Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural land cover

  1. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type. High amounts of agriculture on steep slopes can increase the amount of soil erosion leading to increased sediment in surface water. Agricultural land cover on steep slopes (AGSL) is the percent of agriculture on slopes greater than or equal to 9%. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  2. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes (Future)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type. High amounts of agriculture on steep slopes can increase the amount of soil erosion leading to increased sediment in surface water. Agricultural land cover on steep slopes (AGSL) is the percent of agriculture on slopes greater than or equal to 9%. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  3. National land-cover data and national agricultural census estimates of agricultural land use in the northeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The landscape of the northeastern United States is diverse and patchy, a complex mixture of forest, agriculture, and developed lands. Many urgent social and environmental issues require spatially-referenced information on land use, a need filled by the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD). The accuracy o...

  4. Incorporating agricultural land cover in conceptual rainfall runoff models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euser, Tanja; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    Incorporating spatially variable information is a frequently discussed option to increase the performance of (semi) distributed conceptual rainfall runoff models. One of the methods to do this is by using these spatially variable information to delineate Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) within a catchment. This study tests whether the incorporation of an additional agricultural HRU in a conceptual hydrological model can better reflect the spatial differences in runoff generation and therefore improve the simulation of the wetting phase in autumn. The study area is the meso-scale Ourthe catchment in Belgium. A previous study in this area showed that spatial patterns in runoff generation were already better represented by incorporation of a wetland and a hillslope HRU, compared to a lumped model structure. The influences which are considered by including an agriculture HRU are increased drainage speed due to roads, plough pans and increased infiltration excess overland flow (drainage pipes area only limited present), and variable vegetation patterns due to sowing and harvesting. In addition, the vegetation is not modelled as a static resistance towards evaporation, but the Jarvis stress functions are used to increase the realism of the modelled transpiration; in land-surface models the Jarvis stress functions are already often used for modelling transpiration. The results show that an agricultural conceptualisation in addition to wetland and hillslope conceptualisations leads to small improvements in the modelled discharge. However, the influence is larger on the representation of spatial patterns and the modelled contributions of different HRUs to the total discharge.

  5. Agricultural Land Cover from Multitemporal C-Band SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skriver, H.

    2013-12-01

    Henning Skriver DTU Space, Technical University of Denmark Ørsteds Plads, Building 348, DK-2800 Lyngby e-mail: hs@space.dtu.dk Problem description This paper focuses on land cover type from SAR data using high revisit acquisitions, including single and dual polarisation and fully polarimetric data, at C-band. The data set were acquired during an ESA-supported campaign, AgriSAR09, with the Radarsat-2 system. Ground surveys to obtain detailed land cover maps were performed during the campaign. Classification methods using single- and dual-polarisation data, and fully polarimetric data are used with multitemporal data with short revisit time. Results for airborne campaigns have previously been reported in Skriver et al. (2011) and Skriver (2012). In this paper, the short revisit satellite SAR data will be used to assess the trade-off between polarimetric SAR data and data as single or dual polarisation SAR data. This is particularly important in relation to the future GMES Sentinel-1 SAR satellites, where two satellites with a relatively wide swath will ensure a short revisit time globally. Questions dealt with are: which accuracy can we expect from a mission like the Sentinel-1, what is the improvement of using polarimetric SAR compared to single or dual polarisation SAR, and what is the optimum number of acquisitions needed. Methodology The data have sufficient number of looks for the Gaussian assumption to be valid for the backscatter coefficients for the individual polarizations. The classification method used for these data is therefore the standard Bayesian classification method for multivariate Gaussian statistics. For the full-polarimetric cases two classification methods have been applied, the standard ML Wishart classifier, and a method based on a reversible transform of the covariance matrix into backscatter intensities. The following pre-processing steps were performed on both data sets: The scattering matrix data in the form of SLC products were

  6. Inventory of wetlands and agricultural land cover in the upper Sevier River Basin, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.; Clark, L. D., Jr.; Landgraf, K. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of color infrared aerial photography in the mapping of agricultural land use and wetlands in the Sevier River Basin of south central utah is described. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of utilizing LANDSAT multispectral scanner digital data to augment photographic interpretations are discussed. Transparent overlays for 27 quadrangles showing delineations of wetlands and agricultural land cover were produced. A table summarizing the acreage represented by each class on each quadrangle overlay is provided.

  7. Estimation of agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using land cover maps and county pesticide data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Wolock, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate agricultural pesticide use in the drainage basins of streams that are studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Drainage basin pesticide use estimates were computed by intersecting digital maps of drainage basin boundaries with an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Data 1992 combined with estimates of 1992 agricultural pesticide use in each United States county. This report presents the methods used to quantify agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using a GIS and includes the estimates of atrazine use applied to row crops, small-grain crops, and fallow lands in 150 watersheds in the conterminous United States. Basin atrazine use estimates are presented to compare and analyze the results that were derived from 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution land cover and county pesticide use data, and drainage basin boundaries at various grid cell resolutions. Comparisons of the basin atrazine use estimates derived from watershed boundaries, county pesticide use, and land cover data sets at different resolutions, indicated that overall differences were minor. The largest potential for differences in basin pesticide use estimates between those derived from the 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 exists wherever there are abrupt agricultural land cover changes along the basin divide. Despite the limitations of the drainage basin pesticide use data described in this report, the basin estimates provide consistent and comparable indicators of agricultural pesticide application in surface-water drainage basins studied in the NAWQA Program.

  8. LAND COVER MAPPING IN AN AGRICULTURAL SETTING USING MULTISEASONAL THEMATIC MAPPER DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multiseasonal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data set consisting of five image dates from a single year was used to characterize agricultural and related land cover in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon. Image registration was accomplished using an automated grou...

  9. Agricultural policy effects on land cover and land use over 30 years in Tartous, Syria, as seen in Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Waad Youssef; Batzli, Sam; Menzel, W. Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study pursues a connection between agricultural policy and the changes in land use and land cover detected with remote sensing satellite data. One part of the study analyzes the Syrian agricultural policy, wherein, certain regional targets have been selected for annual citrus or greenhouse development along with tools of enforcement, support, and monitoring. The second part of the study investigates the utility of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS) to map land use land cover changes (LULC-Cs) in a time series of images from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) from 1987, 1998, 2006, and 2010 and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) from 1999 to 2002. Several multispectral band analyses have been performed to determine the most suitable band combinations for isolating greenhouses and citrus farms. Supervised classification with maximum likelihood classifier has been used to produce precise land use land cover map. This research demonstrates that spatial relationship between LULC-Cs and agricultural policies can be determined through a science-based GIS/RS application to a time series of satellite images taken at the same time of the implemented policy.

  10. Effect of land use land cover change on soil erosion potential in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arabinda; Tiwari, Kamlesh N; Bhadoria, P B S

    2011-02-01

    Universal soil loss equation (USLE) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system to determine the influence of land use and land cover change (LUCC) on soil erosion potential of a reservoir catchment during the period 1989 to 2004. Results showed that the mean soil erosion potential of the watershed was increased slightly from 12.11 t ha(-1) year(-1) in the year 1989 to 13.21 t ha(-1) year(-1) in the year 2004. Spatial analysis revealed that the disappearance of forest patches from relatively flat areas, increased in wasteland in steep slope, and intensification of cultivation practice in relatively more erosion-prone soil were the main factors contributing toward the increased soil erosion potential of the watershed during the study period. Results indicated that transition of other land use land cover (LUC) categories to cropland was the most detrimental to watershed in terms of soil loss while forest acted as the most effective barrier to soil loss. A p value of 0.5503 obtained for two-tailed paired t test between the mean erosion potential of microwatersheds in 1989 and 2004 also indicated towards a moderate change in soil erosion potential of the watershed over the studied period. This study revealed that the spatial location of LUC parcels with respect to terrain and associated soil properties should be an important consideration in soil erosion assessment process.

  11. Land cover, land use, and climate change impacts on agriculture in southern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontgis, Caitlin

    Global environmental change is rapidly changing the surface of the Earth in varied and irrevocable ways. Across the world, land cover and land use have been altered to accommodate the needs of expanding populations, and climate change has required plant, animal, and human communities to adapt to novel climates. These changes have created unprecedented new ecosystems that affect the planet in ways that are not fully understood and difficult to predict. Of utmost concern is food security, and whether agro-ecosystems will adapt and respond to widespread changes so that growing global populations can be sustained. To understand how one staple food crop, rice, responds to global environmental change in southern Vietnam, this dissertation aims to accomplish three main tasks: (1) quantify the rate and form of urban and peri-urban expansion onto cropland using satellite imagery and demographic data, (2) track changes to annual rice paddy harvests using time series satellite data, and (3) model the potential effects of climate change on rice paddies by incorporating farmer interview data into a crop systems model. The results of these analyses show that the footprint of Ho Chi Minh City grew nearly five times between 1990 and 2012. Mismatches between urban development and population growth suggest that peri-urbanization is driven by supply-side investment, and that much of this form of land expansion has occurred near major transit routes. In the nearby Mekong River Delta, triple-cropped rice paddy area doubled between 2000 and 2010, from one-third to two-thirds of rice fields, while paddy area expanded by about 10%. These results illustrate the intensification of farming practices since Vietnam liberalized its economy, yet it is not clear whether such practices are environmentally sustainable long-term. Although triple-cropped paddy fields have expanded, future overall production is estimated to decline without the effects of CO2 fertilization. Temperatures are anticipated

  12. Agricultural land cover mapping with the aid of digital soil survey data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    A study is recounted which assessed the effect of stratifying multidate Landsat MSS data on land cover classification accuracy. The study area covered 49,184 ha (121,534 acres) in Gentry County in northwestern Missouri. A pixel-by-pixel comparison of the two land cover classifications with field-verified land cover indicated improvements in identification of all cover types when land areas were stratified by soils. The introduction of soil map information to the land cover mapping process can improve discrimination of land cover types and reduce confusion among crop types that may be caused by soil-specific management practices, soil-induced crop development differences, and background reflectance characteristics.

