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Sample records for agricultural labor force

  1. 75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in... public meeting of the Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported... forced labor or child labor. The notice sets forth the process for requesting to appear at the...

  2. 76 FR 20305 - Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... supply chain. e. Monitoring should occur on a continuous basis, as well as in response to any... Guidelines for Eliminating Child and Forced Labor in Agricultural Supply Chains. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... labor and the worst forms of child labor in agricultural supply chains. We are interested to...

  3. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  4. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  5. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  6. INTERNAL LABOR MARKETS, TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, AND LABOR FORCE ADJUSTMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOERINGER, PETER B.; PIORE, MICHAEL J.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LABOR FORCE SKILLS AND THE REQUIREMENTS OF BLUE COLLAR JOBS ARE RECONCILED BY MEANS OVER WHICH THE EMPLOYER, ALONE OR WITH A LABOR ORGANIZATION, EXERCISES CONTROL. THE ADJUSTMENT MODEL PRESENTED IN THIS STUDY RECOGNIZES AN INPLANT LABOR MARKET CONNECTED TO THE EXTERNAL MARKET AT A LIMITED NUMBER OF POINTS. CERTAIN…

  7. 77 FR 9267 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in Foreign Countries and Efforts by Certain Countries To Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau...

  8. Child Labor Requirements in Agriculture under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Child Labor Bulletin No. 102.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This booklet is a guide to the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (also known as the Wage-Hour Law) which apply to minors employed in agriculture. The content is as follows: coverage of the child labor provisions regarding agricultural employment, minimum age standards for employment in agriculture, school hours and employment in…

  9. Child Labor in Agriculture. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley

    An estimated 200,000-800,000 children and adolescents work in the United States as migrant agricultural laborers, either alone or with their families. This digest describes the statutory and economic factors contributing to the presence of children in the fields and the impact of this labor on their health and educational progress. The Fair Labor…

  10. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  11. 76 FR 28730 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of suspension of data collection and publication. SUMMARY: This notice announces the intention of the...

  12. The labor force of the future.

    PubMed

    Norwood, J L

    1987-07-01

    In the decades ahead, the US labor force will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in service industries. The services sector is so diverse that the jobs within it cannot be categorized as either high wage or low wage. The service-producing sector employs 85% of professional specialty workers in the US. In general, information on compensation trends indicates that greater increases in compensation have occurred for workers in service-producing as opposed to goods-producing industries. The increase in service sector jobs has created opportunities for women to enter the labor force and, at present, 5 out of 6 women work in this sector compared to fewer than 2 out of 3 men. Productivity growth rates in the service-producing industries vary substantially and are strongly affected by the business cycle. Central to employment opportunities in the years ahead will be the effect of new technology. To date, the aggregate effect of new technology has been increased employment and higher living standards. Although retraining programs should be in place, the scenario of a huge technology-created labor surplus seems unlikely. In fact, a more likely problem is a shortage of labor resulting from earlier labor force withdrawal and demographic aging of the population. Those in the 25-54-year age group will represent a larger share of the labor force in the years ahead. In addition, blacks are expected to account for 20% of the labor force growth in the next decade. Finally, given increasing labor force participation rates among mothers, employers may have to provide more flexible work schedules, assistance with day care, and more attractive benefits packages. PMID:12314853

  13. Declining Teen Labor Force Participation. Issues in Labor Statistics. Summary 02-06.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Katie

    Although the proportion of teenagers in the labor force generally increases during economic expansions, the labor force participation rate for 16- to 19-year-olds changed very little during the exceptional labor market conditions of the mid-1990s. In July 2000, the labor force participation rate for teens was at its lowest level since 1965.…

  14. 77 FR 70473 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the email or physical address below by 5 p.m... that ILAB follows in developing the TVPRA List (72 FR 73374). The guidelines set forth the criteria by.... List''), identified by country of origin, that the Department, in consultation and cooperation with...

  15. Entry into the American Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Michael D.

    This analysis of entry into the labor force by American men between the ages of 30 and 39 was based on a set of about 1,600 retrospective life history interviews, approximately half from whites and half from blacks. At the time of entry the mean level of whites' education was higher than that of blacks and this was translated into jobs with higher…

  16. Women in the Labor Force: A Databook. Report 985

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Labor, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A major development in the American workforce has been the increased labor force participation of women. In 1970, only about 43 percent of women age 16 and older were in the labor force; by 1999, that figure had risen to 60 percent. From 1999 to 2004, women's labor force participation rate receded slightly to 59.2 percent, still well above the…

  17. Child Labor in Agriculture, Summer 1970: A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA.

    A special project, undertaken to furnish some of the hard facts on child labor in agriculture in the summer of 1970, resulted in publication of this report. Part I of the report discusses society's attitudes toward agricultural workers, laws about the use of children as industrial laborers, work activities (with definitions of work for the various…

  18. The Origins of Forced Labor in the Witwatersrand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeti, Moitsadi

    1986-01-01

    Gold mining brought a forced labor system to Witwatersrand, South Africa, in the 1880s as African laborers were rounded up from the hinterland and delivered to the mines. The system produced low wages, high mortality, and the loss of chances for upward mobility. Forced labor persists today in South African mines. (VM)

  19. 75 FR 8402 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... goods (72 FR 73374). The guidelines set forth the criteria by which information is evaluated... believe might have been mined, produced or manufactured with forced or indentured child labor (66 FR 5353... appropriate, revising the List (66 FR 5351). Based on DOL research and information submitted by the...

  20. Occupational Situs and the Agricultural Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyson, Thomas A.

    Agricultural situs can be applied to the analysis, description, and examination of career lines, occupational families, and opportunity structures in the agricultural sector. A proposed situs classification of three categories, or parallel agricultural career ladders was examined in terms of production agriculture, agribusiness, and agricultural…

  1. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. An example of this is the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables. However, work in... horticultural product. For example, all apples are a commodity, while apples and oranges are two...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. An example of this is the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables. However, work in... horticultural product. For example, all apples are a commodity, while apples and oranges are two...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. An example of this is the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables. However, work in... horticultural product. For example, all apples are a commodity, while apples and oranges are two...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. An example of this is the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables. However, work in... horticultural product. For example, all apples are a commodity, while apples and oranges are two...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. An example of this is the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables. However, work in... horticultural product. For example, all apples are a commodity, while apples and oranges are two...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(k)-1 Section 31.3306(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(k)-1 Agricultural...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(k)-1 Section 31.3306(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(k)-1 Agricultural...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(k)-1 Section 31.3306(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(k)-1 Agricultural...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(k)-1 Section 31.3306(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(k)-1 Agricultural...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(k)-1 Section 31.3306(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(k)-1 Agricultural...

  11. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  12. CONDUCTING A LABOR FORCE SURVEY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUGG, MATILDA R.

    APPLICABLE TO THOSE SITUATIONS WHERE A DECISION HAS BEEN MADE TO CONDUCT A LABOR FORCE SURVEY, THIS MANUAL OUTLINES AND DESCRIBES SURVEY PROCEDURES WITH AS LITTLE TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY AS POSSIBLE FOR ALL WHO PARTICIPATE WITH THE CHIEF STATISTICIAN IN THE SURVEY. LABOR FORCE CONCEPTS TRADITIONALLY USED IN INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES ARE MODIFIED FOR…

  13. Report on the Youth Labor Force. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC.

    This report explains the current U.S. regulations governing child labor; provides a detailed look at youth labor in this country, including how it differs among major demographic groups and economic sectors, and over time; and describes the outcomes of young people's work activities, including occupational injuries and fatalities and other…

  14. Report B: 1986 projected population, labor force and unemployment - Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    Report B, the results of the Population, Labor Force and Unemployment Projections Model, contain current socio-economic indicators. For each geographic area, there is one page of summary/background information followed by three tables. These tables contain the population projections, the labor force projections, and the unemployment projections, respectively. These tables are composed of data for the following racial groups: total population, whites, blacks, and other races. Those who call themselves Hispanics may be covered in any of the last three racial groups. For those geographic areas which have provided more than one labor force and/or unemployment control total, the last two tables will appear more than once.

  15. Labor-Force Dynamics at Older Ages

    PubMed Central

    Zissimopoulos, Julie M.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Labor-market transitions toward the latter parts of workers’ careers can be complex, with movement between jobs and classes of work and in and out of retirement. The authors analyzed factors associated with the labor-market transitions of older workers to self-employment from unemployment or disability, retirement, or wage and salary work using rich panel data from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). They found evidence that (prior) job characteristics and liquidity constraints are important predictors of movements to self-employment for workers and nonworkers, while risk aversion is a significant predictor only for workers. PMID:23049149

  16. Women's Labor Force Participation and Socioeconomic Development: The Case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Charles; Aghajanian, Akbar

    Using 1957 and 1970 census data, four independent variables were used to explore determinants and constraints of Malaysian women's participation in the modern sector: ethnic community, educational attainment, size of place of residence, and marital/family status. Women's labor force participation increased as agricultural employment declined and a…

  17. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... labor. For example the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables is a processing operation which... “commodity” refers to a single agricultural or horticultural product, for example, all apples are to be treated as a single commodity, while apples and peaches are to be treated as two separate commodities....

  18. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... labor. For example the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables is a processing operation which... “commodity” refers to a single agricultural or horticultural product, for example, all apples are to be treated as a single commodity, while apples and peaches are to be treated as two separate commodities....

  19. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... labor. For example the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables is a processing operation which... “commodity” refers to a single agricultural or horticultural product, for example, all apples are to be treated as a single commodity, while apples and peaches are to be treated as two separate commodities....

  20. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... labor. For example the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables is a processing operation which... “commodity” refers to a single agricultural or horticultural product, for example, all apples are to be treated as a single commodity, while apples and peaches are to be treated as two separate commodities....

  1. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... labor. For example the extraction of juices from fruits or vegetables is a processing operation which... “commodity” refers to a single agricultural or horticultural product, for example, all apples are to be treated as a single commodity, while apples and peaches are to be treated as two separate commodities....

  2. Nonmetro and Metro Teens in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    Drawing on theories of family organization and labor market structures, it is argued that teenagers are a useful population for research on the effects of race, household characteristics, and local labor markets on labor force participation. Predictive models of labor force participation were applied to a sample of all White and Black 16- to…

  3. Effect of different labor forces on fetal skull molding.

    PubMed

    Pu, Fang; Xu, Liqiang; Li, Deyu; Li, Shuyu; Sun, Lianwen; Wang, Ling; Fan, Yubo

    2011-06-01

    Fetal head molding is important for adapting the fetal head to the birth canal during vaginal delivery; however, excessive deformation of fetal head may lead to severe complications. Although labor force is one of the major factors which cause deformation of the fetal head, its effect on fetal head molding has not been quantitatively investigated yet. We examined this effect by using a finite element modeling approach. Firstly, a geometric model was created by scanning a polyethylene replica of fetal skull model with a white light three-dimensional scanner. Secondly, a nonlinear finite element model was proposed based on the geometric model. Next, the simulation results of the proposed model were verified against the experimental data reported in other literatures and they showed good agreement with the experimental observations. After this validation, the proposed model was used to simulate the fetal skull deformations under different labor forces. Simulation results illustrated that the fetal skull diameters and modified molding index (MMI) increased when the labor force was increased. Parietal bone around bregma and frontal bone around coronal suture undertook more stress, and parietal and frontal bones around coronal suture undertook more spatial and rotational displacement under larger labor force. The suboccipito-bregmatic diameter (SOBD) was more sensitive to the changes of labor force than other fetal skull diameters. The simulation results revealed the quantitative relationship between the labor force and fetal skull molding during delivery. In the future, if the degree of fetal skull molding is directly related to that of the head injury, the relationship investigated in this study may be used to predict the head injury by measuring the labor force during delivery.

  4. Agricultural Drainage Management Systems Task Force (ADMSTF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Drainage Management Systems (ADMS) Task Force was initiated during a Charter meeting in the fall of 2002 by dedicated professional employees of Federal, State, and Local Government Agencies and Universities. The Agricultural Drainage Management (ADM) Coalition was established in 200...

  5. Maternal and Child Health Issues and Female Labor Force Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Dorothy C.; And Others

    Reviewing health related "costs" of female labor force participation, this paper examines four highly salient maternal and child health issues. Discussion of acute illness in day care settings begins with an overview of studies on day care and illness and focuses on hepatitis A, appropriate sanitation, and indications of research on respiratory…

  6. Global work force 2000: the new world labor market.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W B

    1991-01-01

    Just as there are global markets for products, technology, and capital, managers must now think of one for labor. Over the next 15 years, human capital, once the most stationary factor in production, will cross national borders with greater and greater ease. Driving the globalization of labor is a growing imbalance between the world's labor supply and demand. While the developed world accounts for most of the world's gross domestic product, its share of the world work force is shrinking. Meanwhile, in the developing countries, the work force is quickly expanding as many young people approach working age and as women join the paid work force in great numbers. The quality of that work force is also rising as developing countries like Brazil and China generate growing proportions of the world's college graduates. Developing nations that combine their young, educated workers with investor-friendly policies could leapfrog into new industries. South Korea, Taiwan, Poland, and Hungary are particularly well positioned for such growth. And industrialized countries that keep barriers to immigration low will be able to tap world labor resources to sustain their economic growth. The United States and some European nations have the best chance of encouraging immigration, while Japan will have trouble overcoming its cultural and language barriers. PMID:10110172

  7. Democracy and Female Labor Force Participation: An Empirical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayanpourtehrani, Ghazal; Sylwester, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines associations between female labor force participation (FLFP) and democracy. Using a cross-country, time series (1980-2005) data set, we find evidence that FLFP is lower in democracies. One possible explanation is that dictators promote FLFP above what traditional norms would dictate and so a greater freedom to…

  8. DataTrack 7: Women in the Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC.

    One of a series that compiles and interprets data from a variety of sources on one particular subject of interest to life insurance executives, this report deals with women in the labor force. It can be used in the design of new products and services, to meet changing consumer needs, the selection of new markets and marketing strategies, for the…

  9. Hispanics in the Labor Force: A Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George, Ed.; Tienda, Marta, Ed.

    Hispanics in the U.S. labor force are the subject of the studies in this volume. After an introduction by George J. Borjas and Marta Tienda, the first three papers focus on the same issue: the determination of wage rates for Hispanics and comparison of Hispanic and non-Hispanic wage rates. Cordelia Reimers compares the situation for Black, White,…

  10. Youth Labor Force Marked Turning Point in 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne McDougall

    1983-01-01

    Documents the sharp decrease in the percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds in the labor force between October 1981 and October 1982 as the last of the post-World War II baby-boom generation completed high school. States that this trend will probably continue through the 1980s as enrollments continue to decline. (NJ)

  11. Youth in the Labor Force: An Area Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Diane N.

    1976-01-01

    In the study reported, the labor force characteristics of the nation's 16.2 million teen-agers (aged 16 to 19) are reviewed and evaluated for three types of area: central cities, suburban rings, and nonmetropolitan areas. Tables give data on teen-age employment and unemployment, comparing sex, race, and occupational groups. (Author/AJ)

  12. 77 FR 5714 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... published on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74722), entitled ``Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law... Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of Procurement and Property Management... new clause to the Agriculture Acquisition Regulation at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law...

  13. To Authorize a Limited Waiver of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 with Respect to Certain Agricultural Hand Harvest Laborers. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 94th Congress, 1st Session on H.R.632 (Washington, D.C., April 18, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    On April 18, 1975, the House Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor heard testimony regarding H.R. 632 which would establish procedures for the Secretary of Labor to waive the child labor provisions of the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act for employment in agriculture of children under 12 years of age. Several conditions would have to be met before the…

  14. 76 FR 22921 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Labor and Human Trafficking (OCFT) at the e-mail or physical address below by 5 p.m., May 20, 2011. To... goods (72 FR 73374). The guidelines set forth the criteria by which information is evaluated... of products (the ``List''), identified by country of origin, that the Department, in consultation...

  15. Trends in female labor force participation in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, S; Jacobsson, R

    1985-01-01

    The labor force participation of Swedish married women increased form 49.1% to 83.5% in the past 2 decades. Results from cross section analyses carried out on micro data from 3 standard of living investigations, done in 1968, 1974, and 1981, are used to predict changes over time. Women's real wages have increased over time more than men's real wages; in combination with estimated positve own wages elasticities, this change is the most important determinant of the increase in female labor supply. The labor force participation of married women ages 20-59 has increased from 49.1% in 1963 to 83.5% in 1982; the increase is especially large for women with children under 7. Over the decades 1920-1965, when real wages of woman increased more than real incomes of men, the labor force participation rates of married women increased even faster. From 1963-1981 a dramatic narrowing of the male-female wage gap occurred; most of the decrease is a result of factors other than the human capital variables accumulated at school and on the job. The effect of centralized collective bargaining and a strong union policy to increase low wages may be important explanatory factors. Generous parental leaves and subsidized day care may have an increasing effect on fertility; but instead, fertility has decreased, perhaps less than it might have done in the absence of such policies. By using individual cross section data from the 3 standard of living investigations, estimates of participation are performed. The own wage effects of the participation equation are positive and significant but decreasing over time. Important institutional changes between the sample periods are the extended parental leaves and the increased supply of government subsidized day care. PMID:12267649

  16. [Problems of population development and the labor force situation in the German Democratic Republic].

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, M

    1986-01-01

    An overview of demographic and labor force problems in the German Democratic Republic is presented. Topics mentioned include population decrease resulting from losses during World War II and labor force emigration prior to 1961, the low rate of natural increase, manpower resources and the dependency burden, and pro-natalist population policy measures. Selected demographic and labor force figures for 1984 are provided.

  17. 77 FR 5750 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... CFR Part 422 RIN 0599-AA19 Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of Procurement and Property Management, Departmental Management, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Office...

  18. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section 501... those engaged in such pursuits, the improvement of the grade of their products, and the development of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section 501... those engaged in such pursuits, the improvement of the grade of their products, and the development of...

  20. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S

    1998-10-01

    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators.

  1. 77 FR 61780 - Preparation of the 2013 American Indian Population and Labor Force Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Preparation of the 2013 American Indian Population and Labor Force Report AGENCY... Indian Population and Labor Force Report. DATES: Written comments are due November 12, 2012. See the... and written comments concerning preparation of the 2013 American Indian Population and Labor...

  2. Three Structural Determinants of Participation of Women in the Labor Force: A Cross-National Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Zeev

    A natural study was conducted to determine the effects of division of labor (level of socio-economic development), dependency, and mode of production on participation of women in the labor force. Participation of women in the labor force was operationalized by two indicators: (1) women as percentage of the total number of wage earners and salaried…

  3. 77 FR 12882 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  4. 77 FR 13635 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  5. 76 FR 74722 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (USDA) is amending the Agriculture Acquisition Regulation (the ``AGAR... subpart and clause entitled Labor Law Violations to the Agriculture Acquisition Regulation (AGAR). The AGAR may be accessed at: http://www.dm.usda.gov/procurement/policy/agar.html . This clause is to...

  6. Immigration policy, foreign agricultural labor, and exit intentions in the United States dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Susanto, D; Rosson, C P; Anderson, D P; Adcock, F J

    2010-04-01

    United States agriculture is dependent on foreign labor. Current US immigration policies have been alleged to disrupt agricultural labor availability, particularly that of hired foreign labor. A national survey of dairy farmers across herd sizes and regions of the United States was conducted and the results were used to estimate the extent to which hired foreign labor dependency will affect exit intentions in dairy farming. This study found that the expected probability of exit from dairy farming increased as the use of hired foreign labor intensified. But the expected probability of exit also decreased rapidly as herd sizes got larger. Given the immigration policy currently in place, farmers expecting labor shortages in the future are expected to experience greater tendency to exit the industry.

