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Sample records for agricultural labor force

  1. 76 FR 20305 - Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural Products AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for Comment on Guidelines for Eliminating Child and Forced Labor in Agricultural Supply Chains. SUMMARY: Notice is...

  2. 75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in... public meeting of the Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported... input from the public regarding the Consultative Group's statutory mandate to develop...

  3. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  4. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  5. Seasonal Agricultural Labor in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis.

    Requested by the governor of Oregon, this 1968 report focuses on seasonal agricultural labor in Oregon. The task force, appointed by the president of Oregon State University, reported on the following areas: (1) the problem in terms of potential unionization, population trends, existing state programs and agencies for the migrants; (2) regulations…

  6. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor. PMID:12267273

  7. Female labor force participation: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Psacharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z

    1989-07-01

    This article gives an international perspective in regard to female participation in the labor force. In most countries women contribute less than men toward the value of recorded production. Social environment, statistical inconsistencies and methods of recording labor all contribute to this inequity. In Britain for instance, women caring for the household duties are in some studies considered to be part of the labor force and in other studies they are not. Further, internationally, women often find themselves in casual, temporary, or seasonal work that goes unrecorded. Defining what "labor force participation" constitutes is a key starting point to any survey. At what age is one considered employable? What constitutes a person "actively seeking" employment? Economists often try to explain labor force participation rate by age, sex, race and income groups and use this information to cite trends. The income-leisure model theorizes that choice of work or non-work by women is based primarily upon wages for work vs. wages for non-work. This theory sees non-labor income exerting a negative influence. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that women will choose work if wages are good regardless of any non-work benefits. Because most men are permanently in the labor force, estimates of labor reserves and projections of supply focus mostly on women. International generalizations are often misleading since trends vary widely among countries. During the last 20 years the global female participation rate has remained almost constant, but this is misleading. The percentage of working women in industrial countries increased 10%; developing countries showed a decrease of 7%. Female rates are often tied closely to shifts in the overall economy, (e.g., a transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy often sees a drop in female labor because subsistence jobs are lost). Of course the ability of women to bear children and the social expectations regarding child care often

  8. INTERNAL LABOR MARKETS, TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, AND LABOR FORCE ADJUSTMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOERINGER, PETER B.; PIORE, MICHAEL J.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LABOR FORCE SKILLS AND THE REQUIREMENTS OF BLUE COLLAR JOBS ARE RECONCILED BY MEANS OVER WHICH THE EMPLOYER, ALONE OR WITH A LABOR ORGANIZATION, EXERCISES CONTROL. THE ADJUSTMENT MODEL PRESENTED IN THIS STUDY RECOGNIZES AN INPLANT LABOR MARKET CONNECTED TO THE EXTERNAL MARKET AT A LIMITED NUMBER OF POINTS. CERTAIN…

  9. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  10. Child Labor in Agriculture. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley

    An estimated 200,000-800,000 children and adolescents work in the United States as migrant agricultural laborers, either alone or with their families. This digest describes the statutory and economic factors contributing to the presence of children in the fields and the impact of this labor on their health and educational progress. The Fair Labor…

  11. Educating Children of Colorado's Agricultural Laborers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, George N.

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses potential remedies for three major issues that prevent seasonal agricultural workers from maintaining the kind of working and living conditions which lead to cohesive cumulative social experience: undocumented workers; worsening living and working environments; and societal attitudes regarding agricultural labor and its…

  12. Campesinas: Women Farmworkers in the California Agricultural Labor Force. Report of a Study Project by The California Commission on the Status of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Amy E.

    A one year descriptive study of demographic characteristics, employment situations, and supportive services needs of women farmworkers in the California labor force was conducted in 1977-78. Data were collected in interviews with both employers and 400 women and 200 men engaged in farmwork in Fresno and Imperial Counties. Most of the women were of…

  13. MIGRATORY LABOR IN WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSE, A. THOMAS

    A SERIES OF CHARTS RELATED TO MIGRATORY WORKERS IN WISCONSIN IS PRESENTED. THE TABLES DEPICT THE SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PROCESSING EMPLOYMENT TIMETABLE OF MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES, UTILIZATION OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN SUCH ACTIVITIES, MIGRANT WORKERS REGISTERED BY DISTRICT OFFICES, STATE OF RESIDENCE, STATE OF LAST EMPLOYMENT, AND STATE OF NEXT…

  14. New Labor Force Projections to 1990. Special Labor Force Report 197.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Howard N., Jr.; Flaim, Paul O.

    Prepared as part of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' periodic reassessment of its projections of the future growth trends of the various sectors of the American economy, new labor force projections to 1990 are presented based on trends in labor force participation as observed through 1975 and on the most recent population projections of the U.S.…

  15. Musculoskeletal disorders in labor-intensive agriculture.

    PubMed

    Fathallah, Fadi A

    2010-10-01

    This paper gives an overview of the extent of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in agriculture, and a historical perspective on how ergonomics has been used to reduce the health effects of labor-intensive agriculture. A summary of exposure to MSD physical risk factors within various classes of crops, along with various administrative and engineering controls for abating MSDs in agriculture is given. These controls range from programmed rest breaks to mechanized or partially-mechanized operations. Worker-based approaches such as prone carts and platforms, and load transfer devices hold promise in combating the prevalent stooped work in agriculture. Including the worker as an integral contributor to all aspects of developing and implementing an intervention, and considering the psychosocial and socio-cultural aspects of the work environment are crucial elements of effective interventions for reducing MSDs. Despite the advent progress in new technologies in agricultural practices, reliance on labor, especially in fresh market fruits and vegetables, will always be a major cornerstone of agriculture for at least the foreseen future. It is encouraging to see the increased interest among health and safety professionals, epidemiologists, engineers, social scientists, and ergonomists throughout the world who are committed to the plight of reducing MSDs and other health problems among agricultural workers. PMID:20398891

  16. LABOR FORCE PROJECTIONS BY STATE, 1970 AND 1980. SPECIAL LABOR FORCE REPORT NUMBER 74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSTON, DENIS F.; METHEE, GEORGE R.

    DATA FROM THE 1960 DECENNIAL CENSUS, MONTHLY LABOR FORCE (HOUSEHOLD) SURVEYS, AND JULY 1, 1966, POPULATION ESTIMATES FROM THE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS IN TABULAR FORM GIVE THE 1960 AND PROJECTED 1970 AND 1980 POPULATION AND LABOR FORCE (EXCLUDING ARMED FORCES OVERSEAS) FIGURES BY AGE, COLOR, AND SEX, FOR THE UNITED STATES, THE GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS, AND…

  17. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... doing agricultural labor even though you work on a farm. Work in a mushroom cave or poultry hatchery is agricultural labor only if the cave or hatchery is operated as part of a farm. (3) If you work as an...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... doing agricultural labor even though you work on a farm. Work in a mushroom cave or poultry hatchery is agricultural labor only if the cave or hatchery is operated as part of a farm. (3) If you work as an...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... doing agricultural labor even though you work on a farm. Work in a mushroom cave or poultry hatchery is agricultural labor only if the cave or hatchery is operated as part of a farm. (3) If you work as an...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... doing agricultural labor even though you work on a farm. Work in a mushroom cave or poultry hatchery is agricultural labor only if the cave or hatchery is operated as part of a farm. (3) If you work as an...

  1. 76 FR 38110 - Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...This notice announces the intention of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to resume a currently approved information collection, the Agricultural Labor Survey, and its associated...

  2. 76 FR 28730 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ...This notice announces the intention of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to suspend a currently approved information collection, the Agricultural Labor Survey, and its associated...

  3. Declining Teen Labor Force Participation. Issues in Labor Statistics. Summary 02-06.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Katie

    Although the proportion of teenagers in the labor force generally increases during economic expansions, the labor force participation rate for 16- to 19-year-olds changed very little during the exceptional labor market conditions of the mid-1990s. In July 2000, the labor force participation rate for teens was at its lowest level since 1965.…

  4. Women in the Labor Force: A Databook. Report 985

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Labor, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A major development in the American workforce has been the increased labor force participation of women. In 1970, only about 43 percent of women age 16 and older were in the labor force; by 1999, that figure had risen to 60 percent. From 1999 to 2004, women's labor force participation rate receded slightly to 59.2 percent, still well above the…

  5. Child Labor in Agriculture, Summer 1970: A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA.

    A special project, undertaken to furnish some of the hard facts on child labor in agriculture in the summer of 1970, resulted in publication of this report. Part I of the report discusses society's attitudes toward agricultural workers, laws about the use of children as industrial laborers, work activities (with definitions of work for the various…

  6. The Origins of Forced Labor in the Witwatersrand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeti, Moitsadi

    1986-01-01

    Gold mining brought a forced labor system to Witwatersrand, South Africa, in the 1880s as African laborers were rounded up from the hinterland and delivered to the mines. The system produced low wages, high mortality, and the loss of chances for upward mobility. Forced labor persists today in South African mines. (VM)

  7. 75 FR 8402 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... believe might have been mined, produced or manufactured with forced or indentured child labor (66 FR 5353... goods (72 FR 73374). The guidelines set forth the criteria by which information is evaluated... appropriate, revising the List (66 FR 5351). Based on DOL research and information submitted by the...

  8. 77 FR 70473 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... that ILAB follows in developing the TVPRA List (72 FR 73374). The guidelines set forth the criteria by... forced or indentured child labor (66 FR 5353). In addition to the List, the Department also published on..., and, as appropriate, revising the EO List (66 FR 5351). Pursuant to Sections D through G of...

  9. 76 FR 22921 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... goods (72 FR 73374). The guidelines set forth the criteria by which information is evaluated... manufactured with forced or indentured child labor (66 FR 5353). In addition to the List, the Department also..., reviewing, and, as appropriate, revising the List (66 FR 5351). Based on DOL research and...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. If you work in the processing of maple sap into maple syrup or maple sugar you are not... for supplying and storing water for farm purposes and are not owned or operated for profit; or...

  11. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  12. Report on the Youth Labor Force. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC.

    This report explains the current U.S. regulations governing child labor; provides a detailed look at youth labor in this country, including how it differs among major demographic groups and economic sectors, and over time; and describes the outcomes of young people's work activities, including occupational injuries and fatalities and other…

  13. AGRICULTURAL SEASONAL LABORERS OF COLORADO AND CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KARRAKER, CYRUS H.

    ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN THE WELFARE OF AGRICULTURAL SEASONAL WORKERS ARE REPORTED. PARTICULAR ATTENTION IS PAID TO SUCH SERVICES FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN AS DAY CARE CENTERS. SUCH CENTERS ARE PROVIDED FROM PRIVATE FUNDS, ARE USUALLY CHURCH SPONSORED, AND ARE LARGELY STAFFED BY VOLUNTEERS. STATE-OPERATED CENTERS ARE RECOMMENDED. COLORADO WAS CONE OF THE…

  14. Report B: 1986 projected population, labor force and unemployment - Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    Report B, the results of the Population, Labor Force and Unemployment Projections Model, contain current socio-economic indicators. For each geographic area, there is one page of summary/background information followed by three tables. These tables contain the population projections, the labor force projections, and the unemployment projections, respectively. These tables are composed of data for the following racial groups: total population, whites, blacks, and other races. Those who call themselves Hispanics may be covered in any of the last three racial groups. For those geographic areas which have provided more than one labor force and/or unemployment control total, the last two tables will appear more than once.

  15. Labor force activities and income among young Guatemalan adults.

    PubMed

    Hoddinott, John; Behrman, Jere R; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2005-06-01

    This paper considers labor force activities among adults (26 to 41 years of age in 2003) who participated as children in a nutrition supplementation trial in Guatemala. The vast majority of men are engaged in some type of income-generating activity in 2002-04. However, unlike their fathers, these men are much more likely to be engaged in wage labor, even if they remain in the original study villages. Those engaged in wage employment appear to do so steadily. Women are much more likely to be engaged in some type of income-generating activity than their mothers. For both men and women, there appears to be considerable movement in and out of own business activities. In Guatemala City, wage work is the predominant economic activity with more than half of the women interviewed working for wages; elsewhere operating non-farm businesses is the most often cited activity. For both men and women, agriculture now appears to be very much a secondary activity. PMID:16060216

  16. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3121(g)-1 Section 31.3121(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter...

  17. Children of Working Mothers. Special Labor Force Report. Bulletin 2158.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Part of a Special Labor Force Report series, this bulletin on children of working mothers discusses the increase in the number of children with working mothers as of March 1981, and describes major reasons for this growth. The bulletin consists of an article first published February 1982 in the "Monthly Labor Review," additional tables providing…

  18. Labor-Force Dynamics at Older Ages

    PubMed Central

    Zissimopoulos, Julie M.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Labor-market transitions toward the latter parts of workers’ careers can be complex, with movement between jobs and classes of work and in and out of retirement. The authors analyzed factors associated with the labor-market transitions of older workers to self-employment from unemployment or disability, retirement, or wage and salary work using rich panel data from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). They found evidence that (prior) job characteristics and liquidity constraints are important predictors of movements to self-employment for workers and nonworkers, while risk aversion is a significant predictor only for workers. PMID:23049149

  19. Women's Labor Force Participation and Socioeconomic Development: The Case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Charles; Aghajanian, Akbar

    Using 1957 and 1970 census data, four independent variables were used to explore determinants and constraints of Malaysian women's participation in the modern sector: ethnic community, educational attainment, size of place of residence, and marital/family status. Women's labor force participation increased as agricultural employment declined and a…

  20. Labor Force Experiences of Nonmetropolitan Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokemeier, Janet L.; Tickamyer, Ann R.

    1985-01-01

    Examines characteristics of work, job conditions, and financial rewards of nonmetropolitan Kentucky women, revealing no difference between Appalachian and non-Appalachian residents. Finds that occupation and industrial makeup of the labor market have a major impact on womens' work; education is the most significant individual factor associated…

  1. Pension Policy for a Mobile Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John A.; And Others

    This book analyzes what happens to the pension benefits of workers who quit or are laid off jobs. The first chapter reviews the connection between job mobility and pension portability. Chapter 2 portrays a labor market undergoing changes that often result in reductions in retirement benefits. Chapter 3 describes job change further by examining…

  2. Nonmetro and Metro Teens in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    Drawing on theories of family organization and labor market structures, it is argued that teenagers are a useful population for research on the effects of race, household characteristics, and local labor markets on labor force participation. Predictive models of labor force participation were applied to a sample of all White and Black 16- to…

  3. A research on the moderate transference of China's agricultural labor.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Wu, M; Zhu, J; Wu, G

    1990-01-01

    Examining the economic impact of large transfers of agricultural laborers to other occupations in China, this article argues in favor of moderate transference and provides specific measures for accomplishing that level of relocation. In 1979, China adopted a rural economic reform which prompted a total of 54.6 million farmers to transfer to other occupations over the next decade. Despite the transfers, the authors calculate that there remains an agricultural labor surplus of 70 million. While some maintain that accelerated transference of agricultural labor is necessary to achieve economic growth, the article points out not only the obstacles to accelerated transference but also its detrimental economic impact. 3 main factors hinder accelerated transference: the limited capacity of urban areas to absorb new labor, the limited amount of funds for investments needed to make the transfer possible, and the limited amount of energy and raw materials. Given China's current situation, accelerate transfers would only worsen the overcrowding of cities, aggravate the shortages of energy and raw materials, and retard economic progress by increasing inflation. The authors explain that China's particular situation calls for a policy of moderate transference, one that takes into account land output value, the capacity of nonagricultural sectors to absorb new labor, and the capacity of urban areas to absorb people. The authors propose the following 4 general measures that such a policy should include: 1) promoting technological development in rural areas, 2) adjusting and expanding the various structures in township enterprises, 3) favoring central townships, and 4) improving rural education. Within each of these general measures, the authors offer more specific recommendations. PMID:12343586

  4. Time-series growth in the female labor force.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P; Ward, M P

    1985-01-01

    This paper investigates the reasons for the growth in the female labor force in the US during the 20th century. Female labor force participation rates increased by 50% from 1950 to 1970. Real wages have played a significant but hardly exclusive role both in the long term growth in female employment and in the more accelerated growth after 1950. At the beginning of this century, fewer than 1 woman in 5 was a member of the labor force; by 1981 more than 6 in 10 were. Increases in female participation were slightly larger among younger women during the 1970s; for the next 20 years the age shape tilted toward older women. For US women 25-34 years old, labor force participation rates have been rising by more than 2 percentage points per year. Closely intertwined with decisions regarding women's work are those involving marriage and family formation. 2 demographic factors that would play a part in subsequent developments are: nuclearization of the US family and urbanization. Time-series trends in education are observed because schooling affects female labor supply independently of any influence through wages; increased years of schooling across birth cohorts shows that an increase of 1.33 years of schooling increased labor participation by 6.9 percentage points during the pre-World War II era. The swing in marriage rates also affects timing, especially for younger women. Based on disaggregated time series data across the period 1950-1981, mean values at single years of age of labor supply, education, work experience, weekly wages, and fertility are determined. Profiles indicate that female labor supply varies considerably not only across cohorts but also over life cycles within birth cohorts. Results show that: 1) relative female wages defined over the work force were lower in 1980 than in 1950, 2) children, especially when young, reduce labor supply, 3) large negative elasticities are linked to female wages, and 4) with all fertility induced effects included, real wage

  5. Agricultural Drainage Management Systems Task Force (ADMSTF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Drainage Management Systems (ADMS) Task Force was initiated during a Charter meeting in the fall of 2002 by dedicated professional employees of Federal, State, and Local Government Agencies and Universities. The Agricultural Drainage Management (ADM) Coalition was established in 200...

  6. An inexorable trend of and major avenues to the diversion of China's agricultural labour force.

    PubMed

    Xu, T; Ye, Z

    1986-07-01

    The diversion of agricultural labor force to other sectors of the work force is a necessary course every country has to experience in a certain historical stage as a result of development. The diversion of farm labor indicates a new level of social productivity; mankind can get more products by less labor and the new domain of human activities is continuously exploited. With the improvement of China's agricultural modernization and the increase in farm laborers over the past 30 years, surplus farm labor has reached 30% or .15 billion. The projected rural labor force will reach .45 billion by 2000, but all the arable land of China's rural areas can only accommodate .135 billion by the turn of the century; therefore, more than 300 million agricultural laborers must be diverted to other sectors. Some actions that may divert agricultural workers include: 1) developing the rural family economy in the areas of industry, commerce, communication, transportation, building, and services; 2) rapidly developing town enterprises to offer jobs in the food, forage, building, transportation and service industries; 3) actively developing and building small cities and towns to divert the agricultural population to a nonagricultural population. This will improve the productivity arrangement, adjust the distribution of rural-urban population, organize the exchange of materials, qualified personnel and information, and upgrade the science and education level of the whole nation; 4) encouraging farmers to settle their own grain ration and raise funds while going to towns and border areas to trade goods. PMID:12268826

  7. Democracy and Female Labor Force Participation: An Empirical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayanpourtehrani, Ghazal; Sylwester, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines associations between female labor force participation (FLFP) and democracy. Using a cross-country, time series (1980-2005) data set, we find evidence that FLFP is lower in democracies. One possible explanation is that dictators promote FLFP above what traditional norms would dictate and so a greater freedom to…

  8. Hispanics in the Labor Force: A Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George, Ed.; Tienda, Marta, Ed.

    Hispanics in the U.S. labor force are the subject of the studies in this volume. After an introduction by George J. Borjas and Marta Tienda, the first three papers focus on the same issue: the determination of wage rates for Hispanics and comparison of Hispanic and non-Hispanic wage rates. Cordelia Reimers compares the situation for Black, White,…

  9. Maternal and Child Health Issues and Female Labor Force Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Dorothy C.; And Others

    Reviewing health related "costs" of female labor force participation, this paper examines four highly salient maternal and child health issues. Discussion of acute illness in day care settings begins with an overview of studies on day care and illness and focuses on hepatitis A, appropriate sanitation, and indications of research on respiratory…

  10. Effect of Female Labor Force Participation on Female Suicide Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Explores the impact of female participation in the labor force (FPLF) on female suicide attitudes using a national sample of 5,559 women. Significant bivariate relationship is indicated, though when controls are added for covariates, FPLF is not related to female suicide attitudes. Relates findings to the role conflict and role expansionist theory…

  11. Global work force 2000: the new world labor market.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W B

    1991-01-01

    Just as there are global markets for products, technology, and capital, managers must now think of one for labor. Over the next 15 years, human capital, once the most stationary factor in production, will cross national borders with greater and greater ease. Driving the globalization of labor is a growing imbalance between the world's labor supply and demand. While the developed world accounts for most of the world's gross domestic product, its share of the world work force is shrinking. Meanwhile, in the developing countries, the work force is quickly expanding as many young people approach working age and as women join the paid work force in great numbers. The quality of that work force is also rising as developing countries like Brazil and China generate growing proportions of the world's college graduates. Developing nations that combine their young, educated workers with investor-friendly policies could leapfrog into new industries. South Korea, Taiwan, Poland, and Hungary are particularly well positioned for such growth. And industrialized countries that keep barriers to immigration low will be able to tap world labor resources to sustain their economic growth. The United States and some European nations have the best chance of encouraging immigration, while Japan will have trouble overcoming its cultural and language barriers. PMID:10110172

  12. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  13. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  14. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section...