  13. Temporal Beta Diversity of Bird Assemblages in Agricultural Landscapes: Land Cover Change vs. Stochastic Processes.

    PubMed

    Baselga, Andrés; Bonthoux, Sébastien; Balent, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Temporal variation in the composition of species assemblages could be the result of deterministic processes driven by environmental change and/or stochastic processes of colonization and local extinction. Here, we analyzed the relative roles of deterministic and stochastic processes on bird assemblages in an agricultural landscape of southwestern France. We first assessed the impact of land cover change that occurred between 1982 and 2007 on (i) the species composition (presence/absence) of bird assemblages and (ii) the spatial pattern of taxonomic beta diversity. We also compared the observed temporal change of bird assemblages with a null model accounting for the effect of stochastic dynamics on temporal beta diversity. Temporal assemblage dissimilarity was partitioned into two separate components, accounting for the replacement of species (i.e. turnover) and for the nested species losses (or gains) from one time to the other (i.e. nestedness-resultant dissimilarity), respectively. Neither the turnover nor the nestedness-resultant components of temporal variation were accurately explained by any of the measured variables accounting for land cover change (r(2)<0.06 in all cases). Additionally, the amount of spatial assemblage heterogeneity in the region did not significantly change between 1982 and 2007, and site-specific observed temporal dissimilarities were larger than null expectations in only 1% of sites for temporal turnover and 13% of sites for nestedness-resultant dissimilarity. Taken together, our results suggest that land cover change in this agricultural landscape had little impact on temporal beta diversity of bird assemblages. Although other unmeasured deterministic process could be driving the observed patterns, it is also possible that the observed changes in presence/absence species composition of local bird assemblages might be the consequence of stochastic processes in which species populations appeared and disappeared from specific localities in

  14. Agricultural land cover mapping in the context of a geographically referenced digital information system. [Carroll, Macon, and Gentry Counties, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The introduction of soil map information to the land cover mapping process can improve discrimination of land cover types and reduce confusion among crop types that may be caused by soil-specific management practices and background reflectance characteristics. Multiple dates of LANDSAT MSS digital were analyzed for three study areas in northern Missouri to produce cover types for major agricultural land cover classes. Digital data bases were then developed by adding ancillary data such as digitized soil and transportation network information to the LANDSAT-derived cover type map. Procedures were developed to manipulate the data base parameters to extract information applicable to user requirements. An agricultural information system combining such data can be used to determine the productive capacity of land to grow crops, fertilizer needs, chemical weed control rates, irrigation suitability, and trafficability of soil for planting.

  15. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets.

    PubMed

    Zomer, Robert J; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-07-20

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha(-1). Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases.

  16. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zomer, Robert J.; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-07-01

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha‑1. Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases.

  17. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets

    PubMed Central

    Zomer, Robert J.; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha−1. Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases. PMID:27435095

  18. Land Use and Land Cover Change Modeling Using Remote Sensing and Soft Computing Approach to Assess Sugarcane Expansion Impacts in Tropical Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, L. E.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Friedel, M. J.; Victoria, D.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Gomes, D.; Bayma-Silva, G.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is related with land-use/cover changes (LUCC) over large areas and, in recent years, increase in demand of ethanol fuel has been influence in expansion of areas occupied with corn and sugar cane, raw material for ethanol production. Nevertheless, there´s a concern regarding the impacts on food security, such as, decrease in areas planted with food crops. Considering that the LUCC is highly dynamic, the use of Remote Sensing is a tool for monitoring changes quickly and precisely in order to provide information for agricultural planning. In this work, Remote Sensing techniques were used to monitor the LUCC occurred in municipalities of São Paulo state- Brazil related with sugarcane crops expansion in order to (i) evaluate and quantify the previous land cover in areas of sugarcane crop expansion, and (ii) provide information to elaborate a future land cover scenario based on Self Organizing Map (SOM) approach. The land cover classification procedure was based on Landsat 5 TM images, obtained from the Global Land Survey. The Landsat images were then segmented into homogeneous objects, with represent areas on the ground with similar spatial and spectral characteristics. These objects are related to the distinct land cover types that occur in each municipality. The segmentation procedure resulted in polygons over the three time periods along twenty years (1990-2010). The land cover for each object was visually identified, based on its shape, texture and spectral characteristics. Land cover types considered were: sugarcane plantations, pasture lands, natural cover, forest plantation, permanent crop, short cycle crop, water bodies and urban areas. SOM technique was used to estimate the values for the future land cover scenarios for the selected municipalities, using the information of land change provided by the remote sensing and data from official sources.

  19. An Initial Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data for the Discrimination of Agricultural, Forested Wetland, and Urban Land Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for the discrimination of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers is conducted using a scene of data collected over Arkansas and Tennessee. A classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is compared with a classification of TM data for the same area. Results from this comparative analysis show that the multitemporal MSS classification produced an overall accuracy of 80.91% while the TM classification yields an overall classification accuracy of 97.06% correct.

  20. An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper data for the classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Anderson, J. E.; Brannon, D. P.; Hill, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.

  1. Nitrate-nitrogen losses through subsurface drainage under various agricultural land covers.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhiming; Helmers, Matthew J; Christianson, Reid D; Pederson, Carl H

    2011-01-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen (NO₃-N) loading to surface water bodies from subsurface drainage is an environmental concern in the midwestern United States. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various land covers on NO₃-N loss through subsurface drainage. Land-cover treatments included (i) conventional corn ( L.) (C) and soybean [ (L.) Merr.] (S); (ii) winter rye ( L.) cover crop before corn (rC) and before soybean (rS); (iii) kura clover ( M. Bieb.) as a living mulch for corn (kC); and (iv) perennial forage of orchardgrass ( L.) mixed with clovers (PF). In spring, total N uptake by aboveground biomass of rye in rC, rye in rS, kura clover in kC, and grasses in PF were 14.2, 31.8, 87.0, and 46.3 kg N ha, respectively. Effect of land covers on subsurface drainage was not significant. The NO₃-N loss was significantly lower for kC and PF than C and S treatments (p < 0.05); rye cover crop did not reduce NO₃-N loss, but NO₃-N concentration was significantly reduced in rC during March to June and in rS during July to November (p < 0.05). Moreover, the increase of soil NO₃-N from early to late spring in rS was significantly lower than the S treatment (p < 0.05). This study suggests that kC and PF are effective in reducing NO₃-N loss, but these systems could lead to concerns relative to grain yield loss and change in farming practices. Management strategies for kC need further study to achieve reasonable corn yield. The effectiveness of rye cover crop on NO-N loss reduction needs further investigation under conditions of different N rates, wider weather patterns, and fall tillage.

  2. Impacts of Land-Cover Change on Suspended Sediment Transport in Two Agricultural Watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Isenhart, T.M.; Palmer, J.A.; Wolter, C.F.; Spooner, J.

    2011-01-01

    Suspended sediment is a major water quality problem, yet few monitoring studies have been of sufficient scale and duration to assess the effectiveness of land-use change or conservation practice implementation at a watershed scale. Daily discharge and suspended sediment export from two 5,000-ha watersheds in central Iowa were monitored over a 10-year period (water years 1996-2005). In Walnut Creek watershed, a large portion of land was converted from row crop to native prairie, whereas in Squaw Creek land use remained predominantly row crop agriculture. Suspended sediment loads were similar in both watersheds, exhibiting flashy behavior typical of incised channels. Modeling suggested that expected total soil erosion in Walnut Creek should have been reduced 46% relative to Squaw Creek due to changes in land use, yet measured suspended sediment loads showed no significant differences. Stream mapping indicated that Walnut Creek had three times more eroding streambank lengths than did Squaw Creek suggesting that streambank erosion dominated sediment sources in Walnut Creek and sheet and rill sources dominated sediment sources in Squaw Creek. Our results demonstrate that an accounting of all sources of sediment erosion and delivery is needed to characterize sediment reductions in watershed projects combined with long-term, intensive monitoring and modeling to account for possible lag times in the manifestation of the benefits of conservation practices on water quality. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association.