  7. Immigration policy, foreign agricultural labor, and exit intentions in the United States dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Susanto, D; Rosson, C P; Anderson, D P; Adcock, F J

    2010-04-01

    United States agriculture is dependent on foreign labor. Current US immigration policies have been alleged to disrupt agricultural labor availability, particularly that of hired foreign labor. A national survey of dairy farmers across herd sizes and regions of the United States was conducted and the results were used to estimate the extent to which hired foreign labor dependency will affect exit intentions in dairy farming. This study found that the expected probability of exit from dairy farming increased as the use of hired foreign labor intensified. But the expected probability of exit also decreased rapidly as herd sizes got larger. Given the immigration policy currently in place, farmers expecting labor shortages in the future are expected to experience greater tendency to exit the industry. PMID:20338458

  8. Male Labor Force Participation and Social Security in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Emma

    2014-04-01

    Labor-force participation among Mexican males in their early retirement years (60 to 64 years of age) has decreased in recent decades, from 94.6 percent in 1960 to 65.2 percent in 2010. Similar trends are evident elsewhere in Latin America, and have occurred in the developed world. Such trends pose challenges to financial sustainability of social security systems as working-age populations decrease and those in retirement increase both because of demographic trends and decisions to take early retirement. In this study, we find that the Mexican social security system provides incentives to retire early. The retirement incentives of the Mexican social security system affect retirement behavior, and may be one of the main contributors to early retirement decisions, particularly for lower-income populations. We simulated the effect of the reform from a Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) to the new Personal Retirement Accounts (PRA) system and we find that the PRA system also provides incentives to early retirement. Further analysis is needed to assess the financial sustainability of the social security system and financial security in old age for the largest cohorts in Mexico that will begin to retire by 2040.

  9. Male Labor Force Participation and Social Security in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Labor-force participation among Mexican males in their early retirement years (60 to 64 years of age) has decreased in recent decades, from 94.6 percent in 1960 to 65.2 percent in 2010. Similar trends are evident elsewhere in Latin America, and have occurred in the developed world. Such trends pose challenges to financial sustainability of social security systems as working-age populations decrease and those in retirement increase both because of demographic trends and decisions to take early retirement. In this study, we find that the Mexican social security system provides incentives to retire early. The retirement incentives of the Mexican social security system affect retirement behavior, and may be one of the main contributors to early retirement decisions, particularly for lower-income populations. We simulated the effect of the reform from a Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) to the new Personal Retirement Accounts (PRA) system and we find that the PRA system also provides incentives to early retirement. Further analysis is needed to assess the financial sustainability of the social security system and financial security in old age for the largest cohorts in Mexico that will begin to retire by 2040. PMID:25328441

  10. The Future of the Skilled Labor Force: New England's Supply of Recent College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Alicia C.

    2009-01-01

    One of New England's greatest assets is its skilled labor force, which has historically been an engine of economic growth in the region. But the skilled labor force of the future is growing more slowly in New England than in the rest of the United States. Since 2000, the population of "recent college graduates"--individuals ages 22 to 27 with a…

  11. Estimates of Resident Indian Population and Labor Force Status; By State and Reservation: March 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The labor force report includes all American Indians 16 years and older except for those who cannot work because they are attending school, caring for children, or because of disability, retirement, or age. The total population distributed by broad age groups and by sex is given. Labor force status is not known for the various age groups. Since…

  12. Sex Differentials in Educational and Labor Force Role Distributions in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, William F.; And Others

    The transformation of the educational and labor force role distribution of Filipino women, both absolutely and relative to Filipino men, under the impact of modernization was examined. The study aimed to: analyze differences in female educational and labor force role distributions by modernization level; compare the female educational and labor…

  13. Explaining the Decline in Teen Labor Force Participation. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 234

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; Park, Kyung-Hong; Sullivan, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Fewer teenagers are participating in the labor force today than at any point since WWII. At just under 44 percent teen labor force participation is 15 percentage points below its peak in the late 1970s. The authors investigate the long-run decline in the work activity of young adults, and the acceleration of this trend during the last five years.…

  14. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

  15. Cultural Issues Affecting Labor Force Participation. Background Paper No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriet Pipes

    A major challenge facing U.S. society is how to bring the massive groups of underemployed and unemployed minorities into the mainstream of the labor market. These groups will soon comprise 22 percent of the labor market and will be expected to take over positions requiring increased skill levels, but for generations they have been hindered in…

  16. Historical background of the child labor regulations: strengths and limitations of the agricultural hazardous occupations orders.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the background of key legislative and regulatory milestones of the initial laws and federal child labor provisions limiting hazardous work by children in agriculture up to the more recent developments contributing to the proposed updates to the agricultural hazardous occupations orders. A summary of the key changes are described and the significant differences between agricultural and nonagricultural regulations are highlighted. Recommendations for future policy are provided. PMID:22490029

  17. Child Labor in Agriculture: Changes Needed To Better Protect Health and Educational Opportunities. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In a response to a Congressional request, this report presents information and statistics on child labor in agriculture. Specifically, the report examines: (1) the extent and prevalence of child labor in agriculture, (2) the legislative protections available to children working in agriculture, (3) the enforcement of these protections as they apply…

  18. Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers. PMID:18070333

  19. Labor Market Projections Model: a user's guide to the population, labor force, and unemployment projections model at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, E.

    1980-08-01

    In an effort to assist SESA analysts and CETA prime sponsor planners in the development of labor-market information suitable to their annual plans, the Labor Market Projections Model (LMPM) was initiated. The purpose of LMPM is to provide timely information on the demographic characteristics of local populations, labor supply, and unemployment. In particular, the model produces short-term projections of the distributions of population, labor force, and unemployment by age, sex, and race. LMPM was designed to carry out these projections at various geographic levels - counties, prime-sponsor areas, SMSAs, and states. While LMPM can project population distributions for areas without user input, the labor force and unemployment projections rely upon inputs from analysts or planners familiar with the economy of the area of interest. Thus, LMPM utilizes input from the SESA analysts. This User's Guide to LMPM was specifically written as an aid to SESA analysts and other users in improving their understanding of LMPM. The basic method of LMPM is a demographic cohort aging model that relies upon 1970 Census data. LMPM integrates data from several sources in order to produce current projections from the 1970 baseline for all the local areas of the nation. This User's Guide documents the procedures, data, and output of LMPM. 11 references.

  20. THE ADVERSE-EFFECT POLICY FOR AGRICULTURAL LABOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DELLON, HOWARD N.

    THE BASIC PHILOSOPHY UNDERLYING THE REGULATION OF FOREIGN WORKER IMPORTATIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IS THAT EMPLOYMENT OF SUCH WORKERS WILL NOT BE PERMITTED IF IT WILL HAVE AN ADVERSE EFFECT ON DOMESTIC WORKERS. THE "ADVERSE-EFFECT" POLICY HAS BEEN FOLLOWED SINCE THE ENACTMENT OF PUBLIC LAW 78 IN 1951 WHICH GOVERNED…

  1. A Changing Nation--Its Changing Labor Force. Research Report Number 91-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Everett; And Others

    The multidimensional nature of the diversity of the nation's labor force was examined, with emphasis on the economic diversity within the population generally and within and among the demographic groups. Principal activities were a literature review focusing on the economics of the labor market, analysis of data from the 1980 Census, and a…

  2. 76 FR 38110 - Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... data information collection and publication. SUMMARY: This notice announces the intention of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to resume a currently approved information collection, the... this information collection as of July 2011. Authority: These data are collected under authority of 7...

  3. Summertime, Summer Teens: Summer School Enrollment and the Youth Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Tiffany

    2003-01-01

    Describes changes in how teenagers spend their summers and at the trends in summer school enrollment. Discusses teens' labor force participation and includes information about types of jobs, hours they work, wages, and teenage workers' rights. (JOW)

  4. Agricultural Child Labor Provisions of FLSA, 1974; Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session (Portland, Oregon, December 6, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    In its report accompanying the 1974 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), the Senate Labor Committee concluded that in general child labor in agriculture was physically and mentally detrimental to the health and well-being of participating children, acting as a social depressant, stunting their intellectual growth and capacity, and…

  5. Labor Force Participation of Dual-Earner Couples and Single Parents. Background Paper No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galinsky, Ellen

    In 1940, 8.6 percent of women with children 18 and under were in the labor force. By 1987, that figure was 65 percent. In 1976, 40 percent of the mothers of preschoolers were employed, compared to 58 percent in 1987. In 1988, 53 percent of women with children under 3 years held jobs. Sixty percent of the men in the labor force are married to women…

  6. Teenagers in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    1994-01-01

    Among youth aged 16-18 living at home in 1980, employment was proportionately higher among whites than blacks and among metropolitan compared to nonmetropolitan youth. Employment of white youth was linked more closely than that of black youth to family resources (income and occupational status) and local labor market characteristics. Discusses…

  7. Child labor in agriculture: some new developments to an ancient problem.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Dorianne

    2012-01-01

    Advocates for working children worldwide strive to eradicate the employment that minimizes a child's opportunities for education, good health and future potential. In agriculture, some promising developments in corporate social responsibility may generate partial solutions to child labor problems that have persisted for generations across world regions where food, fiber and fuel are produced. The purpose of this paper is to review these promising developments and propose recommendations in the context of a future of continued agricultural globalization and industrialization.

  8. Child labor in agriculture: some new developments to an ancient problem.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Dorianne

    2012-01-01

    Advocates for working children worldwide strive to eradicate the employment that minimizes a child's opportunities for education, good health and future potential. In agriculture, some promising developments in corporate social responsibility may generate partial solutions to child labor problems that have persisted for generations across world regions where food, fiber and fuel are produced. The purpose of this paper is to review these promising developments and propose recommendations in the context of a future of continued agricultural globalization and industrialization. PMID:22490031

  9. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(1)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Section 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) §...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(1)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Section 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) §...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(8)-1 - Payments for agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... made prior to January 1, 1988, see § 31.3121(a)(8)-1 in effect at such time (see 26 CFR part 31... remuneration paid in any medium other than cash for agricultural labor. For meaning of the term “cash... includes checks and other monetary media of exchange. Cash remuneration does not include payments made...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(8)-1 - Payments for agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... made prior to January 1, 1988, see § 31.3121(a)(8)-1 in effect at such time (see 26 CFR part 31 contained in the edition of 26 CFR parts 30 to 39, revised as of April 1, 2006). ... remuneration paid in any medium other than cash for agricultural labor. For meaning of the term...

  13. Farm Labor Contractors in California. California Agricultural Studies, 92-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Howard R.; And Others

    Farm labor contractors (FLCs) have become increasingly important in California agriculture. This report examines FLC background characteristics, business practices, and relationships with employers and farm workers, many of whom are seasonal and migrant workers. Over 300 FLCs, farm workers, and growers were interviewed in five California regions.…

  14. Problems of Manpower in Agriculture. OECD Documentation in Food and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Problems related to rapid reduction of the agricultural labor force were examined in the 21 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The size and changes of the agricultural labor force, economic forces tending towards change, technical requirements for labor in agriculture, and obstacles hindering economic adjustment of…

  15. Intercountry comparisons of labor force trends and of related developments: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mincer, J

    1985-01-01

    This paper is a survey of analyses of women's labor force growth in 12 industrialized countries, presented at a conference in Sussex, England in 1983. The main focus is on growth of the labor force of married women from 1960-1980; trends in fertility, wages, and family instability are discussed. In all countries, wages of women were lower than wages of men, although between 1960 and 1980 labor force rates of married women rose in most of the industrialized countries. 2 factors that are associated with this growth are declines in fertility and increases in divorce rates. The 12 countries studied are: 1) Australia, 2) Britain, 3) France, 4) Germany, 5) Israel, 6) Italy, 7) Japan, 8) Netherlands, 9) Spain, 10) Sweden, 11) US, and 12) USSR. The substitution variables (wages of women or their education) have strong positive effects on labor force participation in most cases, and in most cases the positive wage elasticities exceed the negative income elasticities by a sizable margin. A summary table estimating parameters of the P-function for each country, and their predictive performance in time series, are included. From 1960-1980 the average per country growth in participation of married women was 2.84% per year. Wages of working women, in this same period grew, on average, faster than wages of men in most countries, in part due to selectivity by education in labor force growth. While growth rates of real wages across countries have a weak relation with the differential growth rates of married women's labor force, the relation is strong when country parameters are taken into account. The dominance of the "discouraged" over the "added" workers in female labor force growth appears to be upheld internationally. On the average, total fertility rate dropped from 2.42 in 1970 to 1.85 in 1980. Both fertility declines and the growth of family instability appear to represent lagged effects of longer term developments in the labor force of women. Women's wages are lower than

  16. CGE Simulation Analysis on the Labor Transfer, Agricultural Technical Progress, and Economic Development in Chongqing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Ran, Maosheng

    2014-01-01

    The basic structure of a CGE model dividing Mainland China into two parts, including Chongqing and rest regions, is described. Based on this CGE model, both the unilateral impact and collaborative impact of two policies, agricultural technical progress and supporting policies for improving rural labor transfer on the economic development in Chongqing, are simulated and analyzed. The results demonstrate that compared with the sum of each unilateral policy effect, the collaboration of two policies has more effective impact on facilitating the labor transfer, promoting regional economic growth, and improving income and welfare of urban and rural residents. PMID:24892037

  17. A Report of the Child Labor Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Bureau of Labor and Industry, Portland.

    A task force studied youth work and its impact on the health, education, and safety of 16- and 17-year-olds. The study covered such issues as the following: effects of work on school performance, work's physical and psychological effects on young people, the effects work can have on young people's preparation for lifelong work, and what steps can…

  18. Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether international…

  19. Geographic concentration and driving forces of agricultural land use in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuluan; Li, Xiubin; Xin, Liangjie; Hao, Haiguang

    2012-03-01

    Since the 1990s, China has entered the middle phase of urbanization which leads to the existence of significant geographic concentration of agricultural land use. The average value of regional concentration degree of ten representative crops in China was 59.03%, showing a high degree of geographic concentration in farming. Some typical agriculture provinces in farming have arisen. The degree of geographic concentration in farming has been enhanced, with the average degree of regional concentration of ten crops increasing considerably by 3.83% in 2009 compared to that in 1990 (55.20%). The spatial growing center of farming was found to move westward and northward during 1990-2009. Meanwhile food production concentrated in the Northeast China and main producing area, and cash crops production concentrated in Northwest China. Off-farm employment of rural labor force, commercialization of agricultural product and regional comparative advantage are the main driving forces of geographic concentration of agricultural land use. Governmental policies with regional differences should be considered to promote further development of agriculture.

  20. Nonmetro Youth in the Labor Force. Rural Development Research Report No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Sigurd R.

    Data from the March 1976 Current Population Survey indicate that both metro and nonmetro areas face severe youth employment problems. Although 25% of the total United States labor force is comprised of youth aged 16-24, youth account for 50% of the total number of persons unemployed. Unemployment rates for metro and nonmetro youth are equal;…

  1. Quantifying the Dynamics of Chinese Labor Force: A Life Table Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Dejian

    2007-01-01

    Based on the recent three population censuses of China, in this article, we used life table technique to compute the expected years of working life for the Chinese labor force in the primary, secondary and tertiary industries in 1982, 1990 and 2000. We found, after two decades of economic reform, the expected years of working life in the primary…

  2. Maternal Labor Force Participation and Child Well-Being in Public Assistance Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secret, Mary; Peck-Heath, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between maternal labor force participation and the general health and school performance of school-age children in public assistance families. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 97 mothers drawn from a random sample of public assistance recipients in one community. Using a measure of…

  3. Socioeconomic Background, Education, and Labor Force Outcomes: Evidence from a Regional US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Cortina, Kai S.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term association of family socioeconomic status (SES), educational, and labor force outcomes in a regional US longitudinal sample (N = 2264). The results offer insights into the mechanisms underlying the role of family SES in transitions from secondary schooling to early work experiences. It was found that the academic…

  4. Labor Force Participation Rates among Working-Age Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes four consecutive years of monthly labor force participation rates reported by the Current Population Survey that included nationally representative samples of the general U.S. population and nationally representative samples of the U.S. population with specifically identified disabilities. Visual impairment is one of the…

  5. Employment of Recent College Graduates, October 1972. Special Labor Force Report No. 169.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne M.

    Unprecedented numbers of young college graduates entered the labor force in the late 1960's and early 1970's. At the same time, there was a slackening in the demand for professional workers in several sectors of the economy, such as research and development and education, which have traditionally provided employment for new degree recipients. This…

  6. Childcare, Eldercare, and Labor Force Participation of Married Women in Urban China, 1982-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer-Fazio, Margaret; Connelly, Rachel; Chen, Lan; Tang, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    We employ Chinese population census data to consider married, urban women's labor force participation decisions in the context of their families. We find that the presence in the household of a parent, parent-in-law, or person aged 75 or older increases prime-age women's likelihood of participating in market work. The presence of preschool-aged…

  7. Labor Force Experiences of a National Sample of Young Adult Men: The Role of Drug Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine on the following aspects of labor force experience: (1) earnings; (2) stability of employment; (3) gaps between employment spells; and (4) duration of unemployment. Illicit drug use was found to have an impact on all factors except earnings. (JS)

  8. Older Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: Selected Labor Force Characteristics. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert P.

    This report presents the labor force characteristics of older doctoral scientists and engineers using data from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) from 1997. The information presented in the report includes employment, education, and demographic data on all graduate degrees considering the age factor. (YDS)

  9. Using the Service Economy to Relieve the Double Burden: Female Labor Force Participation and Service Purchases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oropesa, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    Used national survey data from over 700 respondents to examine how wives' labor force participation affects extent to which families use market economy to provide goods and services traditionally produced by women. Found that full-time working wives were more likely than wives at home to purchase cleaning and meal preparation services. (Author/NB)

  10. Changes in Labor Force Participation, Employment and In-Migration in Sub-National Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Seymour; Schiffel, Dennis

    The report presents the results of a study which indicate that demographic comparisons of labor force participation rates are most fruitfully made on the basis of sex, age, educational attainment, presence of small children, race, and marital status. Also that the most important demographic comparisons of groups employment (unemployment) rates are…

  11. Can Social Security Explain Trends in Labor Force Participation of Older Men in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.; Goodstein, Ryan M.

    2010-01-01

    After a long decline, the Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) of older men in the United States leveled off in the 1980s, and began to increase in the late 1990s. We examine how changes in Social Security rules affected these trends. We attribute only a small portion of the decline from the 1960s-80s to the increasing generosity of Social…

  12. Effect of Female Education and Labor Force Ratio on Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turanli, Munevver; Taspinar Cengiz, Dicle; Turanli, Rona; Akdal, Serem

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of women's education and labor force ratio on the level of development in countries. We use a complete dataset covering 44 countries over the period 1990-2010. It comprises the following: education index, the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education, income per capita, human development index,…

  13. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  14. Are Mathematics and Science Test Scores Good Indicators of Labor-Force Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shiu-Sheng; Luoh, Ming-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), we investigate the link between test scores (mathematics and science) and cross-country income differences. We would like to know whether test scores are good indicators of labor-force quality. The…

  15. Agricultural Child Labor Provisions of FLSA, 1975; Hearing before the Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session (Presque Isle, Maine, January 18, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    A provision of the 1974 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) prohibited children under the age of 12 from working in agriculture, except on their parents' farms. Purpose of this provision was to codify as a matter of national social policy that children under 12 should not work for hire in agriculture or any other industry, where they…

  16. The Implications of Changing Family Patterns and Behavior for Labor Force and Hardship Measurement. Background Paper No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Harold W.; Skidmore, Felicity

    Two major points are discussed concerning the implications of changing family patterns and behavior for labor force and hardship measurement. First, since household income is not restricted to the earnings of one individual, economic hardship cannot be measured by labor force statistics. Arguing that the poverty count is the appropriate measure of…

  17. An Assessment of Labor Force Projections through 2018: Will Workers Have the Education Needed for the Available Jobs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Johnson, Hans; Li, Qian; Schiff, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The impending retirement of the baby boom cohort could pose dramatic challenges for the U.S. labor force for at least two reasons. First, the boomers--adults born between 1946 and 1964--are large in number. Second, boomers are relatively well educated. In this report we develop and analyze occupational and labor force projections to the year 2018,…

  18. [The Sao Paulo labor force: a critical analysis of data sources].

    PubMed

    Costa, L B

    1990-01-01

    The author traces the recent evolution of the labor force in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. After a comparison of the two main sources of labor statistics, the decennial census and the annual survey entitled Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios, her findings are presented separately by sex for the period 1971-1988. An increase in the number of women who are heads of households is shown across most age groups and all types of union. Data are also included by sex on educational status, unemployment, residence characteristics, and hours of work.