  15. To Authorize a Limited Waiver of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 with Respect to Certain Agricultural Hand Harvest Laborers. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 94th Congress, 1st Session on H.R.632 (Washington, D.C., April 18, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    On April 18, 1975, the House Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor heard testimony regarding H.R. 632 which would establish procedures for the Secretary of Labor to waive the child labor provisions of the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act for employment in agriculture of children under 12 years of age. Several conditions would have to be met before the…

  16. Foreign workers in Kuwait: implications for the Kuwaiti labor force.

    PubMed

    Shah, N M

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of the foreign population in Kuwait shows that foreign nationals make up 60 percent of the population and 78 percent of the labor force in Kuwait. The implications of these figures for the Kuwaiti labor force are discussed by analyzing the occupational structures of Kuwaitis and non-Kuwaitis. "Structural analysis of the labor force indicates that 62 percent of Kuwaiti males are concentrated in administrative and service occupations while their percentage in sales and production work has declined during 1970-80. This demonstrates the need for reorienting educational/training programs and changing Kuwaiti attitudes towards manual work to ensure the realization of the 'Kuwaitization' process, and balance the nationals with foreign nationals." mortality has stabilized at relatively high levels and there is resistance to family planning. The author concludes that the main cause of the stalling of the demographic transition process is to be found in the role of the state and the dynamics of the social structure and that "demographic trends will depend more on the changes in social structure, land reforms, and response of the formal governing system to the needs of the underprivileged sections of the society, rather than on the health and family planning policies." PMID:12268290

  17. Trends in female labor force participation in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, S; Jacobsson, R

    1985-01-01

    The labor force participation of Swedish married women increased form 49.1% to 83.5% in the past 2 decades. Results from cross section analyses carried out on micro data from 3 standard of living investigations, done in 1968, 1974, and 1981, are used to predict changes over time. Women's real wages have increased over time more than men's real wages; in combination with estimated positve own wages elasticities, this change is the most important determinant of the increase in female labor supply. The labor force participation of married women ages 20-59 has increased from 49.1% in 1963 to 83.5% in 1982; the increase is especially large for women with children under 7. Over the decades 1920-1965, when real wages of woman increased more than real incomes of men, the labor force participation rates of married women increased even faster. From 1963-1981 a dramatic narrowing of the male-female wage gap occurred; most of the decrease is a result of factors other than the human capital variables accumulated at school and on the job. The effect of centralized collective bargaining and a strong union policy to increase low wages may be important explanatory factors. Generous parental leaves and subsidized day care may have an increasing effect on fertility; but instead, fertility has decreased, perhaps less than it might have done in the absence of such policies. By using individual cross section data from the 3 standard of living investigations, estimates of participation are performed. The own wage effects of the participation equation are positive and significant but decreasing over time. Important institutional changes between the sample periods are the extended parental leaves and the increased supply of government subsidized day care. PMID:12267649

  18. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section 501... those engaged in such pursuits, the improvement of the grade of their products, and the development of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section 501... those engaged in such pursuits, the improvement of the grade of their products, and the development of...

  20. Female labor force behavior and fertility in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, E; Nerlove, M

    1986-01-01

    This article critically reviews the literature on fertility and female labor force behavior in the US, with particular emphasis on recent quantitative research by economists, demographers, and sociologists. It examines the empirical evidence regarding the influence on fertility and female employment of certain key variables, i.e., the value of female time, husband's income, and relative economic status; addresses the issue of whether there is direct causality between fertility and female labor supply; reviews simultaneous equations models and a new approach to the study of causality; discusses decisionmaking models; considers factors that may mediate the fertility-labor nexus, including child care arrangements, husband's income, wife's education, and the convenience of employment; and concludes with consideration of changes over time in the association between fertility and female employment. Economic theory suggests that an increase in the opportunity cost of children should be associated with a decrease in family size. For the US, the fact that the mother's education and other measures of the value of female time have a negative impact on fertility has been interpreted in this was and confirmed with many bodies of data. Most studies find also that indicators of the value of female time affect employment positively. Coefficients associated with measures of husband's income on female employment. In sum, the evidence suggests that at least part of the negative relationship between fertility and female employment may be traced to the fact that that these variables are influenced in opposite directions by changes in the value of female time and relative economic status. Whether changes in husband's income contribute to the negative association is less clear at this time. In 1950, the labor force participation rate for married women with children under 6 years of age was 11.9%; it was 28.3% for those with children 6-17 years of age. By 1960, the figures had risen

  1. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S

    1998-10-01

    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators. PMID:12294361

  2. Farm Labor Research Bibliography. California Agricultural Studies, 91-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cheryl L.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography is a printed version of the automated bibliography available through the Labor Market Division of the California State Department of Employment Development. The database focuses on farm labor issues and includes 1,611 sources of information including bibliographies, research studies, trade journals, and books published…

  3. Women of Hispanic Origin in the United States Labor Force. Facts on Working Women. Fact Sheet No. 85-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    A four-page synposis of data on women of Hispanic origin in the labor force is presented. Data included are numbers of Hispanic women in the labor force; percentage of Hispanics among women in labor force; percentage of Hispanic women in the labor force; median ages; unemployment rate; education level; income levels; types of jobs occupied…

  4. The Agricultural Work Force of 1985. A Statistical Profile. Agricultural Economic Report 582.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Victor J.; Cox, E. Jane

    This report examines the demographic and employment characteristics, geographic distribution, and earnings of the agricultural work force in the United States as of 1985. Data are from the Agricultural Work Force Supplement to the December 1985 Current Population Survey. The three components of the agricultural work force--hired farmworkers, farm…

  5. Age difference among the rural labor force in interregional migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Wu, Z; Chen, L

    1997-01-01

    This study offers a preliminary analysis of the impact of socioeconomic factors on rural labor migration between regions in China. Data were obtained from a 1994-95 survey on interregional migration among the rural labor force in 318 villages in 28 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities. The survey sample included 7677 households and 35,238 people. Findings are presented by age group: 17 years, 18-35 years, 36-59 years, and 60 years. The ratio of men to women was 3:1. More women were migrants in the 17 year age group. Younger migrants were better educated. Middle-aged migrants had better skills. Most people migrated after the Chinese New Year. Most migrants traveled with friends or relatives (47-74%). The proportion traveling through the arrangement of governmental institutions was small regardless of age (1-6%). About 1-2% made arrangements through private employment agencies. The elderly and middle-aged tended to leave the township but stay within the county. 22-35% left the county but not the province. Younger people tended to migrate outside the province. Large proportions of migrants aged 35 years traveled to cities, but cities also attracted middle-aged and elderly migrants. 23-37% traveled to coastal areas. Most stayed in the hinterlands. A large proportion of elderly migrants stayed longer than 10 months. Most found jobs through friends. Many were employed at state-owned institutions, but most worked in manufacturing and service industries and menial work. The largest proportion of elderly were engaged in own or township businesses. Younger migrants tended to comply with formalities involved in migration. In occupation selection, older migrants were concerned about job security, middle-aged migrants were concerned about income, and younger migrants focused on work friendships. The middle-aged had higher incomes. PMID:12293111

  6. Male Labor Force Participation and Social Security in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Labor-force participation among Mexican males in their early retirement years (60 to 64 years of age) has decreased in recent decades, from 94.6 percent in 1960 to 65.2 percent in 2010. Similar trends are evident elsewhere in Latin America, and have occurred in the developed world. Such trends pose challenges to financial sustainability of social security systems as working-age populations decrease and those in retirement increase both because of demographic trends and decisions to take early retirement. In this study, we find that the Mexican social security system provides incentives to retire early. The retirement incentives of the Mexican social security system affect retirement behavior, and may be one of the main contributors to early retirement decisions, particularly for lower-income populations. We simulated the effect of the reform from a Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) to the new Personal Retirement Accounts (PRA) system and we find that the PRA system also provides incentives to early retirement. Further analysis is needed to assess the financial sustainability of the social security system and financial security in old age for the largest cohorts in Mexico that will begin to retire by 2040. PMID:25328441

  7. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

  8. 77 FR 5714 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... of Agriculture (USDA) is withdrawing the December 1, 2011, (76 FR 74722) direct final rule adding a... published on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74722), entitled ``Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law... published on December 1, 2011, at 76 FR 74722, is withdrawn. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Donna...

  9. Supply, Human Capital, and the Average Quality Level of the Science and Engineering Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Howard P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper explores how institutional and technological change affect the quality of the science and engineering labor force. Sources of imbalance between demand and supply are considered, along with the effects of institutional and technological change. A model is introduced to relate changes in market imbalance to both labor force quality and…

  10. EMPLOYMENT OF SCHOOL AGE YOUTH, OCTOBER 1966, A SPECIAL LABOR FORCE REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PERRELLA, VERA C.

    DATA RELATING TO THE CIVILIAN NONINSTITUTIONAL POPULATION AGED 14 TO 24 WERE DERIVED FROM SUPPLEMENTAL QUESTIONS TO THE OCTOBER 1966 MONTHLY SURVEY OF THE LABOR FORCE. THE GROWTH OF THE LABOR FORCE IN THIS AGE GROUP OVER THE PERIOD 1960 TO 1967 HAS BEEN MATCHED BY A GROWTH OF THE SAME MAGNITUDE IN EMPLOYMENT, 3.3 MILLION, SO THAT THE NUMBER OF…

  11. Estimates of Resident Indian Population and Labor Force Status; By State and Reservation: March 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The labor force report includes all American Indians 16 years and older except for those who cannot work because they are attending school, caring for children, or because of disability, retirement, or age. The total population distributed by broad age groups and by sex is given. Labor force status is not known for the various age groups. Since…

  12. The Future of the Skilled Labor Force: New England's Supply of Recent College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Alicia C.

    2009-01-01

    One of New England's greatest assets is its skilled labor force, which has historically been an engine of economic growth in the region. But the skilled labor force of the future is growing more slowly in New England than in the rest of the United States. Since 2000, the population of "recent college graduates"--individuals ages 22 to 27 with a…

  13. Explaining the Decline in Teen Labor Force Participation. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 234

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; Park, Kyung-Hong; Sullivan, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Fewer teenagers are participating in the labor force today than at any point since WWII. At just under 44 percent teen labor force participation is 15 percentage points below its peak in the late 1970s. The authors investigate the long-run decline in the work activity of young adults, and the acceleration of this trend during the last five years.…

  14. The population of Cuba: the growth and characteristics of its labor force.

    PubMed

    Perez, L

    1995-01-01

    "This paper analyzes Cuba's current demographic picture, and emphasizes the characteristics of its labor force that will influence dynamic change. Overall, the contribution of the labor force to the development of a market economy is likely to be positive, given its low dependency ratio, the high level of education, and the value placed on entrepreneurship." PMID:12321725

  15. Sex Differentials in Educational and Labor Force Role Distributions in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, William F.; And Others

    The transformation of the educational and labor force role distribution of Filipino women, both absolutely and relative to Filipino men, under the impact of modernization was examined. The study aimed to: analyze differences in female educational and labor force role distributions by modernization level; compare the female educational and labor…

  16. Historical background of the child labor regulations: strengths and limitations of the agricultural hazardous occupations orders.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the background of key legislative and regulatory milestones of the initial laws and federal child labor provisions limiting hazardous work by children in agriculture up to the more recent developments contributing to the proposed updates to the agricultural hazardous occupations orders. A summary of the key changes are described and the significant differences between agricultural and nonagricultural regulations are highlighted. Recommendations for future policy are provided. PMID:22490029

  17. 78 FR 1259 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and...

  18. 76 FR 79711 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and...

  19. [A life cycle aspect of female labor force participation after marriage].

    PubMed

    Nakano, E

    1983-04-01

    The female labor force in Japan has increased substantially in recent years and the labor force participation rate has risen accordingly. While this has been going on since 1975, the trend has been especially evident in those ages 25-29, 35-39, and 40-44. Among the female labor force, those women ages 25-44 who are married fall into the category which is increasing at a particularly fast pace. The majority are those who keep house and work outside the home secondarily. In the case of married women employees, the family life stage and labor are closely related to each other. If shown on the graph, the age-specific employee rate would form an M-shaped curve. In recent years, an increasingly large number of wives with their youngest children of school age are now participating in the labor force. In order to clarify the relationship between the family life stage and women's participation in labor force after marriage, the authors conducted a survey in 1980 in urban and rural regions of the country. It was concluded that: 1) women's participation in the labor force in urban regions is strongly influenced by family life stage and such influence is particularly strong on the wives in nuclear families; 2) in multi-generational families in rural regions, the wives' participation in labor force is almost unaffected by family life stage; 3) in urban regions, the wives in the young marriage cohort are likely to participate in the labor force earlier in their life stage than those in the older age cohort; and 4) the participation in the labor force of wives in rural areas occurs when they are young, regardless of which marriage cohort they belong to. (author's modified) PMID:12312942

  20. Child Labor in Agriculture: Changes Needed To Better Protect Health and Educational Opportunities. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In a response to a Congressional request, this report presents information and statistics on child labor in agriculture. Specifically, the report examines: (1) the extent and prevalence of child labor in agriculture, (2) the legislative protections available to children working in agriculture, (3) the enforcement of these protections as they apply…

  1. Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers. PMID:18070333

  2. Labor Market Projections Model: a user's guide to the population, labor force, and unemployment projections model at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, E.

    1980-08-01

    In an effort to assist SESA analysts and CETA prime sponsor planners in the development of labor-market information suitable to their annual plans, the Labor Market Projections Model (LMPM) was initiated. The purpose of LMPM is to provide timely information on the demographic characteristics of local populations, labor supply, and unemployment. In particular, the model produces short-term projections of the distributions of population, labor force, and unemployment by age, sex, and race. LMPM was designed to carry out these projections at various geographic levels - counties, prime-sponsor areas, SMSAs, and states. While LMPM can project population distributions for areas without user input, the labor force and unemployment projections rely upon inputs from analysts or planners familiar with the economy of the area of interest. Thus, LMPM utilizes input from the SESA analysts. This User's Guide to LMPM was specifically written as an aid to SESA analysts and other users in improving their understanding of LMPM. The basic method of LMPM is a demographic cohort aging model that relies upon 1970 Census data. LMPM integrates data from several sources in order to produce current projections from the 1970 baseline for all the local areas of the nation. This User's Guide documents the procedures, data, and output of LMPM. 11 references.

  3. Agricultural Child Labor Provisions of FLSA, 1974; Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session (Portland, Oregon, December 6, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    In its report accompanying the 1974 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), the Senate Labor Committee concluded that in general child labor in agriculture was physically and mentally detrimental to the health and well-being of participating children, acting as a social depressant, stunting their intellectual growth and capacity, and…

  4. Child labor in agriculture: some new developments to an ancient problem.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Dorianne

    2012-01-01

    Advocates for working children worldwide strive to eradicate the employment that minimizes a child's opportunities for education, good health and future potential. In agriculture, some promising developments in corporate social responsibility may generate partial solutions to child labor problems that have persisted for generations across world regions where food, fiber and fuel are produced. The purpose of this paper is to review these promising developments and propose recommendations in the context of a future of continued agricultural globalization and industrialization. PMID:22490031

  5. Problems of Manpower in Agriculture. OECD Documentation in Food and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Problems related to rapid reduction of the agricultural labor force were examined in the 21 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The size and changes of the agricultural labor force, economic forces tending towards change, technical requirements for labor in agriculture, and obstacles hindering economic adjustment of…

  6. Labor Force Participation of Dual-Earner Couples and Single Parents. Background Paper No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galinsky, Ellen

    In 1940, 8.6 percent of women with children 18 and under were in the labor force. By 1987, that figure was 65 percent. In 1976, 40 percent of the mothers of preschoolers were employed, compared to 58 percent in 1987. In 1988, 53 percent of women with children under 3 years held jobs. Sixty percent of the men in the labor force are married to women…

  7. Global Work Force 2000: The New World Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Although much of the world's human resources are being produced in developing countries, most of the well-paid jobs are in industrialized nations. Implications include massive relocations of people; reevaluation of industrialized nations' immigration policies; "surplus" human capital; improved productivity; and standardization of labor practices.…

  8. Farm Labor Contractors in California. California Agricultural Studies, 92-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Howard R.; And Others

    Farm labor contractors (FLCs) have become increasingly important in California agriculture. This report examines FLC background characteristics, business practices, and relationships with employers and farm workers, many of whom are seasonal and migrant workers. Over 300 FLCs, farm workers, and growers were interviewed in five California regions.…

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(8)-1 - Payments for agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General... X to A is not subject to the taxes. If in 2004 X had paid A $140 in cash for agricultural labor...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(1)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Section 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(1)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Section 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) §...

  12. AGRICULTURAL LABOR--THE PROBLEM, ATTEMPTS AT ORGANIZATION, CURRENT LAWS, AND WHAT ARE THE ISSUES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CALL, DAVID

    THE NUMBER OF HIRED FARM WORKERS IS DECREASING WITH THE INCREASED USE OF LABORSAVING FARM MACHINERY AND TECHNOLOGY WHICH ALLOWS GREATER OUTPUT PER WORKER. THE LOW WAGE SCALE PREVALENT IN AGRICULTURE IS THE MAJOR CAUSE OF THE FARM LABOR PROBLEM. WAGE RATES ARE DIFFICULT TO MEASURE ACCURATELY BECAUSE OF A GREAT DIVERSITY IN METHODS OF PAYMENT AND…

  13. Teenagers in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    1994-01-01

    Among youth aged 16-18 living at home in 1980, employment was proportionately higher among whites than blacks and among metropolitan compared to nonmetropolitan youth. Employment of white youth was linked more closely than that of black youth to family resources (income and occupational status) and local labor market characteristics. Discusses…

  14. Intercountry comparisons of labor force trends and of related developments: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mincer, J

    1985-01-01

    This paper is a survey of analyses of women's labor force growth in 12 industrialized countries, presented at a conference in Sussex, England in 1983. The main focus is on growth of the labor force of married women from 1960-1980; trends in fertility, wages, and family instability are discussed. In all countries, wages of women were lower than wages of men, although between 1960 and 1980 labor force rates of married women rose in most of the industrialized countries. 2 factors that are associated with this growth are declines in fertility and increases in divorce rates. The 12 countries studied are: 1) Australia, 2) Britain, 3) France, 4) Germany, 5) Israel, 6) Italy, 7) Japan, 8) Netherlands, 9) Spain, 10) Sweden, 11) US, and 12) USSR. The substitution variables (wages of women or their education) have strong positive effects on labor force participation in most cases, and in most cases the positive wage elasticities exceed the negative income elasticities by a sizable margin. A summary table estimating parameters of the P-function for each country, and their predictive performance in time series, are included. From 1960-1980 the average per country growth in participation of married women was 2.84% per year. Wages of working women, in this same period grew, on average, faster than wages of men in most countries, in part due to selectivity by education in labor force growth. While growth rates of real wages across countries have a weak relation with the differential growth rates of married women's labor force, the relation is strong when country parameters are taken into account. The dominance of the "discouraged" over the "added" workers in female labor force growth appears to be upheld internationally. On the average, total fertility rate dropped from 2.42 in 1970 to 1.85 in 1980. Both fertility declines and the growth of family instability appear to represent lagged effects of longer term developments in the labor force of women. Women's wages are lower than

  15. 75 FR 44214 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to...