  3. Calculation of Agricultural Nitrogen Quantity for EU15, spatialisation of the results to river basins using CORINE Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campling, P.; Terres, J. M.; Vandewalle, S.; Crouzet, P.

    2003-04-01

    The objective of the study was the implementation of the OECD/Eurostat Soil Surface balance method to calculate nitrogen balances from agricultural sources for the whole European Union (EU) at administrative or river basins level. This methodology combines the use of statistics on crops area, number of animals together with agronomic technical coefficients and Corine Land Cover data to spatialise agricultural nitrogen quantity through spatial modelling. Results on catchments show an EU average surplus level of 60 kg N/ha. The distribution of the balances shows high surplus amounts in regions of intensive livestock farming (Flanders (B), the Netherlands, Brittany (FR)), and low or deficit values in the central areas of Spain, France and Italy. The effect of the Corine Land Cover in nitrogen balance calculations was also examined through scenario analysis. These simulations indicated a slight improvement in estimation when the Corine Land Cover was used to spatialise the results of the Soil surface balance model. A sensitivity analysis of the technical coefficients was also carried out and showed a higher sensitivity of the model to crop related coefficients than manure coefficients. The overall sensitivity analysis revealed the need to improve the quality of the technical coefficients, requiring more consistency and harmonisation and moreover reflecting regional differences.

  4. National land cover dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

  5. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  6. Mosaic-Level Inference of the Impact of Land Cover Changes in Agricultural Landscapes on Biodiversity: A Case-Study with a Threatened Grassland Bird

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Francisco; Silva, João P.; Estanque, Beatriz; Palmeirim, Jorge M.; Lecoq, Miguel; Pinto, Márcia; Leitão, Domingos; Alonso, Ivan; Pedroso, Rui; Santos, Eduardo; Catry, Teresa; Silva, Patricia; Henriques, Inês; Delgado, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use/land cover are a major driver of biodiversity change in the Mediterranean region. Understanding how animal populations respond to these landscape changes often requires using landscape mosaics as the unit of investigation, but few previous studies have measured both response and explanatory variables at the land mosaic level. Here, we used a “whole-landscape” approach to assess the influence of regional variation in the land cover composition of 81 farmland mosaics (mean area of 2900 ha) on the population density of a threatened bird, the little bustard (Tetrax tetrax), in southern Portugal. Results showed that ca. 50% of the regional variability in the density of little bustards could be explained by three variables summarising the land cover composition and diversity in the studied mosaics. Little bustard breeding males attained higher population density in land mosaics with a low land cover diversity, with less forests, and dominated by grasslands. Land mosaic composition gradients showed that agricultural intensification was not reflected in a loss of land cover diversity, as in many other regions of Europe. On the contrary, it led to the introduction of new land cover types in homogenous farmland, which increased land cover diversity but reduced overall landscape suitability for the species. Based on these results, the impact of recent land cover changes in Europe on the little bustard populations is evaluated. PMID:22723899

  7. Mosaic-level inference of the impact of land cover changes in agricultural landscapes on biodiversity: a case-study with a threatened grassland bird.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisco; Silva, João P; Estanque, Beatriz; Palmeirim, Jorge M; Lecoq, Miguel; Pinto, Márcia; Leitão, Domingos; Alonso, Ivan; Pedroso, Rui; Santos, Eduardo; Catry, Teresa; Silva, Patricia; Henriques, Inês; Delgado, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use/land cover are a major driver of biodiversity change in the Mediterranean region. Understanding how animal populations respond to these landscape changes often requires using landscape mosaics as the unit of investigation, but few previous studies have measured both response and explanatory variables at the land mosaic level. Here, we used a "whole-landscape" approach to assess the influence of regional variation in the land cover composition of 81 farmland mosaics (mean area of 2900 ha) on the population density of a threatened bird, the little bustard (Tetrax tetrax), in southern Portugal. Results showed that ca. 50% of the regional variability in the density of little bustards could be explained by three variables summarising the land cover composition and diversity in the studied mosaics. Little bustard breeding males attained higher population density in land mosaics with a low land cover diversity, with less forests, and dominated by grasslands. Land mosaic composition gradients showed that agricultural intensification was not reflected in a loss of land cover diversity, as in many other regions of Europe. On the contrary, it led to the introduction of new land cover types in homogenous farmland, which increased land cover diversity but reduced overall landscape suitability for the species. Based on these results, the impact of recent land cover changes in Europe on the little bustard populations is evaluated.

  8. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  9. Long-term agricultural land-cover change and potential for cropland expansion in the former Virgin Lands area of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Roland; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Müller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Radeloff, Volker C.; Dara, Andrey; Terekhov, Alexey; Frühauf, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    During the Soviet Virgin Lands Campaign, approximately 23 million hectares (Mha) of Eurasian steppe grassland were converted into cropland in Northern Kazakhstan from 1954 to 1963. As a result Kazakhstan became an important breadbasket of the former Soviet Union. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 triggered widespread agricultural abandonment, and much cropland reverted to grasslands. Our goal in this study was to reconstruct and analyze agricultural land-cover change since the eve of the Virgin Lands Campaign, from 1953 to 2010 in Kostanay Province, a region that is representative of Northern Kazakhstan. Further, we assessed the potential of currently idle cropland for re-cultivation. We reconstructed the cropland extent before and after the Virgin Lands Campaign using archival maps, and we mapped the agricultural land cover in the late Soviet and post-Soviet period using multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from circa 1990, 2000 and 2010. Cropland extent peaked at approximately 3.1 Mha in our study area in 1990, 38% of which had been converted from grasslands from 1954 to 1961. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, 45% of the Soviet cropland was abandoned and had reverted to grassland by 2000. After 2000, cropland contraction and re-cultivation were balanced. Using spatial logistic regressions we found that cropland expansion during the Virgin Lands Campaign was significantly associated with favorable agro-environmental conditions. In contrast, cropland expansion after the Campaign until 1990, as well as cropland contraction after 1990, occurred mainly in areas that were less favorable for agriculture. Cropland re-cultivation after 2000 was occurring on lands with relatively favorable agro-environmental conditions in comparison to remaining idle croplands, albeit with much lower agro-environmental endowment compared to stable croplands from 1990 to 2010. In sum, we found that cropland production potentials of the currently uncultivated areas are

  10. The National Land Cover Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  11. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Land cover data sets (1974-2007) for two southwestern Oklahoma agricultural watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A retrospective land cover analysis covering the time period from the early 1970s to early 1990s was conducted to gain a sense of the dynamics of land cover changes on the Little Washita River and Fort Cobb Reservoir experimental watersheds (LWREW, FCREW), located in southwestern Oklahoma. This stu...

  12. Object Based Agricultural Land Cover Classification Map of Shadowed Areas from Aerial Image and LIDAR Data Using Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R. T.; Serrano, S. C.; Damian, G. B.; Camaso, E. E.; Celestino, A. B.; Hernando, P. J. C.; Isip, M. F.; Orge, K. M.; Quinto, M. J. C.; Tagaca, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    Aerial image and LiDAR data offers a great possibility for agricultural land cover mapping. Unfortunately, these images leads to shadowy pixels. Management of shadowed areas for classification without image enhancement were investigated. Image segmentation approach using three different segmentation scales were used and tested to segment the image for ground features since only the ground features are affected by shadow caused by tall features. The RGB band and intensity were the layers used for the segmentation having an equal weights. A segmentation scale of 25 was found to be the optimal scale that will best fit for the shadowed and non-shadowed area classification. The SVM using Radial Basis Function kernel was then applied to extract classes based on properties extracted from the Lidar data and orthophoto. Training points for different classes including shadowed areas were selected homogeneously from the orthophoto. Separate training points for shadowed areas were made to create additional classes to reduced misclassification. Texture classification and object-oriented classifiers have been examined to reduced heterogeneity problem. The accuracy of the land cover classification using 25 scale segmentation after accounting for the shadow detection and classification was significantly higher compared to higher scale of segmentation.

  13. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  14. Using land-cover data to understand effects of agricultural and urban development on regional water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista A.; Warner, Kelly L.

    2010-01-01

    The Land-Cover Trends project is a collaborative effort between the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to understand the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary land-use and land-cover change in the United States. The data produced from this research can lead to an enriched understanding of the drivers of future landuse change, effects on environmental systems, and any associated feedbacks. USGS scientists are using the EPA Level III ecoregions as the geographic framework to process geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000 to characterize ecosystem responses to land-use changes. General land-cover classes for these periods were interpreted from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to categorize and evaluate land-cover change using a modified Anderson Land-Use/Land-Cover Classification System for image interpretation.

