our hospital were aware of the advantages of epidural analgesia for labor, however, only a small proportion of them used it, mainly because of inadequate level of information.

  3. Technological Education or Labor Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasova, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the need to turn away from technological education in general education schools and go back to labor training has been expressed, particularly by: (1) long-term teachers in the "Labor" (Trud) general education school who do not want to change their ways, go through retraining, and increase the amount of their work efforts in…

  4. The Youth Labor Market. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalacheck, Edward

    Literature on the job-hunting and the work records of young persons in school and during their initial period of adjustment to full-time membership in the labor force is reviewed and evaluated. While this suggests an analysis of the labor market experiences of 14 to 24 year olds, most of the literature to be surveyed deals with a more narrowly…

  5. No-Fault Divorce Laws and the Labor Supply of Women with and without Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genadek, Katie R.; Stock, Wendy A.; Stoddard, Christiana

    2007-01-01

    We use a difference-in-difference-in-difference estimator to compare changes in labor force participation, weeks, and hours of work associated with no-fault divorce laws, allowing for differential responses for married women with and without children. Although other research has found that the labor supply of women in general does not respond to…

  6. Connecting the Dots: The Labor Market Information View of Workforce Development. Essays for the Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Richard, Ed.

    This monograph is comprised of 12 essays related to the federal Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), each of which serves as a generic primer on a topic relevant to work force development staff and researchers nationwide. The essays are "Learning the Language of LMI (Labor Market Information): Basic Labor Market Information Terms and…

  7. Child Labor and School Enrollment in Thailand in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzannatos, Zafiris

    2003-01-01

    Traces recent trends in child labor, conditions of employment, and schooling in Thailand. Finds, for example, that children withdraw from school and enter labor force because families cannot afford the cost of education. Describes the effect of education subsidies on poor families. Discusses policies and practices to eliminate exploitative forms…

  8. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  9. Taxes in a Labor Supply Model with Joint Wage-Hours Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Harvey S.

    1976-01-01

    Payroll and progressive income taxes play an enormous role in the American fiscal system. The purpose of this study is to present some econometric evidence on the effects of taxes on married women, a group of growing importance in the American labor force. A testable model of labor supply is developed which permits statistical estimation of a…

  10. A Limit to Reflexivity: The Challenge for Working Women of Negotiating Sharing of Household Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Peter; Whitehouse, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Unpaid household labor is still predominantly performed by women, despite dramatic increases in female labor force participation over the past 50 years. For this article, interviews with 76 highly skilled women who had returned to the workforce following the birth of children were analyzed to capture reflexive understandings of the balance of paid…

  11. The Labor Supply for Lower Level Occupations: Final Report. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wool, Harold; Phillips, Bruce D.

    This study examines the hypothesis that the labor supply for "lower level" occupations will be significantly reduced as a result of such trends as occupational upgrading of black workers, increased education, and the prospective reduction in number of new entrants to the labor force. Chapter I reviews a number of theoretical and…

  12. Sector-Based Analysis of the Education-Occupation Mismatch in the Turkish Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…

  13. The Content and Functions of Labor Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, George V.

    Labor unions in the U.S.S.R.--having emerged in Russia about 100 years after U.S. labor unions and been called by Lenin the "shock troops of the revolution"--do not much resemble their U.S. counterparts. Union members, including factory managers, constitute 99.3 percent of the work force, and place of employment or profession determines…

  14. Misoprostol for induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Megan L; Wing, Deborah A

    2015-10-01

    Labor-induction rates have increased considerably in the United States as well as around the world. With up to half of all induced labors requiring cervical ripening, prostaglandins have been utilized to increase induction success and achieve vaginal delivery. Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog has the ability to mimic the changes of spontaneous labor and has been used off label for over 30 years as a labor-induction agent. In the following article, cervical ripening and induction of labor with misoprostol will be discussed. The risks and benefits of misoprostol for ripening and induction and routes of administration will be reviewed, as well as future directions and new developments for its use.