  16. CGE simulation analysis on the labor transfer, agricultural technical progress, and economic development in Chongqing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Ran, Maosheng

    2014-01-01

    The basic structure of a CGE model dividing Mainland China into two parts, including Chongqing and rest regions, is described. Based on this CGE model, both the unilateral impact and collaborative impact of two policies, agricultural technical progress and supporting policies for improving rural labor transfer on the economic development in Chongqing, are simulated and analyzed. The results demonstrate that compared with the sum of each unilateral policy effect, the collaboration of two policies has more effective impact on facilitating the labor transfer, promoting regional economic growth, and improving income and welfare of urban and rural residents. PMID:24892037

  17. CGE Simulation Analysis on the Labor Transfer, Agricultural Technical Progress, and Economic Development in Chongqing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Ran, Maosheng

    2014-01-01

    The basic structure of a CGE model dividing Mainland China into two parts, including Chongqing and rest regions, is described. Based on this CGE model, both the unilateral impact and collaborative impact of two policies, agricultural technical progress and supporting policies for improving rural labor transfer on the economic development in Chongqing, are simulated and analyzed. The results demonstrate that compared with the sum of each unilateral policy effect, the collaboration of two policies has more effective impact on facilitating the labor transfer, promoting regional economic growth, and improving income and welfare of urban and rural residents. PMID:24892037

  18. Intermetropolitan Variation in the Labor Force Participation Rates of White and Black Men in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark; Odland, John

    2001-01-01

    Decomposes variance in black and white male labor force participation rates across metropolitan areas into: local labor market effects, labor force structure effects, and effects from the covariation between the two. Data from the 1990 Public Use Micro Sample show difference by race and suggest that most variation results from workers with similar…

  19. Labor Force Status and Other Characteristics of Persons with a Work Disability: 1981 to 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennefield, Robert L.; McNeil, John M.

    1989-01-01

    This document examines 8-year trends in the labor force status and other characteristics (including age and years of school completed) of persons with a work force disability, using March supplements to the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS). (Disabled persons are considered to be individuals 16 to 64 years old with a disability…

  20. Diabetes associated with early labor-force exit: a comparison of sixteen high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Rumball-Smith, Juliet; Barthold, Douglas; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2014-01-01

    The economic burden of diabetes and the effects of the disease on the labor force are of substantial importance to policy makers. We examined the impact of diabetes on leaving the labor force across sixteen countries, using data about 66,542 participants in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe; the US Health and Retirement Survey; or the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. After matching people with diabetes to those without the disease in terms of age, sex, and years of education, we used Cox proportional hazards analyses to estimate the effect of diabetes on time of leaving the labor force. Across the sixteen countries, people diagnosed with diabetes had a 30 percent increase in the rate of labor-force exit, compared to people without the disease. The costs associated with earlier labor-force exit are likely to be substantial. These findings further support the value of greater public- and private-sector investment in preventing and managing diabetes. PMID:24395942

  1. The peasantariat and politics: migration, wage labor, and agriculture in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Parson, J

    1984-01-01

    This article examines Botswana's wage labor migration in terms of 2 reigning theories: 1) as a dichotomy between traditional and modern society, with workers viewing agriculture as an alternative to more desirable wage employment; or 2) as a subordination of colonial society to capitalist society, with workers drawn from the resulting underdeveloped and impoverished areas and divorced from their agricultural potential. Approximately 90% of Botswanan households have a wage worker; less than 1/4 of households rely on the agricultural economy alone. 80% of the population works in agriculture in some way, but agriculture contributes only 35% of total rural income. Over 50% of households are below the poverty level, and most must rely on a variety of income sources for subsistence. 68% of rural households (Botswana is 84% rural) have absent wage earners while 45% have 1 or more wage earners present. Absent wage earners work mainly in unskilled and semi-skilled jobs in Botswanan towns (44%) and villages (22%), and lands and cattlepost locations (5%) in South African mines (19%), and other jobs in South Africa (8%). Individuals with low socioeconomic status tend to migrate to South Africa; those with higher status move to Botswanan towns. Working for wages has become customary for most Botswanans. This article undermines conventional development theories by showing the close interweaving of the modern and traditional societies, and arguing that traditional retention of communal land rights and cattle ownership served the capitalistic system by becoming the basis for wage earning; previous income source (agriculture) did not disappear, but their use was altered. South African mining returns to the Botswanan government since 1965 largely benefited a growing petty-bourgeois class and marginally improved the life styles of the peasant labor class. Botswana's development depends on the relationship between the peripherial laboring class and the dominating petty-bourgeois and

  2. A Report of the Child Labor Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Bureau of Labor and Industry, Portland.

    A task force studied youth work and its impact on the health, education, and safety of 16- and 17-year-olds. The study covered such issues as the following: effects of work on school performance, work's physical and psychological effects on young people, the effects work can have on young people's preparation for lifelong work, and what steps can…

  3. [Recent changes in the Mexican industrial labor force].

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, O; Garcia, B

    1996-01-01

    "We study...some of the repercussions of the crisis and economic restructuring on the manufacturing labour force in the main urban areas of Mexico. Using the data of the National Survey of Urban Employment for the period 1986-1992, we set, first of all, the evolution of female and male presence in the manufacture of the country's main industrial cities. Further, some of the characteristics of the manufacturing labour force in different types of cities are examined. For this purpose, we are considering several issues: the condition of wage earner and non-wage earner workers, the size of the establishment, some sociodemographic aspects (gender, age, schooling level, and condition of the head of household), as well as different aspects related to labour conditions (length of workday, job benefits, and salary levels)." (EXCERPT) PMID:12348665

  4. Females' labor force participation and intimate femicide: an empirical assessment of the backlash hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Avakame, E F

    1999-01-01

    Using data from the Supplementary Homicide Reports in conjunction with 1990 U.S. census data in a cross-sectional analysis, this paper tests the proposition that increased participation of women in the paid labor force will elevate the incidence of females' intimate homicide victimization. In part, results support the backlash hypothesis. Specifically, they suggest that a growth in the female labor force participation rate decreases the poverty rate. Reductions in the poverty rate, in turn, augment the incidence of intimate lethal violence against women. We discuss the theoretical implications of these results. PMID:10606434

  5. 78 FR 1260 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: Prevailing Wage Rates for Certain Occupations Processed Under H-2A...

  6. Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether international…

  7. Falling Further Behind? Child Support Arrears and Fathers’ Labor Force Participation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Daniel P.; Mincy, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how child support arrears affect fathers’ labor force participation. It relies on longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. Findings from analyses of these data suggest that child support arrears result in declines in average weeks worked in the formal labor market in subsequent time periods. These findings are driven by the behaviors of fathers who had relatively high amounts of arrears and no income in the previous year and are mostly robust to tests for selection into no work or low levels of work by fathers. Findings also suggest that arrears obligations that are low relative to income result in increases in the probability that fathers engage in any formal work. Arrears are not statistically significantly related to informal labor force participation. This study highlights both intended and unintended consequences of the growth in arrears under current child support enforcement policies. PMID:23935220

  8. Women and Racial Minorities in the Media Labor Force, 1970-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Randal A.

    Data were extracted from the public use samples of the 1970 and 1980 United States censuses in order to (1) determine how successful the American media have been in hiring more racial minorities and women, (2) evaluate how changes in the media labor force correlate with changes in the nature of the news and information that the news media produce,…

  9. Labor Force Experiences of a National Sample of Young Adult Men: The Role of Drug Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine on the following aspects of labor force experience: (1) earnings; (2) stability of employment; (3) gaps between employment spells; and (4) duration of unemployment. Illicit drug use was found to have an impact on all factors except earnings. (JS)

  10. Labor Force Participation Rates among Working-Age Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes four consecutive years of monthly labor force participation rates reported by the Current Population Survey that included nationally representative samples of the general U.S. population and nationally representative samples of the U.S. population with specifically identified disabilities. Visual impairment is one of the…

  11. Children of Working Mothers, March 1977. Special Labor Force Report 217.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman

    1979-01-01

    This special labor force report, focusing on children of working mothers, summarizes findings from the 1977 annual survey of marital and family characteristics of workers in the population who are 16 years old and over. Data are given on: the numbers of children of various ages with working mothers, the percentages of black and white children…

  12. Children of Working Mothers, March 1973. Special Labor Force Report No. 165.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Elizabeth; Whitmore, Robert

    A special labor force report, the pamphlet provides statistics related to the children of working mothers: type of family, number of children under 18, race, number of children in broken families, work experience of family head, and family income. Although the number of children in the population has declined, the number of children with working…

  13. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  14. The Growth and Composition of the U.S. Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In contrast with experiences of all other industrialized nations, the size of the labor force of the United States is growing rapidly while, simultaneously, its age, gender, and ethnic composition are changing markedly. Consequently, human resource issues present an unprecedented challenge in nation's quest to achieve fully employed and equitable…

  15. Quantifying the Dynamics of Chinese Labor Force: A Life Table Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Dejian

    2007-01-01

    Based on the recent three population censuses of China, in this article, we used life table technique to compute the expected years of working life for the Chinese labor force in the primary, secondary and tertiary industries in 1982, 1990 and 2000. We found, after two decades of economic reform, the expected years of working life in the primary…

  16. Are Mathematics and Science Test Scores Good Indicators of Labor-Force Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shiu-Sheng; Luoh, Ming-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), we investigate the link between test scores (mathematics and science) and cross-country income differences. We would like to know whether test scores are good indicators of labor-force quality. The…

  17. Maternal Labor Force Participation and Child Well-Being in Public Assistance Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secret, Mary; Peck-Heath, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between maternal labor force participation and the general health and school performance of school-age children in public assistance families. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 97 mothers drawn from a random sample of public assistance recipients in one community. Using a measure of…

  18. Socioeconomic Background, Education, and Labor Force Outcomes: Evidence from a Regional US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Cortina, Kai S.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term association of family socioeconomic status (SES), educational, and labor force outcomes in a regional US longitudinal sample (N = 2264). The results offer insights into the mechanisms underlying the role of family SES in transitions from secondary schooling to early work experiences. It was found that the academic…

  19. Can Social Security Explain Trends in Labor Force Participation of Older Men in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.; Goodstein, Ryan M.

    2010-01-01

    After a long decline, the Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) of older men in the United States leveled off in the 1980s, and began to increase in the late 1990s. We examine how changes in Social Security rules affected these trends. We attribute only a small portion of the decline from the 1960s-80s to the increasing generosity of Social…

  20. Childcare, Eldercare, and Labor Force Participation of Married Women in Urban China, 1982-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer-Fazio, Margaret; Connelly, Rachel; Chen, Lan; Tang, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    We employ Chinese population census data to consider married, urban women's labor force participation decisions in the context of their families. We find that the presence in the household of a parent, parent-in-law, or person aged 75 or older increases prime-age women's likelihood of participating in market work. The presence of preschool-aged…

  1. Effect of Female Education and Labor Force Ratio on Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turanli, Munevver; Taspinar Cengiz, Dicle; Turanli, Rona; Akdal, Serem

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of women's education and labor force ratio on the level of development in countries. We use a complete dataset covering 44 countries over the period 1990-2010. It comprises the following: education index, the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education, income per capita, human development index,…

  2. Career Counseling for Work Life Extension: Integrating the Older Worker into the Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Michael; Salomone, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that inclusion of older workers into the labor force is becoming a social and economic need. Asks counselors to encourage career planning for the total life span including years typically used for retirement. Addresses attitudinal obstacles to extending work lives, options for continuing work life, and effective procedures for promoting…

  3. [Some materials for the study of "labor force differences" of immigrants from outside the European Union].

    PubMed

    Piras, L

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of the productive behavior of immigrants arriving from outside the European Union comprise the phase preceding the immigration, the phase of first permanent residence, and the phase of secondary socialization to labor. The extra-community labor migration carries within itself all the individual cultural patrimony (values, conduct, faith, identity, lifestyle) which are invested into the transformation process and change through contact with the other culture. The differentiated labor-specific evolution of the extra-community migration was analyzed by means of a mathematical formula using the variables of compensation for work (salary), performance (effort), immigration, socialization to work, and the economic impact of differential work contribution, all of which individually and jointly exert an effect on the labor market. In the regular Italian labor market there is, however, a surplus; the irregular (underground) economy is differentiated by the variable of effort that immigrants exert in order to obtain employment. Labor behavior is determined by the competitiveness of the labor force and dangers inherent in leaving one's country and entering a foreign land illegally. Statistically, in the long term, individual situations show a diminishing trend vis-a-vis the risk of repatriation connected to the loss of the residency permit because of gradual integration into the labor market. The initial labor-specific effort (salary/performance) is reduced vis-a-vis a progressive process of socialization owing to work. New lifestyles and consumption patterns are acquired which also facilitate social integration. The human capital of the immigrant increases by progressive acquisition of language and other cultural instruments. PMID:12348671

  4. Agricultural Child Labor Provisions of FLSA, 1975; Hearing before the Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session (Presque Isle, Maine, January 18, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    A provision of the 1974 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) prohibited children under the age of 12 from working in agriculture, except on their parents' farms. Purpose of this provision was to codify as a matter of national social policy that children under 12 should not work for hire in agriculture or any other industry, where they…

  5. An analysis of trends in female labor force participation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimada, H; Higuchi, Y

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews statistical data on Japan's female labor force participation and household behavior, and estimates income and wage elasticities from female labor supply equations. Labor force participation rates reveal that: 1) 1/4 of working women work part time, 2) the unemployment rate for women has been consistently lower that for men, 3) female wage rates have improved substantially relative to male wage rates from 1960 to 1975, 4) the educational attainment of the female labor force has increased remarkably, while the proportion of female workers having only an elementary level education declined from 60% to 43%, 5) the fertility rate of Japanese women has declined greatly during the postwar period (from 133 to 71 in 3 decades), and 6) there is a mild tendency to later marriage, and an increased tendency to divorce. A review of the data on female labor supply and household behavior shows that: an analysis of aggregate data is misleading since it includes heterogeneous groups of the self employed, unpaid family workers, and paid employees, whose behaviors are quite different, and 2) historical developments do not seem to conform with the logical sequence of events anticipated by human capital theory. Absolute values of wage elasticity are consistently smaller than income elasticity, both for time series and cross sectional analyses. The relative smallness of wage elasticity to income elasticity is confirmed for the cross sectional data, and may be the consequence of labor supply decisions that are not really responsive to female wage rates. The underestimation of cross sectional analysis has been common among previous studies; analysis is unable to avoid this problem because shifts over time are indicative of structural changes in the behavior of Japanese wives. PMID:12267652

  6. An Assessment of Labor Force Projections through 2018: Will Workers Have the Education Needed for the Available Jobs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Johnson, Hans; Li, Qian; Schiff, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The impending retirement of the baby boom cohort could pose dramatic challenges for the U.S. labor force for at least two reasons. First, the boomers--adults born between 1946 and 1964--are large in number. Second, boomers are relatively well educated. In this report we develop and analyze occupational and labor force projections to the year 2018,…

  7. 77 FR 12882 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel... be available at the time and place needed to perform the labor or services involved in the petition...). Reimbursement for Daily Travel Subsistence The regulations at 20 CFR 655.122(h) establish that the minimum...

  8. 77 FR 13635 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel... be available at the time and place needed to perform the labor or services involved in the petition...). Reimbursement for Daily Travel Subsistence The regulations at 20 CFR 655.122(h) establish that the minimum...

  9. Welfare Reform and Labor Force Exit by Young, Low-Skilled Single Males.

    PubMed

    Groves, Lincoln H

    2016-04-01

    While the labor market woes of low-skilled male workers in the United States over the past several decades have been well documented, the academic literature identifying causal factors leading to declines in labor force participation (LFP) by young, low-skilled males remains scant. To address this gap, I use the timing and characteristics of welfare-reform policies implemented during the 1990s and fixed-effects, instrumental variable regression modeling to show that policies seeking to increase LFP rates for low-skilled single mothers inadvertently led to labor force exit by young, low-skilled single males. Using data from the Current Population Survey and a bundle of work inducements enacted by states throughout the 1990s as exogenous variation in a quasi-experimental design, I find that the roughly 10 percentage point increase in LFP for low-skilled single mothers facilitated by welfare reform resulted in a statistically significant 2.8 percentage point decline in LFP for young, low-skilled single males. After conducting a series of robustness checks, I conclude that this result is driven entirely by white males, who responded to welfare-reform policies with a 3.7 percentage point decline in labor supply. Young black males, as well as other groups of potentially affected workers, appear to be uninfluenced by the labor supply response of less-educated single mothers to welfare reform. Impacts on young, single white males are large and economically significant, suggesting that nearly 150,000 males departed the formal labor market in response to directed welfare-reform policies. PMID:26912351

  10. OVERTIME HOURS AND PREMIUM PAY, MAY 1965. SPECIAL LABOR FORCE REPORT NUMBER 72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WETZEL, JAMES R.

    THE EXTENT TO WHICH PERSONS WITH WORKWEEKS OF MORE THAN 40 HOURS RECEIVE PREMIUM PAY AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH THEY REGULARLY WORK LONG HOURS WERE STUDIED. THE DATA COLLECTED EACH YEAR IN THE MAY SURVEY OF THE LABOR FORCE BY THE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, APPLY TO WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS WITH ONE JOB WHO WORKED 41 HOURS OR MORE DURING THE SURVEY WEEK.…

  11. Children of Working Mothers, March 1975: Summary, Special Labor Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The following are some of the findings based on the results of the annual survey of marital and family characteristics of workers: (1) about 27.6 million of 62.7 million children had mothers in the labor force (over 2 million more than in March 1970); (2) 1.1 million of 6.5 million children under six were in families headed by women (71 percent…

  12. The Effect of Minimum Wages on the Labor Force Participation Rates of Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessels, Walter J.

    In light of pressure on Congress to raise the minimum wage from $5.15 to $6.15 per hour, a study looked at the effects such a raise would have on more than 10 million workers, many of them teenagers. The study used quarterly data on the labor force participation rates of teenagers from 1978 through 1999 and other studies to assess the effects of…

  13. 77 FR 1913 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Meeting..., Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, Post Office Box 2890, Washington, DC...

  14. Panel Conditioning in Longitudinal Studies: Evidence from Labor Force Items in the Current Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    Halpern-Manners, Andrew; Warren, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    Does participating in a longitudinal survey affect respondents’ answers to subsequent questions about their labor force characteristics? In this article, we investigate the magnitude of “panel conditioning” or “time in survey” biases for key labor force questions in the monthly Current Population Survey (CPS). Using linked CPS records for household heads first interviewed between January 2007 and June 2010, our analyses are based on strategic within-person comparisons across survey months and between-person comparisons across CPS rotation groups. We find considerable evidence for panel conditioning effects in the CPS. Panel conditioning downwardly biases the CPS-based unemployment rate, mainly by leading people to remove themselves from its denominator. Across surveys, CPS respondents (claim to) leave the labor force in greater numbers than otherwise equivalent respondents who are participating in the CPS for the first time. The results cannot be attributed to panel attrition or mode effects. We discuss implications for CPS-based research and policy as well as for survey methodology more broadly. PMID:22893185

  15. Labor force participation at older ages in the Western Pacific: A microeconomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Agree, E M; Clark, R L

    1991-10-01

    Retirement has become a very important stage of life for persons in developed countries. Life expectancy for those over age 60 has increased markedly. Rising real income and the institution of broad based social security systems have encouraged older workers to leave the labor force at younger ages. p]Reductions in older age mortality have also affected the less developed regions. Increases in the number of older persons, coupled with continuing high fertility, have increased the size of the working age population through both large entry cohorts and longevity of current workers. The capacity of the economy to absorb this growth is severely limited. As a result, labor force decisions by older individuals will be of increasing importance.This study provides new evidence on labor force decisions in four developing countries in the Western Pacific: Fiji, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. A uniform survey sponsored by the World Health Organization in the four countries of persons aged 60 and over is employed to estimate the determinants of work decisions. PMID:24390608

  16. 78 FR 10127 - Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force. SUMMARY... term on the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) which was established by the...

  17. 77 FR 41165 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY... Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on critical... for Task Force Anaerobic Digester Technologies Odor Management Technologies Committee Updates E....

  18. The Effects of Year-Round Schools on the Hospitality Industry's Seasonal Labor Force in the State of Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickeral, Lyn M.; Hubbard, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Data collected from 66 managers in Tennessee tourist attractions indicate that 53 percent of seasonal workers in Tennessee come from the school system. The proposal to implement year-round schools would drastically increase the tourism industry's labor shortage. An alternative labor force needs to be identified and the issue of year-round schools…

  19. Labor Force Participation in Formal Work-Related Education in 2000-01. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2005-048

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lisa; Bhandari, Rajika; Peter, Katharin; Bills, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Of the many purposes education serves in society, one of the most important is to prepare people for work. In today's economy, education is important not just to help adults enter the labor market, but also to ensure that adults remain marketable throughout their working lives. This report examines how adults in the labor force use formal…

  20. Changes in the Relative Labor Force Status of Black and White Youths: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mare, Robert D.; Winship, Christopher

    Since World War II, unemployment rates for black youths have risen much more rapidly than for white youths. This report reviews possible causes of the worsening relative employment status of black youths, including market and structural trends in the sizes of labor force entry cohorts, competition in the low-wage labor market from women and…

  1. [Population and labor force: the case of coffee growing in the West Paulista].