  19. Labor force participation and fertility: a study of married women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Miah, M M; Mizan, A N

    1992-01-01

    Most researchers support the notion that a direct negative relationship exists between married women's labor force participation and fertility behavior, yet female employment shows no consistent, general relationship with declining fertility at individual and societal levels. Specific conditions under which employment lowers fertility are therefore explored for the case of Bangladesh. The economic, sociological, and world-system theoretical approaches to the relationship and empirical studies in developing countries including Bangladesh are reviewed. 1975-76 Bangladesh Fertility Survey data on births, deaths, nuptiality, and family planning knowledge and practice for 5772 currently married women of 6513 ever married women under 50 sampled are subjected to multivariate analysis for the study. Analysis revealed that women's modern and traditional occupation as well as higher and secondary education significantly lower their fertility, and that higher age, Islamic religion, use of modern contraceptives, and husband's occupation in transitional and modern sectors have significant positive effects on fertility. The correlation between higher fertility and contraceptive use may be due to women's delay in practicing family planning until reaching desired parity and/or high infant mortality driving women to cease practice in order to replace lost offspring. Future research should be conducted with larger samples and also consider occupations of both husbands and wives. Societal attitudes about women's education should be reformed in support of opening rural schools for women. With 90% of women residing in rural areas and women with traditional occupations having lower fertility, more traditional sector opportunities for women in cottage industry and agriculture production are also recommended, and would help balance skewed urban growth and hypertrophication of the tertiary sector. Finally, motivational efforts should be focused upon encouraging younger instead of older

  20. Today's girls in tomorrow's labor force: projecting their participation and occupations.

    PubMed

    Waldman, E

    1985-03-01

    Bureau of Labor Statistics data indicate dramatic changes in female employment over the last 25 years. In July 1984, 44% of all American workers were women, compared with 30% in 1950. The proportion of women in the labor force rose from 34% in 1950 to 54% in 1984; male participation rate during the same period dropped from 86% to 78%. Between 1950 and 1977, the worklife expectancy of a 20-year-old woman jumped from 14.5 years to 26 years, while that of men declined from 41.4 years to 36.8 years. The greatest changes in female participation in the labor force occurred among women from 25 to 34 years old. In 1970, only 45% of this age group participated in the labor force; a moderate growth scenario projects that 80% of this group will be in the labor force in 1995. Gains for women in terms of higher paying employment and earnings have not been as rapid. Most women are still employed in low-paying occupations traditionally identified with women. While 20% of managerial and professional jobs are now occupied by women, more than 42.5% of all working women are employed in traditionally low-paying sales or clerical and administrative support occupations. Women are 2.5 to 3 times more likely than men to work part-time. The ratio of women's full-time median weekly earnings to men's stood at 66% in 1983, reflecting only a small gain over 62% in 1973. Occupational projections indicate that service-producing industries will account for 75% of all new jobs before 1995. Manufacturing industries will account for another 17%. Opportunities for women are open in these areas, but employment and salaries will depend on such factors as experience, ability, region, firm or industry, hours worked, and unionization.

  1. 76 FR 79711 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... agricultural labor or services (H-2A workers). AEWRs are the minimum wage rates the Department has determined... collective bargaining wage, if applicable; or (v) the Federal or State minimum wage, in effect at the time... Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and...

  2. 78 FR 1259 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... perform agricultural labor or services. AEWRs are the minimum wage rates the Department has determined... collective bargaining wage rate, if applicable; or (v) the Federal or State minimum wage rate, in effect at... Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and...

  3. 76 FR 11286 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... the time the work is performed; (ii) the applicable prevailing wage; or (iii) the statutory minimum... Agriculture in the United States: 2011 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers... Department of Labor (Department) is issuing this Notice to announce: (1) The 2011 Adverse Effect Wage...

  4. Welfare Reform and Labor Force Exit by Young, Low-Skilled Single Males.

    PubMed

    Groves, Lincoln H

    2016-04-01

    While the labor market woes of low-skilled male workers in the United States over the past several decades have been well documented, the academic literature identifying causal factors leading to declines in labor force participation (LFP) by young, low-skilled males remains scant. To address this gap, I use the timing and characteristics of welfare-reform policies implemented during the 1990s and fixed-effects, instrumental variable regression modeling to show that policies seeking to increase LFP rates for low-skilled single mothers inadvertently led to labor force exit by young, low-skilled single males. Using data from the Current Population Survey and a bundle of work inducements enacted by states throughout the 1990s as exogenous variation in a quasi-experimental design, I find that the roughly 10 percentage point increase in LFP for low-skilled single mothers facilitated by welfare reform resulted in a statistically significant 2.8 percentage point decline in LFP for young, low-skilled single males. After conducting a series of robustness checks, I conclude that this result is driven entirely by white males, who responded to welfare-reform policies with a 3.7 percentage point decline in labor supply. Young black males, as well as other groups of potentially affected workers, appear to be uninfluenced by the labor supply response of less-educated single mothers to welfare reform. Impacts on young, single white males are large and economically significant, suggesting that nearly 150,000 males departed the formal labor market in response to directed welfare-reform policies. PMID:26912351

  5. The impact of work-limiting disability on labor force participation.

    PubMed

    Webber, Douglas A; Bjelland, Melissa J

    2015-03-01

    According to the justification hypothesis, non-employed individuals may over-report their level of work limitation, leading to biased census/survey estimates of the prevalence of severe disabilities and the associated labor force participation rate. For researchers studying policies which impact the disabled or elderly (e.g., Supplemental Security Income, Disability Insurance, and Early Retirement), this could lead to significant bias in key parameters of interest. Using the American Community Survey, we examine the potential for both inflated and deflated reported disability status and generate a general index of disability, which can be used to reduce the bias of these self-reports in other studies. We find that at least 4.8 million individuals have left the labor force because of a work-limiting disability, at least four times greater than the impact implied by our replication of previous models.

  6. The Effect of Minimum Wages on the Labor Force Participation Rates of Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessels, Walter J.

    In light of pressure on Congress to raise the minimum wage from $5.15 to $6.15 per hour, a study looked at the effects such a raise would have on more than 10 million workers, many of them teenagers. The study used quarterly data on the labor force participation rates of teenagers from 1978 through 1999 and other studies to assess the effects of…

  7. Labor force participation at older ages in the Western Pacific: A microeconomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Agree, E M; Clark, R L

    1991-10-01

    Retirement has become a very important stage of life for persons in developed countries. Life expectancy for those over age 60 has increased markedly. Rising real income and the institution of broad based social security systems have encouraged older workers to leave the labor force at younger ages. p]Reductions in older age mortality have also affected the less developed regions. Increases in the number of older persons, coupled with continuing high fertility, have increased the size of the working age population through both large entry cohorts and longevity of current workers. The capacity of the economy to absorb this growth is severely limited. As a result, labor force decisions by older individuals will be of increasing importance.This study provides new evidence on labor force decisions in four developing countries in the Western Pacific: Fiji, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. A uniform survey sponsored by the World Health Organization in the four countries of persons aged 60 and over is employed to estimate the determinants of work decisions. PMID:24390608

  8. Labor force participation at older ages in the Western Pacific: A microeconomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Agree, E M; Clark, R L

    1991-10-01

    Retirement has become a very important stage of life for persons in developed countries. Life expectancy for those over age 60 has increased markedly. Rising real income and the institution of broad based social security systems have encouraged older workers to leave the labor force at younger ages. p]Reductions in older age mortality have also affected the less developed regions. Increases in the number of older persons, coupled with continuing high fertility, have increased the size of the working age population through both large entry cohorts and longevity of current workers. The capacity of the economy to absorb this growth is severely limited. As a result, labor force decisions by older individuals will be of increasing importance.This study provides new evidence on labor force decisions in four developing countries in the Western Pacific: Fiji, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. A uniform survey sponsored by the World Health Organization in the four countries of persons aged 60 and over is employed to estimate the determinants of work decisions.

  9. Labor migration in Southern Africa and agricultural development: some lessons from Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Plath, J C; Holland, D W; Carvalho, J W

    1987-01-01

    Using Lesotho as a case study, this paper presents an analytical framework regarding certain policy issues relevant to agriculture becoming a viable alternative to migration for employment and income. 60% of adult Basotho (people of Lesotho) males between the ages of 20 and 44 are employed in the mines in South Africa. About 70% of rural households in Lesotho have at least 1 member who is a migrant. In recent years, over 40% of Lesotho's gross national product has come from mine wages. Migrant remittances contributed about 65% of rural household incomes in the late 1970s. Future opportunities for migrant employment will either remain at current levels or decline as mining becomes less labor intensive and South Africa gives priority to employing local blacks. In Lesotho, only about 2% of the land is arable. Also, the impact of so much migration to South Africa has a direct effect on labor available to Lesotho agriculture. To estimate indirectly the costs of migration, 34 Basotho migrants employed in the South African mines were interviewed in the Nyakosoba area in 1983. Results show that the cost of migration was valued at 40% of their annual average income in 1983. There is sparse ownership of and access to land and oxen; there is also a scarcity of agricultural equipment. The authors calculate that 1) returns from growing traditional field crops using traditional technology are abysmally low, 2) net return from growing the same crops with improved technology are greatly improved, and 3) the commercial planting and cultivation of fruit trees would yield net returns that far exceed the amounts most surveyed migrants indicated would be sufficient to stop them from migrating. Constraints to improved technology adoption include 1) investment in fixed capital and variable inputs, 2) higher levels of management and knowledge of how to use the technology, 3) the necessity to quit mine work and pursue agriculture full time. Production risk needs to be reduced. Orchard

  10. 75 FR 45091 - Notice of Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture... Designated Federal Official. Mr. Schmidt may be contacted at the Department of Agriculture, Natural...

  11. 77 FR 1913 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Meeting..., Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, Post Office Box 2890, Washington, DC...

  12. Labor Force Participation in Formal Work-Related Education in 2000-01. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2005-048

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lisa; Bhandari, Rajika; Peter, Katharin; Bills, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Of the many purposes education serves in society, one of the most important is to prepare people for work. In today's economy, education is important not just to help adults enter the labor market, but also to ensure that adults remain marketable throughout their working lives. This report examines how adults in the labor force use formal…

  13. The Effects of Year-Round Schools on the Hospitality Industry's Seasonal Labor Force in the State of Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickeral, Lyn M.; Hubbard, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Data collected from 66 managers in Tennessee tourist attractions indicate that 53 percent of seasonal workers in Tennessee come from the school system. The proposal to implement year-round schools would drastically increase the tourism industry's labor shortage. An alternative labor force needs to be identified and the issue of year-round schools…

  14. Labor force status transitions at older ages in the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, 1970-1990.

    PubMed

    Raymo, J M; Cornman, J C

    1999-09-01

    While there is considerable evidence of a trend toward earlier retirement in the United States and Europe, trends in rapidly growing economies in other parts of the world have not been closely examined. This paper traces the labor force participation rates of older men and women in four Asian countries, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, over the period of 1970 to 1990. Aggregate census data are used to calculate net transitions into and out of the labor force so as to permit the analysis of differences by country and cohort as well as change over time. Results show that, although men exhibit a general trend toward earlier net labor force exit, labor force participation rates at older ages remain high. Older women are found to be increasingly engaged in economic activity, especially in Singapore and Taiwan.

  15. WORKING AND CARING: THE SIMULTANEOUS DECISION OF LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND INFORMAL ELDERLY AND CHILD SUPPORT ACT IVITIES IN MEXICO*

    PubMed Central

    van Gameren, Edwin; Velandia Naranjo, Durfari

    2016-01-01

    We analyze factors determining women’s decisions to participate in the labor market and provide elderly care and nonfinancial support to their (grand)children. We use data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a survey of people aged 50 and over, applying a three-equation, reduced-form SUR model. Results suggest that care needs are the driving force behind caregiving activities. Traditional roles also appear to be relevant in the labor force participation decision: women with a closer labor market connection when they were young are more likely to work. Simulations of demographic changes illustrate potential effects for future caregiving and participation rates. PMID:26924883

  16. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Logan, John R; Rivera Drew, Julia A

    2011-02-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants.

  17. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Rivera Drew, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants. PMID:24009398

  18. 78 FR 69541 - Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... rulemaking (NPRM). 74 FR 45906 (Sept. 4, 2009). After considering comments from the public on the subject... Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States, 75 FR 6884 (Feb. 12, 2010). The effect of..., Health professions, Immigration, Labor, Longshore and harbor work, Migrant workers, Nonimmigrant...

  19. Mexican Contract Workers and the U.S. Capitalist Agricultural Labor Process: The Formative Era, 1942-1964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mize, Ronald L., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Rural sociologists have seemingly moved away from an active interest in the plight of migrant farmworkers and the centrality of their labor in the development of U.S. agribusiness. Answering Pfeffer's (1983) call to analyze the different forms of agricultural production, I focus on the key formative period of what I refer to as the U.S. capitalist…

  20. Drought, Agriculture, and Labor: Understanding Drought Impacts and Vulnerability in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hazardous drought impacts are a product of not only the physical intensity of drought, but also the economic, social, and environmental characteristics of the region exposed to drought. Drought risk management requires understanding the complex links between the physical and human dimensions of drought. Yet, there is a research gap in identifying and explaining the socio-economic complexities of drought in the context of the first world, especially for economic and socially marginal groups who rely on seasonal and temporary jobs. This research uses the current drought in California as a case study to identify the socioeconomic impacts of drought on farmworker communities in California's San Joaquin Valley, with a specific focus on the relationship between drought and agricultural labor. Through both a narrative analysis of drought coverage in newspaper media, drought policy documents, and interviews with farmworkers, farmers, community based organizations, and government officials in the San Joaquin Valley, this research aims to highlight the different understandings and experiences of the human impacts of drought and drought vulnerability in order to better inform drought risk planning and policy.

  1. 75 FR 8917 - Notice of a Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of a Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of a meeting..., Natural Resources Conservation Service, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 6165 South...

  2. 77 FR 41165 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Department...

  3. 78 FR 10127 - Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of... Resources Conservation Service, 1201 Lloyd Boulevard, Suite 1000, Portland, Oregon 97232, or by email...

  4. National Office for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 93rd Congress, 2nd Session on H.R. 12257, September 26, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Categorical programs presently delivering services to migrant and seasonal farmworkers are diffusely spread throughout several departments and agencies of the Federal Government. On September 26, 1974, the House of Representatives Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor of the Committee on Education and Labor met to hear testimony on H.R. 12257 and…

  5. Improving health and safety conditions in agriculture through professional training of Florida farm labor supervisors.

    PubMed

    Morera, Maria C; Monaghan, Paul F; Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Roka, Fritz M; Asuaje, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Because farm labor supervisors (FLSs) are responsible for ensuring safe work environments for thousands of workers, providing them with adequate knowledge is critical to preserving worker health. Yet a challenge to offering professional training to FLSs, many of whom are foreign-born and have received different levels of education in the US and abroad, is implementing a program that not only results in knowledge gains but meets the expectations of a diverse audience. By offering bilingual instruction on safety and compliance, the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) FLS Training program is helping to improve workplace conditions and professionalize the industry. A recent evaluation of the program combined participant observation and surveys to elicit knowledge and satisfaction levels from attendees of its fall 2012 trainings. Frequency distributions and dependent- and independent-means t-tests were used to measure and compare participant outcomes. The evaluation found that attendees rated the quality of their training experience as either high or very high and scored significantly better in posttraining knowledge tests than in pretraining knowledge tests across both languages. Nonetheless, attendees of the trainings delivered in English had significantly higher posttest scores than attendees of the trainings delivered in Spanish. As a result, the program has incorporated greater standardization of content delivery and staff development. Through assessment of its program components and educational outcomes, the program has documented its effectiveness and offers a replicable approach that can serve to improve the targeted outcomes of safety and health promotion in other states.

  6. Fertility behavior and labor force participation: a model of lexicographic choice.

    PubMed

    Encarnacion, J J

    1982-01-01

    Evidence exists that a smaller family size is usually associated with female employment and that fertility rises with family income and the wife's education at relatively low levels of income and education. Only at higher levels is there the generally expected relationship that fertility declines with more education or income. Due to the fact that a woman's labor force participation and her fertility are aspects of behavior of the same person (or couple), they should be explained by a model of choice. Such a model is presented, and empirical evidence is cited. In particular, the model allows for a fertility decline even before a decline in mortality during the demographic transition. The model of choice involves threshold values of education and income, such that the marginal effects of these variables on fertility and labor supply are qualitatively different below and above the threshold. The model is in conformity with cross-section regressions using Philippine data and appears to explain why various studies give positive, zero, or negative regression coefficients relating fertility to education and income when standard linear regression specifications are used. Such results would depend on the proportions of families falling below and above the thresholds in the sample of observations. The model also implies that the fertility effects of a child mortality decline on those proportions, meaning that one could have lower mortality without affecting fertility levels. From a policy perspective, the broad implications of the model are distrubing. Development that raises very low income and education levels would increase fertility and so would a more egalitarian distribution of the same low aggregate income. It is necessary to shift the underlying functions so that the thresholds become as low as possible, but general economic development may be too slow for this purpose.

  7. Work-Family Spillover and Daily Reports of Work and Family Stress in the Adult Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.; McDonald, Daniel A.

    2002-01-01

    Data from two affiliated national surveys were used to examine distribution of work-family spillover among working adults. Analyses testing family life course hypotheses indicated self-reported negative and positive spillover between work and family were not randomly distributed within the labor force. Age was found to have a persistent…

  8. Comparing Employment Outcomes of Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers with Hearing Loss to Other Consumers and the General Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capella, Michele E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines four different aspects of employment that can be used to evaluate vocational rehabilitation (VR) outcomes beyond successful closure. Comparisons were made among VR consumers with hearing loss, VR consumers with other disabilities, and the general labor force. Results indicate that differences between both consumer groups and the general…

  9. The Determinants of Labor Force Participation Rates, with Special Reference to the Ozark Low-Income Area. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmeyer, Robert L.; Warner, Larkin B.

    The study's primary purpose was to identify and evaluate the relative importance of factors responsible for the generally low labor force participation rates observable in the Ozark Low-Income Area, and variations in rates within the area itself. The study focused on 108 contiguous, rural-oriented, low-income counties in the states of Arkansas,…

  10. Occupational and Educational Structures of the Labor Force and Levels of Economic Development: Further Analyses and Statistical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jallade, Jean-Pierre; And Others

    The volume is the second of two and presents additional statistical analyses of data discussed in the first, which presented 1960 and 1961 census data from 53 countries in an attempt to identify and quantify factors which determined the occupational and educational structure of the labor force. The second volume consists of eight chapters: (1) a…

  11. The Arizona Farm Labor Law: In the Fields and in the Courts. A Review of the Arizona Farm Labor Law and a Review of Industrial Relations in Arizona Agriculture. Occasional Paper Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harold C.; Gibney, William

    Agricultural labor and management relations in Arizona were reviewed from the time of the passage of the Arizona Agricultural Relations Act in May 1972 until the ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court in August 1979 that the act was constitutional. Viewing the act as antilabor, the United Farm Workers (UFW) Union fought its passage. Church and Indian…

  12. Women of Hispanic Origin in the Labor Force. Facts on Working Women No. 89-1 = La mujer de origen hispano en la fuerza laboral. Facts on Working Women Num. 89-1S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Data on Hispanic women in the labor force between 1978 and 1988 show the following: (1) 6.5 percent of the women in the work force in 1988 were of Hispanic origin (3.6 million); (2) the median age of Hispanic women was 26.1 years, 2-5 years younger than Black or White women; (3) 66 percent of Hispanic women participate in the labor force, a higher…

  13. The Occupational Mobility of Current and Former Farm Workers: A Comparative Analysis in Two California Labor Markets. California Agricultural Studies, 91-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Susan; Goldring, Luin

    This report examines the occupational mobility of agricultural workers in two California labor markets and the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act and individual, job, and labor-market characteristics on such mobility. Interviews were conducted among a randomly selected sample of 162 households, which included 401 workers in southern…

  14. 76 FR 74755 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (USDA) proposes to amend the Agriculture Acquisition Regulation (the ``AGAR'') to... Violations to the Agriculture Acquisition Regulation (AGAR). The AGAR may be accessed at: http://www.dm.usda.gov/procurement/policy/agar.html . This clause is to be included in all USDA contracts that exceed...