  15. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  16. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  17. A Select Bibliography of Books on Labor Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)

  18. Advanced Training of Labour Force: The USA Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sushentsev, Artem

    2014-01-01

    The importance of professional development of labor force directly in the workplace has been proved. It's revealed that this is due not only to questions of advanced training, but also to the improvement of the situation on the labor market of unskilled groups of citizen. The current labor market recognizes the value and importance of people.…

  19. Rest break interventions in stoop labor tasks.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Julia; Meyers, James; Miles, John; Janowitz, Ira; Fathallah, Fadi

    2007-03-01

    Hand cultivation and harvest of agricultural products constitute strenuous physical tasks. Working with labor-management ergonomics committees in agricultural settings, the UC Agricultural Ergonomics Research Center (AERC) tested an experimental rest and recovery protocol for its impact on symptoms and productivity during two types of work tasks. The experimental condition consisted of adding a 5 min rest break to every working hour in which there was no other scheduled break (e.g., lunchtime). This resulted in an additional 20 min of rest per workday. We tested the intervention in two trials: Trial one compared workers (n=66) randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group during the harvest of commercial strawberries. Trial two utilized a cross-over design (n=16 pairs of workers) to compare experimental and control conditions while workers inserted bud grafts into young 18'' high citrus trees. For both trials, workers under the experimental condition reported significantly less severe symptoms than workers under control conditions. The order in which the intervention was given, however, appeared to result in variations in productivity. We conclude that the introduction of frequent, brief rest breaks may improve symptoms for workers engaged in strenuous work tasks.

  20. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm.

  1. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  2. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  3. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  4. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  5. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  6. Agriculture and the Community: The Sociological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, William D.; Campbell, Rex R.

    Emergence of a dual agricultural system, need for sophisticated knowledge and equipment, declining importance of labor, and geographic and organizational concentration of the production and processing of certain commodities are creating changes in rural communities. While some changes will have negative social/economic impacts, the importance of…

  7. Animal Enterprise Record Book. Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This record book is intended for use by agricultural education students who have ownership arrangements in animal enterprise experience programs. A major purpose of this book is to aid in separating out or allocating the costs and returns to a specific enterprise. The financial, labor, and management aspects of each enterprise can then be studied…

  8. Horticulture-Agriculture Technologies. State Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    This document, which lists the horticultural-agricultural technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

  9. 29 CFR 401.13 - Labor relations consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor relations consultant. 401.13 Section 401.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.13 Labor relations consultant. Labor...

  10. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  11. Female Labour Force Participation in Developing Countries: A Critique of Current Definitions and Data Collection Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anker, Richard

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses the difficulties involved in obtaining accurate labor force data for Third World women, from the point of view of interviewers, respondents, and labor statisticians or economists. Suggestions are then made regarding alternative definitions of the labor force and survey questionnaire structures in order to overcome some of…

  12. 75 FR 25833 - Notice of Funding Availability of Applications (NOFA) for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Notice of Funding Availability of Applications (NOFA) for Section 514 Farm Labor... to community facilities and services such as shopping, schools, transportation, doctors,...

  13. Structural changes in the receiving country and future labor migration--the case of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Shah, N M

    1995-01-01

    This article describes changes in the volume, age and sex composition, retention, productivity, types of occupation, and economic sector of the labor force in Kuwait. The focus is on the structural changes in the indigenous labor force. Data were obtained from censuses and labor force surveys during 1965-93. Policies after the 1990 invasion pertained primarily to security of public employment sector among natives. Over 98% of private sector employment is among non-Kuwaitis. Government programs support high fertility. Female illiteracy has declined, and the proportion of women with a higher education has increased. Natives comprised 20.4% of the total labor force in 1993. About 90% of native males work in the public sector. 45% of total male employment is in the production sector. Around 50% of non-Kuwaiti males have been employed in production work over the decades. Over 90% of Kuwaiti females in 1993 worked in professional or clerical work. Over 50% of total female labor force participation is in the service sector. Concentration in the public sector increased for Kuwaitis and declined for non-Kuwaitis. Labor force participation declined with increasing age. Retirement benefits encouraged early retirement. The private sector is experiencing the departure of long-term migrants and more rapid turnover of labor. Hours of work are longer in the private sector. Kuwait is still dependent on foreign workers in the production and service industries. It is likely that native male workers will replace foreign workers in professional work and administrative/clerical work. Policies that will assure future reliance on imported labor include the assurance of government jobs for Kuwaitis, retirement rules, and the profitability of the trade in labor.

  14. Social Evolution: The Force of the Market.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Shane J

    2016-08-22

    Biological market forces shape patterns of cooperation typical of small-scale human societies that are organized by division of labor based on age and gender. Labor specialization promotes trade, while supply and demand affect the amount individuals exchange for commodities.

  15. 24 CFR 968.120 - Force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Force account. 968.120 Section 968... PUBLIC HOUSING MODERNIZATION General § 968.120 Force account. (a) For both CIAP and CGP, a PHA may undertake the activities using force account labor, only where specifically approved by HUD in the...