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, M C; Madeira, F R

    1986-01-01

    Fertility rates in Brazil have dropped at an increasingly rapid rate since 1940; this has occurred in the absence of an explicit, official policy on population control, and without a notable increase in quality of life. The context for analysis of this change in population dynamics is the colonato, the coffee plantation labor system which was prevalent in the Western portion of the state of Sao Paulo, or Paulista West unitl 1930; work organization here was based on the family as a unit of labor force. This study reconsiders the importance of the family in the labor force under the colonato, and the demographic implications of this organizational pattern. European immigrant colonists contracted with coffee growers to do subsistence farming; in exchange, they were granted land in proportion to the number of coffee trees tended. An increase in the number of family members resulted in an increase in productive capacity of the head of the family. The high fertility rate among these immigrants may have been a natural response to the existing institutional control of the labor system, high mortality rates and abundance of land; however, it may not have been a deliberate, planned response based on economic essentials. Also significant is the fact that the average family size in the Paulista West has changed little in the last 60 years. Immigrant families may have received contracts based on their favorable demographic composition rather than on their size alone. The elimination of contracted, guaranteed land-for-subsistence farming is sufficient to explain the changes in fertility patterns. Additional research is needed and should be based on empirical evidence. PMID:12268885

  2. Mexican Contract Workers and the U.S. Capitalist Agricultural Labor Process: The Formative Era, 1942-1964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mize, Ronald L., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Rural sociologists have seemingly moved away from an active interest in the plight of migrant farmworkers and the centrality of their labor in the development of U.S. agribusiness. Answering Pfeffer's (1983) call to analyze the different forms of agricultural production, I focus on the key formative period of what I refer to as the U.S. capitalist…

  3. WORKING AND CARING: THE SIMULTANEOUS DECISION OF LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND INFORMAL ELDERLY AND CHILD SUPPORT ACT IVITIES IN MEXICO*

    PubMed Central

    van Gameren, Edwin; Velandia Naranjo, Durfari

    2016-01-01

    We analyze factors determining women’s decisions to participate in the labor market and provide elderly care and nonfinancial support to their (grand)children. We use data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a survey of people aged 50 and over, applying a three-equation, reduced-form SUR model. Results suggest that care needs are the driving force behind caregiving activities. Traditional roles also appear to be relevant in the labor force participation decision: women with a closer labor market connection when they were young are more likely to work. Simulations of demographic changes illustrate potential effects for future caregiving and participation rates. PMID:26924883

  4. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Rivera Drew, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants. PMID:24009398

  5. Factors affecting the work productivity of Oraon agricultural laborers of Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subrata K

    2002-03-01

    In developing countries like India, where the incidence of protein-calorie malnutrition is high and mechanization is at a minimum, human labor provides much of the power for physical activity. This study presents anthropometric measurements, somatotypes, food intakes, energy expenditures, and work outputs of Oraon agricultural laborers of the Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, in an attempt to identify the factors that predict high work productivity. Specifically, this study investigates 1) the relationship between morphological variation (anthropometric measurements and somatotype) and work productivity, 2) the nature and extent of the relationship between nutritional status and work productivity, and 3) the best predictor variables of work output. Classification of groups on the basis of median values of work output show that in the aggregate, the high productive groups are significantly younger than low-productive groups in both sexes. Before age-adjustment, the high productive groups show higher mean values of a few body dimensions, though these differ by sex, and both males and females exhibit a normal range of blood pressure and pulse rate values. Mean values of grip strength and back strength are higher in high-output men and women. Mean values of both food intake and energy expenditure are also higher among men in high-output groups, with only food intake higher in high-output women. However, after eliminating the effects of age, the differences between low-productive groups and high-productive groups in most of the variables are not significant. Productivity predictors in males consist of age, food intake and chest girth (inhalation). Females, on the other hand, show age and grip strength (left) as work output predictors. PMID:11842402

  6. 76 FR 27003 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY...: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue... Updates D. Federal Travel Regulations E. Air Quality Issues/Concerns from Previous Task Force...

  7. 75 FR 8917 - Notice of a Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of a Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of a meeting..., Natural Resources Conservation Service, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 6165 South...

  8. Drought, Agriculture, and Labor: Understanding Drought Impacts and Vulnerability in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hazardous drought impacts are a product of not only the physical intensity of drought, but also the economic, social, and environmental characteristics of the region exposed to drought. Drought risk management requires understanding the complex links between the physical and human dimensions of drought. Yet, there is a research gap in identifying and explaining the socio-economic complexities of drought in the context of the first world, especially for economic and socially marginal groups who rely on seasonal and temporary jobs. This research uses the current drought in California as a case study to identify the socioeconomic impacts of drought on farmworker communities in California's San Joaquin Valley, with a specific focus on the relationship between drought and agricultural labor. Through both a narrative analysis of drought coverage in newspaper media, drought policy documents, and interviews with farmworkers, farmers, community based organizations, and government officials in the San Joaquin Valley, this research aims to highlight the different understandings and experiences of the human impacts of drought and drought vulnerability in order to better inform drought risk planning and policy.

  9. [The development of the female labor force in Belgium: Part 1, trends from 1970 to 1977].

    PubMed

    Broerman, M

    1980-01-01

    In the 1st section, the evolution of the active female population in Belgium was examined as a function of some social and demographic variables. The comparisons made cover the period 1970-77. The evolution in the rate of female activity during these 2 dates was analyzed and it was found that participation of women in economic activities is increasing. This is a recent phenomenon despite the serious economic recession Belgium has been experiencing since 1974. On examination of the overall volume of females employed in the total labor force, it was noted that the female labor force grew much more than did the male labor force. This increase in female activity made it possible to maintain the general rate of activity in the country. With regard to unemployment, there is an enormous disparity between the number of unemployed males and females. There is a rapidly rising trend in the number of females unemployed. In 1979, the rate of female unemployment was 3 times the rate of that of males. This situation existed in spite of the fact that the level of education in unemployed women was found to be distinctly higher than that of unemployed men. This was especially true of women less than 25 years of age who form a particularly vulnerable group. The influence of age on the activity curve of women was also studied. Peaks in 1977 existed for those ages 20-29, an age during which women raise young children. This discovery is confirmed by the remarkable advance in the activity of married women, which although recent, has taken on spectacular proportions during the last decade. The declining age at marriage, decreasing fertility, a rising trend for women in 1977 to postpone their 1st birth, and the decrease in family size are all factors which only must be briefly analyzed to discover that women in 1977 are in better position to participate in the professional world. They thereby display a desire to arrive at independence through work in spite of the obstacles encountered in

  10. [New findings on labor force and migrations: preliminary data analysis of the ENDESA-91 extended household questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Ramirez, N

    1992-01-01

    Data from the Extended Household Questionnaire of the 1991 Dominican Republic Demographic and Health Survey provided new findings on labor force participation and migration. The survey considered as unemployed not only individuals who sought work in the week preceding the survey, but also those available and willing to work for pay who hadn't actually looked for a job. The broadened definition of unemployment was intended to take into account discouraged job seekers. The economic activity rate and unemployment rate respectively were 67.9 and 26.2% for both sexes, 80.9 and 11.8% for men, and 55.2 and 46.7% for women at the national level; 68.8 and 27.4% for both sexes, 78.9 and 13.6% for men, and 60.0 and 43.0% for women in urban areas; and 66.5 and 24.2% for both sexes, 83.6% and 9.5% for men, and 46.6 and 54.9% for women in rural areas. the inclusion of discouraged job seekers in the definition of unemployment resulted in a higher proportion of women than shown in previous surveys. But the lower rate for men compared to previous surveys suggests that open unemployment for men has declined in recent years. The lower unemployment rate for men may reflect the increasing numbers who have sought self-employment in marginal activities in the tertiary sector in response to the country's grave economic crisis. 50.1% of all persons aged 10 or over carried out some productive work in the reference week. Persons disposed to work who did not seek work comprised 23.4% of the labor force, amounting to 45.1% of women and 8.2% of men. 41% of the unemployed had been disposed to work for more than one year. 25% of the labor force was employed in agriculture and 31.5% in services. 36% of males were in agriculture, while over 50% of women were in services. 46.1% of men and 67.0% of women worked for wages or salaries, 38.3% of men and 24.1% of women were self-employed, and 10.6% of men and 6.2% of women were unpaid family workers. At the time of the 1991 survey, 34.3% of the native

  11. Latent deprivation among people who are employed, unemployed, or out of the labor force.

    PubMed

    Paul, Karsten I; Geithner, Eva; Moser, Klaus

    2009-10-01

    Using a Web-based survey, the authors tested M. Jahoda's (1981, 1982, 1997) latent deprivation model among employed, unemployed, and out-of-the-labor-force (OLF) people. The model predicted that employment is the main provider of 5 specific subconstructs of experience important to mental health: time structure, social contact, collective purpose, status, and activity. As expected, deprivation of these latent functions correlated with distress not only among employed and unemployed people, but also among OLF people. OLF people reported significantly more latent deprivation than did employed people, but they reported significantly less latent deprivation than did unemployed people. Furthermore, latent deprivation mediated the negative effects of unemployment and OLF status on mental health. When the authors statistically controlled the influence of manifest deprivation, the effect of latent deprivation on mental health remained stable. PMID:19943399

  12. Improving health and safety conditions in agriculture through professional training of Florida farm labor supervisors.

    PubMed

    Morera, Maria C; Monaghan, Paul F; Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Roka, Fritz M; Asuaje, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Because farm labor supervisors (FLSs) are responsible for ensuring safe work environments for thousands of workers, providing them with adequate knowledge is critical to preserving worker health. Yet a challenge to offering professional training to FLSs, many of whom are foreign-born and have received different levels of education in the US and abroad, is implementing a program that not only results in knowledge gains but meets the expectations of a diverse audience. By offering bilingual instruction on safety and compliance, the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) FLS Training program is helping to improve workplace conditions and professionalize the industry. A recent evaluation of the program combined participant observation and surveys to elicit knowledge and satisfaction levels from attendees of its fall 2012 trainings. Frequency distributions and dependent- and independent-means t-tests were used to measure and compare participant outcomes. The evaluation found that attendees rated the quality of their training experience as either high or very high and scored significantly better in posttraining knowledge tests than in pretraining knowledge tests across both languages. Nonetheless, attendees of the trainings delivered in English had significantly higher posttest scores than attendees of the trainings delivered in Spanish. As a result, the program has incorporated greater standardization of content delivery and staff development. Through assessment of its program components and educational outcomes, the program has documented its effectiveness and offers a replicable approach that can serve to improve the targeted outcomes of safety and health promotion in other states. PMID:24911687

  13. 76 FR 52932 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY... Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on critical air quality issues relating...

  14. 75 FR 48929 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Register of July 28, 2010, Notice of a Meeting (75 FR 44214). This document corrects the location of the... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY...; (919) 541-5400. The Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions...

  15. 78 FR 69365 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). ACTION... Program Office update D. Update on agricultural air quality regulatory issues at EPA E. AAQTF...

  16. The Arizona Farm Labor Law: In the Fields and in the Courts. A Review of the Arizona Farm Labor Law and a Review of Industrial Relations in Arizona Agriculture. Occasional Paper Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harold C.; Gibney, William

    Agricultural labor and management relations in Arizona were reviewed from the time of the passage of the Arizona Agricultural Relations Act in May 1972 until the ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court in August 1979 that the act was constitutional. Viewing the act as antilabor, the United Farm Workers (UFW) Union fought its passage. Church and Indian…

  17. Testing an Undertested Comparison: Maternal Effects on Sons' and Daughters' Attitudes Toward Women in the Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between a mother's work status and educational level and the sex-role attitudes of her offspring. Results suggested that the association between maternal characteristics and attitudes toward women in the labor force is stronger for males than it is for females. (Author)

  18. The Labor Force Characteristics of Women in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Geraldine B.; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    Selected data from the Southern Regional S-44 Project entitled "Factors in the Adjustment of Families and Individuals in Low-Income Rural Areas" were analyzed to determine the work patterns of women in low-income rural areas. Objectives of the study were to describe the labor force experience of women, to report the attitudes of employed women…

  19. Technological Advance in an Expanding Economy: Its Impact on a Cross-Section of the Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Eva; And Others

    In 1967 the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan conducted a nationwide survey to determine the impact of changes in machine technology on a cross-section of the labor force. Although many studies have been made about automation, this study was larger in scope than most research and made use of cross-sectional analysis to show the…

  20. Work-Family Spillover and Daily Reports of Work and Family Stress in the Adult Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.; McDonald, Daniel A.

    2002-01-01

    Data from two affiliated national surveys were used to examine distribution of work-family spillover among working adults. Analyses testing family life course hypotheses indicated self-reported negative and positive spillover between work and family were not randomly distributed within the labor force. Age was found to have a persistent…

  1. Have Disability Transfers Caused the Decline in Older Male Labor Force Participation? A Work-Status Rational Choice Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Robert H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.

    This paper presents a decision-process model for explaining the growth in transfer recipiency (the receipt by working age people of disability income), the choice of work status, and the reduction in labor force participation of older workers. It is hypothesized that the attractiveness of disability income transfer options has led older male…

  2. [Decennial censuses of the labor force using a population register. Presentation of a methodology].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, G; Bourque, M; Larouche, J; Bergeron, L

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the way in which the BALSAC computerized population register was used to reconstruct a decennial census of the active male population in the region of Saguenay, Quebec, between 1851 and 1961. This type of analysis was not feasible using Canadian government census data because of methodological changes from one census to the next and because the data were often aggregated at the provincial level. The BALSAC register contains all records of baptism, marriage, and burial from the period 1842 to 1971, nearly 700,000 total. The information regarding a single individual or couple was grouped by computer, yielding 125,000 family files. 52% of baptismal records provided the father's occupation, and nearly half of the marriage and death records also provided occupational data. The article systematically examines the possible sources of bias inherent in the use of population registers. Apart from the exclusion of women because of scarce and uneven reporting of occupation, the main sources of potential bias resulted from the unequal likelihood of men of different ages or other characteristics being included in the register, or from unequal likelihood of reporting occupation. Three probable sources of bias affecting this study were identified: overrepresentation of the agricultural sector; underrepresentation of the industrial sector and laborers in the Haut-Saguenay subregion after 1915; and general underenumeration due to nonreporting of occupation or migration, especially after 1920. PMID:12348493

  3. 76 FR 74755 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 48 CFR Part 422 RIN 0599-AA19 Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition... Agriculture. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Office of Procurement and Property Management (OPPM) of...

  4. 76 FR 74722 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 48 CFR Part 422 RIN 0599-AA19 Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition... Agriculture. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The Office of Procurement and Property Management (OPPM)...

  5. Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions. PMID:23570510

  6. The determinants and patterns of married women's labor force participation in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chin, S H

    1995-07-01

    The present study investigates the determinants and patterns of married women's labor force participation in Korea. Married women's employment in Korea is largely determined by age, urban residence, household characteristics of the husband's socioeconomic status, family income, fertility, and the lagged effect of work. Older age, rural residence, inferior household economic condition, and recent work experience are the major positive causes of married women's participation in the market work. On the other hand, younger women with preschool children, who currently reside in urban areas, enjoying better household economic conditions (due to higher socioeconomic status of husbands and/or higher family income) are the groups of women with the smallest probability of working in the market. Married women's employment pattern in Korea shows a pattern typical of less-developed and low-income countries in two aspects: married women working and characterized by a low level of education; the difference between urban and rural areas in terms of work participation pattern is remarkable. Although Korea belongs to the advanced group of currently industrializing countries, she lags behind with other developing countries in terms of married women's employment. Moreover, it is difficult to predict in advance that Korea would have similar experiences as those of contemporary advanced countries. PMID:12290730

  7. Older Workers: Policies of Other Nations To Increase Labor Force Participation. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Special Committee on Aging, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) studied selected nations' policies to increase the number of older workers participating in the labor force. The main data collection activities were as follows: (1) an analysis of population and labor force data from eight high-income Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development member nations; (2) an…

  8. The Labor Market in the Central California Raisin Industry: Five Years after IRCA. California Agricultural Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Andrew; And Others

    This report examines the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) on the raisin industry's labor market, and provides educators with background on California migrant workers and their deteriorating working conditions. Because the raisin harvest lasts only 3-4 weeks but employs 40,000-50,000 workers, any effects of IRCA on…

  9. Navy Available Labor Force: A 1996 View. Research Report No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwater, D. M.; And Others

    This report provides the fourth version of Navy Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) labor market availability of people by race, sex, and national origin groups in the 64 local labor markets in which the Navy employs 250 or more civilian employees. A description of the methodology is included. Seven references are listed. Appendices provide…

  10. 75 FR 45091 - Notice of Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture... Conservation Service, 420 South State Road 7, Suite 160, Royal Palm Beach, Florida 33414; telephone: (561)...

  11. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  12. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  13. Residential segregation and spatial distribution of a non-labor force population: the needy elderly and disabled.

    PubMed

    Massey, D S

    1980-01-01

    "Processes of urban change [in the United States] were hypothesized to have created a segregated residential distribution typified by a concentration of disadvantaged and chronically unemployed individuals in decaying inner cities and the employed middle class in suburbs. This hypothesis was tested in one heavily urbanized area for a non-labor force population of needy elderly and disabled persons." Data were obtained from the Fourth Count Summary Tapes of the 1970 census PMID:12263197

  14. Entomopathogenic and plant pathogenic nematodes as opposing forces in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Eric; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are responsible for substantial damages within the agriculture industry every year, which is a challenge that has thus far gone largely unimpeded. Chemical nematicides have been employed with varying degrees of success, but their implementation can be cumbersome, and furthermore they could potentially be neutralising an otherwise positive effect from the entomopathogenic nematodes that coexist with plant-parasitic nematodes in soil environments and provide protection for plants against insect pests. Recent research has explored the potential of employing entomopathogenic nematodes to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes, while providing their standard degree of protection against insects. The interactions involved are highly complex, due to both the three-organism system and the assortment of variables present in a soil environment, but a strong collection of evidence has accumulated regarding the suppressive capacity of certain entomopathogenic nematodes and their mutualistic bacteria, in the context of limiting the infectivity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Specific factors produced by certain entomopathogenic nematode complexes during the process of insect infection appear to have a selectively nematicidal, or at least repellant, effect on plant-parasitic nematodes. Using this information, an opportunity has formed to adapt this relationship to large-scale, field conditions and potentially relieve the agricultural industry of one of its most substantial burdens. PMID:26527129

  15. Migrant Agricultural Labor in Wisconsin: A Short History. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Muirragui, Eileen

    Examining the relationship between certain sectors of Wisconsin agriculture and their need for seasonal workers, the paper traces the use of farm workers of European origin in the early 1900's through their replacement in the 1930's by Hispanic migrants (Mexican nationals and people of Mexican heritage living in southern Texas) and the use of…

  16. The Dacha Debate: Household Agriculture and Labor Markets in Post-Socialist Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Caleb

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines the relationship among household agriculture, wages and household structure using panel data on urban households from 1994-2003. Experts using cross-sectional data differ on whether Russian "dachas" or garden houses are a survival strategy that households use in times of economic difficulty or a hobby of the more affluent. This…

  17. 77 FR 5750 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 74755) proposed rule adding a new clause to the Agriculture Acquisition Regulation at.... DATES: As of February 6, 2012, the proposed rule published on December 1, 2011, at 76 FR 74755, is.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: USDA is withdrawing its proposed rule published on December 1, 2011 (76 FR...