  15. Directions of change in land cover and landscape patterns from 1957 to 2000 in agricultural landscapes in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Iglesias, María Silvia; Fra-Paleo, Urbano; Crecente-Maseda, Rafael; Díaz-Varela, Ramón Alberto

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work is the analysis of the dynamics in cultural landscapes, focused on the spatial distribution of changes in land cover and landscape patterns, and their possible linkages. These dynamics have been analyzed for the years 1957 and 2000 in a sector of the north of Galicia (NW Spain) characterized with diverse landscapes. Afforestation processes linked to agriculture abandonment and forestry specialization were the main processes observed in the study area, with the exception of the southern mountainous sector that was dominated by ploughing of scrubland for conversion into grassland, reflecting a specialization in livestock production. The structural changes that have taken place in most of the study area were related to the heterogeneity aspects, although the mountainous sectors were characterized by changes in heterogeneity and fragmentation. According to the tests performed, the comparison of the spatial distribution of both dynamics showed a certain statistical significance, reflecting the interrelationship between patterns and processes. This approach could be useful for the identification of areas with similar characteristics in terms of spatial dynamics so as to define more effective and targeted landscape planning and management strategies.

  16. Watershed Analysis of Nitrate Transport as a Result of Agricultural Inputs for Varying Land Use/Land Cover and Soil Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, M. E.; Sykes, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    The Grand River Watershed is one of the largest watersheds in southwestern Ontario with an area of approximately 7000 square kilometers. Ninety percent of the watershed is classified as rural, and 80 percent of the watershed population relies on groundwater as their source of drinking water. Management of the watershed requires the determination of the effect of agricultural practices on long-term groundwater quality and to identify locations within the watershed that are at a higher risk of contamination. The study focuses on the transport of nitrate through the root zone as a result of agricultural inputs with attenuation due to biodegradation. The driving force for transport is spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge that is a function of land use/land cover, soil and meteorological inputs that yields 47,229 unique soil columns within the watershed. Fertilizer sources are determined from Statistics Canada's Agricultural Census and include livestock manure and a popular commercial fertilizer, urea. Accounting for different application rates yields 60,066 unique land parcels of which 22,809 are classified as croplands where manure and inorganic fertilizes are directly applied. The transport for the croplands is simulated over a 14-year period to investigate the impact of seasonal applications of nitrate fertilizers on the concentration leaching from the root zone to the water table. Based on land use/land cover maps, ArcView GIS is used to define the location of fertilizer applications within the watershed and to spatially visualize data and analyze results. The large quantity of input data is stored and managed using MS-Access and a relational database management system. Nitrogen transformations and ammonium and nitrate uptake by plants and transport through the soil column are simulated on a daily basis using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) within MS-Access modules. Nitrogen transformations within the soil column were simplified using

  17. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Streams and Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: 2006 National Land Cover Database Agricultural Land Cover on Slopes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset represents data derived from the NLCD dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset version 2.1(NHDPlusV2) (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and NLCD). Attributes were calculated for every local NHDPlusV2 catchment and accumulated to provide watershed-level metrics for agricultural classes (classes 81 and 82) within the NLCD on DEM-derived slopes >10% and >20%. This data set is derived from the NLCD raster composed of 16 land cover classes (categorical data type) for the conterminous USA. 2 classes were isolated to represent apricultural land cover. This raster was produced based on a decision-tree classification of circa 2006 Landsat satellite data.(see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description of each metric). Included with NHDPlusV2 is the National Elevation Dataset (NED) which was used to create 2 slope rasters to find areas with slope >10% and >20%. These rasters were used as masks to locate areas where NLCD agricultural classes (classes 81 and 82) occur on slopes >10% and >20%.

  18. The USGS Land Cover Institute

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Institute (LCI) is located at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. It provides a focal point for advancing USGS land cover studies and applications. Satellite images and other remotely sensed data play an important role in this research. Land Cover scientists investigate new ways to use satellite images and other data to map land cover. They assess national and global land cover characteristics and monitor how - and how rapidly - land cover changes. They also study the economic impacts of land cover as well as its effects on water quality, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, climate variability, and other environmental factors.

  19. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  20. Interactive Effects of Storms, Drought, and Weekly Land Cover Changes on Water Quality Patterns in an Agricultural-dominated Subtropical Catchment in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, J.; Owsley, B.; de Beurs, K.; Hughes, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rivers are the funnels of landscapes, with the quality of water at the catchment outlet reflecting interactions among geomorphic processes, vegetation characteristics, weather patterns, and anthropogenic land uses. The impacts of changing climate and land cover on water quality are not straightforward; but instead, are set by the interaction of numerous landscape components at multiple spatiotemporal scales. In agricultural-dominated subtropical landscapes such as the Hoteo River Catchment in northern North Island of New Zealand, the land surface can be very dynamic, responding quickly to storms, drought, forest clearings, and grazing practices. In order to capture these short-term fluctuations, we created an 8-day land disturbance index for the catchment using MODIS Nadir BRDF-adjusted reflectance (NBAR) data (500 meter resolution) from 2000 to 2013. We also fused this time-series with Landsat TM/ETM surface reflectance data (30 meter resolution) to more precisely capture the location and extent of these land disturbances. This high-resolution land disturbance time-series was then compared to daily rainfall, daily river discharge, and monthly water samples to assess the effects of changing weather and land cover on a suite of water quality variables including water clarity, turbidity, ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP), total phosphorus (TP), and fecal coliforms. Forest clearings in the early part of our study period created the most intense land disturbances, which led to elevated turbidity and DRP during subsequent storms. Pasture areas during drought were also characterized by high disturbance indices, particularly in 2013 - the worst drought on record for northern New Zealand. Seasonal effects on land disturbance and water quality were also detected, especially for water clarity and turbidity. From 2011 to 2013, river discharge and turbidity from three sub-catchments were measured at 5-minute intervals to

  1. Impact of land use and land cover change on the water balance of a large agricultural watershed: Historical effects and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Keith E.; Jha, Manoj K.; Zhang, You-Kuan; Gassman, Philip W.; Wolter, Calvin F.

    2008-07-01

    Over the last century, land use and land cover (LULC) in the United States Corn Belt region shifted from mixed perennial and annual cropping systems to primarily annual crops. Historical LULC change impacted the annual water balance in many Midwestern basins by decreasing annual evapotranspiration (ET) and increasing streamflow and base flow. Recent expansion of the biofuel industry may lead to future LULC changes from increasing corn acreage and potential conversion of the industry to cellulosic bioenergy crops of warm or cool season grasses. In this paper, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to evaluate potential impacts from future LULC change on the annual and seasonal water balance of the Raccoon River watershed in west-central Iowa. Three primary scenarios for LULC change and three scenario variants were evaluated, including an expansion of corn acreage in the watershed and two scenarios involving expansion of land using warm season and cool season grasses for ethanol biofuel. Modeling results were consistent with historical observations. Increased corn production will decrease annual ET and increase water yield and losses of nitrate, phosphorus, and sediment, whereas increasing perennialization will increase ET and decrease water yield and loss of nonpoint source pollutants. However, widespread tile drainage that exists today may limit the extent to which a mixed perennial-annual land cover would ever resemble pre-1940s hydrologic conditions. Study results indicate that future LULC change will affect the water balance of the watershed, with consequences largely dependent on the future LULC trajectory.

  2. Impact of land use and land cover change on the water balance of a large agricultural watershed: Historical effects and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Jha, M.K.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Gassman, P.W.; Wolter, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last century, land use and land cover (LULC) in the United States Corn Belt region shifted from mixed perennial and annual cropping systems to primarily annual crops. Historical LULC change impacted the annual water balance in many Midwestern basins by decreasing annual evapotranspiration (ET) and increasing streamflow and base flow. Recent expansion of the biofuel industry may lead to future LULC changes from increasing corn acreage and potential conversion of the industry to cellulosic bioenergy crops of warm or cool season grasses. In this paper, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to evaluate potential impacts from future LULC change on the annual and seasonal water balance of the Raccoon River watershed in west-central Iowa. Three primary scenarios for LULC change and three scenario variants were evaluated, including an expansion of corn acreage in the watershed and two scenarios involving expansion of land using warm season and cool season grasses for ethanol biofuel. Modeling results were consistent with historical observations. Increased corn production will decrease annual ET and increase water yield and losses of nitrate, phosphorus, and sediment, whereas increasing perennialization will increase ET and decrease water yield and loss of nonpoint source pollutants. However, widespread tile drainage that exists today may limit the extent to which a mixed perennial-annual land cover would ever resemble pre-1940s hydrologic conditions. Study results indicate that future LULC change will affect the water balance of the watershed, with consequences largely dependent on the future LULC trajectory. ?? 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    Computer tapes derived from land use and land cover (LULC) data and associated maps at scales of 1 :250,000 and 1: 100,000 are available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This data can be used alone or combined with a base map or other supplemental data for a variety of applications, using commercially available software. You can produce area summary statistics, select specific portions of a map to study or display single classifications, such as bodies of water. LULC and associated digital data offer convenient, accurate, flexible, and cost-effective access to users who are involved in environmental studies, land use planning, land management, or resource planning.