  16. 24 CFR 968.120 - Force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Force account. 968.120 Section 968... PUBLIC HOUSING MODERNIZATION General § 968.120 Force account. (a) For both CIAP and CGP, a PHA may undertake the activities using force account labor, only where specifically approved by HUD in the...

  17. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shendell, Derek G.; Noomnual, Saisattha; Chishti, Shumaila; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Madrigano, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H) risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries). Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries. PMID:27382374

  18. [International migration, agriculture, and development: reflections from some case studies].

    PubMed

    Cuffaro, N

    1993-03-01

    The author examines the relationships among migration, agricultural development, and economic development in the labor-exporting countries of Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Turkey. She finds that "massive migration contributes much more to the growth of the service sector than to agricultural or industrial development in the countries of departure." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  19. Creating Abundance, Biological Innovation and American Agricultural Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a book review of Creating Abundance (Olmtread and Rhode, 2009), which examines the history of US agriculture. The central theme of the book is that prior to the 1930s, American agriculture developed much more through biological innovations than through labor-saving mechanical innovations suc...

  20. Labor Shortage: Menace or Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Jon

    1988-01-01

    There are many uncertainties about the magnitude and nature of labor shortages. Data needed to identify and quantify shortages are not available from national statistical offices so most of what is known comes from employer reports. (JOW)

  1. Labor Functions of Illegal Aliens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro

    1977-01-01

    Concludes that to the extent that collective defenselessness of workers exists anywhere, movements like illegal immigration, the self-transportation of cheap labor toward the places where needed, are bound to continue. (Author/AM)

  2. Strategies for getting through labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... voice goes a long way in helping you deal with pain. Use your labor coach. Tell them ... Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  3. [Cerebral blood flow during labor].

    PubMed

    Fendel, H; Funk, A; Jörn, H; Gans, A

    1990-01-01

    The successful results obtained using Doppler sonography for antepartal diagnosis gave cause to use the method during labor. For this purpose doppler measurements of the intern fetal carotid artery of a group of 7 patients with normal course of pregnancy were made and a continuous direct CTG was recorded simultaneously. The Doppler parameter, the S/D-ratio, for the contraction phases were compared with those of the contraction--free phases. During the contraction phase the S/D-ratio was higher than during the relaxation period of the uterus. The difference between these values were proved to be statistically significant. A comparison of the doppler parameter of the patients at onset of labor and the patients at the end of labor showed, that the S/D-ratio increased significantly at the end of labor. This result demonstrates, that the intravascular resistance in the fetal carotid artery increased due to the cephalic pressure.

  4. [Using the 'Driving Force - Pressure - State - Exposure - Effects - Action' (DPSEEA) model of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the analysis of risks related to the use of pesticides in agricultural activities in the state of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Araújo-Pinto, Mariana de; Peres, Frederico; Moreira, Josino Costa

    2012-06-01

    This paper seeks to apply the DPSEEA model (WHO) to identify major health risks to rural workers and the environment associated with the intensive use of pesticides in the State of Rio de Janeiro, based on an analysis of official public documents and a review of the (national and international) literature. It emphasizes the two main representative branches of agriculture in the state: family farming in the mountain region and the monoculture of sugarcane in the flatlands. Results show that the bulk of the determinants identified in the DPSEEA Matrix are related to deficiencies in actions for monitoring and surveillance of pesticide use, as well as a lack of technical assistance provided by the Public Sector in Rio de Janeiro State. Most of the actions developed in the state address the effects of pesticide exposure and, to a lesser extent, exposure to these chemicals, failing to focus on the higher levels of the matrix (such as driving forces and pressure). These are considered, by several authors, as the most appropriate when tackling the complex and systemic issues, such as the scope of this paper. By means of this study, an attempt was made to enable the application of the DPSEEA Model to assist in environmental and occupational health surveillance initiatives.