  18. Ultrasociality and the sexual divisions of labor.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Pamela; Caporael, Linnda R

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasociality thesis proposes that the same "mechanistic evolutionary forces" may be at work in the evolution of insect eusociality and human ultrasociality in relation to agriculture. Wide variation in the reproductive division of labor among differing highly social phyla points to a resemblance of outcomes arising from very different selective environments and possibly different forces. PMID:27561830

  19. Hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI) is a novel mechanism underlying the strengthening of labor contractions, produced by hypoxic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Mohammed; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan

    2015-01-01

    For successful birth, contractions need to become progressively stronger. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, however. We have found that a novel mechanism, hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI), is switched on selectively, at term, and is essential to strengthening contractions. HIFI is initiated as contractions cyclically reduce blood flow and produce repeated hypoxic stresses, with associated metabolic and transcriptomic changes. The increases in contractility are a long-lasting, oxytocin-independent, intrinsic mechanism present only in the full-term pregnant uterus. HIFI is inhibited by adenosine receptor antagonism and blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 signaling, and partially reproduced by brief episodes of acidic (but not alkalotic) pH. HIFI explains how labor can progress despite paradoxical metabolic challenge, and provides a new mechanistic target for the 1 in 10 women suffering dysfunctional labor because of poor contractions. PMID:26195731

  20. Hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI) is a novel mechanism underlying the strengthening of labor contractions, produced by hypoxic stresses.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Mohammed; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan

    2015-08-01

    For successful birth, contractions need to become progressively stronger. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, however. We have found that a novel mechanism, hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI), is switched on selectively, at term, and is essential to strengthening contractions. HIFI is initiated as contractions cyclically reduce blood flow and produce repeated hypoxic stresses, with associated metabolic and transcriptomic changes. The increases in contractility are a long-lasting, oxytocin-independent, intrinsic mechanism present only in the full-term pregnant uterus. HIFI is inhibited by adenosine receptor antagonism and blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 signaling, and partially reproduced by brief episodes of acidic (but not alkalotic) pH. HIFI explains how labor can progress despite paradoxical metabolic challenge, and provides a new mechanistic target for the 1 in 10 women suffering dysfunctional labor because of poor contractions. PMID:26195731

  1. Family Migration and Labor Force Outcomes: Sex Differences in Occupational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shauman, Kimberlee A.; Noonan, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical analyses of sex differences in the career consequences of family migration have focused on adjudicating between the human capital and the gender-role explanations but have ignored the potential influence of gender inequality in the structure of the labor market. In this paper we estimate conditional difference-in-difference models with…

  2. A Study of the Participation of Women in the Health Care Industry Labor Force. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebowitz, Ann, Ed.

    A study was conducted to explore the relationship between socioeconomic and personal circumstances of women in health occupations and their labor market behavior. Using a conceptual framework (the Life Patterning Process), discussions were held in six states with a total of 279 women representing five health occupations: registered nurses,…

  3. Trends in the Higher Education Labor Force: Identifying Changes in Worker Composition and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education is a labor-intensive industry whose primary service, instruction, is delivered by a lecturer, accompanied by administrative support and various other services. Growing student enrollment necessitates some additional staffing; however, one would think that the recent and ongoing technological boom would have lessened the labor…

  4. The Aftermath of the Bracero: A Study of the Economic Impact on the Agricultural Hired Labor Market of Michigan from the Termination of Public Law 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John Dancer

    To test the "stoop labor" hypotheses that the supply response of domestic migrants to increased wages would be inelastic, this study examined wage adjustment in Michigan agriculture after 1964, supply response to wage changes in the pickle industry, and acreage decline and capital substitution following the termination of the bracero program.…

  5. Caretaking as articulation work: the effects of taking up responsibility for a child with asthma on labor force participation.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Stefan; Freidin, Betina

    2007-10-01

    A well-established quantitative literature has documented the financial toll for women's caretaking. Still, we do not know much about the process by which women end up taking on an extensive caretaking role and what they do on a daily basis. Based on in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of fifty caretakers of school aged children with asthma and nine health professionals in the USA, this study examines how health professionals socialize mothers into an intensive caretaking role for their children with asthma, how mothers negotiated and perform that role, and the impact of care work on their labor force participation. Care providers assign broad caretaking tasks that require further articulation work to get the job done. Although mothers care for their children in varied ways, caring for a child with a chronic disease remains a time-consuming activity. Mothers pay a price for the indeterminate nature of articulation work by scaling back their involvement in the paid labor force. PMID:17590253

  6. [Labor force mobility in an area of periphery: three cases from the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Sansone, L

    1992-03-01

    "This article deals tentatively with the issue of [labor] migration within an area of the periphery, the Caribbean. Over approximately the last century migration within this area has coexisted with emigration towards North America and the former 'mother countries' in Europe. The focus is on three specific cases: Aruba in the Dutch Antilles, Suriname (former Dutch Guyana) and the island of Hispaniola ([Dominican Republic] and Haiti). These three cases bear evidence to a number of developments in legal and illegal migration today." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12285253

  7. Trends in Overtime Hours and Pay, 1969-74. Special Labor Force Report 179.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Diane N.

    Based mainly on Current Population Survey 1969-1974 data, the report examines recent trends of overtime work, the impact of overtime work on earnings, and the current and past composition of the overtime force. In May, 1974 about 16.1 million workers, one out of every five employed persons, reported working more than 40 hours in his/her principal…

  8. Children of Working Mothers, March 1976. Special Labor Force Report 205.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the number of mothers with children under age 17 who were in the work force in 1976. The paper surveys various factors which influence these statistics: age of children, socioeconomic factors, ethnic and racial characteristics, family size, family income and the availability of child care services. The statistics…

  9. Economic and labor market forces matter for worker well-being.

    PubMed

    Tay, Louis; Harter, James K

    2013-07-01

    In light of recent interest in societal subjective well-being, policies that seek to improve the economy and labor markets need to address the question of whether economic factors matter for worker well-being, specifically job satisfaction. In a worldwide representative poll of 136 nations, economic factors are associated with job satisfaction beyond demographic and job factors. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that higher national GDP and job optimism was associated with job satisfaction, whereas higher unemployment was associated with job dissatisfaction. Mediational analyses revealed that economic variables (GDP and job optimism) were partially mediated by job satisfaction in predicting life satisfaction; full mediation was found for unemployment. In a second study, time series regression of monthly data from a nationally representative poll in the United States from 2008 to 2011 revealed that unemployment rate was significantly associated with job dissatisfaction over time. There was some evidence that prior unemployment rates predicted job satisfaction at a higher level than job satisfaction predicted unemployment rates, suggesting that economic factors lead to job (dis)satisfaction rather than the converse. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:23417992

  10. Alaska Native Population and Manpower Perspectives on Native Labor Force Utilization: 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Laurel L.

    As part of a long-term study of the utilization of Alaska Native manpower, new data is combined with that of a similar 1975 study to estimate the Alaska Native and non-Native civilian population and work force for 1978 and 1980. Contrary to 1975 predictions the population ratio of Alaska non-Natives to Natives remains constant at 82%/18%. The…

  11. Driving force analysis of the agricultural water footprint in China based on the LMDI method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfu; Chen, Bin

    2014-11-01

    China's water scarcity problems have become more severe because of the unprecedented economic development and population explosion. Considering agriculture's large share of water consumption, obtaining a clear understanding of Chinese agricultural consumptive water use plays a key role in addressing China's water resource stress and providing appropriate water mitigation policies. We account for the Chinese agricultural water footprint from 1990 to 2009 based on bottom up approach. Then, the underlying driving forces are decomposed into diet structure effect, efficiency effect, economic activity effect, and population effect, and analyzed by applying a log-mean Divisia index (LMDI) model. The results reveal that the Chinese agricultural water footprint has risen from the 94.1 Gm3 in 1990 to 141 Gm3 in 2009. The economic activity effect is the largest positive contributor to promoting the water footprint growth, followed by the population effect and diet structure effect. Although water efficiency improvement as a significant negative effect has reduced overall water footprint, the water footprint decline from water efficiency improvement cannot compensate for the huge increase from the three positive driving factors. The combination of water efficiency improvement and dietary structure adjustment is the most effective approach for controlling the Chinese agricultural water footprint's further growth. PMID:25289879

  12. 76 FR 11286 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... rates were published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 7293, Feb. 18, 2010. The Department has determined... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens...

  13. [Migrants from bordering countries in the labor force of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, 1980-1996].

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1997-04-01

    Data from the 1991 Argentine census indicate that migrants from neighboring countries at that date were maintaining patterns of entry into the labor force of Buenos Aires consistent with past tendencies. Migrants tended to be employed in less skilled manufacturing industries, construction, commerce, and domestic work, often filling positions rejected by the native population because of low wages and poor working conditions. Profound changes in the Argentine economy since 1991 have included rising unemployment and underemployment and a loss of productive jobs in industry and construction. A comparison of the occupational structure of migrants from neighboring countries and of the total population for the years 1980, 1991, and 1996 demonstrates that important changes in sectorial employment have occurred among both the native and immigrant populations, with the immigrant population increasingly relegated to ever smaller sectors of the labor market offering less attractive employment. Nearly half of the 841,697 persons immigrating in 1991 from countries bordering Argentina settled in the Buenos Aires metropolitan region, comprising 42.8% of foreigners in the metropolitan area and 3.7% of the total regional population. Of the population from border countries residing in Buenos Aires, 43% are Paraguayan, 28% Uruguayan, 15% Bolivian, 12% Chilean, and 2% Brazilian. The unemployment rate in Buenos Aires fluctuated between 4% and 6% during 1974-92, but it rose to 10.6% in 1993 and then to 18% in 1996. The underemployment rate rose from 4.6% in 1983 to 8.2% in 1993 and 12.6% in 1996. PMID:12321683

  14. Changes in Labor Force Characteristics of Women in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 185.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Geraldine B.; Charlton, J. L.

    Changes between 1960 and 1966 in the labor force characteristics of women in low-income rural areas of Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee were examined. Within a rural milieu, characterized by low income and high out-migration, the study determined the: (1) scope, social characteristics, and nature of mobility and its effects on…

  15. The Female Labor Force in the United States; Demographic and Economic Factors Concerning Its Growth and Changing Composition. Population Monograph Series, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincade

    The purpose of this study is to explain the changing and increasing participation of females in the American labor force during this century, especially since 1940. Although the pre-1940 changes are smaller and may be attributable to improvements in census enumeration techniques, there has been a significant increase since 1940 in participation…

  16. 76 FR 69146 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... training of the agricultural labor force. The Department intended this document to be submitted as an... proposed rule published October 27, 2011, at 76 FR 66656, is withdrawn. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  17. Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways with Agricultural Climate Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, P.; Müller, C.; Calvin, K. V.; Thomson, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) have formed the basis for much of the current scientific understanding of future climate change impacts and mitigation. However, the emissions scenarios underlying the RCPs were produced by integrated assessment models that did not include impacts of future climate change on the modeled evolution of the agricultural and energy systems. Given the prominent role of bioenergy in greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, and given the importance of land-use-related emissions in determining future atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it is possible that agricultural climate impacts may cause significant changes to the means and costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This study builds on several international modeling exercises aimed at improving understanding of climate change impacts--CMIP-5 and ISI-MIP--that have generated global gridded climate impacts on yields of major agricultural crops in each of the four RCPs. We use the climate outcomes from the HadGEM2-ES climate model, and the agricultural yield outcomes from the LPJmL crop growth model to inform inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model, allowing analysis of how agricultural climate impacts may affect the long-term global and regional strategies for achieving the greenhouse gas concentration pathways of the RCPs. Our results indicate that for this combination of models and emissions scenarios, strongly negative climate impacts on several major commodity classes--prominently cereals and oil seeds, and particularly in the high-radiative-forcing RCPs--lead to a long-term increase in cropland and therefore land-use-related CO2 emissions. All else equal, this increases the emissions mitigation burden on the rest of the system, and therefore increases total net costs of emissions mitigation. However, the future climate change impacts on C4 bioenergy crops tend to be positive, limiting the shock of agricultural climate impacts on the modeled energy supply and

  18. The Emergence of a Service Society: Demographic and Sociological Aspects of the Sectoral Transformation of the Labor Force in the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Harley L.; Singelmann, Joachim

    Sectoral transformation (inter-industry shifts), which is generally analyzed by use of the Fisher-Clark tri-partite division, is examined in this study dealing mainly with the 1960-1970 decade and based on the 1/100 sample of the 1960 and 1970 censuses. (The Fisher-Clark tri-partite division of labor involves a primary sector--agriculture, mining,…

  19. The Impact of Changing Climate on Ammonia Emissions from Agriculture and the Associated Climate Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Riddick, S. N.; Hess, P. G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest anthropogenic source of ammonia (NH3) on a global scale with major contributions from the application of synthetic fertilizer and manure from livestock. While strict controls are placed on the emissions of many industrial pollutants, NH3 concentrations are expected to increase this century. In addition to future expansion of agricultural activities that could lead to greater NH3 emissions, NH3 emissions are affected by changes in temperature and precipitation. Here we use a newly developed agricultural N pathways model running in a global terrestrial model (Community Land Model v4.0) to estimate future NH3 emissions from manure and synthetic fertilizer application, and the impact of changing climate on these emissions and other N pathways (runoff, denitrification, etc.). We include future increases in the application of manure and synthetic fertilizer that are consistent with a middle-of-the-road projection of population growth and per capita caloric intake. Combined with atmospheric forcing that follows RCP8.5, NH3 emissions increase by about 50% and 90% between years 2010 and 2100 from synthetic fertilizer and manure, respectively. Roughly 25% of this increase can be attributed to the changing climate, mainly increased global temperatures over the 21st century. We show associated changes in ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosol concentrations and radiative forcings, the results of a set of additional simulations using the Community Atmosphere Model v5.0 and an offline radiative transfer scheme. This work suggests that projections of global NH3 concentrations need to take changes in climate into account.

  20. The Dilemmas of Modernizing Peasant Agriculture in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, Joseph A.

    In 1965, the Nigerian government charged Nigerian agriculture with the long term developmental task of providing: (1) an adequate and well balanced food supply for the increasing population; (2) agricultural raw materials for domestic industries; (3) agricultural export earnings; (4) employment for the increasing labor force; and (5) capital for…

  1. 77 FR 12723 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States; Final Rule'', 75 FR 6884, 6891-6901, Feb. 12, 2010 (the 2010... FR 77110, Dec. 18, 2008. We stated in the preamble to the 2010 H-2A Final Rule that he FLS is... Administration 20 CFR Part 655 Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in...

  2. 78 FR 15741 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...\\ Maximum Per Diem Rates for the Continental United States (CONUS), 77 FR 54578 (Sept. 5, 2012); see also... Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel... maximum travel subsistence meal reimbursement that a worker with receipts may claim in 2013. The...

  3. How "Rural" Is Agricultural Pluriactivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Jose; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Questions adequacy of agricultural pluriactivity studies, which often are only descriptive in nature. Argues explanatory approaches to pluriactivity must be informed by capitalist restructuring and social change. Analyzes changing modes of economic relations, examining labor force production and social practices. Concludes pluriactivity…

  4. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  5. 77 FR 16157 - Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... regulations at 20 CFR part 655, Subpart A. 76 FR 10038, Feb. 21, 2012. The rule becomes effective April 23...), and Other Technical Changes, 73 FR 78020, Dec. 19, 2008 (the current regulation), must be sent to the... Process for the Temporary Non- Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States;...

  6. 78 FR 69541 - Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States, 75 FR 6884 (Feb. 12, 2010). The effect of... rulemaking (NPRM). 74 FR 45906 (Sept. 4, 2009). After considering comments from the public on the subject... errors and ambiguities. J. Plain Language The Department drafted this rule in plain language....

  7. Driving forces of heavy metal changes in agricultural soils in a typical manufacturing center.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Menglong; Li, Fangbai; Wang, Qi; Chen, Junjian; Yang, Guoyi; Liu, Liming

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in 2002 and 2012 in agricultural soils in Dongguan, a manufacturing center in southern China, were analyzed to determine the impact of rapid economic development on soil pollution. The level of pollution was assessed using the Nemerow synthetic pollution index (NPI), and its changing characteristics and driving forces were analyzed using multivariate statistical and geostatistical methods. The results indicate that the mean NPI was 0.79 in 2002 and 0.84 in 2012, which indicates aggravated heavy metal contamination in the agricultural soils. The concentrations of Cd and Zn increased 54.7 and 20.8 %, respectively, whereas Hg and Pb decreased 35.3 and 24.5 %, respectively. Cr, As, Cu, and Ni remained relatively stable. The Hg and Cd concentrations were highly correlated with soil types (P < 0.01), the secondary industrial output per unit of land (P < 0.01), proportion of cereal fields (P < 0.01), proportion of vegetable fields (P < 0.01), population density (P < 0.05), and road density (P < 0.05). The Pb and As concentrations were greatly influenced by soil types (P < 0.01), river density (P < 0.01), fertilizer rate (P < 0.01), and road density (P < 0.05). Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni concentrations were primarily driven by soil types (P < 0.01), river density (P < 0.01), and fertilizer rate (P < 0.05). PMID:25861902

  8. The American Work Ethic and the Changing Work Force: An Historical Perspective. Contributions in Labor Studies, Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Herbert

    During the colonial period, the ideology of work--the American work ethic--took root. Americans valued work and considered it an obligation to society, to oneself, and to one's family. The key to the agrarian culture was an ethic that recognized the importance of hard, physical labor within a framework of yearly cycles of tasks. The world of the…

  9. Employer Strategies for a Changing Labor Force: A Primer on Innovative Programs and Policies. Research Report 90-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitchik, Adam; And Others

    This guide is for employers to use in planning future human resources strategies. Part 1 focuses on three practical strategies germane to most labor and skill shortage problems. The first chapter reviews challenges employers face. Chapter 2 presents two basic strategies for strengthening entry-level recruitment and staffing: strengthening the…

  10. The Racial Wage Gap: The Importance of Labor Force Attachment Differences across Black, Mexican, and White Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antecol, Heather; Bedard, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Labor market attachment differs significantly across young black, Mexican, and white men. Although it has long been agreed that potential experience is a poor proxy for actual experience for women, many view it as an acceptable approximation for men. Using the NLSY, this paper documents the substantial difference between potential and actual…

  11. Do College Students Make Better Predictions of Their Future Income than Young Adults in the Labor Force?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have considered whether American college students' hold "realistic" wage expectations. The consensus is that they do not--overestimation of future earnings is in the region of 40-50%. But is it just college students who overestimate the success they will have in the labor market, or is this something common to all…

  12. MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOUGLASS, M.R.; AND OTHERS

    CONDITIONS AND PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYMENT OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS AND MIGRANTS IN COLORADO ARE PRESENTED. THE FIVE MAJOR SEASONAL FARM LABOR STATE EMPLOYMENT AREAS ARE SURVEYED ACCORDING TO (1) THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SEASONAL FARM LABOR (4) TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, (5) COMMUNITY ATTITUDES AND…

  13. Labor migration in Asia.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1991-01-01

    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." PMID:12316776

  14. Labor Induction

    MedlinePlus

    ... QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop ... oxytocin? • What are the risks associated with labor induction? • Is labor induction always effective? • Glossary What is ...

  15. Meeting the radiative forcing targets of the representative concentration pathways in a world with agricultural climate impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Page; Müller, Christoph; Calvin, Katherine; Thomson, Allison

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses how climate impacts on agriculture may change the evolution of the agricultural and energy systems in meeting the end-of-century radiative forcing targets of the representative concentration pathways (RCPs). We build on the recently completed Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) exercise that has produced global gridded estimates of future crop yields for major agricultural crops using climate model projections of the RCPs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). For this study we use the bias-corrected outputs of the HadGEM2-ES climate model as inputs to the LPJmL crop growth model, and the outputs of LPJmL to modify inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our results indicate that agricultural climate impacts generally lead to an increase in global cropland, as compared with corresponding emissions scenarios that do not consider climate impacts on agricultural productivity. This is driven mostly by negative impacts on wheat, rice, other grains, and oil crops. Still, including agricultural climate impacts does not significantly increase the costs or change the technological strategies of global, whole-system emissions mitigation. In fact, to meet the most aggressive climate change mitigation target (2.6 W/m2 in 2100), the net mitigation costs are slightly lower when agricultural climate impacts are considered. Key contributing factors to these results are (a) low levels of climate change in the low-forcing scenarios, (b) adaptation to climate impacts simulated in GCAM through inter-regional shifting in the production of agricultural goods, and (c) positive average climate impacts on bioenergy crop yields.

  16. Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways in a World with Agricultural Climate Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, G. Page; Mueller, C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-02-28

    This study assesses how climate impacts on agriculture may change the evolution of the agricultural and energy systems in meeting the end-of-century radiative forcing targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We build on the recently completed ISI-MIP exercise that has produced global gridded estimates of future crop yields for major agricultural crops using climate model projections of the RCPs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). For this study we use the bias-corrected outputs of the HadGEM2-ES climate model as inputs to the LPJmL crop growth model, and the outputs of LPJmL to modify inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our results indicate that agricultural climate impacts generally lead to an increase in global cropland, as compared with corresponding emissions scenarios that do not consider climate impacts on agricultural productivity. This is driven mostly by negative impacts on wheat, rice, other grains, and oil crops. Still, including agricultural climate impacts does not significantly increase the costs or change the technological strategies of global, whole-system emissions mitigation. In fact, to meet the most aggressive climate change mitigation target (2.6 W/m2 in 2100), the net mitigation costs are slightly lower when agricultural climate impacts are considered. Key contributing factors to these results are (a) low levels of climate change in the low-forcing scenarios, (b) adaptation to climate impacts, simulated in GCAM through inter-regional shifting in the production of agricultural goods, and (c) positive average climate impacts on bioenergy crop yields.