  4. Ecoregions and land cover trends in Senegal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Sall, M.; Wood, E.C.; Cushing, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines long-term changes in Senegal's natural resources. We monitor and quantify land use and land cover changes occurring across Senegal using nearly 40 years of satellite imagery, aerial surveys, and fieldwork. We stratify Senegal into ecological regions and present land use and land cover trends for each region, followed by a national summary. Results aggregated to the national level show moderate change, with a modest decrease in savannas from 74 to 70 percent from 1965 to 2000, and an expansion of cropland from 17 to 21 percent. However, at the ecoregion scale, we observed rapid change in some and relative stability in others. One particular concern is the decline in Senegal's biodiverse forests. However, in the year 2000, Senegal's savannas, woodlands, and forests still cover more than two-thirds of the country, and the rate of agricultural expansion has slowed.

  5. Land-cover change detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  6. Changes in historical Iowa land cover as context for assessing the environmental benefits of current and future conservation efforts on agricultural lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallant, Alisa L.; Sadinski, Walt; Roth, Mark F.; Rewa, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Conservationists and agriculturists face unprecedented challenges trying to minimize tradeoffs between increasing demands for food, fiber, feed, and biofuels and the resulting loss or reduced values of other ecosystem services, such as those derived from wetlands and biodiversity (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005a, 2005c; Maresch et al. 2008). The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-234, Stat. 923, HR 2419, also known as the 2008 Farm Bill) reauthorized the USDA to provide financial incentives for agricultural producers to reduce environmental impacts via multiple conservation programs. Two prominent programs, the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), provide incentives for producers to retire environmentally sensitive croplands, minimize erosion, improve water quality, restore wetlands, and provide wildlife habitat (USDA FSA 2008a, 2008b; USDA NRCS 2002). Other conservation programs (e.g., Environmental Quality Incentives Program, Conservation Stewardship Program) provide incentives to implement structural and cultural conservation practices to improve the environmental performance of working agricultural lands. Through its Conservation Effects Assessment Project, USDA is supporting evaluation of the environmental benefits obtained from the public investment in conservation programs and practices to inform decisions on where further investments are warranted (Duriancik et al. 2008; Zinn 1997).

  7. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  8. The plight of arid land agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, C. W.; Hinman, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    This book analyses the problems of the agricultural environment worldwide and possible solutions. Problems covered include the following: famines caused by agricultural land mismanegment in Subsaharan Africa and population increase; improved productivity leading to salinity, erosion, and water depletion; toxic wastes; loging, deforestation, and over-grazing. Agricultural practices, both ancient and modern, in arid lands are described. Food crops suited for arid lands, potential industrial crops, oil extraction from seed and rubber extraction, and biomass as a source of energy are discussed in different chapters. Finally the book deals with optimization of water use, prevention of salinization, and the prospect of global warming.

  9. Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

    2012-09-01

    Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

  10. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  11. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fegeas, Robin G.; Claire, Robert W.; Guptill, Stephen C.; Anderson, K. Eric; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1983-01-01

    The discipline of cartography is undergoing a number of profound changesthat center on the emerging influence ofdigital manipulation and analysis ofdata for the preparation of cartographic materials and for use in geographic information systems. Operational requirements have led to the development by the USGS National Mapping Division of several documents that establish in-house digital cartographic standards. In an effort to fulfill lead agency requirements for promulgation of Federal standards in the earth sciences, the documents have been edited and assembled with explanatory text into a USGS Circular. This Circular describes some of the pertinent issues relative to digital cartographic data standards, documents the digital cartographic data standards currently in use within the USGS, and details the efforts of the USGS related to the definition of national digital cartographic data standards. It consists of several chapters; the first is a general overview, and each succeeding chapter is made up from documents that establish in-house standards for one of the various types of digital cartographic data currently produced. This chapter 895-E, describes the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System that is used in conjunction with the USGS land use and land cover classification system to encode, edit, manipuate, and analyze land use and land cover digital data.

  12. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    Australian land cover has been dramatically altered since European settlement primarily for agricultural utilization, with native vegetation widely replaced or modified for cropping and intensive animal production. While there have been numerous investigations into the regional and near surface climate impacts of Australian land cover change, these investigation have not included the climate impacts of larger-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and their associated feedbacks, or the impacts of longer-term soil moisture feedbacks. In this research the CSIRO General Circulation Model (GCM) was used to investigate the climate impacts of Australian land cover change, with larger-scale and longer-term feedbacks. To avoid the common problem of overstating the magnitude and spatial extent of changes in land surface conditions prescribed in land cover change experiments, the current Australian land surface properties were described from finer-scale, satellite derived land cover datasets, with land surface conditions extrapolating from remnant native vegetation to pre-clearing extents to recreate the pre-clearing land surface properties. Aggregation rules were applied to the fine-scale data to generate the land surface parameters of the GCM, ensuring the equivalent sub-grid heterogeneity and land surface biogeophysics were captured in both the current and pre-clearing land surface parameters. The differences in climate simulated in the pre-clearing and current experiments were analyzed for changes in Australian continental and regional climate to assess the modeled climate impacts of Australian land cover change. The changes in modeled climate were compared to observed changes in Australian precipitation over the last 50 and 100 years to assess whether modeled results could be detected in the historical record. The differences in climate simulation also were analyzed at the global scale to assess the impacts of local changes on larger scale circulation and climate at

  13. Photo interpretation key to Michigan land cover/use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Hudson, W. D.; Lusch, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photo interpretation keys is presented to provide a structured approach to the identification of land cover/use categories as specified in the Michigan Resource Inventory Act. The designated categories are urban and; built up lands; agricultural lands; forest land; nonforested land; water bodies; wetlands; and barren land. The keys were developed for use with medium scale (1:20,000 to 1:24,000) color infrared aerial photography. Although each key is generalized in that it relies only upon the most distinguishing photo characteristics in separating the various land cover/use categories, additional interpretation characteristics, distinguishing features and background material are given.

  14. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  15. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  16. Agriculture in Gloria Land.

    PubMed

    Pal, M

    1993-01-01

    A farming system has been developed on the Gloria Land farm at the Sri Aurobindo Ashram that uses purely organic materials and achieves yields comparable with or better than those on conventional farms under similar agroclimatic conditions. The stimulus for the conversion to organic farming came from observations of the toxicity of chemical pesticides and their apparent ineffectiveness in reducing the impact of pests and diseases. On the Gloria Land farm, a carefully integrated mixture of activities includes crop growing, animal husbandry, fish rearing and sericulture. Sufficient organic waste is produced to fulfill at the needs of the farm's crops. Energy is partially supplied by biogas produced on the farm. This system is economically viable and ecologically sustainable.

  17. Carbon balance of Russian agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepaschenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, M.

    2012-04-01

    Russia managed 218.7 mln ha agricultural land (2009) in accordance with national statistics (FSSS, 2011: http://www.gks.ru/dbscripts/Cbsd/DBInet.cgi#1). Among that, 91.75 mln ha is arable land; 92.05 mln ha - hayfield and pasture; 34.9 mln ha - abandoned arable and fallow. Abandoned arable area is not indicated directly in the statistics, but can be calculated as a difference between "arable" and "cultivated" area. We estimated carbon balance of agricultural land by accounting carbon fluxes. Carbon sink includes: net primary productivity (NPP), applying fertilizes and liming. Carbon losses include soil respiration (SR), harvest and lateral flux. The initial data (cultivated area and harvest distribution by regions and crop) was derived from national agriculture statistics (FSSS, 2011). NPP was estimated via harvest and set of regression models. Average NPP for agricultural land was estimated at 435 g C m-2 (530 g C m-2 for crops). Soil respiration was calculated by a model (Mukhortova et. al., 1011: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/forest_cdrom/Articles/Mukhortova_2011_IBFRA_SR.pdf) developed for Russia which is based on all available empirical data and accounted for climatic parameters, soil type and management practice. Average SR of agricultural land is 344 g C m-2 (372 g C m-2 for the cropland). We applied the IPCC method (National inventory, 2010; IPCC, 2006) for fertilizer and lateral fluxes assessment. The total carbon balance of agricultural land is almost in equilibrium (-0.04 t C ha-1) in spite of arable land is a carbon source (-0.84 t C ha-1). The highest sink (1.21 t C ha-1) is provided by abandoned land. Carbon fluxes vary substantially depending on seasonal weather conditions. For example grains' NPP in 2010 (dry and hot summer in major agricultural regions of European Russia) was estimated at 32% less compare to 2009 and the total carbon balance of this land category decreased by order of magnitude. We used Russian land cover (Schepaschenko et al

  18. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    PubMed

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  19. Land Use and land cover and associated maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    The Geological Survey is compiling land use and land cover and associated maps for the entire United States. Land use refers to man's activities which are directly related to the land. Land cover describes the vegetation, water, natural surface, and artificial constructions at the land surface. These maps will help satisfy a longstanding need for a consistent level of detail, standardization of categories, and appropriate use of scales of compilation for a type of data frequently used by land use planners, land managers, resource management planners, and others.