  15. Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions. PMID:23570510

  16. Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions.

  17. Older Workers: Policies of Other Nations To Increase Labor Force Participation. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Special Committee on Aging, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) studied selected nations' policies to increase the number of older workers participating in the labor force. The main data collection activities were as follows: (1) an analysis of population and labor force data from eight high-income Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development member nations; (2) an…

  18. The Labor Market in the Central California Raisin Industry: Five Years after IRCA. California Agricultural Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Andrew; And Others

    This report examines the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) on the raisin industry's labor market, and provides educators with background on California migrant workers and their deteriorating working conditions. Because the raisin harvest lasts only 3-4 weeks but employs 40,000-50,000 workers, any effects of IRCA on…

  19. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  20. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability.

  1. 76 FR 52932 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Air.... Dave White, Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. BILLING CODE 3410-16-P...

  2. Entomopathogenic and plant pathogenic nematodes as opposing forces in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Eric; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are responsible for substantial damages within the agriculture industry every year, which is a challenge that has thus far gone largely unimpeded. Chemical nematicides have been employed with varying degrees of success, but their implementation can be cumbersome, and furthermore they could potentially be neutralising an otherwise positive effect from the entomopathogenic nematodes that coexist with plant-parasitic nematodes in soil environments and provide protection for plants against insect pests. Recent research has explored the potential of employing entomopathogenic nematodes to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes, while providing their standard degree of protection against insects. The interactions involved are highly complex, due to both the three-organism system and the assortment of variables present in a soil environment, but a strong collection of evidence has accumulated regarding the suppressive capacity of certain entomopathogenic nematodes and their mutualistic bacteria, in the context of limiting the infectivity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Specific factors produced by certain entomopathogenic nematode complexes during the process of insect infection appear to have a selectively nematicidal, or at least repellant, effect on plant-parasitic nematodes. Using this information, an opportunity has formed to adapt this relationship to large-scale, field conditions and potentially relieve the agricultural industry of one of its most substantial burdens.

  3. Ultrasociality and the sexual divisions of labor.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Pamela; Caporael, Linnda R

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasociality thesis proposes that the same "mechanistic evolutionary forces" may be at work in the evolution of insect eusociality and human ultrasociality in relation to agriculture. Wide variation in the reproductive division of labor among differing highly social phyla points to a resemblance of outcomes arising from very different selective environments and possibly different forces. PMID:27561830

  4. Migrant Agricultural Labor in Wisconsin: A Short History. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Muirragui, Eileen

    Examining the relationship between certain sectors of Wisconsin agriculture and their need for seasonal workers, the paper traces the use of farm workers of European origin in the early 1900's through their replacement in the 1930's by Hispanic migrants (Mexican nationals and people of Mexican heritage living in southern Texas) and the use of…

  5. The Dacha Debate: Household Agriculture and Labor Markets in Post-Socialist Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Caleb

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines the relationship among household agriculture, wages and household structure using panel data on urban households from 1994-2003. Experts using cross-sectional data differ on whether Russian "dachas" or garden houses are a survival strategy that households use in times of economic difficulty or a hobby of the more affluent. This…

  6. A Study of the Participation of Women in the Health Care Industry Labor Force. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebowitz, Ann, Ed.

    A study was conducted to explore the relationship between socioeconomic and personal circumstances of women in health occupations and their labor market behavior. Using a conceptual framework (the Life Patterning Process), discussions were held in six states with a total of 279 women representing five health occupations: registered nurses,…

  7. Family Migration and Labor Force Outcomes: Sex Differences in Occupational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shauman, Kimberlee A.; Noonan, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical analyses of sex differences in the career consequences of family migration have focused on adjudicating between the human capital and the gender-role explanations but have ignored the potential influence of gender inequality in the structure of the labor market. In this paper we estimate conditional difference-in-difference models with…

  8. The Impact of Education on the Female Labor Force in Argentina and Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainerman, Catalina H.

    1980-01-01

    The author attempts to identify which females, in different educational levels and family situations, have a greater propensity to participate in the labor market and to evaluate how formal education and marital status influence this propensity. Data are drawn from the latest available censuses of Argentina (1970) and Paraguay (1972). (Author/SJL)

  9. Trends in the Higher Education Labor Force: Identifying Changes in Worker Composition and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education is a labor-intensive industry whose primary service, instruction, is delivered by a lecturer, accompanied by administrative support and various other services. Growing student enrollment necessitates some additional staffing; however, one would think that the recent and ongoing technological boom would have lessened the labor…

  10. The social and cultural life of the prisoners in the Jewish forced labor camp at Skarzysko-Kamienna.

    PubMed

    Karay, F

    1994-01-01

    The article discusses the social and cultural life among the Jewish prisoners at the Skarzysko-Kamienna forced labor camp in central Poland. The activities included organized observances of religious and national customs and creative arts and performances of many kinds. The activities served several functions for the artists and audiences. Whether as a source of income in the struggle for physical survival, or as a psychological escape from the terrible reality of daily life in the camp, or as a unifying element for the fragmented prisoner population, or as a from of political resistance, these social and cultural activities in the camp constitute a singular phenomenon in the history of the Holocaust.

  11. Agricultural Handling and Processing Industries; Data Pertinent to an Evaluation of Overtime Exemptions Available under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Volume II, Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Definitions of terms used in the Fair Labor Standards Act and statistical tables compiled from a survey of agricultural processing firms comprise this appendix, which is the second volume of a two volume report. Volume I is available as VT 012 247. (BH)

  12. Agricultural Handling and Processing Industries; Data Pertinent to an Evaluation of Overtime Exemptions Available under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report covers the major agricultural handling and processing industries qualifying for partial overtime exemption under the Fair Labor Standards Act and evaluates the need for such exemptions. Questionnaires which were sent to firms in various processing industries provide data on nearly 4,000 processors. The results show that existing…

  13. The Aftermath of the Bracero: A Study of the Economic Impact on the Agricultural Hired Labor Market of Michigan from the Termination of Public Law 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John Dancer

    To test the "stoop labor" hypotheses that the supply response of domestic migrants to increased wages would be inelastic, this study examined wage adjustment in Michigan agriculture after 1964, supply response to wage changes in the pickle industry, and acreage decline and capital substitution following the termination of the bracero program.…

  14. Caretaking as articulation work: the effects of taking up responsibility for a child with asthma on labor force participation.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Stefan; Freidin, Betina

    2007-10-01

    A well-established quantitative literature has documented the financial toll for women's caretaking. Still, we do not know much about the process by which women end up taking on an extensive caretaking role and what they do on a daily basis. Based on in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of fifty caretakers of school aged children with asthma and nine health professionals in the USA, this study examines how health professionals socialize mothers into an intensive caretaking role for their children with asthma, how mothers negotiated and perform that role, and the impact of care work on their labor force participation. Care providers assign broad caretaking tasks that require further articulation work to get the job done. Although mothers care for their children in varied ways, caring for a child with a chronic disease remains a time-consuming activity. Mothers pay a price for the indeterminate nature of articulation work by scaling back their involvement in the paid labor force. PMID:17590253

  15. Acculturation and conflict in Mexican immigrants' intimate partnerships: the role of women's labor force participation.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Rao, Pamela; Gentry, Amanda; Marín, Antonio; Arcury, Thomas A

    2009-10-01

    This study explores women's workforce participation as a potential agent for acculturation, and how it shapes conflict dynamics within intimate partnerships among Mexican immigrants. Analysis of in-depth interview data from 20 immigrant Mexican women and men believed to be in violent relationships indicated that women's employment following migration created several sources of intracouple conflict by challenging gender-based norms and behaviors surrounding the division of household labor, financial decision making, and how women and men interact within intimate relationships. Immigrant Latino women tended to embrace an assimilation strategy for acculturation, whereas immigrant Latino men embrace a separation strategy. PMID:19706779

  16. [The pathogens responsible for waterborne infections: the biological risk for agricultural laborer].

    PubMed

    Dragone, M; Gioffrè, A; Marramao, A

    2007-01-01

    The presence of microbiological agents in waters intended for human consumption, irrigation and recreational activity, is a significant risk for the human health. Recent epidemiological data demonstrate an increase of the diseases caused by waterborne pathogens, especially of the gastroenteritis infections, in the industrialized countries. Numerous studies have evidenced the contamination of deep and surface waters; bacteria within contaminated water represent a highly diversified group, that are usually encountered in wastewater and sewage. In particular the pollution of the groundwater is much dangerous, from the viewpoint of drinking water safety. In fact, the groundwaters whenever polluted, have an insufficient self-purification. The aim of this paper was to estimate the presence of waterborne pathogens in groundwater intended for the irrigation. Well water samples were collected at eighteen different agricultural areas located in Calabria and analyzed for the presence of waterborne pathogens. The results shows a diffuse pollution of the wells in all of the monitorated zones. Then out of eighteen examined samples were positive for total coliforms and Enterococcus spp. and the value of total microbial contamination were higher than 100 UFC/ml; eight of these ten wells were contaminated from Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. (minimal value 2x10(1) UFC/l; maximum value 2x10(3) UFC/l).

  17. Immigration, labor force integration and the pursuit of self-employment.

    PubMed

    Mata, F; Pendakur, R

    1999-01-01

    A correspondence analysis was used to examine the entire working life cycle of Canadian-born male age-education cohorts and immigrant male age-education cohorts who arrived during 1945-61. Data were drawn from the 1961 and 1971 census databases as well as the 1981 and 1991 public individual files. Findings support the existence of a split labor market based on immigrant status, particularly at the low end of the schooling spectrum. In 1961, immigrants with low levels of schooling were closely associated with the wage construction sector, whereas Canadian-born males below the high school level would most likely gravitate towards consumer services. Meanwhile, immigrants with a high school education were likely to be in consumer services; whereas, Canadian-born males with a high school education were closely aligned with public administration and distributive services. Moreover, immigrants with higher levels of schooling were less likely to work in ethnically dominated markets, while immigrants with low schooling moved into the self-employed construction sector. The existence of a split in the labor market was evident among workers with lower levels of schooling compared with university-educated workers.

  18. 76 FR 27003 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... discussions on critical air quality issues in relation to agriculture. Special emphasis will be placed on.... The meeting is open to the public, and a draft agenda is included in this notice. DATES: The AAQTF... of goals for Task Force during this charter Committee Designations F. Next Meeting, time/place...

  19. Economic and labor market forces matter for worker well-being.

    PubMed

    Tay, Louis; Harter, James K

    2013-07-01

    In light of recent interest in societal subjective well-being, policies that seek to improve the economy and labor markets need to address the question of whether economic factors matter for worker well-being, specifically job satisfaction. In a worldwide representative poll of 136 nations, economic factors are associated with job satisfaction beyond demographic and job factors. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that higher national GDP and job optimism was associated with job satisfaction, whereas higher unemployment was associated with job dissatisfaction. Mediational analyses revealed that economic variables (GDP and job optimism) were partially mediated by job satisfaction in predicting life satisfaction; full mediation was found for unemployment. In a second study, time series regression of monthly data from a nationally representative poll in the United States from 2008 to 2011 revealed that unemployment rate was significantly associated with job dissatisfaction over time. There was some evidence that prior unemployment rates predicted job satisfaction at a higher level than job satisfaction predicted unemployment rates, suggesting that economic factors lead to job (dis)satisfaction rather than the converse. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:23417992

  20. 78 FR 15741 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...\\ Maximum Per Diem Rates for the Continental United States (CONUS), 77 FR 54578 (Sept. 5, 2012); see also... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens...

  1. [Migrants from bordering countries in the labor force of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, 1980-1996].

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1997-04-01

    Data from the 1991 Argentine census indicate that migrants from neighboring countries at that date were maintaining patterns of entry into the labor force of Buenos Aires consistent with past tendencies. Migrants tended to be employed in less skilled manufacturing industries, construction, commerce, and domestic work, often filling positions rejected by the native population because of low wages and poor working conditions. Profound changes in the Argentine economy since 1991 have included rising unemployment and underemployment and a loss of productive jobs in industry and construction. A comparison of the occupational structure of migrants from neighboring countries and of the total population for the years 1980, 1991, and 1996 demonstrates that important changes in sectorial employment have occurred among both the native and immigrant populations, with the immigrant population increasingly relegated to ever smaller sectors of the labor market offering less attractive employment. Nearly half of the 841,697 persons immigrating in 1991 from countries bordering Argentina settled in the Buenos Aires metropolitan region, comprising 42.8% of foreigners in the metropolitan area and 3.7% of the total regional population. Of the population from border countries residing in Buenos Aires, 43% are Paraguayan, 28% Uruguayan, 15% Bolivian, 12% Chilean, and 2% Brazilian. The unemployment rate in Buenos Aires fluctuated between 4% and 6% during 1974-92, but it rose to 10.6% in 1993 and then to 18% in 1996. The underemployment rate rose from 4.6% in 1983 to 8.2% in 1993 and 12.6% in 1996.

  2. Does Education Pay in the Labor Market? The Labor Force Participation, Occupation, and Earnings of Peruvian Women. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper Number 67.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth M.

    This study examined how education and postschool vocational training affect the type and extent of labor market participation of women in Peru. It also estimated monetary returns to different levels of schooling, to formal general and technical schooling, and to training. The sample, which comprised more than 5,600 women in urban and rural Peru,…

  3. The Emergence of a Service Society: Demographic and Sociological Aspects of the Sectoral Transformation of the Labor Force in the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Harley L.; Singelmann, Joachim

    Sectoral transformation (inter-industry shifts), which is generally analyzed by use of the Fisher-Clark tri-partite division, is examined in this study dealing mainly with the 1960-1970 decade and based on the 1/100 sample of the 1960 and 1970 censuses. (The Fisher-Clark tri-partite division of labor involves a primary sector--agriculture, mining,…

  4. An empirical investigation of female labor-force participation, fertility, age at marriage, and wages in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, B S; Mcelwain, A M

    1985-07-01

    The Korean experience raises questions about the assumption that successful economic development and equitable income distribution are preconditions for rapid fertility declines. During the 1960-70 decade, the total fertility rate in Korea declined by 36% and the crude birth rate fell by 33%, in the absence of significant economic development. This paper uses data from the 1974 Korean Fertility Survey to explore the relationships between the factors responsible for this rapid fertility decline. A simultaneous equation model of fertility, age at marriage, extent of labor force participation during marriage, quality of children, and wages is developed and tested. Rather than to provide definitive measures of these interrelationships, the aim was to investigate the utility of treating several variables as being jointly determined. The results suggest that parental education affects fertility by influencing age at marriage, implying that adult education programs will have little effect on marital fertility. There was some evidence that working women whose jobs are compatible with child care have more children than nonworking women, a finding that should be considered in planning increased job opportunities for women. Urbanized women and those who work before marriage tend to marry later than their less urbanized counterparts or women who do not work prior to marriage. Finally, women who used modern methods of birth control had significantly lower fertility than nonusers of modern methods. There is concern that the Government has reduced budgetary appropriations to family planning since the goal of reducing the annual population growth rate from 3% in 1960 to 2% in 1970 was achieved. It is suggested that family planning expenditures should be deployed to areas such as urban slums that have not yet been reached by family planning programs.

  5. The Impact of Changing Climate on Ammonia Emissions from Agriculture and the Associated Climate Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Riddick, S. N.; Hess, P. G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest anthropogenic source of ammonia (NH3) on a global scale with major contributions from the application of synthetic fertilizer and manure from livestock. While strict controls are placed on the emissions of many industrial pollutants, NH3 concentrations are expected to increase this century. In addition to future expansion of agricultural activities that could lead to greater NH3 emissions, NH3 emissions are affected by changes in temperature and precipitation. Here we use a newly developed agricultural N pathways model running in a global terrestrial model (Community Land Model v4.0) to estimate future NH3 emissions from manure and synthetic fertilizer application, and the impact of changing climate on these emissions and other N pathways (runoff, denitrification, etc.). We include future increases in the application of manure and synthetic fertilizer that are consistent with a middle-of-the-road projection of population growth and per capita caloric intake. Combined with atmospheric forcing that follows RCP8.5, NH3 emissions increase by about 50% and 90% between years 2010 and 2100 from synthetic fertilizer and manure, respectively. Roughly 25% of this increase can be attributed to the changing climate, mainly increased global temperatures over the 21st century. We show associated changes in ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosol concentrations and radiative forcings, the results of a set of additional simulations using the Community Atmosphere Model v5.0 and an offline radiative transfer scheme. This work suggests that projections of global NH3 concentrations need to take changes in climate into account.

  6. 77 FR 12723 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Department) H-2A temporary labor certification program, Adverse Effect Wage Rates (AEWRs) are the minimum... bargaining wage, if applicable; or (v) the Federal or State minimum wage, in effect at the time the work is... Determining the Adverse Effect Wage Rate AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Department of...

  7. The Dilemmas of Modernizing Peasant Agriculture in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, Joseph A.

    In 1965, the Nigerian government charged Nigerian agriculture with the long term developmental task of providing: (1) an adequate and well balanced food supply for the increasing population; (2) agricultural raw materials for domestic industries; (3) agricultural export earnings; (4) employment for the increasing labor force; and (5) capital for…

  8. 78 FR 19019 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... State minimum wage, in effect at the time the work is performed, except where a special procedure has..., goatherding, and custom combine operations. 78 FR 1260 (Jan. 8, 2013) (``January 8 Notice''). These wages were... Agriculture in the United States: Prevailing Wage Rates for Certain Occupations Processed Under H-2A...

  9. 77 FR 16157 - Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... regulations at 20 CFR part 655, Subpart A. 76 FR 10038, Feb. 21, 2012. The rule becomes effective April 23...), and Other Technical Changes, 73 FR 78020, Dec. 19, 2008 (the current regulation), must be sent to the... Process for the Temporary Non- Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States;...

  10. Do College Students Make Better Predictions of Their Future Income than Young Adults in the Labor Force?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have considered whether American college students' hold "realistic" wage expectations. The consensus is that they do not--overestimation of future earnings is in the region of 40-50%. But is it just college students who overestimate the success they will have in the labor market, or is this something common to all…

  11. Employer Strategies for a Changing Labor Force: A Primer on Innovative Programs and Policies. Research Report 90-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitchik, Adam; And Others

    This guide is for employers to use in planning future human resources strategies. Part 1 focuses on three practical strategies germane to most labor and skill shortage problems. The first chapter reviews challenges employers face. Chapter 2 presents two basic strategies for strengthening entry-level recruitment and staffing: strengthening the…

  12. The Racial Wage Gap: The Importance of Labor Force Attachment Differences across Black, Mexican, and White Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antecol, Heather; Bedard, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Labor market attachment differs significantly across young black, Mexican, and white men. Although it has long been agreed that potential experience is a poor proxy for actual experience for women, many view it as an acceptable approximation for men. Using the NLSY, this paper documents the substantial difference between potential and actual…

  13. MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOUGLASS, M.R.; AND OTHERS

    CONDITIONS AND PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYMENT OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS AND MIGRANTS IN COLORADO ARE PRESENTED. THE FIVE MAJOR SEASONAL FARM LABOR STATE EMPLOYMENT AREAS ARE SURVEYED ACCORDING TO (1) THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SEASONAL FARM LABOR (4) TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, (5) COMMUNITY ATTITUDES AND…

  14. Labor migration in Asia.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1991-01-01

    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...."

  15. Driving forces of heavy metal changes in agricultural soils in a typical manufacturing center.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Menglong; Li, Fangbai; Wang, Qi; Chen, Junjian; Yang, Guoyi; Liu, Liming

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in 2002 and 2012 in agricultural soils in Dongguan, a manufacturing center in southern China, were analyzed to determine the impact of rapid economic development on soil pollution. The level of pollution was assessed using the Nemerow synthetic pollution index (NPI), and its changing characteristics and driving forces were analyzed using multivariate statistical and geostatistical methods. The results indicate that the mean NPI was 0.79 in 2002 and 0.84 in 2012, which indicates aggravated heavy metal contamination in the agricultural soils. The concentrations of Cd and Zn increased 54.7 and 20.8 %, respectively, whereas Hg and Pb decreased 35.3 and 24.5 %, respectively. Cr, As, Cu, and Ni remained relatively stable. The Hg and Cd concentrations were highly correlated with soil types (P < 0.01), the secondary industrial output per unit of land (P < 0.01), proportion of cereal fields (P < 0.01), proportion of vegetable fields (P < 0.01), population density (P < 0.05), and road density (P < 0.05). The Pb and As concentrations were greatly influenced by soil types (P < 0.01), river density (P < 0.01), fertilizer rate (P < 0.01), and road density (P < 0.05). Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni concentrations were primarily driven by soil types (P < 0.01), river density (P < 0.01), and fertilizer rate (P < 0.05).