  17. 75 FR 38835 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    .... Originator: Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking of the Bureau of International Labor... Child Labor, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking, Room S-5317, 200 Constitution... Labor, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Room S- 5317, 200 Constitution...

  18. Forces Affecting the Improvement and Implementation of International Perspectives in Secondary Level Agricultural Programs in Texas. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 99-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Larry G.

    A study analyzed the forces affecting improvement and implementation of international agricultural perspectives in secondary programs of agricultural science in Texas. A mail survey, based on force-field analysis, was used to determine the effect of 14 variables, including 3 that involved perceptions of the relevance, knowledge, and implementation…

  19. Climate Forcing Datasets for Agricultural Modeling: Merged Products for Gap-Filling and Historical Climate Series Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Goldberg, Richard; Chryssanthacopoulos, James

    2014-01-01

    The AgMERRA and AgCFSR climate forcing datasets provide daily, high-resolution, continuous, meteorological series over the 1980-2010 period designed for applications examining the agricultural impacts of climate variability and climate change. These datasets combine daily resolution data from retrospective analyses (the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, MERRA, and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, CFSR) with in situ and remotely-sensed observational datasets for temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation, leading to substantial reductions in bias in comparison to a network of 2324 agricultural-region stations from the Hadley Integrated Surface Dataset (HadISD). Results compare favorably against the original reanalyses as well as the leading climate forcing datasets (Princeton, WFD, WFD-EI, and GRASP), and AgMERRA distinguishes itself with substantially improved representation of daily precipitation distributions and extreme events owing to its use of the MERRA-Land dataset. These datasets also peg relative humidity to the maximum temperature time of day, allowing for more accurate representation of the diurnal cycle of near-surface moisture in agricultural models. AgMERRA and AgCFSR enable a number of ongoing investigations in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) and related research networks, and may be used to fill gaps in historical observations as well as a basis for the generation of future climate scenarios.

  20. The Farm Worker In A Changing Agriculture. Part I In A Series On Technological Change And Farm Labor Use, Kern County, California, 1961. Research Report No. 277.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, William H.

    To investigate the effect of technological change upon farm labor use, a stratified random sample of 696 farm workers from a population of 12,215 in Kern County, California, provided a basis for analysis. Some major findings were: (1) The high peak of seasonal labor use has been eliminated, (2) The need for migratory labor is decreasing, (3)…

  1. A tale of two contexts: U.S. migration and the labor force trajectories of Mexican women1

    PubMed Central

    Flippen, Chenoa A.; Parrado, Emilio A.

    2015-01-01

    Even though women have long participated in Mexico-U.S. migration studies assessing the labor market implications of international mobility for women are rare. Especially lacking are studies that follow a life-course approach and compare employment trajectories across contexts and in connection with other transitions. Using life-history data collected in Mexico and the United States, we explore the impact of migration on women’s employment, focusing on how the determinants of employment vary across contexts. We show that U.S. residence eliminates or even reverses the employment returns to education found in Mexico, and that the constraints imposed on women’s work by marriage are actually stronger in the U.S. context. We also explicitly connect migration to other life-course events, documenting how the impact of context varies not only by marital status but also by where women’s unions were formed. PMID:26843706

  2. [Consensual and conflictual early retirement--flexible transition to retirement within the context of different labor force strategies].

    PubMed

    Teipen, C; Zierep, E

    1996-01-01

    20 case studies were carried out in different firms in East and West Germany to analyze the process of decision-making in early retirement. The results show the embeddedness of decision making into the respective labour force strategies of the firms. In companies with "internal labour force strategies" there is a consensus-oriented process of decision-making based on negotiations of the participants. In companies that mainly employ skilled workers, however, the process of decision-making is rather conflict-oriented. So, there is evidence that companies' policies on early retirement are two-edged. The consequences of these findings are discussed. PMID:9026339

  3. 29 CFR 500.71 - Utilization of only registered farm labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General... utilizing the services of a farm labor contractor to supply migrant or seasonal agricultural workers...

  4. 29 CFR 500.71 - Utilization of only registered farm labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General... utilizing the services of a farm labor contractor to supply migrant or seasonal agricultural workers...

  5. Prevalence and Predictors of Hypertension in the Labor Force Population in China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Xu, De Min; Li, Xue Feng; Goan, Daniel; Yang, De Min; Li, Jun Mei; Wang, Xia; Huang, Yu Lian; Chen, Yuan Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of hypertension and identify its contributory factors in the labor force population in Karamay. A total of 2819 adults (55.9% male adults) were interviewed and examined. The overall crude prevalence of hypertension was 32.4%. Among 914 hypertensive patients, 34.8% were aware of their diagnosis, 22.1% received treatment, and 5.6% achieved blood pressure control. Hypertension was significantly correlated with age, overweight/obesity, central obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in both men and women. In addition, less education, alcohol consumption, and less walking were risk factors for men. Effective hypertension prevention and control programs are urgently needed to decrease the burden of hypertension in this region. PMID:27241740

  6. Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  7. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.578 Financial management of labor...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577 Section 3560.577 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.577 Tenant priorities for labor housing....

  9. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.578 Financial management of labor...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577 Section 3560.577 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.577 Tenant priorities for labor housing....

  11. GCM Hindcasts for SST Forced Climate Variability over Agriculturally Intensive Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Shah, Kathryn P.; Chandler, Mark A.; Rind, David

    1998-01-01

    The ability to forecast seasonal climate is of great practical interest. One of the most obvious benefits would be agriculture, for which various preparations (planting, machinery, irrigation, manpower) would be enabled. The expectation of being able to make such forecasts far enough in advance (on the order of 9 months) hinges on components of the system with the longest persistence or predictability. The mixed results of El Nino forecasts has raised the hope that tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST) fall into this category. For agriculturally-relevant forecasts to be made, and utilized, requires several conditions. The SST in the regions that affect agricultural areas must be forecast successfully, many months in advance. The climate response to such sea surface temperatures must then be ascertained, either through the use of historical empirical studies or models (e.g., GCMS). For practical applications, the agricultural production must be strongly influenced by climate, and farmers on either the local level or through commercial concerns must be able to adjust to using such forecasts. In a continuing series of papers, we will explore each of these components. This article concerns the question of utilizing SST to forecast the climate in several regions of agricultural production. We optimize the possibility of doing so successfully by using observed SST in a hindcast mode (i.e., a perfect forecast), and we also use the globally observed values (rather than just those from the tropical Pacific, for which predictability has been shown). This then is the ideal situation; in subsequent papers we will explore degrading the results by using only tropical Pacific SSTs, and then using only

  12. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. PMID:12293737

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IN OHIO, A DIGEST OF A PH.D. DISSERTATION. RESEARCH SERIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BENDER, RALPH E.; HALTERMAN, JERRY J.

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP CURRICULUMS NEEDED IN TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IN OHIO. A QUESTIONNAIRE TO INVENTORY THE LABOR FORCE WAS ADMINISTERED TO INDIVIDUALS, FIRMS, BUSINESSES, AND AGENCIES EMPLOYING PERSONS IN AREAS REQUIRING AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND FARM MECHANICS. ANOTHER TO COLLECT INFORMATION…

  14. THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE OF 1966, A STATISTICAL REPORT. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REPORT NO. 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    INFORMATION ON THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE, AND ON THE EMPLOYMENT AND CASH EARNINGS FROM FARM AND NONFARM WAGE WORK FOR 1966 IS PRESENTED. THE DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM THE ANNUAL SURVEY CONDUCTED FOR THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE BY THE BUREAU OF CENSUS. THE SAMPLE INCLUDED APPROXIMATELY 35,000 HOUSEHOLDS INTERVIEWED…

  15. The Hired Farm Working Force of 1983: A Statistical Profile. Agricultural Economic Report No. 554.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Susan L.

    In 1983, about 2.6 million people 14 years of age and older did hired farmwork. Most of the woekers were White (73%), under 25 years old (50%), and male (78%). Hispanics made up 13% of the work force, and Blacks and other minority groups made up 14%. There were significant regional differences in racial/ethnic composition. Hispanic workers were…

  16. Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance Act. Joint Hearings on S. 538 to Implement the Recommendations of the Secretary of Labor's Task Force on Economic Adjustment and Worker Dislocation, and for Other Purposes, before the Subcommittee on Labor and the Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One-Hundredth Congress, First Session (March 10 and 26, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This congressional report on Senate Bill 538 contains the testimony that was given at joint hearings to debate the passage of the Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance Act. This act, which is based primarily on the recommendations of U.S. Secretary of Labor Brock's blue ribbon task force: (1) creates displaced worker units at the…

  17. Should the Federal Government Implement a Program Which Guarantees Employment Opportunities for All U.S. Citizens in the Labor Force? Inter-Collegiate Debate Topic, 1978-1979, Pursuant to Public Law 88-246.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Dennis M.

    This is a compilation of selected articles and a bibliography on the 1978-79 intercollegiate debate proposition: Resolved, that the Federal Government should implement a program which guarantees employment opportunities for all U.S. citizens in the labor force. The introduction briefly reviews the United States post-World War II history of…

  18. Nevada Works: Building Bridges for Success. A Statewide Conference To Evaluate and Plan for Current and Future Labor Force Preparation in Nevada. Proceedings of the Governor's Conference on Employment and Training (Reno, Nevada, November 2, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    These proceedings begin with a general summary of a conference to encourage collaboration among those involved to prepare a labor force with which Nevada could continue to be economically competitive. Highlights are provided of these presentations: "Opening Remarks" (Jessie Emmett); "The Dynamic West: A Region in Transition" (Daniel Sprague);…

  19. Preterm Labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies ... you might be having preterm labor, contact your health care provider. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human ...

  20. Measurement of Ambient Ammonia and Surface-level Meteorological Forcing Variables near an Agricultural Emission Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, L.; Heuer, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is a reduced form of reactive nitrogen that is primarily emitted from agricultural activities. NH3 volatilizes from animal waste and fertilized land directly into the atmosphere where it can either react with other gases to form fine particulate matter or deposit on surfaces through air-surface exchange processes. Field measurements in different ecosystems and under various conditions are necessary to improve the understanding of the complex relationships between ambient NH3 and meteorological parameters, such as temperature and relative humidity, which influence volatilization rates and ultimately, ambient concentrations near emission sources. However, the measurement of ambient NH3 is challenging. NH3 is hydroscopic and reactive, and measurement techniques are subject to errors caused by sampling artifacts and other interferences. Recent advancements have led to improved techniques that allow real-time measurement of ambient NH3. A cavity ring-down spectrometer was deployed at a cattle research facility in Knoxville, TN during spring 2012 to measure ambient NH3, and meteorological instrumentation was collocated to measure 3-D winds, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and other parameters (z = 2 m). The study site was rolling pasture typical of the eastern Tennessee Valley and included two large barns and approximately 30-40 cattle. Daytime ambient NH3 averaged 15-20 ppb most days with lows of approximately 7 ppb at night. Higher concentrations (greater than 50 ppb) seemed to correlate with higher temperatures (greater than 27 C), although the data are not consistent. Several instances of 100 ppb concentrations were measured when temperatures were high and winds were from the direction of the barns. Overall, the study shows that ambient NH3 levels near agricultural emission sources may vary greatly with time and a variety of factors, including meteorological conditions. The data support the need for real-time measurements of NH

  1. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  2. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  3. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  4. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  5. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  6. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  7. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  8. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  9. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  10. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  11. Youth in Force in the Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Dottie L.; Walsh, Gene

    Five Alaskan communities, Ketchikan, Palmer, McGrath, Dillingham, and Kotzebue, were selected as demonstration sites for the Balance of State (BOS) Youth Employment Training Program (YETP), which addressed in-school and out-of-school youth through assessment, career guidance, work-study, and out-of-school programs. An analysis of need showed that…

  12. 76 FR 70639 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... farmworkers by improving the supply, stability, safety, and training of the agricultural labor force. The..., at 76 FR 69114, is November 15, 2011, and is applicable beginning November 8, 2011. Comments on the....chavez@osec.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Need for Correction On November 8, 2011 (76 FR...

  13. Native Americans and Wage Labor: Ethnohistorical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Alice, Ed.; Knack, Martha C., Ed.

    This book reconsiders a largely ignored fact of North American Indian economic life--the place of wage labor in the culture and history of Native Americans. Case studies examine social networks of Native agricultural laborers, the decline of Native communities from self-sufficient producers to lower-class wage laborers, vocational education in…

  14. State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a summary, by state jurisdiction, of labor legislation during 1985. Legislation covered such topics as wages, equal employment opportunity, background clearance, occupational safety and health, employment and training, child labor, industrial homework, hours, agriculture, labor relations, plant closings, worker privacy, private employment…

  15. The Engineering Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryoo, Jaewoo; Rosen, Sherwin

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic supply and demand model of occupational choice and applies it to the engineering profession. The model is largely successful in understanding data in the U.S. engineering labor market. The engineering market responds strongly to economic forces. The demand for engineers responds to the price of engineering services…

  16. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577 Section 3560.577 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577 Section 3560.577 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  18. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577 Section 3560.577 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  1. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor...

  2. A Hard Look at USDA's Rural Development Programs. The Report of the Rural Revitalization Task Force to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture Graduate School, Washington, DC.

    This report addresses current economic conditions in rural America and offers recommendations about the role the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) can play in providing rural development. The Task Force identifies issues for rural policy in the 1990's focusing on economic development. Current rural programs are described and…

  3. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...

  4. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...

  5. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...

  6. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...

  7. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...

  8. Motherhood, Labor Force Behavior, and Women’s Careers: An Empirical Assessment of the Wage Penalty for Motherhood in Britain, Germany, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    GANGL, MARKUS; ZIEFLE, ANDREA

    2009-01-01

    Using harmonized longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we trace career prospects after motherhood for five cohorts of American, British, and West German women around the 1960s. We establish wage penalties for motherhood between 9% and 18% per child, with wage losses among American and British mothers being lower than those experienced by mothers in Germany. Labor market mechanisms generating the observed wage penalty for motherhood differ markedly across countries, however. For British and American women, work interruptions and subsequent mobility into mother-friendly jobs fully account for mothers’ wage losses. In contrast, respective penalties are considerably smaller in Germany, yet we observe a substantial residual wage penalty that is unaccounted for by mothers’ observable labor market behavior. We interpret this finding as indicating a comparatively more pronounced role for statistical discrimination against mothers in the German labor market. PMID:21305397

  9. 76 FR 54835 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ...The Department of Labor (Department or DOL) is proposing to revise the child labor regulations issued pursuant to the Fair Labor Standards Act, which set forth the criteria for the permissible employment of minors under 18 years of age in agricultural and nonagricultural occupations. The proposal would implement specific recommendations made by the National Institute for Occupational Safety......

  10. Women's labour force participation and socioeconomic development: the case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, C; Aghajanian, A

    1980-03-01

    Changes in labor force participation of Malay, Chinese and Indian women in the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in Peninsular Malaysia, based on the 1957 and 1970 censuses, are analyzed. Brief discussions of the relation between economic development and female labor force participation, the socioeconomic development and ethnic composition of Malaysia, and past research on women's labor force participation in Peninsular Malaysia provide background for the analysis. The overall participation rate of women aged 15 to 64 rose from 31% in 1957 to 37% in 1970, with most of the increase among younger women. Participation rates rose for Malay women at all ages, dropped sharply for Indian women at all ages, and rose for Chinese women below age 40 but declined thereafter. Trends in Chinese female labor force activity seem to fit the developmental model most closely; Malay employment in agriculture among middle-aged women probably appeared to increase due to underestimation in the 1957 census; and Indian participation declined due to a sharp curtailment of the entire plantation labor force. Cross sectional analysis using the 1970 2% census sample demonstrates that rural residence, low educational level, and married status are associated with employment in the traditional and modern agricultural sectors. Higher educational attainment, urban residence, and delayed marriage are associated with employment in the modern non-agricultural sector. Chinese women had higher proportions in the modern sector. PMID:12336488

  11. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.579 Servicing off-farm labor housing....

  12. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.579 Servicing off-farm labor housing....

  13. Race, Labor Repression, and Capitalist Agriculture: Notes from South Texas, 1920-1930. Institute for the Study of Social Change Working Papers Series #102.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montejano, David

    Racism and racial exploitation, rather than disappearing with the march of capitalist development, appear instead as its intimate companions. The racial experience of the Mexican in South Texas was shaped by the rapid development of agriculture there in the early part of the century, between 1900-1910 and 1920-1930. The agrarian land revolution…

  14. The Impact of Federal Commodity Donations on the School Lunch Program. Department of Agriculture. Report to the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Department of Agriculture's program for purchasing and distributing commodities for the school lunch program was reviewed in 15 school districts, one very large, one medium sized, and one small school district in each of five states--California, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The objectives of the review were to (1) assess the…

  15. The Labor Shortage--Poverty and Educational Aspects. Hearings on Examining Alternatives Available in Coping with a Projected Labor Shortage in the Future while Facing a Poverty Surplus and Educational Gaps in the Work Force before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, First Session (January 26 and 27, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document comprises hearings on the poverty and educational aspects of the labor shortage. Twenty witnesses testified, including Secretary of the U.S. Department of Labor Elizabeth Dole, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education Lauro F. Cavazos, legislators, program administrators, and three working mothers. Testimony included the…

  16. 29 CFR 570.71 - Occupations involved in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupations involved in agriculture. 570.71 Section 570.71 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION 1-Occupations in Agriculture Particularly Hazardous for the Employment...

  17. Economic Adjustment and Worker Dislocation in a Competitive Society. Report of the Secretary of Labor's Task Force on Economic Adjustment and Worker Dislocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), between 1981 and 1986 approximately 10.8 million persons lost jobs in a manner suggesting that the job losses would be permanent. Experienced workers with three or more years of tenure made up about 5.1 million of the total number of individuals whom BLS reports have termed "displaced workers."…

  18. 76 FR 48902 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... for the Elimination of Child Labor. 3. Originator: Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human... outspoken advocate against child slavery. He told the world of his plight when he received the Reebok Human... Child Labor, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking, Room S-5317, 200...

  19. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  20. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  1. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  2. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  3. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  4. Staff Report on the Guaranteed Student Loan Program, Belmont Task Force Recommendations. Prepared for the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Recommendations of the Belmont Task Force concerning the problem of student loan defaults are offered to the U.S. House of Representatives. The task force concludes that the purpose of the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program has changed significantly in the last decade. While originally established as a loan of convenience for middle-income…

  5. The Effects of Technological Change on the Labor Force. Hearing Summary. Report prepared for the Technology Policy Task Force Transmitted to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science, Space and Technology.

    This report summarizes a hearing to examine the factors contributing to pressures on United States workers and to suggest government, industry, and labor policies. Section I is an introduction. Section II identifies the panelists: Director, Conservation of Human Resources, Columbia University; President, United Steel Workers of America; Senior…

  6. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  7. 29 CFR 500.8 - Prohibition on interference with Department of Labor officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition on interference with Department of Labor officials. 500.8 Section 500.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions §...

  8. 29 CFR 500.231 - Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor. 500.231 Section 500.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Administrative...

  9. 29 CFR 500.8 - Prohibition on interference with Department of Labor officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on interference with Department of Labor officials. 500.8 Section 500.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions §...

  10. 29 CFR 500.231 - Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor. 500.231 Section 500.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Administrative...

  11. Exploring Agricultural Livelihood Transitions with an Agent-Based Virtual Laboratory: Global Forces to Local Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Ellis, Erle C.