  20. Towards realistic Holocene land cover scenarios: integration of archaeological, palynological and geomorphological records and comparison to global land cover scenarios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Brue, Hanne; Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Notebaert, Bastiaan

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and spatially explicit landscape reconstructions for distinct time periods in human history are essential for the quantification of the effect of anthropogenic land cover changes on, e.g., global biogeochemical cycles, ecology, and geomorphic processes, and to improve our understanding of interaction between humans and the environment in general. A long-term perspective covering Mid and Late Holocene land use changes is recommended in this context, as it provides a baseline to evaluate human impact in more recent periods. Previous efforts to assess the evolution and intensity of agricultural land cover in past centuries or millennia have predominantly focused on palynological records. An increasing number of quantitative techniques has been developed during the last two decades to transfer palynological data to land cover estimates. However, these techniques have to deal with equifinality issues and, furthermore, do not sufficiently allow to reconstruct spatial patterns of past land cover. On the other hand, several continental and global databases of historical anthropogenic land cover changes based on estimates of global population and the required agricultural land per capita have been developed in the past decennium. However, at such long temporal and spatial scales, reconstruction of past anthropogenic land cover intensities and spatial patterns necessarily involves many uncertainties and assumptions as well. Here, we present a novel approach that combines archaeological, palynological and geomorphological data for the Dijle catchment in the central Belgium Loess Belt in order to arrive at more realistic Holocene land cover histories. Multiple land cover scenarios (> 60.000) are constructed using probabilistic rules and used as input into a sediment delivery model (WaTEM/SEDEM). Model outcomes are confronted with a detailed geomorphic dataset on Holocene sediment fluxes and with REVEALS based estimates of vegetation cover using palynological data from

  1. Assessing uncertainties in land cover projections.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Peter; Prestele, Reinhard; Verburg, Peter H; Arneth, Almut; Baranzelli, Claudia; Batista E Silva, Filipe; Brown, Calum; Butler, Adam; Calvin, Katherine; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Doelman, Jonathan C; Dunford, Robert; Engström, Kerstin; Eitelberg, David; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harrison, Paula A; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Holzhauer, Sascha; Humpenöder, Florian; Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Jain, Atul K; Krisztin, Tamás; Kyle, Page; Lavalle, Carlo; Lenton, Tim; Liu, Jiayi; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Popp, Alexander; Powell, Tom; Sands, Ronald D; Schaldach, Rüdiger; Stehfest, Elke; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; Wise, Marshall A; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-02-01

    Understanding uncertainties in land cover projections is critical to investigating land-based climate mitigation policies, assessing the potential of climate adaptation strategies and quantifying the impacts of land cover change on the climate system. Here, we identify and quantify uncertainties in global and European land cover projections over a diverse range of model types and scenarios, extending the analysis beyond the agro-economic models included in previous comparisons. The results from 75 simulations over 18 models are analysed and show a large range in land cover area projections, with the highest variability occurring in future cropland areas. We demonstrate systematic differences in land cover areas associated with the characteristics of the modelling approach, which is at least as great as the differences attributed to the scenario variations. The results lead us to conclude that a higher degree of uncertainty exists in land use projections than currently included in climate or earth system projections. To account for land use uncertainty, it is recommended to use a diverse set of models and approaches when assessing the potential impacts of land cover change on future climate. Additionally, further work is needed to better understand the assumptions driving land use model results and reveal the causes of uncertainty in more depth, to help reduce model uncertainty and improve the projections of land cover.

  2. Land cover trends dataset, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Auch, Roger F.; Sohl, Terry L.; Drummond, Mark A.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sorenson, Daniel G.; Kambly, Steven; Wilson, Tamara S.; Taylor, Janis L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stier, Michael P.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Methven, Steven C.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Headley, Rachel; Brooks, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends Project is releasing a 1973–2000 time-series land-use/land-cover dataset for the conterminous United States. The dataset contains 5 dates of land-use/land-cover data for 2,688 sample blocks randomly selected within 84 ecological regions. The nominal dates of the land-use/land-cover maps are 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000. The land-use/land-cover maps were classified manually from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery using a modified Anderson Level I classification scheme. The resulting land-use/land-cover data has a 60-meter resolution and the projection is set to Albers Equal-Area Conic, North American Datum of 1983. The files are labeled using a standard file naming convention that contains the number of the ecoregion, sample block, and Landsat year. The downloadable files are organized by ecoregion, and are available in the ERDAS IMAGINETM (.img) raster file format.

  3. ROE National Land Cover Data (NLCD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This raster dataset comes from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), 2011 version. It represents land cover across the contiguous 48 states, circa 2011. Each 30-meter-square pixel has been classified using a standard land cover classification scheme, and some of these categories have been aggregated further according to procedures outlined in EPA's Report on the Environment (www.epa.gov/roe). Data were originally processed and compiled by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MRLC), a U.S. federal inter-agency group, based on Landsat satellite imagery.

  4. Alaska interim land cover mapping program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1987-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) for comprehensive resource and management plans from all major land management agencies in Alaska, the USGS has begun a program to classify land cover for the entire State using Landsat digital data. Vegetation and land cover classifications, generated in cooperation with other agencies, currently exist for 115 million acres of Alaska. Using these as a base, the USGS has prepared a comprehensive plan for classifying the remaining areas of the State. The development of this program will lead to a complete interim vegetation and land cover classification system for Alaska and allow the dissemination of digital data for those areas classified. At completion, 153 Alaska 1:250,000-scale quadrangles will be published and will include land cover from digital Landsat classifications, statistical summaries of all land cover by township, and computer-compatible tapes. An interagency working group has established an Alaska classification system (table 1) composed of 18 classes modified from "A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data" (Anderson and others, 1976), and from "Revision of a preliminary classification system for vegetation of Alaska" (Viereck and Dyrness, 1982) for the unique ecoregions which are found in Alaska.

  5. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-05-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing; RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects and land surface albedo. We simulate historical changes to terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo from LULCC using the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF from LULCC impacts on atmospheric chemistry and changes in aerosol concentrations. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We calculate total RFs between 1 to 2 W m-2 from LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a preindustrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget we include a fifth

  6. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present-day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing, RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We attribute historical changes in terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo to LULCC using simulations with the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF of changes in atmospheric chemistry and aerosol concentrations attributed to LULCC. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 40% (±16%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We attribute total RFs between 0.9 and 1.9 W m-2 to LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a pre-industrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget

  7. Consequences of land use and land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

  8. 2014 land cover land use horseshoe bend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Jenny L.; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2016-01-01

    This collection of conservation areas consists of the floodplain of the combined streams of the Iowa River and the Cedar River. The study area begins just southeast of Wapello, IA, and continues southeast until the Horseshoe Bend Division, Port Louisa NWR. The area is currently managed to maintain meadow or grassland habitat which requires intensive management due to vegetative succession. In addition, this floodplain area contains a high proportion of managed lands and private lands in the Wetland Reserve Program and is a high priority area for cooperative conservation actions. This project provides a late-summer baseline vegetation inventory to assess future management actions in an adaptive process. Changes in levees, in addition to increased water flows and flood events due to climate change and land use practices, make restoration of floodplain processes more complex. Predictive models could help determine more efficient and effective restoration and management techniques. Successful GIS tools developed for this project would be applicable to other floodplain refuges and conservation areas.

  9. Integrating multisource land use and land cover data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Bruce E.; Tait, Mike; Lins, K.F.; Crawford, J.S.; Benjamin, S.P.; Brown, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) land use and land cover (LULC) program, the USGS in cooperation with the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) is collecting and integrating LULC data for a standard USGS 1:100,000-scale product. The LULC data collection techniques include interpreting spectrally clustered Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images; interpreting 1-meter resolution digital panchromatic orthophoto images; and, for comparison, aggregating locally available large-scale digital data of urban areas. The area selected is the Vancouver, WA-OR quadrangle, which has a mix of urban, rural agriculture, and forest land. Anticipated products include an integrated LULC prototype data set in a standard classification scheme referenced to the USGS digital line graph (DLG) data of the area and prototype software to develop digital LULC data sets.This project will evaluate a draft standard LULC classification system developed by the USGS for use with various source material and collection techniques. Federal, State, and local governments, and private sector groups will have an opportunity to evaluate the resulting prototype software and data sets and to provide recommendations. It is anticipated that this joint research endeavor will increase future collaboration among interested organizations, public and private, for LULC data collection using common standards and tools.

  10. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  11. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyaert, Lou; Hall, Forrest G.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Loveland, Thomas R.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-12 team's efforts focused on regional scale Surface Vegetation and Atmosphere (SVAT) modeling to improve parameterization of the heterogeneous BOREAS landscape for use in larger scale Global Circulation Models (GCMs). This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal one-kilometer Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. This land cover classification was derived by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). This regional data set was developed for use by BOREAS investigators, especially those involved in simulation modeling, remote sensing algorithm development, and aircraft flux studies. Based on regional field data verification, this multitemporal one-kilometer AVHRR land cover mapping approach was effective in characterizing the biome-level land cover structure, embedded spatially heterogeneous landscape patterns, and other types of key land cover information of interest to BOREAS modelers.The land cover mosaics in this classification include: (1) wet conifer mosaic (low, medium, and high tree stand density), (2) mixed coniferous-deciduous forest (80% coniferous, codominant, and 80% deciduous), (3) recent visible bum, vegetation regeneration, or rock outcrops-bare ground-sparsely vegetated slow regeneration bum (four classes), (4) open water and grassland marshes, and (5) general agricultural land use/ grasslands (three classes). This land cover mapping approach did not detect small subpixel-scale landscape

  12. Determination of Land Cover/land Use Using SPOT 7 Data with Supervised Classification Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektas Balcik, F.; Karakacan Kuzucu, A.