  16. Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways in a World with Agricultural Climate Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, G. Page; Mueller, C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-02-28

    This study assesses how climate impacts on agriculture may change the evolution of the agricultural and energy systems in meeting the end-of-century radiative forcing targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We build on the recently completed ISI-MIP exercise that has produced global gridded estimates of future crop yields for major agricultural crops using climate model projections of the RCPs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). For this study we use the bias-corrected outputs of the HadGEM2-ES climate model as inputs to the LPJmL crop growth model, and the outputs of LPJmL to modify inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our results indicate that agricultural climate impacts generally lead to an increase in global cropland, as compared with corresponding emissions scenarios that do not consider climate impacts on agricultural productivity. This is driven mostly by negative impacts on wheat, rice, other grains, and oil crops. Still, including agricultural climate impacts does not significantly increase the costs or change the technological strategies of global, whole-system emissions mitigation. In fact, to meet the most aggressive climate change mitigation target (2.6 W/m2 in 2100), the net mitigation costs are slightly lower when agricultural climate impacts are considered. Key contributing factors to these results are (a) low levels of climate change in the low-forcing scenarios, (b) adaptation to climate impacts, simulated in GCAM through inter-regional shifting in the production of agricultural goods, and (c) positive average climate impacts on bioenergy crop yields.

  17. Inducing labor

    MedlinePlus

    Labor induction ... are many reasons why you may need labor induction. The induction of labor may be started before any signs ... Wing DA, Farinelli CK. Abnormal labor and induction of labor. In: Gabbe ... Pregnancies . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  18. Forces Affecting the Improvement and Implementation of International Perspectives in Secondary Level Agricultural Programs in Texas. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 99-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Larry G.

    A study analyzed the forces affecting improvement and implementation of international agricultural perspectives in secondary programs of agricultural science in Texas. A mail survey, based on force-field analysis, was used to determine the effect of 14 variables, including 3 that involved perceptions of the relevance, knowledge, and implementation…

  19. Preterm Labor

    MedlinePlus

    Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature ... babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more ...

  20. A tale of two contexts: U.S. migration and the labor force trajectories of Mexican women1

    PubMed Central

    Flippen, Chenoa A.; Parrado, Emilio A.

    2015-01-01

    Even though women have long participated in Mexico-U.S. migration studies assessing the labor market implications of international mobility for women are rare. Especially lacking are studies that follow a life-course approach and compare employment trajectories across contexts and in connection with other transitions. Using life-history data collected in Mexico and the United States, we explore the impact of migration on women’s employment, focusing on how the determinants of employment vary across contexts. We show that U.S. residence eliminates or even reverses the employment returns to education found in Mexico, and that the constraints imposed on women’s work by marriage are actually stronger in the U.S. context. We also explicitly connect migration to other life-course events, documenting how the impact of context varies not only by marital status but also by where women’s unions were formed. PMID:26843706

  1. [Consensual and conflictual early retirement--flexible transition to retirement within the context of different labor force strategies].

    PubMed

    Teipen, C; Zierep, E

    1996-01-01

    20 case studies were carried out in different firms in East and West Germany to analyze the process of decision-making in early retirement. The results show the embeddedness of decision making into the respective labour force strategies of the firms. In companies with "internal labour force strategies" there is a consensus-oriented process of decision-making based on negotiations of the participants. In companies that mainly employ skilled workers, however, the process of decision-making is rather conflict-oriented. So, there is evidence that companies' policies on early retirement are two-edged. The consequences of these findings are discussed. PMID:9026339

  2. The Farm Worker In A Changing Agriculture. Part I In A Series On Technological Change And Farm Labor Use, Kern County, California, 1961. Research Report No. 277.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, William H.

    To investigate the effect of technological change upon farm labor use, a stratified random sample of 696 farm workers from a population of 12,215 in Kern County, California, provided a basis for analysis. Some major findings were: (1) The high peak of seasonal labor use has been eliminated, (2) The need for migratory labor is decreasing, (3)…

  3. Climate Forcing Datasets for Agricultural Modeling: Merged Products for Gap-Filling and Historical Climate Series Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Goldberg, Richard; Chryssanthacopoulos, James

    2014-01-01

    The AgMERRA and AgCFSR climate forcing datasets provide daily, high-resolution, continuous, meteorological series over the 1980-2010 period designed for applications examining the agricultural impacts of climate variability and climate change. These datasets combine daily resolution data from retrospective analyses (the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, MERRA, and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, CFSR) with in situ and remotely-sensed observational datasets for temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation, leading to substantial reductions in bias in comparison to a network of 2324 agricultural-region stations from the Hadley Integrated Surface Dataset (HadISD). Results compare favorably against the original reanalyses as well as the leading climate forcing datasets (Princeton, WFD, WFD-EI, and GRASP), and AgMERRA distinguishes itself with substantially improved representation of daily precipitation distributions and extreme events owing to its use of the MERRA-Land dataset. These datasets also peg relative humidity to the maximum temperature time of day, allowing for more accurate representation of the diurnal cycle of near-surface moisture in agricultural models. AgMERRA and AgCFSR enable a number of ongoing investigations in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) and related research networks, and may be used to fill gaps in historical observations as well as a basis for the generation of future climate scenarios.

  4. 77 FR 59417 - Notice of Publication of 2012 Update to the Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Countries Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Department... International Labor Affairs (ILAB) has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Director, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking,......

  5. Prevalence and Predictors of Hypertension in the Labor Force Population in China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Xu, De Min; Li, Xue Feng; Goan, Daniel; Yang, De Min; Li, Jun Mei; Wang, Xia; Huang, Yu Lian; Chen, Yuan Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of hypertension and identify its contributory factors in the labor force population in Karamay. A total of 2819 adults (55.9% male adults) were interviewed and examined. The overall crude prevalence of hypertension was 32.4%. Among 914 hypertensive patients, 34.8% were aware of their diagnosis, 22.1% received treatment, and 5.6% achieved blood pressure control. Hypertension was significantly correlated with age, overweight/obesity, central obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in both men and women. In addition, less education, alcohol consumption, and less walking were risk factors for men. Effective hypertension prevention and control programs are urgently needed to decrease the burden of hypertension in this region. PMID:27241740

  6. Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  7. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.578 Financial management of labor...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.578 Financial management of labor...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577 Section 3560.577 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.577 Tenant priorities for labor housing....

  10. Export of labour and transregional diversion of rural labour force.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y

    1988-06-01

    This article analyzes the effect of labor force export on the employment of the rural labor force in China, using survey data from Baochang District, Haimen County, Nantong City, Jiangsu Province. In 1985, the occupational structure of the district was 40.2% agricultural and 5.3% in services. 21.5% were exported laborers. The exported laborers consist mainly of the following 5 types of farmers: 1) labor contractors, 2) farmers badly in need of money, 3) farmers who were not skilled enough to work in factories, 4) farmers with a special skill or craft, and 5) young farmers who want to see the world. The exported labor was concentrated in the engineering field, including construction. Technical laborers formed the next largest group. 660 exported laborers engaged in urban services. Migrants only need to take the necessary tools with them, and do not need to make large investments. On one hand, farmers are eager to develop non-agricultural industries, but certain of these industries are overcrowded. Labor exporting conforms with the needs of the places exporting labor in their socioeconomic development at the micro level, while it also conforms to the macro-environment for the diversion of China's rural labor force, showing a certain rationality at the macro level. The regional flow of migration is an important form of diversion of the rural labor force which is substantially different from local diversion. This "migratory bird" type of flow has its good and bad points. It increases traffic and does nothing to change agricultural practices. However, it is a 1st step in the migration process.

  11. 75 FR 48929 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Register of July 28, 2010, Notice of a Meeting (75 FR 44214). This document corrects the location of the... air quality issues relating to agriculture. Additionally, the Livestock and Poultry Subcommittee of the AAQTF will conduct a pre-meeting Livestock and Poultry Air Emissions Standardization...

  12. 75 FR 44214 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... discussions on air quality issues relating to agriculture. Additionally, the Livestock and Poultry Subcommittee of the AAQTF will conduct a pre-meeting Livestock and Poultry Air Emissions Standardization (LPAES) Workshop to discuss livestock and poultry air emissions monitoring data/research obtained from the...

  13. GCM Hindcasts for SST Forced Climate Variability over Agriculturally Intensive Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Shah, Kathryn P.; Chandler, Mark A.; Rind, David

    1998-01-01

    The ability to forecast seasonal climate is of great practical interest. One of the most obvious benefits would be agriculture, for which various preparations (planting, machinery, irrigation, manpower) would be enabled. The expectation of being able to make such forecasts far enough in advance (on the order of 9 months) hinges on components of the system with the longest persistence or predictability. The mixed results of El Nino forecasts has raised the hope that tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST) fall into this category. For agriculturally-relevant forecasts to be made, and utilized, requires several conditions. The SST in the regions that affect agricultural areas must be forecast successfully, many months in advance. The climate response to such sea surface temperatures must then be ascertained, either through the use of historical empirical studies or models (e.g., GCMS). For practical applications, the agricultural production must be strongly influenced by climate, and farmers on either the local level or through commercial concerns must be able to adjust to using such forecasts. In a continuing series of papers, we will explore each of these components. This article concerns the question of utilizing SST to forecast the climate in several regions of agricultural production. We optimize the possibility of doing so successfully by using observed SST in a hindcast mode (i.e., a perfect forecast), and we also use the globally observed values (rather than just those from the tropical Pacific, for which predictability has been shown). This then is the ideal situation; in subsequent papers we will explore degrading the results by using only tropical Pacific SSTs, and then using only

  14. Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance Act. Joint Hearings on S. 538 to Implement the Recommendations of the Secretary of Labor's Task Force on Economic Adjustment and Worker Dislocation, and for Other Purposes, before the Subcommittee on Labor and the Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One-Hundredth Congress, First Session (March 10 and 26, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This congressional report on Senate Bill 538 contains the testimony that was given at joint hearings to debate the passage of the Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance Act. This act, which is based primarily on the recommendations of U.S. Secretary of Labor Brock's blue ribbon task force: (1) creates displaced worker units at the…

  15. Should the Federal Government Implement a Program Which Guarantees Employment Opportunities for All U.S. Citizens in the Labor Force? Inter-Collegiate Debate Topic, 1978-1979, Pursuant to Public Law 88-246.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Dennis M.

    This is a compilation of selected articles and a bibliography on the 1978-79 intercollegiate debate proposition: Resolved, that the Federal Government should implement a program which guarantees employment opportunities for all U.S. citizens in the labor force. The introduction briefly reviews the United States post-World War II history of…

  16. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology.

  17. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. PMID:12293737

  18. DETERMINATION OF THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IN OHIO, A DIGEST OF A PH.D. DISSERTATION. RESEARCH SERIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BENDER, RALPH E.; HALTERMAN, JERRY J.

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP CURRICULUMS NEEDED IN TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IN OHIO. A QUESTIONNAIRE TO INVENTORY THE LABOR FORCE WAS ADMINISTERED TO INDIVIDUALS, FIRMS, BUSINESSES, AND AGENCIES EMPLOYING PERSONS IN AREAS REQUIRING AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND FARM MECHANICS. ANOTHER TO COLLECT INFORMATION…

  19. 76 FR 61115 - Notice of Publication of 2011 Update to The Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Countries Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor (74 FR 46620, Sept. 10, 2009). Signed at Washington, DC... Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor AGENCY: Bureau of... by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards. ILAB is required to......

  20. FARM LABOR ORGANIZING 1905-1967, A BRIEF HISTORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TOONI, LINDA LEWIS; AND OTHERS

    AGRICULTURAL LABORERS HAVE BEEN INEFFECTIVE IN ORGANIZING A LABOR UNION. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT WRITTEN IN 1935 ORIGINALLY HAD PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL LABORERS, BUT IT WAS DELETED BEFORE FINAL PASSAGE. EARLY ORGANIZING ATTEMPTS OCCURRED IN THE LATE YEARS OF THE 19TH CENTURY WHEN CHINESE IMMIGRANTS ORGANIZED PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATIONS…

  1. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND...

  2. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disabled domestic farm laborer households who were active in the local farm labor market area at the time... disabled domestic farm laborer households who were not active in the local farm labor market at the time of... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disabled domestic farm laborer households who were active in the local farm labor market area at the time... disabled domestic farm laborer households who were not active in the local farm labor market at the time of... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577...

  4. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crew leaders and labor contractors. 780.331 Section 780.331 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF...

  5. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crew leaders and labor contractors. 780.331 Section 780.331 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF...

  6. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  7. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  8. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  9. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  10. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  11. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  12. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  13. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  14. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  15. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  16. Native Americans and Wage Labor: Ethnohistorical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Alice, Ed.; Knack, Martha C., Ed.

    This book reconsiders a largely ignored fact of North American Indian economic life--the place of wage labor in the culture and history of Native Americans. Case studies examine social networks of Native agricultural laborers, the decline of Native communities from self-sufficient producers to lower-class wage laborers, vocational education in…

  17. State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a summary, by state jurisdiction, of labor legislation during 1985. Legislation covered such topics as wages, equal employment opportunity, background clearance, occupational safety and health, employment and training, child labor, industrial homework, hours, agriculture, labor relations, plant closings, worker privacy, private employment…

  18. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577 Section 3560.577 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577 Section 3560.577 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  1. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor...

  2. The movement of labor in Chinese rural areas: with a focus on developed regions.

    PubMed

    Yan, S P

    1990-12-01

    Recent Chinese economic reforms target both agrarian and urban sectors. This paper discusses employment structure change in rural areas and the interindustry movement of labor, with particular attention to relevant institutional aspects. The residencies and population system and the employment-welfare-insurance system are reviewed. Socioeconomic structure and labor market mechanisms in rural areas are considered as the basis for the movement of labor; forms of employment and labor market characteristics in rural areas are identified; and factors influencing job-related behavior of the work force in agricultural households, as well as mechanisms regulating interindustry movement of the work force are quantified. These issues are investigated only for the Sunan area and suburban villages near Shanghai. Review suggests that labor force movement within China's rural areas has gained momentum despite institutional limitations. The rural employment structure has changed to impact the entire national economy. Village and township enterprises have helped raise income levels of farming households, industrialize and urbanize rural areas, and strengthen ties between rural and urban areas. To sustain growth in rural and national economies, however, greater differentiation is needed between the functions of administrative and economic sectors, competitive principles should be introduced in rural areas, and institutional restrictions on population and labor force movements should be relaxed.

  3. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... engineering, construction engineering, right-of-way, and force account construction. (2) Salaries and expenses... may be reimbursed. (b) Labor surcharges. (1) Labor surcharges include worker compensation insurance... the company, a fixed rate of 8 percent of direct labor costs for worker compensation and...

  4. Motherhood, labor force behavior, and women's careers: an empirical assessment of the wage penalty for motherhood in Britain, Germany, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Gangl, Markus; Ziefle, Andrea

    2009-05-01

    Using harmonized longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we trace career prospects after motherhood for five cohorts of American, British, and West German women around the 1960s. We establish wage penalties for motherhood between 9% and 18% per child, with wage losses among American and British mothers being lower than those experienced by mothers in Germany. Labor market mechanisms generating the observed wage penalty for motherhood differ markedly across countries, however. For British and American women, work interruptions and subsequent mobility into mother-friendly jobs fully account for mothers' wage losses. In contrast, respective penalties are considerably smaller in Germany, yet we observe a substantial residual wage penalty that is unaccounted for by mothers' observable labor market behavior. We interpret this finding as indicating a comparatively more pronounced role for statistical discrimination against mothers in the German labor market.

  5. Motherhood, Labor Force Behavior, and Women’s Careers: An Empirical Assessment of the Wage Penalty for Motherhood in Britain, Germany, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    GANGL, MARKUS; ZIEFLE, ANDREA

    2009-01-01

    Using harmonized longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we trace career prospects after motherhood for five cohorts of American, British, and West German women around the 1960s. We establish wage penalties for motherhood between 9% and 18% per child, with wage losses among American and British mothers being lower than those experienced by mothers in Germany. Labor market mechanisms generating the observed wage penalty for motherhood differ markedly across countries, however. For British and American women, work interruptions and subsequent mobility into mother-friendly jobs fully account for mothers’ wage losses. In contrast, respective penalties are considerably smaller in Germany, yet we observe a substantial residual wage penalty that is unaccounted for by mothers’ observable labor market behavior. We interpret this finding as indicating a comparatively more pronounced role for statistical discrimination against mothers in the German labor market. PMID:21305397

  6. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.579 Servicing off-farm labor housing....

  7. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.579 Servicing off-farm labor housing....

  8. Women's labour force participation and socioeconomic development: the case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, C; Aghajanian, A

    1980-03-01

    Changes in labor force participation of Malay, Chinese and Indian women in the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in Peninsular Malaysia, based on the 1957 and 1970 censuses, are analyzed. Brief discussions of the relation between economic development and female labor force participation, the socioeconomic development and ethnic composition of Malaysia, and past research on women's labor force participation in Peninsular Malaysia provide background for the analysis. The overall participation rate of women aged 15 to 64 rose from 31% in 1957 to 37% in 1970, with most of the increase among younger women. Participation rates rose for Malay women at all ages, dropped sharply for Indian women at all ages, and rose for Chinese women below age 40 but declined thereafter. Trends in Chinese female labor force activity seem to fit the developmental model most closely; Malay employment in agriculture among middle-aged women probably appeared to increase due to underestimation in the 1957 census; and Indian participation declined due to a sharp curtailment of the entire plantation labor force. Cross sectional analysis using the 1970 2% census sample demonstrates that rural residence, low educational level, and married status are associated with employment in the traditional and modern agricultural sectors. Higher educational attainment, urban residence, and delayed marriage are associated with employment in the modern non-agricultural sector. Chinese women had higher proportions in the modern sector. PMID:12336488

  9. Race, Labor Repression, and Capitalist Agriculture: Notes from South Texas, 1920-1930. Institute for the Study of Social Change Working Papers Series #102.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montejano, David

    Racism and racial exploitation, rather than disappearing with the march of capitalist development, appear instead as its intimate companions. The racial experience of the Mexican in South Texas was shaped by the rapid development of agriculture there in the early part of the century, between 1900-1910 and 1920-1930. The agrarian land revolution…

  10. The Impact of Federal Commodity Donations on the School Lunch Program. Department of Agriculture. Report to the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Department of Agriculture's program for purchasing and distributing commodities for the school lunch program was reviewed in 15 school districts, one very large, one medium sized, and one small school district in each of five states--California, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The objectives of the review were to (1) assess the…

  11. Modelling the environmental transfer of phthalates and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into agricultural products: the EN-forc model.

    PubMed

    Fierens, T; Cornelis, C; Standaert, A; Sioen, I; De Henauw, S; Van Holderbeke, M

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to predict the occurrence of four phthalates, two polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and two polychlorinated dibenzofurans in environmental and agricultural media from observed concentrations in air, sludge, manure and concentrate. For the environmental and agricultural fate modelling, the newly developed multimedia model "EN-forc" (ENvironmental Food transfer model for ORganic Contaminants) was used. To validate EN-forc calculations, the predicted concentrations of the considered chemicals in soil, groundwater, drinking water, plants and animal products were compared with both observed and modelled concentrations available in the literature. For the majority of the considered matrices, predicted phthalate and dioxin levels differed one order of magnitude at most with observed concentrations. Unfortunately, the transfer models implemented in EN-forc lacked power to predict levels of some phthalates and dioxins in pasture, root crops and/or tubers. Concentrations of phthalates and dioxins in offal could not be predicted due to the absence of suitable models that have an acceptable level of complexity to implement in EN-forc. For this type of food products, further research is highly encouraged. In a next step, the modelling framework of EN-forc will be extended in order to be able to predict human dietary exposure to organic chemicals like phthalates and dioxins.