  5. New Labor Pain Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Koyyalamudi, Veerandra; Sidhu, Gurleen; Cornett, Elyse M; Nguyen, Viet; Labrie-Brown, Carmen; Fox, Charles J; Kaye, Alan D

    2016-02-01

    Presently, the gold standard for pain control in laboring patients is neuraxial blockade, which includes a spinal, epidural, or a combined spinal-epidural technique. In conjunction with neuraxial blockade or by itself, some of the other agents employed related to labor pain include opioids, non-opioids, nitrous oxide, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), and distraction therapy. Alternative treatments include acupuncture, hypnotism, yoga, exercise during pregnancy, hydrotherapy, transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation, massage, and relaxation techniques. This review will focus on current updates and recent trends in labor pain management. Neuraxial management, pharmacotherapy, and newer alternative methods to mitigate labor pain are reviewed. Newer techniques in epidural analgesia include the dural puncture epidural technique, which needs further evaluation. There are limited published data on the use of acupuncture, hypnotism, yoga, exercise during pregnancy, hydrotherapy, transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation, massage, and relaxation techniques in the alleviation of labor pain. These alternative therapies maybe considered as an adjuvant as the analgesic efficiency is inferior to that provided by typical standard pharmacotherapy. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the role of immersion virtual reality in alleviating labor pain.

  6. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  7. American Indians, Blacks, & Asians in Oregon's Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helvoigt, Ted L.

    Labor force issues do not take place in a vacuum. Most individuals base labor force decisions on a multitude of cultural and social factors, such as the environment in which they were reared, family obligations and responsibilities, divorce or the death of a spouse, or because of governmental policies. Sections in this document on demographics,…

  8. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  9. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  10. 24 CFR 585.313 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the...

  11. 24 CFR 585.313 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the...

  12. 24 CFR 585.313 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the...

  13. 24 CFR 585.313 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the...

  14. 24 CFR 585.313 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the...

  15. Labor Exchange Skills Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Eleanor; Hendrickson-Larson, Joanna; Hoppe, Ruth; Paige, Bruce; Rosenow, Steve

    The Labor Exchange Skills Project, which was conducted under the sponsorship and direction of the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, was designed to develop a labor exchange skills database (ETA) that would improve the usability of many Department of Labor applications and products developed by other public and…

  16. China's "tidal wave" of migrant labor: what can we learn from Mexican undocumented migration to the United States?

    PubMed

    Roberts, K D

    1997-01-01

    "The purpose of this article is to place Chinese labor migration from agriculture within the context of the literature on labor mobility in developing countries by comparing it to undocumented Mexican migration to the United States. The similarities fall within three general areas: the migration process, the economic and social position of migrants at their destination, and the agrarian structure and process of agricultural development that has perpetuated circular migration. The last section of the article draws upon these similarities, as well as differences between the two countries, to generate predictions concerning the development of labor migration in China."

  17. Urban Intensification and Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa: Impacts on Urban Agriculture and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzokwe, V. N. E. N.; Muchelo, R. O.; Odeh, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), urban intensification and expansion are increasing at alarming rates due to rapid population growth and rural-to-urban migration. This has led to the premise that the proportion of SSA urban residents most vulnerable to food insecurity is the highest in the world. Using a focused survey and multi-temporal (decadal) land use/cover classification of Landsat images, we explored the effect of urban intensification and expansion on urban agriculture and food security, focusing on a megacity and a regional center in Uganda: Kampala and Mbarara, respectively. We found that food insecurity arose due to a number of reasons, among which are: i) expansion and intensification of of urban settlements into previously productive agricultural lands in urban and peri-urban areas; ii) loss of predominantly young (rural agricultural) adult labor force to urban centers, leading to decline in rural food production; iii) lack of proper urban planning incorporating green and agricultural development leading to low productive market garden systems. We discussed these outcomes in light of existing studies which estimated that urban agriculture alone supports over 800 million people globally and accounts for 15-20% of world food supply. In spite of this relatively low contribution by urban/peri-urban agriculture, it probably accounts for higher proportion of food supply to urban poor in SSA and thus are most vulnerable to the loss of urban and peri-urban agricultural land. Further recommendations require policy makers and urban planners to team up to design a suitable framework for sustainable urban planning and development.

  18. Migrant Workers in Agriculture: A View from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed.

  19. Agricultural Scholarships for Rural Youth in England and Wales, 1922-58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Daniel A.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effect of the British educational scholarships created by the 1921 Corn Production Acts (Repeal). Points out that the act enabled sons and daughters of agricultural laborers to attend secondary schools in order to obtain agricultural education. Concludes that the scholarships helped the rural youth, the agricultural economy, and the…

  20. 29 CFR 500.3 - Effective date of the Act; transition period; repeal of the Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER... Contractor Registration Act. (a) The provisions of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act are effective on April 14, 1983, and are codified in 29 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. (b) The Migrant...