    2016-10-01

    Land use/ land cover (LULC) classification is a key research field in remote sensing. With recent developments of high-spatial-resolution sensors, Earth-observation technology offers a viable solution for land use/land cover identification and management in the rural part of the cities. There is a strong need to produce accurate, reliable, and up-to-date land use/land cover maps for sustainable monitoring and management. In this study, SPOT 7 imagery was used to test the potential of the data for land cover/land use mapping. Catalca is selected region located in the north west of the Istanbul in Turkey, which is mostly covered with agricultural fields and forest lands. The potentials of two classification algorithms maximum likelihood, and support vector machine, were tested, and accuracy assessment of the land cover maps was performed through error matrix and Kappa statistics. The results indicated that both of the selected classifiers were highly useful (over 83% accuracy) in the mapping of land use/cover in the study region. The support vector machine classification approach slightly outperformed the maximum likelihood classification in both overall accuracy and Kappa statistics.

  13. Specifications for updating USGS land use and land cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1983-01-01

    To meet the increasing demands for up-to-date land use and land cover information, a primary goal of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) national land use and land cover mapping program is to provide for periodic updating of maps and data in a timely and uniform manner. The technical specifications for updating existing USGS land use and land cover maps that are presented here cover both the interpretive aspects of detecting and identifying land use and land cover changes and the cartographic aspects of mapping and presenting the change data in conventional map format. They provide the map compiler with the procedures and techniques necessary to then use these change data to update existing land use and land cover maps in a manner that is both standardized and repeatable. Included are specifications for the acquisition of remotely sensed source materials, selection of compilation map bases, handling of data base corrections, editing and quality control operations, generation of map update products for USGS open file, and the reproduction and distribution of open file materials. These specifications are planned to become part of the National Mapping Division's Technical Instructions.

  14. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution

    of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land

    stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

  15. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  16. Implication of Agricultural Land Use Change on Regional Climate Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Ahmed, K. F.; You, L.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land use plays an important role in land-atmosphere interaction. Agricultural activity is one of the most important processes driving human-induced land use land cover change (LULCC) in a region. In addition to future socioeconomic changes, climate-induced changes in crop yield represent another important factor shaping agricultural land use. In feedback, the resulting LULCC influences the direction and magnitude of global, regional and local climate change by altering Earth's radiative equilibrium. Therefore, assessment of climate change impact on future agricultural land use and its feedback is of great importance in climate change study. In this study, to evaluate the feedback of projected land use changes to the regional climate in West Africa, we employed an asynchronous coupling between a regional climate model (RegCM) and a prototype land use projection model (LandPro). The LandPro model, which was developed to project the future change in agricultural land use and the resulting shift in natural vegetation in West Africa, is a spatially explicit model that can account for both climate and socioeconomic changes in projecting future land use changes. In the asynchronously coupled modeling framework, LandPro was run for every five years during the period of 2005-2050 accounting for climate-induced change in crop yield and socioeconomic changes to project the land use pattern by the mid-21st century. Climate data at 0.5˚ was derived from RegCM to drive the crop model DSSAT for each of the five-year periods to simulate crop yields, which was then provided as input data to LandPro. Subsequently, the land use land cover map required to run RegCM was updated every five years using the outputs from the LandPro simulations. Results from the coupled model simulations improve the understanding of climate change impact on future land use and the resulting feedback to regional climate.

  17. National agricultural lands study. Agricultural land retention and availability: a bibliographic source book

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Publications obtainable resulting from the national agricultural lands study are described. The book is divided into 5 chapters: agricultural land within a changing context; agricultural land base-limitations and capabilities; competition for and allocation of agricultural land, state and local agricultural land protection programs, and the federal role. This source book is intended to provide the reader with a broad familiarity with this literature and with issues involved in the current debate about protecting farmland. (DMC)

  18. Recent land cover history and nutrient retention in riparian wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Dianna M; Walbridge, Mark R

    2009-07-01

    Wetland ecosystems are profoundly affected by altered nutrient and sediment loads received from anthropogenic activity in their surrounding watersheds. Our objective was to compare a gradient of agricultural and urban land cover history during the period from 1949 to 1997, with plant and soil nutrient concentrations in, and sediment deposition to, riparian wetlands in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. We observed that recent agricultural land cover was associated with increases in Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) concentrations in a native wetland plant species. Conversely, recent urban land cover appeared to alter receiving wetland environmental conditions by increasing the relative availability of P versus N, as reflected in an invasive, but not a native, plant species. In addition, increases in surface soil Fe content suggests recent inputs of terrestrial sediments associated specifically with increasing urban land cover. The observed correlation between urban land cover and riparian wetland plant tissue and surface soil nutrient concentrations and sediment deposition, suggest that urbanization specifically enhances the suitability of riparian wetland habitats for the invasive species Japanese stiltgrass [Microstegium vimenium (Trinius) A. Camus].

  19. Recent land cover history and nutrient retention in riparian wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, D.M.; Walbridge, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are profoundly affected by altered nutrient and sediment loads received from anthropogenic activity in their surrounding watersheds. Our objective was to compare a gradient of agricultural and urban land cover history during the period from 1949 to 1997, with plant and soil nutrient concentrations in, and sediment deposition to, riparian wetlands in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. We observed that recent agricultural land cover was associated with increases in Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) concentrations in a native wetland plant species. Conversely, recent urban land cover appeared to alter receiving wetland environmental conditions by increasing the relative availability of P versus N, as reflected in an invasive, but not a native, plant species. In addition, increases in surface soil Fe content suggests recent inputs of terrestrial sediments associated specifically with increasing urban land cover. The observed correlation between urban land cover and riparian wetland plant tissue and surface soil nutrient concentrations and sediment deposition, suggest that urbanization specifically enhances the suitability of riparian wetland habitats for the invasive species Japanese stiltgrass [Microstegium vimenium (Trinius) A. Camus]. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Accuracy assessment of NLCD 2006 land cover and impervious surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, James D.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Gass, Leila; Dewitz, Jon; Fry, Joyce A.; Wade, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    Release of NLCD 2006 provides the first wall-to-wall land-cover change database for the conterminous United States from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Accuracy assessment of NLCD 2006 focused on four primary products: 2001 land cover, 2006 land cover, land-cover change between 2001 and 2006, and impervious surface change between 2001 and 2006. The accuracy assessment was conducted by selecting a stratified random sample of pixels with the reference classification interpreted from multi-temporal high resolution digital imagery. The NLCD Level II (16 classes) overall accuracies for the 2001 and 2006 land cover were 79% and 78%, respectively, with Level II user's accuracies exceeding 80% for water, high density urban, all upland forest classes, shrubland, and cropland for both dates. Level I (8 classes) accuracies were 85% for NLCD 2001 and 84% for NLCD 2006. The high overall and user's accuracies for the individual dates translated into high user's accuracies for the 2001–2006 change reporting themes water gain and loss, forest loss, urban gain, and the no-change reporting themes for water, urban, forest, and agriculture. The main factor limiting higher accuracies for the change reporting themes appeared to be difficulty in distinguishing the context of grass. We discuss the need for more research on land-cover change accuracy assessment.

  1. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, J.A.; Coan, M.J.; Homer, C.G.; Meyer, D.K.; Wickham, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a 'from-to' class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001.

  2. 12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agricultural land. 619.9025 Section 619.9025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9025 Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and...

  3. 12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural land. 619.9025 Section 619.9025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9025 Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and...

  4. 12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agricultural land. 619.9025 Section 619.9025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9025 Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and...

  5. 12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agricultural land. 619.9025 Section 619.9025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9025 Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and...

  6. 12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural land. 619.9025 Section 619.9025 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9025 Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and...

  7. An Initial Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data for the Discrimination of Agricultural, Forested Wetlands, and Urban Land Cover. [Poinsett County, Arkansas; and Reelfoot Lake and Union City, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The capabilities of TM data for discriminating land covers within three particular cultural and ecological realms was assessed. The agricultural investigation in Poinsett County, Arkansas illustrates that TM data can successfully be used to discriminate a variety of crop cover types within the study area. The single-date TM classification produced results that were significantly better than those developed from multitemporal MSS data. For the Reelfoot Lake area of Tennessee TM data, processed using unsupervised signature development techniques, produced a detailed classification of forested wetlands with excellent accuracy. Even in a small city of approximately 15,000 people (Union City, Tennessee). TM data can successfully be used to spectrally distinguish specific urban classes. Furthermore, the principal components analysis evaluation of the data shows that through photointerpretation, it is possible to distinguish individual buildings and roof responses with the TM.