  12. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.578 Financial management of labor housing. The requirements established in subpart G of this...

  13. 75 FR 78754 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Notice of Publication of 2010 Update to the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... of origin--that the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (``ILAB'') has reason to believe are... Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department... of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) carries out the mandates of section...

  14. 3 CFR 13632 - Executive Order 13632 of December 7, 2012. Establishing the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Urban Development (Chair). (a) In addition to the Chair, the Task Force shall consist of the head of... Agriculture; (iv) the Department of Commerce; (v) the Department of Labor; (vi) the Department of Health and... Department of Housing and Urban Development shall provide the Task Force with such administrative...

  15. Agricultural work safety efforts by Wisconsin extension agricultural agents.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L J; Schuler, R T; Skjolaas, C A; Wilkinson, T L

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the agricultural work-related safety and health programming of county-level cooperative extension agents who work through land grant universities to provide a range of educational programs to agricultural producers. A questionnaire was designed and administered to all 89 Wisconsin agriculture and agribusiness extension county faculty. The questionnaire obtained valid responses from 98.9 percent of the agents. Ninety percent of all agents conducted some occupational safety and health promotion programming in the last year. These activities occupied an average of 4.8 days per agent per year. Most of the reported activities were group programs for the agricultural labor force that involved other extension agents and included the use of videotapes. The greatest barrier to more programming was lack of time on the part of both the agricultural work force and the agents. Most extension agents placed greater emphasis on training in how to work safely around hazards than on how to recognize and permanently correct hazards. For future programs agents requested more short format materials to use in programming, such as fact sheets, videotapes, and farm hazard inspection checklists. Agents are important training delivery resources for controlling farm-related injury and disease. Agents could be more effective with more time, better materials, and with more emphasis on hazard correction in workplace safety programs.

  16. The Effects of Technological Change on the Labor Force. Hearing Summary. Report prepared for the Technology Policy Task Force Transmitted to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science, Space and Technology.

    This report summarizes a hearing to examine the factors contributing to pressures on United States workers and to suggest government, industry, and labor policies. Section I is an introduction. Section II identifies the panelists: Director, Conservation of Human Resources, Columbia University; President, United Steel Workers of America; Senior…

  17. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  18. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  19. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  20. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  1. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  2. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  3. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section 13(c) of the Act provides an exemption from the child labor provisions for “any employee employed in... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD......

  4. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section 13(c) of the Act provides an exemption from the child labor provisions for “any employee employed in... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD......

  5. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section 13(c) of the Act provides an exemption from the child labor provisions for “any employee employed in... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD......

  6. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section 13(c) of the Act provides an exemption from the child labor provisions for “any employee employed in... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD......

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  8. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  9. BUREAU OF MIGRANT LABOR REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YERSAK, CHARLES G.

    A GRADUAL REDUCTION IN MIGRANT LABOR HAS OCCURRED IN NEW JERSEY BECAUSE OF MECHANIZATION AND URBANIZATION. THIS REDUCTION IS REFLECTED IN FEWER ACTIVE CAMPS THAT HOUSE WORKERS. THE TREND IS AWAY FROM THE USE OF FRAME BUILDINGS AND NEW CAMPS BEING BUILT ARE CONSTRUCTED OF CINDER BLOCK. THE MIGRANT FORCE IS LARGELY COMPOSED OF NEGROES FROM THE SOUTH…

  10. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... performance of work by his crew and his authority to determine the wage rates paid to his workers. (c)...

  11. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... performance of work by his crew and his authority to determine the wage rates paid to his workers. (c)...

  12. Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Workers, 1972: S. 3762 -- To Extend the Program for Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Migrant Workers. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 2d Session, August 1, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    On August 1, 1972, the Subcommittee heard testimony on bill S. 3762 which would extend the program for health services for domestic agricultural migrant workers. The bill would extend the migrant health program for 5 years, with $100 million authorized for fiscal year 1973 and a $25 million increase for each of the following years. S. 3762…

  13. "Subconscious" Sex Bias and Labor Market Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Stephen E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the contention that the resentment some men feel toward working women is based on sympathy toward unemployed male breadwinners. Argues that this rationalization ignores the gross discrepancy in the size of the two labor force groups and the real issues in labor market discrimination against women. (Author/IRT)

  14. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780.611 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF...

  15. California's Agribusiness and the Farm Labor Question: The Transition from Asian to Mexican Labor, 1919-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joon K.

    2012-01-01

    During the interwar period, California's labor-intensive agriculture transitioned from reliance on diverse immigrants to preference for Mexicans. Political movements to restrict immigration, the Great Depression, and labor unrest compelled farm employers to search for labor that could be used flexibly and deported easily. To achieve this…

  16. Exploring Agricultural Livelihood Transitions with an Agent-Based Virtual Laboratory: Global Forces to Local Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Ellis, Erle C.

    2013-01-01

    Rural populations are undergoing rapid changes in both their livelihoods and land uses, with associated impacts on ecosystems, global biogeochemistry, and climate change. A primary challenge is, thus, to explain these shifts in terms of the actors and processes operating within a variety of land systems in order to understand how land users might respond locally to future changes in broader-scale environmental and economic conditions. Using ‘induced intensification’ theory as a benchmark, we develop a generalized agent-based model to investigate mechanistic explanations of relationships between agricultural intensity and population density, environmental suitability, and market influence. Land-use and livelihood decisions modeled from basic micro-economic theories generated spatial and temporal patterns of agricultural intensification consistent with predictions of induced intensification theory. Further, agent actions in response to conditions beyond those described by induced intensification theory were explored, revealing that interactions among environmental constraints, population pressure, and market influence may produce transitions to multiple livelihood regimes of varying market integration. The result is new hypotheses that could modify and enrich understanding of the classic relationship between agricultural intensity and population density. The strength of this agent-based model and the experimental results is the generalized form of the decision-making processes underlying land-use and livelihood transitions, creating the prospect of a virtual laboratory for systematically generating hypotheses of how agent decisions and interactions relate to observed land-use and livelihood patterns across diverse land systems. PMID:24039892

  17. Exploring agricultural livelihood transitions with an agent-based virtual laboratory: global forces to local decision-making.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Brown, Daniel G; Ellis, Erle C

    2013-01-01

    Rural populations are undergoing rapid changes in both their livelihoods and land uses, with associated impacts on ecosystems, global biogeochemistry, and climate change. A primary challenge is, thus, to explain these shifts in terms of the actors and processes operating within a variety of land systems in order to understand how land users might respond locally to future changes in broader-scale environmental and economic conditions. Using 'induced intensification' theory as a benchmark, we develop a generalized agent-based model to investigate mechanistic explanations of relationships between agricultural intensity and population density, environmental suitability, and market influence. Land-use and livelihood decisions modeled from basic micro-economic theories generated spatial and temporal patterns of agricultural intensification consistent with predictions of induced intensification theory. Further, agent actions in response to conditions beyond those described by induced intensification theory were explored, revealing that interactions among environmental constraints, population pressure, and market influence may produce transitions to multiple livelihood regimes of varying market integration. The result is new hypotheses that could modify and enrich understanding of the classic relationship between agricultural intensity and population density. The strength of this agent-based model and the experimental results is the generalized form of the decision-making processes underlying land-use and livelihood transitions, creating the prospect of a virtual laboratory for systematically generating hypotheses of how agent decisions and interactions relate to observed land-use and livelihood patterns across diverse land systems.

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  19. The Labor Market Problems of Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roner, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    This study concludes that older workers do not have especially high unemployment rates, but when they become unemployed, they are less likely to find a job and more likely to leave the labor force in discouragement. (Author/SSH)

  20. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  1. 7 CFR 3560.555 - Eligibility requirements for off-farm labor housing loans and grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for off-farm labor housing loans and grants. 3560.555 Section 3560.555 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  2. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. 3560.618 Section 3560.618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. 3560.618 Section 3560.618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.555 - Eligibility requirements for off-farm labor housing loans and grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for off-farm labor housing loans and grants. 3560.555 Section 3560.555 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  9. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  10. Corporation Schooling and the Labor Market at General Electric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Rowe, Shan

    1991-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between corporation schooling and the labor market in the early twentieth century in the United States. Follows the beginnings of corporation schools as industry began to provide its own shop training programs to develop a trained labor force. Explores labor market concerns, the effects schools had on earnings, and the…

  11. Statistical aspects of modeling the labor curve.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Troendle, James; Grantz, Katherine L; Reddy, Uma M

    2015-06-01

    In a recent review by Cohen and Friedman, several statistical questions on modeling labor curves were raised. This article illustrates that asking data to fit a preconceived model or letting a sufficiently flexible model fit observed data is the main difference in principles of statistical modeling between the original Friedman curve and our average labor curve. An evidence-based approach to construct a labor curve and establish normal values should allow the statistical model to fit observed data. In addition, the presence of the deceleration phase in the active phase of an average labor curve was questioned. Forcing a deceleration phase to be part of the labor curve may have artificially raised the speed of progression in the active phase with a particularly large impact on earlier labor between 4 and 6 cm. Finally, any labor curve is illustrative and may not be instructive in managing labor because of variations in individual labor pattern and large errors in measuring cervical dilation. With the tools commonly available, it may be more productive to establish a new partogram that takes the physiology of labor and contemporary obstetric population into account.

  12. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. The management plan for...

  13. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. The management plan for...

  14. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. The management plan for...

  15. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  1. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  2. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  3. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  4. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  5. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  6. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  7. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  8. Imported Talent: Foreign Immigration and the New England Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Trubs'kyy, Mykhaylo; Fogg, Neeta P.

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of foreign immigration on population and labor force growth during the 1990s varied widely across U.S. geographic regions, divisions and states. New England was far more dependent than nearly all other regions on the new wave of foreign immigrants to achieve its population growth and labor force growth during the past decade. In fact,…

  9. Demographic Trends Affecting the Future Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Karl E.

    This report reviews recent population and manpower projections and examines how they take into account certain unexpected shifts in demographic, social, and economic behavior. It also assesses how well the particular circumstances, trends, and problems of the nation's major minority groups have been brought into the purview of the projection…

  10. New England's Vital Resource: The Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, John C., Ed.; Bernstein, Melvin H., Ed.

    A collection of analyses and projections is presented that explores the challenges posed by a rapidly evolving economy and the critical issue of manpower policy facing New England and the nation. New England was able to move from traditional industry to high technology because its colleges and universities supplied basic research and trained…

  11. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568 Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. For...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568 Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. For...

  13. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568 Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. For...

  14. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preterm Labor and Birth: Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... links Share this: Page Content What is preterm labor and birth? In general, a normal human pregnancy ...

  15. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preterm Labor and Birth: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... start of the last menstrual period to childbirth. Labor that begins before 37 weeks is called preterm ...

  16. Tips for labor coaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... some tips for getting prepared. Before the big day arrives Labor coaches should go to childbirth classes ... get through her labor and delivery. When the day arrives You might be at the hospital for ...

  17. Labor Education in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth D.

    1971-01-01

    Labor education reflects the pragmaticism of American culture and supports the system. It emphasizes leadership training, loyalty building, and political education. The control of labor education is centralized in union headquarters. (VW)

  18. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  19. Between hearth and labor market: the recruitment of peasant women in the Andes.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, S A

    1990-01-01

    To cover subsistence requirements, peasant women from the Peruvian Andes increasingly are being forced to engage in income-generating activities, including domestic service, marketing, manufacturing, and herding. In many cases, recruitment into waged labor involves migration from rural communities. Case studies of the placement of peasant women in external labor markets illustrate the complex micro- and macro-level factors that determine the mix of productive and reproductive labor. The sexual division of labor in the domestic economy and community is the critical in regulating the length of absence of peasant women from the home, the types of jobs taken, and the migratory destination. In 1 such case study, 56 women from the village of Kallarayan (all of whom had migrated at some point) were interviewed during 13 months of fieldwork in 1984-85. There is no paid employment in Kallarayan, so 14% of the village's population is involved in migration to urban areas or commercial agricultural areas in jungle valleys at any point. Male migration is high in the 11-40-year age group, but becomes seasonal once men marry. Female migrants tend to remain away from the village for longer periods, but are almost exclusively single. Recruitment of peasant women into paid labor is achieved by 5 types of agents: family, godparents and friends, authority figures, recruiting agents, and employers. Peasant girls under 15 years of age tend to be allocated to external labor markets (largely domestic services) by parents and godparents; after 15 years, however, when children are considered to reach adulthood, there is a shift toward self-motivated migration or recruitment by employers and agents. The eldest daughter typically enters migration at age 14 years and sacrifices her education, while younger siblings remain in the home longer. In all but the poorest families, female migration for waged labor ends with marriage.

  20. Merchange of Labor. The Mexican Bracero Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galarza, Ernesto

    The subject of this study is the more or less seasonal influx of Mexican (bracero) laborers to work in agriculture in California between 1942 and 1960. The migration began as a joint effort between the governments of Mexico and the United States to ease the manpower shortage created by World War II. Dire needs of these migrants, and their…

  1. REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT ON DOMESTIC MIGRATORY FARM LABOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MITCHELL, JAMES P.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON MIGRATORY LABOR ARE TO BRING ABOUT IMPROVED CONDITIONS FOR MIGRATORY WORKERS TO MIGRATE BY STABILIZING AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT. EFFORTS HAVE BEEN DIRECTED TOWARD RESOLVING PROBLEMS OF CAMP HOUSING, SAFE TRANSPORTATION, ADEQUATE EDUCATION AND HEALTH SERVICES, EXTENSION OF LABOR LAWS TO AGRICULTURAL…

  2. Teaching about Child Labor and International Human Rights. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamot, Gregory E.; Jensen, Elizabeth S.

    An estimated 246 million children between the ages of 5 and 17 work in the agricultural, industrial, and craft sectors worldwide. Approximately 180 million of these children work under the worst forms of child labor as defined by the International Labor Organization (2002). In spite of conventions and protocols designed to eradicate the worst…

  3. The Impact of Preretirement Labor Market Experiences on Postretirement Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Nan L.

    A study was conducted to determine labor market factors influencing one's psychological well being and economic security after retirement. Research was found that supported the hypotheses that a worker's employment, earnings, and industry in the labor force greatly affect a retiree's financial position; the reason for labor force withdrawal…

  4. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture. 780.104 Section 780.104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE,...

  5. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128 Section 780.128 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF...

  6. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780.607 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF...

  7. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The typical hatchery operations constitute âagriculture.â 780.210 Section 780.210 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING...

  8. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of term âagriculture.â 780.606 Section 780.606 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF...

  9. 29 CFR 780.510 - “Any agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âAny agricultural employee.â 780.510 Section 780.510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  10. 29 CFR 780.510 - “Any agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âAny agricultural employee.â 780.510 Section 780.510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  11. 29 CFR 780.510 - “Any agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âAny agricultural employee.â 780.510 Section 780.510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  12. 29 CFR 780.510 - “Any agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âAny agricultural employee.â 780.510 Section 780.510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  13. 29 CFR 780.510 - “Any agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âAny agricultural employee.â 780.510 Section 780.510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  14. Industrial labor relations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Industrial Labor Relations Manual provides internal guidelines and procedures to assist NASA Field Installations in dealing with contractor labor management disputes, Service Contract Act variance hearings, and to provide access of Labor Union Representatives to NASA for the purpose of maintaining schedules and goals in connection with vital NASA programs. This manual will be revised by page changes as revisions become necessary. Initial distribution of this manual has been made to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.

  15. Failed induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Corina; Navathe, Reshama

    2015-10-01

    Induction of labor will affect almost a quarter of all pregnancies, but historically there has been no generally accepted definition of failed induction of labor. Only recently have studies analyzed the lengths of latent labor that are associated with successful labor induction ending in a vaginal delivery, and recommendations for uniformity in the diagnosis of failed induction have largely resulted from this data. This review assesses the most recent and inclusive definition for failed induction, risk factors associated with failure, complications, and special populations that may be at risk for a failed induction.

  16. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gutierrez, S; Borondo, J; Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Tarquis, A M; Benito, R M

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  17. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Gutierrez, S.; Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  18. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gutierrez, S; Borondo, J; Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Tarquis, A M; Benito, R M

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country. PMID:27368795

  19. Managing pain during labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider about the different types of pain relief for your labor and delivery. The health and safety of you and your ... so your doctor may recommend one type of pain relief for you over ... so you can make the best plan for your labor and delivery.

  20. Caesar Chavez: Labor Leader. Hispanic Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedeno, Maria E.

    Written for young people, this book traces the accomplishments of Cesar Chavez, a labor leader who fought to improve the lives of Mexican-American farmworkers in California. Chavez was born in 1927 in the Gila Valley, Arizona. When Chavez was 10, his family lost their farm and was forced to move to California and become migrant workers. Chavez and…

  1. General Semantics in the Labor Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Jo

    This paper provides a review of some basic general semantic principles and then applies them to the area of prenatal classes and labor room practices. It first presents an overview of the principle that language is not a neutral factor in human perceptions but an active, reactive force. Next, it looks at the relationship between language and…

  2. Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

  3. Mexican Labor in California's Economy: From Rapid Growth to Likely Stability. RAND Reprints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges

    Over the past 20 years, California has experienced a continuous, growing flow of Mexican immigrant laborers. Although Mexican labor was originally linked to agriculture, by 1980 Mexican-born labor was filling a substantial proportion of jobs in all sectors of the California economy, particularly in manufacturing. Because they are concentrated in…

  4. Therapeutic showering in labor.

    PubMed

    Stark, Mary Ann

    2013-08-01

    While showering is thought to be an effective coping strategy during labor, research on this comfort measure is lacking. The purpose of this study was to measure effectiveness of therapeutic showering on pain, coping, tension, anxiety, relaxation, and fatigue in labor. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest single group design was conducted in a community hospital. Participants were women who had singleton, uncomplicated pregnancies and were in active labor at term (N = 24). After completing pretest measures, participants took a 30 min shower where they were encouraged to be seated but could choose positions of comfort. There were significant reductions in tension and anxiety and increased relaxation and coping. Showering may be a safe and effective comfort measure for healthy, laboring women who are experiencing tension or anxiety, or having difficulty relaxing or coping with labor. Further research is needed to test the maternal and neonatal outcomes of this nonpharmacologic comfort measure.

  5. Women in Workplace: Vocational Education and Segregated Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna; Burge, Penny L.

    The United States and Finland show a clear gender stratification in work life. The uneven, gender-biased division of labor has been maintained, even though about half of the total U.S. and Finnish labor force are women. In both countries, female students tend to make traditional occupational choices that prepare them for low-paying fields where…

  6. High Technology, Work, and Inequality in Southern Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Glenna; Tolbert, Charles M., II

    1990-01-01

    Explores the relationship among high technology industrialization, skill levels, and economic inequality. Finds that minority labor force participants experience more earnings discrimination in high tech industries than in other industries. Attributes findings to variations in local labor market contexts and to differing stages of product cycles…

  7. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... is also the common and general practice of an individual who performs custom work such as...

  8. Employment Transitions and the Household Division of Labor in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Feinian

    2005-01-01

    Highlighting one aspect of the economic transition in China (industrialization), this article focuses on how a change in employment from an agricultural to a non-agricultural job could change the household division of labor. Longitudinal analysis of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey showed that such job shifts affected the household…

  9. Local Produce, Foreign Labor: Labor Mobility Programs and Global Trade Competitiveness in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preibisch, Kerry L.

    2007-01-01

    Temporary visa workers are increasingly taking on a heightened profile in Canada, entering the workforce each year in greater numbers than immigrant workers with labor mobility rights (Sharma 2006). This paper examines the incorporation of foreign workers in Canadian horticulture under the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP). I argue that…

  10. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity.

    PubMed

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie

    2016-08-01

    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas.

  11. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity.

    PubMed

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie

    2016-08-01

    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas. PMID:27370916

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart A of... - Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing I Exhibit I to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR Planning and Performing...

  13. Strategies for getting through labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... your labor coach More about how to manage pain during labor, such as epidural and other medicines Having a ... a long way in helping you deal with pain. Use your labor coach. Tell them what they can do to ...