    2013-01-01

    Rural populations are undergoing rapid changes in both their livelihoods and land uses, with associated impacts on ecosystems, global biogeochemistry, and climate change. A primary challenge is, thus, to explain these shifts in terms of the actors and processes operating within a variety of land systems in order to understand how land users might respond locally to future changes in broader-scale environmental and economic conditions. Using ‘induced intensification’ theory as a benchmark, we develop a generalized agent-based model to investigate mechanistic explanations of relationships between agricultural intensity and population density, environmental suitability, and market influence. Land-use and livelihood decisions modeled from basic micro-economic theories generated spatial and temporal patterns of agricultural intensification consistent with predictions of induced intensification theory. Further, agent actions in response to conditions beyond those described by induced intensification theory were explored, revealing that interactions among environmental constraints, population pressure, and market influence may produce transitions to multiple livelihood regimes of varying market integration. The result is new hypotheses that could modify and enrich understanding of the classic relationship between agricultural intensity and population density. The strength of this agent-based model and the experimental results is the generalized form of the decision-making processes underlying land-use and livelihood transitions, creating the prospect of a virtual laboratory for systematically generating hypotheses of how agent decisions and interactions relate to observed land-use and livelihood patterns across diverse land systems. PMID:24039892

  12. Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Workers, 1972: S. 3762 -- To Extend the Program for Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Migrant Workers. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 2d Session, August 1, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    On August 1, 1972, the Subcommittee heard testimony on bill S. 3762 which would extend the program for health services for domestic agricultural migrant workers. The bill would extend the migrant health program for 5 years, with $100 million authorized for fiscal year 1973 and a $25 million increase for each of the following years. S. 3762…

  13. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 CFR 516.33, the employer who actually pays the employees will be considered primarily responsible... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  14. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 CFR 516.33, the employer who actually pays the employees will be considered primarily responsible... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  15. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 CFR 516.33, the employer who actually pays the employees will be considered primarily responsible... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  16. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 CFR 516.33, the employer who actually pays the employees will be considered primarily responsible... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  17. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 CFR 516.33, the employer who actually pays the employees will be considered primarily responsible... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  19. California's Agribusiness and the Farm Labor Question: The Transition from Asian to Mexican Labor, 1919-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joon K.

    2012-01-01

    During the interwar period, California's labor-intensive agriculture transitioned from reliance on diverse immigrants to preference for Mexicans. Political movements to restrict immigration, the Great Depression, and labor unrest compelled farm employers to search for labor that could be used flexibly and deported easily. To achieve this…

  20. Handbook of Labor Statistics. Bulletin 2175.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springsteen, Rosalind, Comp.; Epstein, Rosalie, Comp.

    This publication makes available in one volume the major series produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Technical notes preceding each major section contain information on data changes and explain the services. Forty-four tables derived from the Current Population Survey (CPS) provide statistics on labor force and employment status,…

  1. 77 FR 59417 - Notice of Publication of 2012 Update to the Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Director, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau... labor in violation of international standards.'' ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) carries out this mandate. The primary purposes of the List are to raise public...

  2. 75 FR 78754 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Notice of Publication of 2010 Update to the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department... of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) carries out the mandates of section 105(b... Countries Pursuant to the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (72 FR 55808, Oct....

  3. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  4. The Labor Market Problems of Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roner, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    This study concludes that older workers do not have especially high unemployment rates, but when they become unemployed, they are less likely to find a job and more likely to leave the labor force in discouragement. (Author/SSH)

  5. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.555 - Eligibility requirements for off-farm labor housing loans and grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for off-farm labor housing loans and grants. 3560.555 Section 3560.555 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. 3560.618 Section 3560.618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568...

  11. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. 3560.618 Section 3560.618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  13. 7 CFR 3560.555 - Eligibility requirements for off-farm labor housing loans and grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for off-farm labor housing loans and grants. 3560.555 Section 3560.555 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  14. 29 CFR 500.127 - Limitations on cancellation of insurance or liability bond of registered farm labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural...

  15. 29 CFR 500.127 - Limitations on cancellation of insurance or liability bond of registered farm labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural...

  16. Migraine headache and labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rees, Daniel I; Sabia, Joseph J

    2015-06-01

    While migraine headache can be physically debilitating, no study has attempted to estimate its effects on labor market outcomes. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the effect of being diagnosed with migraine headache on labor force participation, hours worked, and wages. Ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates suggest that migraines are associated with reduced labor force participation and lower wages among females. A negative association between migraine headache and the wages of female respondents is also obtained using an instrumental variables (IV) approach, although the IV estimates are imprecise relative to the OLS estimates. PMID:24711105

  17. Hispanics in the Labor Market: 1980-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    This paper gives a brief statistical survey of the demographics of Hispanic labor force participation in the years 1980-1985. The progress of Hispanics in the labor market is hindered by their low levels of education, and they have lower economic returns on their education than whites do. Hispanic males were found to have the highest labor force…

  18. REPORT OF THE JOINT LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE ON MIGRANT LABOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislature, Albany.

    RESULTS OF THE COMMITTEE'S STUDY AND OBSERVATION OF THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF LABOR FORCE IMPORTATION FOR PLANTING, HARVESTING, AND PROCESSING OF FIELD AND ORCHARD CROPS IN NEW YORK STATE ARE REPORTED. MAJOR SECTIONS INCLUDE--(1) TRENDS IN FARM LABOR FOR 1963, (2) PUBLIC HEALTH, (3) SOCIAL WELFARE, (4) LABOR CAMP HOUSING AND SANITATION,…

  19. 29 CFR 500.226 - Service upon attorneys for the Department of Labor-number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Service upon attorneys for the Department of Labor-number of copies. 500.226 Section 500.226 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER...

  20. 29 CFR 500.226 - Service upon attorneys for the Department of Labor-number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service upon attorneys for the Department of Labor-number of copies. 500.226 Section 500.226 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER...

  1. 29 CFR 500.4 - Effect of prior judgments and final orders obtained under the Farm Labor Contractor Registration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of prior judgments and final orders obtained under the Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act. 500.4 Section 500.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL...

  2. 29 CFR 500.4 - Effect of prior judgments and final orders obtained under the Farm Labor Contractor Registration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of prior judgments and final orders obtained under the Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act. 500.4 Section 500.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. The management plan for...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. The management plan for...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. The management plan for...

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or indentured... Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor, identified by their country of origin. There is a..., produced, or manufactured by forced or indentured child labor. Listed End Product Listed Countries...

  7. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or indentured... Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor, identified by their country of origin. There is a..., produced, or manufactured by forced or indentured child labor. Listed End Product Listed Countries...

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-19 - Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manufacture or importation of products mined, produced, or manufactured by forced or indentured child labor, authorized officials may need to conduct investigations to determine whether forced or indentured child labor... of forced or indentured child labor for listed end products. (2) The Contractor has failed...

  9. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or indentured... Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor, identified by their country of origin. There is a..., produced, or manufactured by forced or indentured child labor. Listed End Product Listed Countries...

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or indentured... Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor, identified by their country of origin. There is a..., produced, or manufactured by forced or indentured child labor. Listed End Product Listed Countries...

  11. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  12. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  13. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  14. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  15. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  16. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry...

  17. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  18. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  19. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  20. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry...

  1. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry...

  2. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  3. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  4. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry...

  5. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry...

  6. 29 CFR 500.71 - Utilization of only registered farm labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Utilization of only registered farm labor contractors. 500... § 500.71 Utilization of only registered farm labor contractors. The Act prohibits any person from utilizing the services of a farm labor contractor to supply migrant or seasonal agricultural workers...

  7. 29 CFR 500.71 - Utilization of only registered farm labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Utilization of only registered farm labor contractors. 500... § 500.71 Utilization of only registered farm labor contractors. The Act prohibits any person from utilizing the services of a farm labor contractor to supply migrant or seasonal agricultural workers...

  8. 29 CFR 500.71 - Utilization of only registered farm labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Utilization of only registered farm labor contractors. 500... § 500.71 Utilization of only registered farm labor contractors. The Act prohibits any person from utilizing the services of a farm labor contractor to supply migrant or seasonal agricultural workers...

  9. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  15. What the '90s Labor Shortage Will Mean to You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Samuel L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a number of forces that will determine the labor supply and demand in the United States in the 1990s: growth in the economy, automation, national policy, immigration policies, changing family, and technical advances. Examines steps a company can take in relation to these forces and makes suggestions concerning future labor needs. (CT)

  16. Imported Talent: Foreign Immigration and the New England Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Trubs'kyy, Mykhaylo; Fogg, Neeta P.

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of foreign immigration on population and labor force growth during the 1990s varied widely across U.S. geographic regions, divisions and states. New England was far more dependent than nearly all other regions on the new wave of foreign immigrants to achieve its population growth and labor force growth during the past decade. In fact,…

  17. Energy use in agriculture and the articulation of modes of production in Zimbabwe

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, D.

    1986-01-01

    The political economy of energy utilization in Zimbabwe's agricultural sector is analyzed. The geography of agricultural energy use is assessed by tracing the articulation of modes of production through time. It is argued that in the production process, labor mediates between humans and the environment. The level of development of the productive forces indicates the intensity that labor applies energy to a given space. Production relations influence the rate and direction of energy flows. Hence, energy is a fundamental component of a mode of production. The linkage between energy use in farming and the articulation of modes of production is made through the conceptualization of distinct agricultural production systems consisting of social relations and productive forces, the relationship to the state, and access to natural resources. After independence came changes in state-peasant relations and industrialization of African production in high potential reserves. Changing social relations on settler farms has caused a rapid displacement of labor by capital at a time when national job creation is dangerously low. In the absence of significant land transfers, a contradictory distribution of agricultural energy resources will continue. New forms of uneven agricultural development are emerging.

  18. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568 Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. For...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568 Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. For...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568 Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. For...

  1. New England's Vital Resource: The Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, John C., Ed.; Bernstein, Melvin H., Ed.

    A collection of analyses and projections is presented that explores the challenges posed by a rapidly evolving economy and the critical issue of manpower policy facing New England and the nation. New England was able to move from traditional industry to high technology because its colleges and universities supplied basic research and trained…

  2. Am I in labor?

    MedlinePlus

    ... into labor. Nesting : There's no science behind the theory, but plenty of women feel the sudden urge to "nest" right before labor starts. If you feel the need to vacuum the entire house at 3 a. ...

  3. Labor Education in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth D.

    1971-01-01

    Labor education reflects the pragmaticism of American culture and supports the system. It emphasizes leadership training, loyalty building, and political education. The control of labor education is centralized in union headquarters. (VW)

  4. Tips for labor coaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... some tips for getting prepared. Before the big day arrives Labor coaches should go to childbirth classes ... get through her labor and delivery. When the day arrives You might be at the hospital for ...

  5. Department of Labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diplomacy & Engagement Back to Diplomacy & Engagement Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) G20 Labor and Employment Ministers' Meeting International Labor Organization International Visitors Program Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Organization of American States ( ...

  6. Tips for labor coaches

    MedlinePlus

    You have a big job as the labor coach. You are the main person who will: Help the mother as labor begins at ... how to comfort and support her when the big day arrives. Get to know the hospital. Take ...

  7. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preterm Labor and Birth: Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... links Share this: Page Content What is preterm labor and birth? In general, a normal human pregnancy ...

  8. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preterm Labor and Birth: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... start of the last menstrual period to childbirth. Labor that begins before 37 weeks is called preterm ...

  9. 76 FR 61115 - Notice of Publication of 2011 Update to The Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor at (202.../programs/ocft/tvpra.htm . ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) carries... for Information (72 FR 73374, Dec. 27, 2007); Notice of Public Hearing To Collect Information...

  10. Expansion of agricultural oasis in the Heihe River Basin of China: Patterns, reasons and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin in the arid region of northwestern China. An agricultural oasis is a typical landscape in arid regions providing precious fertile soil, living space and ecological services. The agricultural oasis change has been one of the key issues in sustainable development in recent decades. In this paper, we examined the changes in the agricultural oasis in HRB and analyzed the socio-economic and climatic driving forces behind them. It was found that the agricultural oasis in HRB expanded by 25.11% and 14.82% during the periods of 1986-2000 and 2000-2011, respectively. Most of the newly added agricultural oases in HRB were converted from grassland (40.94%) and unused land (40.22%). The expansion in the agricultural oasis mainly occurred in the middle reaches of HRB, particularly in the counties of Shandan, Minle, Jinta and Jiuquan city. Changes in the rural labor force, annual temperature and precipitation have significant positive effects on agricultural oasis changes, while the ratio of irrigated agricultural oases has significant negative effects on agricultural oasis changes. The agricultural oasis expansion in HRB is the combined effect of human activity and climate change.

  11. 29 CFR 780.510 - “Any agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âAny agricultural employee.â 780.510 Section 780.510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  12. 29 CFR 780.510 - “Any agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âAny agricultural employee.â 780.510 Section 780.510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  13. 29 CFR 780.510 - “Any agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âAny agricultural employee.â 780.510 Section 780.510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  14. 29 CFR 780.510 - “Any agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âAny agricultural employee.â 780.510 Section 780.510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  15. 29 CFR 780.510 - “Any agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âAny agricultural employee.â 780.510 Section 780.510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  16. Merchange of Labor. The Mexican Bracero Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galarza, Ernesto

    The subject of this study is the more or less seasonal influx of Mexican (bracero) laborers to work in agriculture in California between 1942 and 1960. The migration began as a joint effort between the governments of Mexico and the United States to ease the manpower shortage created by World War II. Dire needs of these migrants, and their…

  17. 29 CFR 780.408 - Facilities of system at least 90 percent of which was used for agricultural purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for agricultural purposes. 780.408 Section 780.408 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That...

  18. 29 CFR 780.408 - Facilities of system at least 90 percent of which was used for agricultural purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for agricultural purposes. 780.408 Section 780.408 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That...

  19. Teaching about Child Labor and International Human Rights. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamot, Gregory E.; Jensen, Elizabeth S.

    An estimated 246 million children between the ages of 5 and 17 work in the agricultural, industrial, and craft sectors worldwide. Approximately 180 million of these children work under the worst forms of child labor as defined by the International Labor Organization (2002). In spite of conventions and protocols designed to eradicate the worst…

  20. The Impact of Preretirement Labor Market Experiences on Postretirement Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Nan L.

    A study was conducted to determine labor market factors influencing one's psychological well being and economic security after retirement. Research was found that supported the hypotheses that a worker's employment, earnings, and industry in the labor force greatly affect a retiree's financial position; the reason for labor force withdrawal…

  1. REPORT OF THE SENATE FACT FINDING COMMITTEE ON LABOR AND WELFARE, CALIFORNIA'S FARM LABOR PROBLEMS, PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COBEY, JAMES A.; AND OTHERS

    CALIFORNIA FARM LABOR PROBLEMS INCLUDE LIMITED WORK OPPORTUNITY, LOW EARNINGS, LITTLE ECONOMIC SECURITY, POOR HEALTH, HOUSING, AND EDUCATION, AND UNSAFE WORKING CONDITIONS. REPRESENTATIVES OF ORGANIZED LABOR RECOMMEND ESTABLISHING A STATE MINIMUM WAGE LAW TO COVER ALL EMPLOYEES, INCLUDING AGRICULTURAL WORKERS, AND ALSO EXTENDING FEDERAL STATUS TO…

  2. 29 CFR 570.71 - Occupations involved in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupations involved in agriculture. 570.71 Section 570.71... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION 1-Occupations in Agriculture... agriculture. (a) Findings and declarations of fact as to specific occupations. The following occupations...

  3. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  4. 29 CFR 570.71 - Occupations involved in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupations involved in agriculture. 570.71 Section 570.71... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION 1-Occupations in Agriculture... agriculture. (a) Findings and declarations of fact as to specific occupations. The following occupations...

  5. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  6. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  7. 29 CFR 570.71 - Occupations involved in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupations involved in agriculture. 570.71 Section 570.71... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION 1-Occupations in Agriculture... agriculture. (a) Findings and declarations of fact as to specific occupations. The following occupations...

  8. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  9. 29 CFR 570.71 - Occupations involved in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupations involved in agriculture. 570.71 Section 570.71... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION 1-Occupations in Agriculture... agriculture. (a) Findings and declarations of fact as to specific occupations. The following occupations...

  10. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  11. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gutierrez, S; Borondo, J; Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Tarquis, A M; Benito, R M

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country. PMID:27368795

  12. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Gutierrez, S.; Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  13. 29 CFR 500.61 - Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker protections and all other statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker... Employees § 500.61 Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker protections and all other...

  14. 29 CFR 500.61 - Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker protections and all other statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker... Employees § 500.61 Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker protections and all other...

  15. Industrial labor relations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Industrial Labor Relations Manual provides internal guidelines and procedures to assist NASA Field Installations in dealing with contractor labor management disputes, Service Contract Act variance hearings, and to provide access of Labor Union Representatives to NASA for the purpose of maintaining schedules and goals in connection with vital NASA programs. This manual will be revised by page changes as revisions become necessary. Initial distribution of this manual has been made to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.

  16. Induction of labor.

    PubMed

    2000-06-01

    The goal of induction of labor is to achieve vaginal delivery by stimulating uterine contractions before the spontaneous onset of labor. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, the overall rate of induction of labor in the United States has increased from 90 per 1,000 live births in 1989 to 184 per 1,000 live births in 1997 (I). Generally, induction of labor has merit as a therapeutic option when the benefits of expeditious delivery outweigh the risks of continuing the pregnancy. The benefits of labor induction must be weighed against the potential maternal or fetal risks associated with this procedure. The purpose of this bulletin is to review current methods for cervical ripening and induction of labor and to summarize the effectiveness of these approaches based on appropriately conducted outcomes-based research. These practice guidelines classify the indications for and contraindications to induction of labor, describe the various agents used for cervical ripening, cite methods used to induce labor, and outline the requirements for the safe clinical use of the various methods of inducing labor. PMID:10979741

  17. Child labor: a forgotten focus for child welfare.

    PubMed

    Otis, J; Pasztor, E M; McFadden, E J

    2001-01-01

    Child labor is driven by child and family impoverishment, market forces, and political apathy concerning the rights of the child. Although a fundamental concern of the early 20th century child welfare system, today child labor is often seen as outside the scope of child welfare and child protective services. Making child labor a focus of child advocacy activity once again could do much to better the lives of children. PMID:11678418

  18. Mexican Labor in California's Economy: From Rapid Growth to Likely Stability. RAND Reprints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges

    Over the past 20 years, California has experienced a continuous, growing flow of Mexican immigrant laborers. Although Mexican labor was originally linked to agriculture, by 1980 Mexican-born labor was filling a substantial proportion of jobs in all sectors of the California economy, particularly in manufacturing. Because they are concentrated in…

  19. 20 CFR 655.210 - Failure of employers to comply with the terms of a temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.210... employer has not lived up to the terms of the temporary labor certification, the OFLC Administrator...

  20. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... engineering, construction engineering, right-of-way, and force account construction. (2) Salaries and expenses... for the benefit of its employees. The cost of labor surcharges will be reimbursed at actual cost to... of actual costs provided that (i) the rate is based on historical cost data of the company, (ii)...

  1. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... engineering, construction engineering, right-of-way, and force account construction. (2) Salaries and expenses... for the benefit of its employees. The cost of labor surcharges will be reimbursed at actual cost to... of actual costs provided that (i) the rate is based on historical cost data of the company, (ii)...

  2. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... engineering, construction engineering, right-of-way, and force account construction. (2) Salaries and expenses... for the benefit of its employees. The cost of labor surcharges will be reimbursed at actual cost to... of actual costs provided that (i) the rate is based on historical cost data of the company, (ii)...

  3. Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

  4. Caesar Chavez: Labor Leader. Hispanic Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedeno, Maria E.

    Written for young people, this book traces the accomplishments of Cesar Chavez, a labor leader who fought to improve the lives of Mexican-American farmworkers in California. Chavez was born in 1927 in the Gila Valley, Arizona. When Chavez was 10, his family lost their farm and was forced to move to California and become migrant workers. Chavez and…

  5. Employment Transitions and the Household Division of Labor in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Feinian

    2005-01-01

    Highlighting one aspect of the economic transition in China (industrialization), this article focuses on how a change in employment from an agricultural to a non-agricultural job could change the household division of labor. Longitudinal analysis of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey showed that such job shifts affected the household…

  6. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  7. Women in Workplace: Vocational Education and Segregated Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna; Burge, Penny L.

    The United States and Finland show a clear gender stratification in work life. The uneven, gender-biased division of labor has been maintained, even though about half of the total U.S. and Finnish labor force are women. In both countries, female students tend to make traditional occupational choices that prepare them for low-paying fields where…

  8. Labor Markets and Economic Incorporation among Recent Immigrants in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The questions asked in the paper are whether and to what extent the employment situation among recent third-country immigrants differs across European Union countries and how it is related to these countries' labor market characteristics. The European Labor Force Survey data for the 1990s are used to disentangle the roles that the individual…

  9. Labor Market Problems of Older Workers. A Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Employment Policy, Washington, DC.

    The National Council on Employment Policy found that there are small but substantial groups of older persons who are experiencing labor market problems--the working poor, the displaced unemployed, persons with health limitations, and groups of women who have been out of the labor force for large blocks of time. The problems of this generation, now…

  10. Females in Vocational Education: Reflections of the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Richard; Pritchard, Alice M.

    1991-01-01

    The fact that gender desegregation of vocational programs has not yet been achieved might be related to labor force occupational segregation by gender. Social theorists view schooling inequities as mirrors of social structure, whereby schools track students to maintain social stratification. Mirroring the labor market, education has segregated…

  11. 29 CFR 500.3 - Effective date of the Act; transition period; repeal of the Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER... Contractor Registration Act. (a) The provisions of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection... Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act repeals the Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act of 1963,...