  14. Trends in preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Graf, R A; Perez-Woods, R

    1992-03-01

    Preterm birth has been identified by the National Commission to Prevent Infant Mortality (1988) as the primary cause of the increased infant mortality rate in the United States. An analysis of what is currently known about four areas of preterm labor including (1) definition and causes, (2) identification of patients at risk, (3) management techniques, and (4) use of patient education in labor is presented in this paper. Preterm labor is defined as uterine contractions that occur between 20 and 37 weeks' gestation with progressive cervical dilatation or effacement or both. Directions for future research are discussed.

  15. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f). 780.105 Section 780.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING...

  16. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions. PMID:12307194

  17. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions.

  18. Treatments for Preterm Labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out about ... may delay labor, often for just a few days. This delay may give you time to get ...

  19. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  20. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  1. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  2. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  3. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  4. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  5. [Active management of labor].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L

    1991-01-01

    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  6. 78 FR 72714 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... the TVPRA List (72 FR 73374). The guidelines set forth the criteria by which information is evaluated... (66 FR 5353). In addition to the List, the Department also published on January 18, 2001, ``Procedural... (66 FR 5351). Pursuant to Sections D through G of the Procedural Guidelines, the EO List may...

  7. Early Claiming of Social Security Benefits and Labor Supply Behavior of Older Americans†

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The labor supply incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the United States Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, and the labor force participation of Older Americans starts to increase. These incentives allow individuals who claim benefits before the NRA but continue to work, or return to the labor force, to increase their future rate of benefit pay by having benefits withheld. Since the adjustment of the benefit rate takes place only after the NRA is reached, benefits received before the NRA can become actuarially unfair for those who continue to work after claiming. Consistent with these incentives, estimates from bivariate models of the monthly labor force exit and claiming hazards using data from the Health and Retirement Study indicate that early claimers who do not withdraw from the labor force around the time they claim are increasingly likely to stay in the labor force. PMID:20811509

  8. PROGRESS IN MEETING PROBLEMS OF MIGRATORY LABOR IN MARYLAND, FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NYSTROM, PAUL E.; AND OTHERS

    THE VEGETABLE AND FRUIT INDUSTRIES OF MARYLAND HAVE LONG BEEN DEPENDENT UPON MIGRATORY LABOR FOR THE SEASONAL LABOR REQUIRED IN HARVESTING AND PROCESSING OPERATIONS. THIS LABOR FORCE COMES TO THE STATE IN THE SPRING OR SUMMER, IS EMPLOYED IN VARIOUS CAMPS IN MARYLAND AND STATES IN THE NORTH, AND MIGRATES SOUTH FOLLOWING THE HARVEST OF LATE…

  9. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  10. The Rhetoric of "Job Market" and the Reality of the Academic Labor System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Marc

    2003-01-01

    One way of describing the recent movement of thought about the academic labor system is as a series of waves. A "first wave" of labor consciousness emerged before 1970, propelling the self-organization of the academic work force, especially in public institutions, where more than half the faculty are unionized. This labor awareness was contested…

  11. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  12. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  13. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  14. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  15. Women Workers in South Africa: Participation, Pay and Prejudice in the Formal Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carolyn

    Although concern over labor market inequities in South Africa has focused almost exclusively on racial differences in labor force participation and pay, gender also has been important, since women do not enjoy the same access, opportunities, and rewards in the formal labor market as men, especially among races traditionally subject to…

  16. [Foreign agricultural proletariat and seasonal migrations: Haitian workers in the Dominican agriculture].

    PubMed

    Lozano, W

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the massive entry of Haitian agricultural workers into rice, coffee, and other agricultural production in the Dominican Republic over the past 15 years are analyzed using data from surveys conducted in 1985 and 1987. Unlike the classic Latin American cases of labor migration, the movement of Haitian workers to the Dominican Republic crosses national borders and involves a landless proletariat rather than peasant farmers seeking to supplement their subsistence. Most of the Haitians finding work in coffee and rice cultivation were former sugar cane workers with several years of residence in the Dominican Republic who were forced out of sugar cane cutting by the collapse of the industry in the 1980s. Although Haitians have been employed in Dominican agriculture since the early 1900s, their massive movement to crops of great labor demand other than sugar began in the 1980s. Most of the Haitian workers in rice and coffee are illiterate men with no more than 3 years of primary education. Their average age is 28.4 years for coffee and 29.1 for rice workers. 40% of coffee workers and 53% of rice workers had children. The survey found a greater proportion of migrants from the North zone of Haiti than have previous studies, probably because of the accelerating crisis in the peasant economy in the North and the curtailment of movement to the Bahamas. The technical and social organization of agricultural work goes far in explaining migratory flows. Rice cultivation has heavy labor demands year round, while demand for labor in coffee cultivation is concentrated between August-December. The more complex and better paying jobs in rice cultivation are performed primarily by Dominican workers, who have formed a landless agricultural proletariat in place for at least 2 generations. Dominican workers thus meet the condition of staying in place all year that is not completely possible for Haitian workers. No such ethnic separation occurs in the coffee harvest, and

  17. The Economic Evolution of Rural America. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation of the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (May 22, June 13, June 19, July 1, 1985). Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Part 2 of this congressional hearing contains the testimony and prepared statements of 31 witnesses on the topics of rural community resources, the rural labor force, rural finance, and rural education to assist the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation in identifying the problems and potential of America's rural economy. With emphasis on…

  18. MIGRATORY LABOR IN THE WEST, BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR THE WESTERN INTERSTATE CONFERENCE ON MIGRATORY LABOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Chicago, IL.

    THE MIGRATORY FARM LABOR FORCE IN THE UNITED STATES IS GENERALLY COMPOSED OF UNDEREMPLOYED WORKERS WHO ARE PRIMARILY FROM THE NEGRO, SPANISH-AMERICAN, AND INDIAN MINORITY GROUPS OF RURAL AREAS. THESE WORKERS MIGRATE IN SEARCH OF EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF THEIR LOW EARNING POTENTIAL IN THEIR HOME AREAS. ALTHOUGH THEY HELP SATISFY THE CRITICAL DEMAND…

  19. Agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among hired farm workers in California (the MICASA study).

    PubMed

    Rodriquez, Erik J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schenker, Marc B

    2014-01-01

    Despite California's dependence on hired farm labor, scarce research has been conducted on the respiratory health of hired farm workers. Agricultural exposures to inorganic and organic dusts can adversely affect an individual's respiratory health and differ by farm type and job task. The purpose of the present analysis was to examine associations between agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among 450 California farm workers. Data were collected as part of the Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) study, a prospective cohort study examining occupational risk factors and health of hired farm worker families in Mendota, California. Time-weighted self-reported average (TWSRA) dust scores were calculated from assessments of past-12-month agricultural work history. Other dust exposure indicator variables included months worked in agriculture in the past 12 months and years worked in agriculture. Multiple linear regression modeled FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FEF(25-75%) (forced midexpiratory flow rate), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV6, FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/FEV6 separately. Seventy-six percent of participants had worked in agriculture in the past year. In models conducted for crops and tasks separately, high TWSRA dust score was associated with better FEV6. Crop and task models showed associations between greater months worked in agriculture in the past year and better FEV1, FEF(25-75%), and FEV6. Both models also found greater years worked in agriculture to be associated with worse FEV1/FEV6. Results were generally in the opposite direction as expected given past research but not uncommon. Future research should investigate relationships between pulmonary function and agricultural dust exposure over a lifetime and changes in pulmonary function over time.

  20. Second stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yvonne W; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' definition of prolonged second stage diagnoses 10% to 14% of nulliparous and 3% to 3.5% of multiparous women as having a prolonged second stage. The progression of labor in modern obstetrics may have deviated from the current labor norms established in the 1950s, likely due to differences in obstetric population characteristics and variation in clinical practice. Optimal management of the second stage in women with and without epidural remains debatable. Although prolonged second stage is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity, conflicting data exist regarding the duration of second stage and associated neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  1. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO...

  2. Cultivating Labor Management Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    In many districts, the notion of labor groups and district administration working together conjures descriptions of war and battle rather than cooperation and collaboration. However, in San Juan Unified School District, the headline, "Union and District Exhibit Positive Partnership" exemplifies the changing relationship between teacher leaders and…

  3. Labor Issues. Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Major policy, management, and program issues face the Congress and new administration in the area of labor. Many of the nation's youth are leaving school poorly prepared for the new work world. The nation already has a large group of economically disadvantaged people who lack necessary skills. Annually, 900,000 or more workers are at least…

  4. Labor Market Progeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  5. Labor analytics software can help control labor costs.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lawrence R

    2002-07-01

    One of the largest costs in healthcare organizations is labor. As volume of activity fluctuates, the labor supply needs to be adjusted appropriately. Having an appropriate quantity and skill mix of full- and part-time employees affects labor costs per hour and labor efficiency, two labor-cost control points that department managers need to monitor to make effective hiring decisions. Managers can use software applications for operating budgets, productivity monitoring, position control, and staffing/scheduling to manage labor expenses. Knowing the type of information each of these cost-control tools provides is critical to making effective decisions related to labor expenses. Because of their unique expertise, healthcare financial managers can serve as a resource to help the organization's department managers manage labor costs.

  6. Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figart, Deborah M.

    Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women…

  7. 29 CFR 780.105 - “Primary” and “secondary” agriculture under section 3(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPrimaryâ and âsecondaryâ agriculture under section 3(f... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.105 “Primary” and...

  8. Child Labor in America's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  9. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.104...

  10. Women in the Work Force: Supreme Court Issues. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1986

    This U.S. Congressional hearing, chaired by Representative Matthew G. Martinez (California), focuses on women in the work force. Issues, such as equal participation, pay, and advancement, along with sex discrimination and sexual harassment, are addressed. Testimony and written statements were presented by representatives from District of Columbia…

  11. 76 FR 24025 - Information Collection; Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ...; Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor AGENCY: Department of... acquisition of products produced by forced or indentured child labor. DATES: Submit comments on or before..., Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor, signed by the...

  12. 76 FR 42709 - Submission for OMB Review; Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...; Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor AGENCY: Department of... acquisition of products produced by forced or indentured child labor. DATES: Submit comments on or before... on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor, by any of the...

  13. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize labor. (MJP)

  14. Labor Arbitration and Dispute Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Julius G.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the nature of labor arbitration; then explores the transferability of the labor arbitration model. Argues that the establishment and legitimation of unions and collective bargaining are responsible for the success of labor arbitration, not vice versa. Available from The Yale Law Journal, 401A Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520;…

  15. Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections: Detailed Analysis of Selected Occupations and Industries. Report to the Honorable Berkley Bedell, United States House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    To compile its projections of future employment levels, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) combines the following five interlinked models in a six-step process: a labor force model, an econometric model of the U.S. economy, an industry activity model, an industry labor demand model, and an occupational labor demand model. The BLS was asked to…

  16. The Demand for Immigrant Workers: Labor Scarcity or Social Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, J. Craig

    1978-01-01

    This article analyzes the two perspectives, social control and labor scarcity. Immigrant workers are argued to be tied to social control functions in the peripheral sectors of the United States economy. The historical experience of farm workers in southwestern agriculture is drawn upon to illustrate the argument. (Author/EB)

  17. FARM LABOR COSTS AND FOOD PRICES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    TO MEASURE THE IMPACT OF THE DECLINE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL WORKER EMPLOYMENT ON FARM-LABOR COSTS, FOOD PRICES, AND RETURN TO THE FARMER, AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF THE 1964-65 CHANGES IN THESE FACTORS FOR SELECTED CALIFORNIA CROPS. TOMATOES, LETTUCE, STRAWBERRIES, CANTALOUPES, CELERY, LEMONS, AND ASPARAGUS, WHICH ACCOUNTED FOR 71 PERCENT OF THE…

  18. 20 CFR 655.208 - Temporary labor certification applications involving fraud or willful misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employer or agent in writing of this referral. The OFLC Administrator shall continue to process the... Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.208... reasons therefor stated in writing....

  19. 48 CFR 222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101 Labor relations. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Labor relations....

  20. 48 CFR 222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101 Labor relations. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations....

  1. 48 CFR 222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101 Labor relations. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Labor relations....

  2. 48 CFR 222.101 - Labor relations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101 Labor relations. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Labor relations....

  3. PROGRESS IN MEETING PROBLEMS OF MIGRATORY LABOR IN MARYLAND, THIRD ANNUAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NYSTROM, PAUL E.; AND OTHERS

    NUMEROUS CHANGES IN MARYLAND AGRICULTURE HAD A PRONOUNCED EFFECT UPON THE LABOR MOVEMENT. AMONG THEM WERE--CROP YIELDS, CROP PRICES AND THE RESULTANT EFFECT UPON CROP ACREAGE, MECHANIZATION OF TILLAGE, THINNINGS, AND HARVEST PROCEDURES. DESPITE INCREASED MECHANIZATION, GREATER ACREAGES MIGHT DEMAND A RATHER CONSTANT SUPPLY OF LABOR. PROBLEMS IN…

  4. 20 CFR 655.132 - H-2A labor contractor (H-2ALC) filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA) Farm Labor Contractor (FLC) Certificate of Registration, if required under MSPA at 29 U.S.C. 1801 et seq., identifying the specific farm labor contracting... the original surety bond as required by 29 CFR 501.9. The bond document must clearly identify...

  5. 20 CFR 655.132 - H-2A labor contractor (H-2ALC) filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA) Farm Labor Contractor (FLC) Certificate of Registration, if required under MSPA at 29 U.S.C. 1801 et seq., identifying the specific farm labor contracting... the original surety bond as required by 29 CFR 501.9. The bond document must clearly identify...

  6. 20 CFR 655.132 - H-2A labor contractor (H-2ALC) filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA) Farm Labor Contractor (FLC) Certificate of Registration, if required under MSPA at 29 U.S.C. 1801 et seq., identifying the specific farm labor contracting... the original surety bond as required by 29 CFR 501.9. The bond document must clearly identify...

  7. READINESS OF NEW YORK COOPERATIVE EXTENSION TO UNDERTAKE A FARM LABOR PROGRAM. EXTENSION STUDY, NUMBER 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALEXANDER, FRANK D.

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT MAINLY TO DETERMINE THE PRESENT NEW YORK STATE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION INPUT ON FARM LABOR EDUCATION, ESPECIALLY FOR YEAR ROUND FARM LABOR, AND TO ANTICIPATE EXTENSION INPUT FOR THE NEAR FUTURE IN THIS FIELD. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE RETURNED FROM 54 OF THE 56 COUNTIES WITH AGRICULTURAL DIVISIONS, ALL 13 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION…

  8. Levobupivacaine for labor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Makhni, Reena; Sethi, Savinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Combined spinal-epidural analgesia has become the preferred technique for labor analgesia as it combines the benefits of both spinal analgesia and flexibility of epidural catheter. Study was carried out with the primary aim to compare levobupivacaine and ropivacaine with fentanyl in terms of onset and duration of sensory block and to know maternal and fetal outcome. Materials and Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 primipara of the American Society of Anesthesiologists health status Class I and II with singleton pregnancy in active stage of labor were randomly allocated into two groups of 30 each. Group A received 3 mg intrathecal levobupivacaine with 25 μg fentanyl followed by epidural top-ups of 14 ml of levobupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 30 μg whereas Group B received 4 mg intrathecal ropivacaine with 25 μg fentanyl followed by epidural top-ups of 14 ml of ropivacaine 0.2% with fentanyl 30 μg. Patients were monitored for sensory and motor block characteristics, hemodynamics, maternal and fetal outcome, side effects, and complications. These characteristics were analyzed using the “Chi-square tests” and “unpaired t-test.” Results: Onset of analgesia was rapid in Group A (4.72 ± 0.54 min) as compared to Group B (5.58 ± 0.49 min). Duration of analgesia was also prolonged in Group A (117.00 ± 11.86 min) as compared to Group B (90.17 ± 8.85 min). Patients remained hemodynamically stable and side effects, and complications were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: Levobupivacaine with fentanyl leads to early onset and prolonged duration of analgesia as compared to ropivacaine with fentanyl during labor analgesia. PMID:27746539

  9. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  10. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  11. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  12. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  13. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  14. Assessing the Impact of Education and Marriage on Labor Market Exit Decisions of Women. Working Paper 2010-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Pitts, M. Melinda; Walker, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    During the late 1990s, the convergence of women's labor force participation rates to men's rates came to a halt. This paper explores the degree to which the role of education and marriage in women's labor supply decisions also changed over this time period. Specifically, this paper investigates women's decisions to exit the labor market upon the…

  15. Women in American Agriculture, a Selected Bibliography. Library List 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Agricultural Library (USDA), Washington, DC.

    More than 250 citations of materials about women in agriculture in the U.S. are contained in this partially annotated bibliography. It covers women engaged as landowners, farm managers, agricultural laborers and working in such agricultural industries as beekeeping, silk culture, and butter production. Other references concern women in…

  16. Molokai Community Needs Assessment for Agriculture Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.

    In order to assess the needs of agriculture (AG) education and ascertain the potential employment demand for pre-service and in-service training in agriculture over the next 5 years, Maui Community College (MCC) sent questionnaires to Molokai community businesses, inquiring about their agricultural labor demand. In December 1997, 68 questionnaires…

  17. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  18. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  19. Compensating differentials, labor market segmentation, and wage inequality.

    PubMed

    Daw, Jonathan; Hardie, Jessica Halliday

    2012-09-01

    Two literatures on work and the labor market draw attention to the importance of non-pecuniary job amenities. Social psychological perspectives on work suggest that workers have preferences for a range of job amenities (e.g. Halaby, 2003). The compensating differentials hypothesis predicts that workers navigate tradeoffs among different job amenities such that wage inequality overstates inequality in utility (Smith, 1979). This paper joins these perspectives by constructing a new measure of labor market success that evaluates the degree to which workers' job amenity preferences and outcomes match. This measure of subjective success is used to predict workers' job satisfaction and to test the hypothesis that some degree of labor force inequality in wages is due to preference-based tradeoffs among all job amenities. Findings demonstrate that the new measure predicts workers' job satisfaction and provides evidence for the presence of compensating differentials in the primary and intermediate, but not secondary, labor markets.

  20. Privatising Agricultural Extension: Caveat Emptor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, A. D.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Ficarelli, P. P.; Hoffmann, V.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses forces promoting privatization of agricultural extension. Discusses experiences of privatization and commercialization of extension and related problems in various countries, particularly developing countries. Suggests that the state will continue to play an important role in agricultural extension in many countries and that…

  1. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture...

  2. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture...

  3. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture...

  4. Social Evolution: The Force of the Market.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Shane J

    2016-08-22

    Biological market forces shape patterns of cooperation typical of small-scale human societies that are organized by division of labor based on age and gender. Labor specialization promotes trade, while supply and demand affect the amount individuals exchange for commodities. PMID:27554652

  5. 24 CFR 968.120 - Force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Force account. 968.120 Section 968... PUBLIC HOUSING MODERNIZATION General § 968.120 Force account. (a) For both CIAP and CGP, a PHA may undertake the activities using force account labor, only where specifically approved by HUD in the...

  6. 24 CFR 968.120 - Force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Force account. 968.120 Section 968... PUBLIC HOUSING MODERNIZATION General § 968.120 Force account. (a) For both CIAP and CGP, a PHA may undertake the activities using force account labor, only where specifically approved by HUD in the...

  7. 24 CFR 968.120 - Force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Force account. 968.120 Section 968... PUBLIC HOUSING MODERNIZATION General § 968.120 Force account. (a) For both CIAP and CGP, a PHA may undertake the activities using force account labor, only where specifically approved by HUD in the...

  8. 24 CFR 968.120 - Force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Force account. 968.120 Section 968... PUBLIC HOUSING MODERNIZATION General § 968.120 Force account. (a) For both CIAP and CGP, a PHA may undertake the activities using force account labor, only where specifically approved by HUD in the...

  9. Food Processing and Agriculture. Wisconsin Annual Farm Labor Report, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Employment Service, Madison.

    A yearly report on the migrant farm worker situation in Wisconsin evaluates the year 1968 in relation to past years and makes projections for the future. Comparisons are made of trends in year-round employment practices, seasonal food processing, the cherry industry, and the cucumber industry. The report includes a discussion on the social aspects…

  10. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  11. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  12. Fifty years of population growth and absorption of labor in Brazil: from 1950 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Paiva, P D

    1997-01-01

    For a long time, the Brazilian population has grown at a relatively high rate, and only recently has the process of demographic transition intensified in the country. While the associated decline in fertility could result in a future decline in the size of the working-age population, it could also lead to an increase in female participation in the labor market. Brazil's economy is performing well, with gross domestic product (GDP) growing at an average annual rate of 7.1% during 1947-80. Marked growth in industrial employment opportunities has accompanied this growth in GDP. The size of the informal sector, however, has not decreased in similar proportion, while the 1981-83 economic crisis caused urban employment levels to drop, especially in industry and construction. Moreover, the level of rural-urban migration has increased and the agricultural employment index has fallen. The author evaluates past growth trends of the Economically Active Population (EAP) and of employment in Brazil, and assesses the potential growth of the labor force until the year 2000.

  13. Comparison the Effects of Health Indicators on Male and Female Labor Supply, Evidence from Panel Data of Eastern Mediterranean Countries 1995-2010

    PubMed Central

    HOMAIE RAD, Enayatollah; HADIAN, Mohamad; GHOLAMPOOR, Hanie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Skilled labor force is very important in economic growth. Workers become skilled when they are healthy and able to be educated and work. In this study, we estimated the effects of health indicators on labor supply. We used labor force participation rate as the indicator of labor supply. We categorized this indicator into 2 indicators of female and male labor force participation rates and compared the results of each estimate with the other. Methods This study was done in eastern Mediterranean countries between 1995 and 2011. We used a panel cointegration approach for estimating the models. We used Pesaran cross sectional dependency, Pesaran unit root test, and Westerlund panel cointegration for this issue. At the end, after confirmation of having random effect models, we estimated them with random effects. Results Increasing the fertility rate decreased the female labor supply, but increased the male labor supply. However, public health expenditures increased the female labor supply, but decreased the male labor supply because of substitution effects. Similar results were found regarding urbanization. Gross domestic product had a positive relationship with female labor supply, but not with male labor supply. Besides, out of pocket health expenditures had a negative relationship with male labor supply, but no significant relationships with female labor supply. Conclusion The effects of the health variables were more severe in the female labor supply model compared to the male model. Countries must pay attention to women’s health more and more to change the labor supply. PMID:26060746

  14. Labor Comes into Its Own.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehrle, Edmund F.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a concise and interesting overview of the rise and extension of labor activity during the New Deal. Labor took advantage of Roosevelt's pro-union policies to consolidate their power and forever transform the lives of working men and women. Discusses improvements in working conditions, wages, and benefits. (MJP)

  15. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."

  16. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process." PMID:12285766

  17. Legal Intervention in Labor Arbitration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullett, C. Ray

    1978-01-01

    From a private process between unions and management, labor arbitration has become a matter for federal arbitrators to decide. The article traces this development through various federal court cases and legislation, particularly unfair labor practice charges under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. (MF)

  18. EPIDURAL ANALGESIA IN LABOR - CONTROVERSIES.

    PubMed

    Bilić, Nada; Djaković, Ivka; Kličan-Jaić, Katarina; Rudman, Senka Sabolović; Ivanec, Željko

    2015-09-01

    Labor pain is one of the most severe pains. Labor is a complex and individual process with varying maternal requesting analgesia. Labor analgesia must be safe and accompanied by minimal amount of unwanted consequences for both the mother and the child, as well as for the delivery procedure. Epidural analgesia is the treatment that best meets these demands. According to the American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology and American Society of Anesthesiologists, mother's demand is a reason enough for the introduction of epidural analgesia in labor, providing that no contraindications exist. The application of analgesics should not cease at the end of the second stage of labor, but it is recommended that lower concentration analgesics be then applied. Based on the latest studies, it can be claimed that epidural analgesia can be applied during the major part of the first and second stage of labor. According to previous investigations, there is no definitive conclusion about the incidence of instrumental delivery, duration of second stage of labor, time of epidural analgesia initiation, and long term outcomes for the newborn. Cooperation of obstetric and anesthesiology personnel, as well as appropriate technical equipment significantly decrease the need of instrumental completion of a delivery, as well as other complications encountered in the application of epidural analgesia. Our hospital offers 24/7 epidural analgesia service. The majority of pregnant women in our hospital were aware of the advantages of epidural analgesia for labor, however, only a small proportion of them used it, mainly because of inadequate level of information.

  19. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  20. The Youth Labor Market in the Context of Social Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, I. N.

    2011-01-01

    Many young people in Russia find it difficult to move into employment, and given the importance of a more efficient labor force for Russia's economic future, more needs to be done by the Russian government to improve the situation. Under current conditions, the state's activity in regard to solving issues of protecting the interests of young…

  1. Handbook of Labor Statistics 1977. Bulletin No. 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, James A., Comp.

    This handbook contains statistics on the employment status of the population: the personal, occupational, and other characteristics of the employed, the unemployed, and persons not in the labor force. The statistics are obtained from a selected sample of the population which is intended to represent the noninstitutionalized civilian population.…

  2. Working in America: A Blueprint for the New Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman, Paul; Kochan, Thomas A.; Locke, Richard; Piore, Michael J.

    The evolution of jobs and the job market in the United States was examined in a 3-year project during which a task force consisting of 25 representatives of the education, labor, business, and policy sectors organized 17 workshops and commissioned working papers from experts. The project began by examining how recent changes in the world of work…

  3. The Rural Community College as an Administrative Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nathan T.; Cejda, Brent D.

    2007-01-01

    External culture acts as a powerful force on rural community colleges and the presidents that lead them. This article examines whether rural community colleges comprise an administrative labor market, based on the careers of 69 chief academic officers employed in rural community colleges. Findings indicate the characteristics of both an…

  4. Sweatshops in the Sun - Child Labor on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald B.

    In 1970 about a fourth of the country's farm workers were underage, working and living in conditions which are "sub-sub-substandard" in most parts of the country. These workers are often swindled or exploited by labor contractors or crew men. Since the work is seasonal, families are forced to travel great distances, under difficult circumstances,…

  5. The Plant Closure Policy Dilemma. Labor, Law and Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendling, Wayne R.

    In 1982 plant closings in the United States affected approximately 1 percent of the country's manufacturing facilities and 1 percent of its manufacturing labor force. Included among the reasons cited for plant closings were low productivity, high wages, and inflexible work rules. Given the nature of the reasons for plant closings and the magnitude…

  6. Several problems on a rational structure for agricultural production and the agro-ecology of the Tai region of Tiangsu province

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiangyong

    1983-08-01

    This article presents a method of determining whether the output value structure, the soil structure, and the labor force structure are relatively balanced in an agricultural region of a Chinese province. Topics covered include several rational agricultural production structures for different types of soil, and several problems in setting up a rational agricultural production structure. A rational agricultural production structure is a consequence of the integrated development of farming, forestry, animal husbandry, sideline occupations, fisheries, and industry. The Tai Region has nine distinct types of soil. It is indicated that the level of grain production directly bears on the size and speed of development of economic diversification. Tables are presented on the output value structure of several representative communes and brigades, and soil nutrient content.

  7. The Youth Labor Market. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalacheck, Edward

    Literature on the job-hunting and the work records of young persons in school and during their initial period of adjustment to full-time membership in the labor force is reviewed and evaluated. While this suggests an analysis of the labor market experiences of 14 to 24 year olds, most of the literature to be surveyed deals with a more narrowly…

  8. Sector-Based Analysis of the Education-Occupation Mismatch in the Turkish Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…

  9. Labor Market Information and Career Decision Making. ERIC Digest No. 83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan; Kerka, Sandra

    Labor market information (LMI) describes the interaction between occupations and employers. Three major components make up LMI: economic or labor force information, occupational information, and demographic information. Various agencies, including federal departments and state employment security agencies, compile LMI. A guide to the information…

  10. Connecting the Dots: The Labor Market Information View of Workforce Development. Essays for the Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Richard, Ed.

    This monograph is comprised of 12 essays related to the federal Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), each of which serves as a generic primer on a topic relevant to work force development staff and researchers nationwide. The essays are "Learning the Language of LMI (Labor Market Information): Basic Labor Market Information Terms and Concepts"…

  11. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  12. A Limit to Reflexivity: The Challenge for Working Women of Negotiating Sharing of Household Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Peter; Whitehouse, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Unpaid household labor is still predominantly performed by women, despite dramatic increases in female labor force participation over the past 50 years. For this article, interviews with 76 highly skilled women who had returned to the workforce following the birth of children were analyzed to capture reflexive understandings of the balance of paid…

  13. The Labor Supply for Lower Level Occupations: Final Report. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wool, Harold; Phillips, Bruce D.

    This study examines the hypothesis that the labor supply for "lower level" occupations will be significantly reduced as a result of such trends as occupational upgrading of black workers, increased education, and the prospective reduction in number of new entrants to the labor force. Chapter I reviews a number of theoretical and empirical criteria…

  14. Child Labor and School Enrollment in Thailand in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzannatos, Zafiris

    2003-01-01

    Traces recent trends in child labor, conditions of employment, and schooling in Thailand. Finds, for example, that children withdraw from school and enter labor force because families cannot afford the cost of education. Describes the effect of education subsidies on poor families. Discusses policies and practices to eliminate exploitative forms…

  15. Social Background, Schooling, and Labor Market Experiences: The Reproduction of Socioeconomic Inequality from Generation to Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Larry J.

    A study was conducted to identify important background, schooling, and labor force participation determinants of socioeconomic achievement (occupational position, earnings, work satisfaction). Two questions underlaid the analyses: Does social background directly affect material and psychological success in the labor market? And, if so, what are…

  16. No-Fault Divorce Laws and the Labor Supply of Women with and without Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genadek, Katie R.; Stock, Wendy A.; Stoddard, Christiana

    2007-01-01

    We use a difference-in-difference-in-difference estimator to compare changes in labor force participation, weeks, and hours of work associated with no-fault divorce laws, allowing for differential responses for married women with and without children. Although other research has found that the labor supply of women in general does not respond to…

  17. 20 CFR 655.1310 - Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1310 Validity and scope of... assignment of such workers and maintains a record of such assignments. All temporary agricultural labor...) Extensions on period of employment—(1) Short-term extension. An employer who seeks an extension of 2 weeks...

  18. A Select Bibliography of Books on Labor Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)

  19. [Using the 'Driving Force - Pressure - State - Exposure - Effects - Action' (DPSEEA) model of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the analysis of risks related to the use of pesticides in agricultural activities in the state of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Araújo-Pinto, Mariana de; Peres, Frederico; Moreira, Josino Costa

    2012-06-01

    This paper seeks to apply the DPSEEA model (WHO) to identify major health risks to rural workers and the environment associated with the intensive use of pesticides in the State of Rio de Janeiro, based on an analysis of official public documents and a review of the (national and international) literature. It emphasizes the two main representative branches of agriculture in the state: family farming in the mountain region and the monoculture of sugarcane in the flatlands. Results show that the bulk of the determinants identified in the DPSEEA Matrix are related to deficiencies in actions for monitoring and surveillance of pesticide use, as well as a lack of technical assistance provided by the Public Sector in Rio de Janeiro State. Most of the actions developed in the state address the effects of pesticide exposure and, to a lesser extent, exposure to these chemicals, failing to focus on the higher levels of the matrix (such as driving forces and pressure). These are considered, by several authors, as the most appropriate when tackling the complex and systemic issues, such as the scope of this paper. By means of this study, an attempt was made to enable the application of the DPSEEA Model to assist in environmental and occupational health surveillance initiatives.

  20. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm.

  1. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  2. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  3. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  4. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  5. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  6. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  7. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  8. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  10. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  11. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  12. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  13. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  14. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  15. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  16. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  17. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  18. Structural changes in the receiving country and future labor migration--the case of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Shah, N M

    1995-01-01

    This article describes changes in the volume, age and sex composition, retention, productivity, types of occupation, and economic sector of the labor force in Kuwait. The focus is on the structural changes in the indigenous labor force. Data were obtained from censuses and labor force surveys during 1965-93. Policies after the 1990 invasion pertained primarily to security of public employment sector among natives. Over 98% of private sector employment is among non-Kuwaitis. Government programs support high fertility. Female illiteracy has declined, and the proportion of women with a higher education has increased. Natives comprised 20.4% of the total labor force in 1993. About 90% of native males work in the public sector. 45% of total male employment is in the production sector. Around 50% of non-Kuwaiti males have been employed in production work over the decades. Over 90% of Kuwaiti females in 1993 worked in professional or clerical work. Over 50% of total female labor force participation is in the service sector. Concentration in the public sector increased for Kuwaitis and declined for non-Kuwaitis. Labor force participation declined with increasing age. Retirement benefits encouraged early retirement. The private sector is experiencing the departure of long-term migrants and more rapid turnover of labor. Hours of work are longer in the private sector. Kuwait is still dependent on foreign workers in the production and service industries. It is likely that native male workers will replace foreign workers in professional work and administrative/clerical work. Policies that will assure future reliance on imported labor include the assurance of government jobs for Kuwaitis, retirement rules, and the profitability of the trade in labor. PMID:12291221

  19. 29 CFR 516.33 - Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act. 516.33 Section 516.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS Records Pertaining to Employees Subject to...

  20. Labor Shortage: Menace or Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Jon

    1988-01-01

    There are many uncertainties about the magnitude and nature of labor shortages. Data needed to identify and quantify shortages are not available from national statistical offices so most of what is known comes from employer reports. (JOW)

  1. Labor Functions of Illegal Aliens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro

    1977-01-01

    Concludes that to the extent that collective defenselessness of workers exists anywhere, movements like illegal immigration, the self-transportation of cheap labor toward the places where needed, are bound to continue. (Author/AM)

  2. Survey of Labor Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Nan L.

    1985-01-01

    Labor economics textbooks for use with college students were surveyed. Information concerning intended audience, content, and teaching aids is provided for each text. Criteria used in evaluating the texts is provided. (RM)

  3. Rockdusting technique cuts labor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.H.

    1983-12-01

    Brownies Creek Collieries has aggressively sought cost reductions while maintaining production quotas. The operation scrutinized costs in a computerized analysis, and found that exact costs could not be determined for rockdusting. Rockdusting costs were buried under mine supply costs and maintenance labor. Mine management had to physically examine rockdusting procedures to determine costs. Mine Manager Dave Roberts and his staff discovered in their personal underground analysis of rockdusting that labor and supplies were being unnecessarily wasted.

  4. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Noomnual, Saisattha; Chishti, Shumaila; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Madrigano, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H) risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990-2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3-83 countries). Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  5. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shendell, Derek G.; Noomnual, Saisattha; Chishti, Shumaila; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Madrigano, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H) risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries). Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries. PMID:27382374

  6. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Noomnual, Saisattha; Chishti, Shumaila; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Madrigano, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H) risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990-2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3-83 countries). Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries. PMID:27382374

  7. New Labor Pain Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Koyyalamudi, Veerandra; Sidhu, Gurleen; Cornett, Elyse M; Nguyen, Viet; Labrie-Brown, Carmen; Fox, Charles J; Kaye, Alan D

    2016-02-01

    Presently, the gold standard for pain control in laboring patients is neuraxial blockade, which includes a spinal, epidural, or a combined spinal-epidural technique. In conjunction with neuraxial blockade or by itself, some of the other agents employed related to labor pain include opioids, non-opioids, nitrous oxide, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), and distraction therapy. Alternative treatments include acupuncture, hypnotism, yoga, exercise during pregnancy, hydrotherapy, transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation, massage, and relaxation techniques. This review will focus on current updates and recent trends in labor pain management. Neuraxial management, pharmacotherapy, and newer alternative methods to mitigate labor pain are reviewed. Newer techniques in epidural analgesia include the dural puncture epidural technique, which needs further evaluation. There are limited published data on the use of acupuncture, hypnotism, yoga, exercise during pregnancy, hydrotherapy, transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation, massage, and relaxation techniques in the alleviation of labor pain. These alternative therapies maybe considered as an adjuvant as the analgesic efficiency is inferior to that provided by typical standard pharmacotherapy. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the role of immersion virtual reality in alleviating labor pain.

  8. New Labor Pain Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Koyyalamudi, Veerandra; Sidhu, Gurleen; Cornett, Elyse M; Nguyen, Viet; Labrie-Brown, Carmen; Fox, Charles J; Kaye, Alan D

    2016-02-01

    Presently, the gold standard for pain control in laboring patients is neuraxial blockade, which includes a spinal, epidural, or a combined spinal-epidural technique. In conjunction with neuraxial blockade or by itself, some of the other agents employed related to labor pain include opioids, non-opioids, nitrous oxide, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), and distraction therapy. Alternative treatments include acupuncture, hypnotism, yoga, exercise during pregnancy, hydrotherapy, transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation, massage, and relaxation techniques. This review will focus on current updates and recent trends in labor pain management. Neuraxial management, pharmacotherapy, and newer alternative methods to mitigate labor pain are reviewed. Newer techniques in epidural analgesia include the dural puncture epidural technique, which needs further evaluation. There are limited published data on the use of acupuncture, hypnotism, yoga, exercise during pregnancy, hydrotherapy, transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation, massage, and relaxation techniques in the alleviation of labor pain. These alternative therapies maybe considered as an adjuvant as the analgesic efficiency is inferior to that provided by typical standard pharmacotherapy. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the role of immersion virtual reality in alleviating labor pain. PMID:26780039

  9. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  10. 9 CFR 381.203 - Products offered for entry; charges for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to products which are refused entry. 381.203 Section 381.203 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... entry; charges for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to products which are refused entry....

  11. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  12. Teachers without Borders: Consequences of Teacher Labor Force Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastian, Kevin C.; Henry, Gary T.

    2015-01-01

    Many states have responded to teacher shortages by granting certification to individuals traditionally prepared out-of-state; now, out-of-state prepared teachers comprise a sizable percentage of the teacher workforce in many states. We know little about these teachers, and therefore, in the present study, we estimate the effectiveness of…

  13. The Effect of Occupational Growth on Labor Force Task Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    Examination of changes in 495 occupations from 1950-1990 shows an increased likelihood of tasks with high levels of complexity and social interaction, decreased likelihood of fine or gross motor skills or harsh climatic conditions. There is evidence that jobs have become polarized on the need for fine motor skills and level of social interaction.…

  14. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  15. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  16. U.S. North-South labor migration and trade.

    PubMed

    Horiba, Y; Kirkpatrick, R C

    1983-02-01

    The authors examine the roles of labor migration and commodity trade in the inter-regional equalization of the real wage rate in the United States. The emphasis is on North-South patterns. Theoretical models are first outlined and then tested using 1960 and 1970 census data and multi-regional input-output data for 1963. It is found that "the pattern of trade-embodied labor flow closely resembled the pattern of direct labor migration." It is also noted that "the South's hierarchical profile of relative plentifulness among age, education, and race-specific categories of work force tended to persist and remain fairly stable between 1960 and 1970.... One plausible hypothesis is that interregional commodity trade is accomplishing the bulk of the requisite adjustment in bringing about the real wage equalization." PMID:12312368

  17. Military duty: risk factor for preterm labor? A review.

    PubMed

    McNeary, A M; Lomenick, T S

    2000-08-01

    The female military population represents a high-risk group for preterm labor and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. As the number of women entering the armed forces continues to increase, concerns regarding the effects of military service on pregnancy must persist. Although active duty females have access to prenatal care and maintain consistent follow-up, previous research has noted a 5-fold increase in preterm labor compared with civilian working women. Hospitalization and loss of work attributable to pregnancy complications directly affect productivity and mission accomplishment; therefore, it is crucial to identify those at risk to institute measures that will prevent such occurrences and decrease time away from work. This article provides a review of the existing literature concerning preterm labor in military women, comparisons with the civilian population, and recommendations for future research. PMID:10957855

  18. Horticulture-Agriculture Technologies. State Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    This document, which lists the horticultural-agricultural technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

  19. Animal Enterprise Record Book. Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This record book is intended for use by agricultural education students who have ownership arrangements in animal enterprise experience programs. A major purpose of this book is to aid in separating out or allocating the costs and returns to a specific enterprise. The financial, labor, and management aspects of each enterprise can then be studied…

  20. 24 CFR 585.313 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the...