  12. 29 CFR 500.3 - Effective date of the Act; transition period; repeal of the Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER... Contractor Registration Act. (a) The provisions of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection... Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act repeals the Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act of 1963,...

  13. Farm Mechanization And Labor Stabilization. Part II In A Series On Technological Change And Farm Labor Use, Kern County, California, 1961. Research Report No. 280.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, William H.

    A stratified random sample of 69 6 workers in 361 households in Kern County, California, was selected to investigate the changes in labor use resulting from farm mechanization, and to explore the trend towards a stable labor force. Some major findings were: (1) Mechanization of the cotton harvest has erased the high peak of seasonal farm labor,…

  14. Local Produce, Foreign Labor: Labor Mobility Programs and Global Trade Competitiveness in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preibisch, Kerry L.

    2007-01-01

    Temporary visa workers are increasingly taking on a heightened profile in Canada, entering the workforce each year in greater numbers than immigrant workers with labor mobility rights (Sharma 2006). This paper examines the incorporation of foreign workers in Canadian horticulture under the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP). I argue that…

  15. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations. 1928.51 Section 1928.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE...

  16. Child labor still with us after all these years.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; McCammon, J B

    1997-01-01

    Child labor is a major threat to the health of children in the United States. The U.S. Department of Labor estimates that more than four million children are legally employed and that another one to two million are employed under illegal, often exploitative conditions. Across the United States, child labor accounts for 20,000 workers compensation claims, 200,000 injuries, thousands of cases of permanent disability, and more than 70 deaths each year. Agriculture and newspaper delivery are the two most hazardous areas of employment for children and adolescents. Poverty, massive immigration, and relaxation in enforcement of Federal child labor law are the three factors principally responsible for the last two decades' resurgence of child labor in the United States. Control of the hazards of child labor will require a combination of strategies including vigorous enforcement, education, and public health surveillance. Images p466-a p467-a p468-a PMID:10822472

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart A of... - Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing I Exhibit I to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.517 - Unfair labor practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... membership in the labor organization on the basis of race, color, creed, national origin, sex, age... expression contains no threat of reprisal or force or promise of benefit or was not made under...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.517 - Unfair labor practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... membership in the labor organization on the basis of race, color, creed, national origin, sex, age... expression contains no threat of reprisal or force or promise of benefit or was not made under...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.517 - Unfair labor practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... membership in the labor organization on the basis of race, color, creed, national origin, sex, age... expression contains no threat of reprisal or force or promise of benefit or was not made under...

  1. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity.

    PubMed

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie

    2016-08-01

    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas. PMID:27370916

  2. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  3. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  4. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  5. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  6. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  7. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  8. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  9. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  10. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  11. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  12. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  13. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  14. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  15. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  16. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  17. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions. PMID:12307194

  18. Labor Education and Organizational Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Higdon C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Most of the leadership throughout the labor movement have been concerned about the lack of rank and file participation in labor unions. An evaluation of the relationship of labor education and union participation is explored. (WL)

  19. Marital and Family Characteristics of the Labor Force, March 1979. Special Labor Force Report 237.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Beverly L.

    The rising number of multi-earner families has been one of the most important socioeconomic developments of the 1970s; since 1970, the number of such families has increased by more than 3 million. Almost exclusively responsible for the rising number of multi-earner families have been the steep annual increases in the number and proportion of…

  20. Managing pain during labor

    MedlinePlus

    A systemic analgesic is a pain medicine that is injected into your vein or muscle. This medicine acts on your entire ... away, but it will be dulled. With systemic analgesics, some women have an easier labor and feel ...

  1. Treatments for Preterm Labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out about ... may delay labor, often for just a few days. This delay may give you time to get ...

  2. The Economic Evolution of Rural America. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation of the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (May 22, June 13, June 19, July 1, 1985). Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Part 2 of this congressional hearing contains the testimony and prepared statements of 31 witnesses on the topics of rural community resources, the rural labor force, rural finance, and rural education to assist the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation in identifying the problems and potential of America's rural economy. With emphasis on…

  3. Early Claiming of Social Security Benefits and Labor Supply Behavior of Older Americans†

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The labor supply incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the United States Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, and the labor force participation of Older Americans starts to increase. These incentives allow individuals who claim benefits before the NRA but continue to work, or return to the labor force, to increase their future rate of benefit pay by having benefits withheld. Since the adjustment of the benefit rate takes place only after the NRA is reached, benefits received before the NRA can become actuarially unfair for those who continue to work after claiming. Consistent with these incentives, estimates from bivariate models of the monthly labor force exit and claiming hazards using data from the Health and Retirement Study indicate that early claimers who do not withdraw from the labor force around the time they claim are increasingly likely to stay in the labor force. PMID:20811509

  4. 78 FR 72714 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... the TVPRA List (72 FR 73374). The guidelines set forth the criteria by which information is evaluated... (66 FR 5353). In addition to the List, the Department also published on January 18, 2001, ``Procedural... (66 FR 5351). Pursuant to Sections D through G of the Procedural Guidelines, the EO List may...

  5. 77 FR 9267 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... the TVPRA List (72 FR 73374). The guidelines set forth the criteria by which information is evaluated... (66 FR 5353). In addition to the List, the Department also published on January 18, 2001, ``Procedural... (66 FR 5351). Pursuant to Sections D through G of the Procedural Guidelines, the EO List may...

  6. Labor Education Week: Bringing the Labor Movement to the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Alice

    A week of labor education classes is held yearly at Oakland Technical High School in Oakland, California. The goal of the program, called Labor Education Week (LEW), is to fill a perceived gap in high school education concerning the labor movement, and to present labor history and issues in workshops, field trips, classroom discussions, and films.…

  7. Trends in the growth of population and labour force in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, S S

    1990-01-01

    Trends in the growth of the population and labor force in Pakistan are examined and future prospects for growth of population and labor, particularly agriculture, are estimated. The definition of labor force as employed or seeking work after a short period of employment has led to a great disparity in results for women in the labor force. Past trends in population growth reflected a growth rate of 1.6% for the 1950's, and 2.4% in 1960. The population rose to 84.3 million in 1981 from 42.6 million in 1961, which intercensally was an increase of 3.6% per annum for 1961-72 and 3.1% per annum for 1972-81. The estimated rate for 1981-86 was 2.9%/year. The rural population doubled and the urban tripled. There was a net migration of 2.123 million to urban areas reported in the 1981 census. There is also evidence of a high sex ratio. Balochistan (7.1%) and Sindh (3.6%) provinces have the highest growth rates. Although the largest population is in the Punjab, the growth is the lowest at 2.7%. The population is primarily young -- 44.5% 15 years in 1981, which is the highest in the world. Under high, medium, and low levels of fertility, prospective trends are estimated for 2006 and 2031, and by sex every 5 years from 1981. Population under high fertility is expected to reach 270 million by 2031, which is 3.39 persons/hectare. The population/hectare of land under cultivation was 4.25 in 1981 and is expected to rise to 13.49 persons/hectare in 2031. 11 million acres could be brought under cultivation to reduce the ratio. However, there are ecological considerations as well as an employment problem. The dependency ratio under the high variant will decline from 76.8 persons 0-14 and 65 years/100 persons 15-64 years in 1986 to 70.3 in 2006 which is still considerably higher than other developing countries. It is suggested that replacement level fertility be attained as soon as possible. Under low fertility, replacement level can be reached by 2011 with strong political commitment

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  9. PROGRESS IN MEETING PROBLEMS OF MIGRATORY LABOR IN MARYLAND, FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NYSTROM, PAUL E.; AND OTHERS

    THE VEGETABLE AND FRUIT INDUSTRIES OF MARYLAND HAVE LONG BEEN DEPENDENT UPON MIGRATORY LABOR FOR THE SEASONAL LABOR REQUIRED IN HARVESTING AND PROCESSING OPERATIONS. THIS LABOR FORCE COMES TO THE STATE IN THE SPRING OR SUMMER, IS EMPLOYED IN VARIOUS CAMPS IN MARYLAND AND STATES IN THE NORTH, AND MIGRATES SOUTH FOLLOWING THE HARVEST OF LATE…

  10. Women Workers in South Africa: Participation, Pay and Prejudice in the Formal Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carolyn

    Although concern over labor market inequities in South Africa has focused almost exclusively on racial differences in labor force participation and pay, gender also has been important, since women do not enjoy the same access, opportunities, and rewards in the formal labor market as men, especially among races traditionally subject to…

  11. 76 FR 69114 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... from agricultural jobs. The Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration and Related... agricultural job. Such services include the following: Agricultural labor skills development; The provision of... to Executive Order No. 13132, 64 FR 43225 (August 10, 1999) and the Unfunded Mandates Act of 1995,...

  12. Patterns of labor absorption by occupation in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Larson, E M

    1987-01-01

    "The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze patterns of labor absorption by occupation in the Dominican Republic using national population census data." The author develops a measure that facilitates the identification of patterns of labor absorption into various occupations. The results, based on data for the period 1970-1981, show sharp differentials by sex and zone. It is found that the service sector is absorbing more workers but that agriculture is not, even in rural areas. PMID:12341778

  13. The impact of labor migration on the Jordanian economy.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, F X

    1981-01-01

    "This article considers the effects of labor migration on the economy of the East Bank of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The article is presented in two sections. The first attempts to quantify the external migrant flows which impinge on the Jordanian labor market. The second section presents a theoretical model of the macroeconomic impact on output and employment of flows of migrants and migrants' remittances and an empirical analysis of the effects on the agricultural and construction sectors." PMID:12265225

  14. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.105 “Primary” and...

  15. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.105 “Primary” and...

  16. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.105 “Primary” and...

  17. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.105 “Primary” and...

  18. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.105 “Primary” and...

  19. 48 CFR 52.222-19 - Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... importation of products mined, produced, or manufactured by forced or indentured child labor, authorized officials may need to conduct investigations to determine whether forced or indentured child labor was used... violations: (1) The Contractor has submitted a false certification regarding knowledge of the use of...

  20. 48 CFR 52.222-19 - Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... importation of products mined, produced, or manufactured by forced or indentured child labor, authorized officials may need to conduct investigations to determine whether forced or indentured child labor was used... violations: (1) The Contractor has submitted a false certification regarding knowledge of the use of...

  1. Cultivating Labor Management Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    In many districts, the notion of labor groups and district administration working together conjures descriptions of war and battle rather than cooperation and collaboration. However, in San Juan Unified School District, the headline, "Union and District Exhibit Positive Partnership" exemplifies the changing relationship between teacher leaders and…

  2. Labor Issues. Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Major policy, management, and program issues face the Congress and new administration in the area of labor. Many of the nation's youth are leaving school poorly prepared for the new work world. The nation already has a large group of economically disadvantaged people who lack necessary skills. Annually, 900,000 or more workers are at least…

  3. Labor Market Progeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  4. Child Labor: Global Offensive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, Peter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "An Evil Unbearable to the Human Heart" (Sutcliffe); "Fighting Indifference and Inaction" (Fromont); "Concerted International Action for Children"; "New Shelter for Street Kids of Ankara" (Fromont); "IPEC's International Program for Elimination of Child Labor Challenge to Brazilian Society" (de Barros, Milhomen); and "India: Hope for a…

  5. 77 FR 18267 - Comment Request for Extension of Information Collection With Revisions: Foreign Labor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... agricultural workers. The information pertaining to the performance of these functions by the SWAs is currently... workers in the H-2B or H-2A visa categories to perform agricultural or nonagricultural services or labor... processed; and (2) Track the number of agricultural prevailing wage and practice surveys conducted...

  6. Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figart, Deborah M.

    Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women…

  7. Labor on Campus: Academic Library Service to Labor Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidle, Deborah Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Examines academic library service to labor groups, particularly in the area of Internet training. Results of an informal survey of 53 academic libraries in schools with labor study programs in the United States and Canada indicate that few provide direct services to labor unions, and provides an example of one that does at Cornell University.…

  8. 76 FR 24025 - Information Collection; Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ...; Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor AGENCY: Department of... acquisition of products produced by forced or indentured child labor. DATES: Submit comments on or before..., Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor, signed by the...

  9. 76 FR 42709 - Submission for OMB Review; Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...; Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor AGENCY: Department of... acquisition of products produced by forced or indentured child labor. DATES: Submit comments on or before... on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor, by any of the...

  10. America's Changing Work Force: Statistics in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This booklet provides information about the demographics of the changing work force. It offers an at-a-glance profile of workers age 45 and older and considers likely changes in the work force of the future. The document includes topics such as the composition of the work force of today and tomorrow by age and sex, labor force participation rates,…

  11. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  12. Child Labor in America's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  13. Women in the Work Force: Supreme Court Issues. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1986

    This U.S. Congressional hearing, chaired by Representative Matthew G. Martinez (California), focuses on women in the work force. Issues, such as equal participation, pay, and advancement, along with sex discrimination and sexual harassment, are addressed. Testimony and written statements were presented by representatives from District of Columbia…

  14. Married Female Labour Force Participation: A Micro Study. Special Labour Force Studies Series B, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Byron G.; Featherstone, Dennis C.

    This study investigates the role of several important factors in terms of their influence on the supply of married women in Canada's labor force. The factors include income, child status, region of residence, family, holdings of assets and debts, labor force status of the husband, presence of other adults in the family, and residence in a…

  15. Labor and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.; Nelkin, D.

    1980-03-01

    The AFL-CIO is officially pro-nuclear, but tensions within unions are taking issue over ideological differences. The Labor movement, having looked to nuclear power development as an economic necessity to avoid unemployment, has opposed efforts to delay construction or close plants. As many as 42% of union members or relatives of members, however, were found to oppose new power plants, some actively working against specific construction projects. The United Mine Workers and Teamsters actively challenged the nuclear industry while the auto workers have been ambivalent. The differences between union orientation reflects the history of unionism in the US and explains the emergence of social unionism with its emphasis on safety and working conditions as well as economic benefits. Business union orientation trends to prevail during periods of prosperity; social unions during recessions. The labor unions and the environmentalists are examined in this conext and found to be hopeful. 35 references. (DCK)

  16. Labor Relations in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, A. Lee; And Others

    The field of labor relations in colleges and universities is developing quite rapidly in the U.S. In the public sector, a variety of new labor relations laws are being adopted at the state level. Pending the possible adoption of federal legislation governing labor relations in public institutions, personnel officers who are without a state law…

  17. Pennsylvania Public Employe Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrush, John D.

    This volume is intended to help public administrators and attorneys deal with the legal problems in Pennsylvania public sector labor relations. In it, the Pennsylvania Labor Relations Board is discussed and public sector labor relations court decisions are cited. The volume is intended to be a reference book and to reveal inconsistencies in…

  18. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize labor. (MJP)

  19. Labor Arbitration and Dispute Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Julius G.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the nature of labor arbitration; then explores the transferability of the labor arbitration model. Argues that the establishment and legitimation of unions and collective bargaining are responsible for the success of labor arbitration, not vice versa. Available from The Yale Law Journal, 401A Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520;…

  20. Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections: Detailed Analysis of Selected Occupations and Industries. Report to the Honorable Berkley Bedell, United States House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    To compile its projections of future employment levels, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) combines the following five interlinked models in a six-step process: a labor force model, an econometric model of the U.S. economy, an industry activity model, an industry labor demand model, and an occupational labor demand model. The BLS was asked to…

  1. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.112 General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.” Section 3(f) of the Act defines...

  2. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.112 General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.” Section 3(f) of the Act defines...

  3. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.112 General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.” Section 3(f) of the Act defines...

  4. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.112 General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.” Section 3(f) of the Act defines...

  5. On the Season: Aspects of the Migrant Labor System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelkin, Dorothy

    The 3 essays on migrants in this study draw upon a survey of 181 migrants from 12 crews and of the crew leaders and growers associated with these crews, a small survey of an agricultural community, field notes of 16 undergraduate students who lived and worked in 14 migrant labor camps for 5 to 10 weeks, and interviews by 8 additional students with…

  6. 20 CFR 655.32 - Labor certification determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United... classification. If the Administrator directs that certain types of temporary labor certification applications or specific applications under the H-2B nonimmigrant classification be handled by the National OFLC,...

  7. FARM LABOR COSTS AND FOOD PRICES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    TO MEASURE THE IMPACT OF THE DECLINE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL WORKER EMPLOYMENT ON FARM-LABOR COSTS, FOOD PRICES, AND RETURN TO THE FARMER, AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF THE 1964-65 CHANGES IN THESE FACTORS FOR SELECTED CALIFORNIA CROPS. TOMATOES, LETTUCE, STRAWBERRIES, CANTALOUPES, CELERY, LEMONS, AND ASPARAGUS, WHICH ACCOUNTED FOR 71 PERCENT OF THE…

  8. 20 CFR 655.201 - Temporary labor certification applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... right to contest any denial before the DHS pursuant to 8 CFR 214.2(h)(3)(i). Finally, employers need... determinations required by 8 CFR 214.2(h)(3)(i). (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control... Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.201 Temporary labor...

  9. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  10. A University of a New Type: University Combines Education with Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The educational program of a communist labor university in South China's Kiangsi Province is described. Classes in agriculture, forestry, accounting, animal husbandry, and farm machinery are offered on a part-work, part-study basis which combines education with productive labor. (SM)

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart A of... - Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing I Exhibit I... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Seasonal Farm Labor Housing Section 100 General—This exhibit sets forth the guidelines and...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart A of... - Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing I Exhibit...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing Section 100 General—This exhibit sets forth the guidelines and...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart A of... - Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing I Exhibit...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing Section 100 General—This exhibit sets forth the guidelines and...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart A of... - Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing I Exhibit...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing Section 100 General—This exhibit sets forth the guidelines and...

  15. READINESS OF NEW YORK COOPERATIVE EXTENSION TO UNDERTAKE A FARM LABOR PROGRAM. EXTENSION STUDY, NUMBER 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALEXANDER, FRANK D.

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT MAINLY TO DETERMINE THE PRESENT NEW YORK STATE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION INPUT ON FARM LABOR EDUCATION, ESPECIALLY FOR YEAR ROUND FARM LABOR, AND TO ANTICIPATE EXTENSION INPUT FOR THE NEAR FUTURE IN THIS FIELD. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE RETURNED FROM 54 OF THE 56 COUNTIES WITH AGRICULTURAL DIVISIONS, ALL 13 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION…

  16. PROGRESS IN MEETING PROBLEMS OF MIGRATORY LABOR IN MARYLAND, THIRD ANNUAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NYSTROM, PAUL E.; AND OTHERS

    NUMEROUS CHANGES IN MARYLAND AGRICULTURE HAD A PRONOUNCED EFFECT UPON THE LABOR MOVEMENT. AMONG THEM WERE--CROP YIELDS, CROP PRICES AND THE RESULTANT EFFECT UPON CROP ACREAGE, MECHANIZATION OF TILLAGE, THINNINGS, AND HARVEST PROCEDURES. DESPITE INCREASED MECHANIZATION, GREATER ACREAGES MIGHT DEMAND A RATHER CONSTANT SUPPLY OF LABOR. PROBLEMS IN…

  17. Normal labor: mechanism and duration.

    PubMed

    Liao, John B; Buhimschi, Catalin S; Norwitz, Errol R

    2005-06-01

    Labor is refers to the chain of physiologic events that allows a fetus to undertake its journey from the uterus to the outside world. The mean duration of a singleton preganancy is 40.0 weeks (280 days), which is dated from the first day of the last normal menstrual period. The period from 37.0 weeks (259 days) to 42.0 weeks (294 days) of gestation is regarded as "term". This article focuses on the onset progress, and mechanics of normal labor term. Topics such as preterm labor (labor before 37 weeks), postterm labor (labor after 42 weeks), and abnormal labor and delivery have not been addressed and are discussed in detail elsewhere in this issue. PMID:15899352

  18. Women in American Agriculture, a Selected Bibliography. Library List 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Agricultural Library (USDA), Washington, DC.

    More than 250 citations of materials about women in agriculture in the U.S. are contained in this partially annotated bibliography. It covers women engaged as landowners, farm managers, agricultural laborers and working in such agricultural industries as beekeeping, silk culture, and butter production. Other references concern women in…

  19. Molokai Community Needs Assessment for Agriculture Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.

    In order to assess the needs of agriculture (AG) education and ascertain the potential employment demand for pre-service and in-service training in agriculture over the next 5 years, Maui Community College (MCC) sent questionnaires to Molokai community businesses, inquiring about their agricultural labor demand. In December 1997, 68 questionnaires…

  20. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…