  8. Land-cover change research at the U.S. Geological Survey-assessing our nation's dynamic land surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Tamara S.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an unprecedented, 27-year assessment of land-use and land-cover change for the conterminous United States. For the period 1973 to 2000, scientists generated estimates of change in major types of land use and land cover, such as development, mining, agriculture, forest, grasslands, and wetlands. To help provide the insight that our Nation will need to make land-use decisions in coming decades, the historical trends data is now being used by the USGS to help model potential future land use/land cover under different scenarios, including climate, environmental, economic, population, public policy, and technological change.

  9. Comparison of IGBP DISCover land cover dataset with a land cover dataset in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Zhuang, Dafang

    2004-09-01

    Land cover information is important for the study of physical, chemical, biological and anthropological process on the surface of earth. Remote sensing data has been used to produce the land cover map by visual interpretation or automatic classification method in the past years. IGBP DISCover land cover dataset is a global land cover dataset based on remote sensing method in recent years. Firstly, we present a method to compare different land cover dataset based on invariant reliable land unit. Secondly, we compare IGBP Discover land cover dataset with Chinese land cover dataset. Finally, we analyze the possible reasons impacting the differences among the land cover classifications. The comparison results show that most of the land surface in China was identified as different types in those two datasets. For example, 63.7% of the deciduous needleleaf forest units in CLCD are mapped to the mixed forest by IDLCD. The different classification scheme and method used in these datasets are most likely the reasons to explain the differences between them.

  10. Thematic accuracy of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 land cover for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selkowitz, D.J.; Stehman, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 Alaska land cover classification is the first 30-m resolution land cover product available covering the entire state of Alaska. The accuracy assessment of the NLCD 2001 Alaska land cover classification employed a geographically stratified three-stage sampling design to select the reference sample of pixels. Reference land cover class labels were determined via fixed wing aircraft, as the high resolution imagery used for determining the reference land cover classification in the conterminous U.S. was not available for most of Alaska. Overall thematic accuracy for the Alaska NLCD was 76.2% (s.e. 2.8%) at Level II (12 classes evaluated) and 83.9% (s.e. 2.1%) at Level I (6 classes evaluated) when agreement was defined as a match between the map class and either the primary or alternate reference class label. When agreement was defined as a match between the map class and primary reference label only, overall accuracy was 59.4% at Level II and 69.3% at Level I. The majority of classification errors occurred at Level I of the classification hierarchy (i.e., misclassifications were generally to a different Level I class, not to a Level II class within the same Level I class). Classification accuracy was higher for more abundant land cover classes and for pixels located in the interior of homogeneous land cover patches. ?? 2011.

  11. How Scientists Differentiate Between Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Before scientists can transform raw satellite image data into land cover maps, they must decide on what categories of land cover they would like to use. Categories are simply the types of landscape that the scientists are trying to map and can vary greatly from map to map. For flood maps, there may be only two categories-dry land and wet land-while a standard global land cover map may have seventeen categories including closed shrub lands, savannas, evergreen needle leaf forest, urban areas, and ice/snow. The only requirement for any land cover category is that it have a distinct spectral signature that a satellite can record. As can be seen through a prism, many different colors (wavelengths) make up the spectra of sunlight. When sunlight strikes objects, certain wavelengths are absorbed and others are reflected or emitted. The unique way in which a given type of land cover reflects and absorbs light is known as its spectral signature. Anyone who has flown over the midwestern United States has seen evidence of this phenomenon. From an airplane window, the ground appears as a patchwork of different colors formed by the fields of crops planted there. The varying pigments of the leaves, the amount of foliage per square foot, the age of the plants, and many other factors create this tapestry. Most imaging satellites are sensitive to specific wavelengths of light, including infrared wavelengths that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Passive satellite remote sensors-such as those flown on Landsat 5, Landsat 7, and Terra-have a number of light detectors (photoreceptors) on board that measure the energy reflected or emitted by the Earth. One light detector records only the blue part of the spectrum coming off the Earth. Another observes all the yellow-green light and still another picks up on all the near-infrared light. The detectors scan the Earth's surface as the satellite travels in a circular orbit very nearly from pole-to-pole. To differentiate between types of

  12. Classifying Land Cover Using Spectral Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawiye, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    Studying land cover has become increasingly important as countries try to overcome the destruction of wetlands; its impact on local climate due to seasonal variation, radiation balance, and deteriorating environmental quality. In this investigation, we have been studying the spectral signatures of the Jamaica Bay wetland area based on remotely sensed satellite input data from LANDSAT TM and ASTER. We applied various remote sensing techniques to generate classified land cover output maps. Our classifiers relied on input from both the remote sensing and in-situ spectral field data. Based upon spectral separability and data collected in the field, a supervised and unsupervised classification was carried out. First results suggest good agreement between the land cover units mapped and those observed in the field.

  13. Climate change - Agricultural land use - Food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, János; Széles, Adrienn

    2015-04-01

    change contributes to the proliferation of the pests of agricultural produces, the spreading of diseases and the development of new pathogens, while it could also increase the food risk caused by bacterial infection during the food chain phase between the producer and the consumer. Climate change has an impact on the world's food prices, especially that of cereals. The food production of the world needs to be doubled in order to cover the need of the population by 2050, especially if it rises above nine billion. As a result of the increase of population, there is an increased demand for agricultural products and it also necessitates the more efficient use of agricultural lands. As a consequence of increasing food prices, there is a risk of increased starvation and food consumption may decrease (especially in developing countries), while the health care inequality is expected to grow. Food security is one of the most important elements of adapting to global climate change. For this reason, it is extremely important to breed new biological resources, as well as to introduce production systems which facilitate the adaptation to changed circumstances.

  14. Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing through 1991, ending with the NOAA-11 satellite. Emphasis was placed upon delineating the and and semi-arid zones of Central Asia (largely Mongolia and adjacent areas), mapping broad categories of aggregated land cover, and upon studying photosynthetic capacity increases in Central Asia from 1982 to 1991.

  15. Agricultural land use change in the Northeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Census of Agriculture (http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/) provides county-level estimates of farm numbers, land use area and livestock and crop production every five years. In 2007, only eight of the 299 counties that make up the twelve Northeastern states had no agricultural land use. About 20...

  16. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  17. Mapping land cover through time with the Rapid Land Cover Mapper—Documentation and user manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.

    2017-02-15

    The Rapid Land Cover Mapper is an Esri ArcGIS® Desktop add-in, which was created as an alternative to automated or semiautomated mapping methods. Based on a manual photo interpretation technique, the tool facilitates mapping over large areas and through time, and produces time-series raster maps and associated statistics that characterize the changing landscapes. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in can be used with any imagery source to map various themes (for instance, land cover, soils, or forest) at any chosen mapping resolution. The user manual contains all essential information for the user to make full use of the Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in. This manual includes a description of the add-in functions and capabilities, and step-by-step procedures for using the add-in. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in was successfully used by the U.S. Geological Survey West Africa Land Use Dynamics team to accurately map land use and land cover in 17 West African countries through time (1975, 2000, and 2013).

  18. Evaluation of historical land cover, land use, and land-use change emissions in the GCAM integrated assessment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Janetos, A. C.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are often used as science-based decision-support tools for evaluating the consequences of climate and energy policies, and their use in this framework is likely to increase in the future. However, quantitative evaluation of these models has been somewhat limited for a variety of reasons, including data availability, data quality, and the inherent challenges in projections of societal values and decision-making. In this analysis, we identify and confront methodological challenges involved in evaluating the agriculture and land use component of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. GCAM then calculates both emissions from land-use practices, and long-term changes in carbon stocks in different land uses, thus providing simulation information that can be compared to observed historical data. In this work, we compare GCAM results, both in recent historic and future time periods, to historical data sets. We focus on land use, land cover, land-use change emissions, and albedo.

  19. EFFECTS OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON LAND-COVER CLASS ACCURACY

    EPA Science Inventory



    Utilizing land-cover data gathered as part of the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) set accuracy assessment, several logistic regression models were formulated to analyze the effects of patch size and land-cover heterogeneity on classification accuracy. Specific land-cover ...

  20. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  1. Agricultural Land Conversion: Background and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuseth, Owen J.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes forces contributing to the conversion of agricultural land for other uses, causes for the depletion of the land, major issues surrounding the loss of farmland, and current policies designed to control haphazard land conversion. Concludes that the United States lacks a national farmland protection policy. (KC)

  2. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  3. Effect of land use/cover change on land surface temperatures - The Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hereher, Mohamed E.

    2017-02-01

    In this study remote sensing techniques were employed to investigate the impact of land use/cover change on land surface temperatures (LST) for a highly dynamic landscape, i.e. the Nile Delta. Land use change was determined from analyzing a 15 years of bi-monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset acquired from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra satellite along with a synchronized 13 years of bi-monthly LST dataset retrieved from MODIS Aqua satellite. Time series analysis for NDVI and LST data was carried out at selected locations experiencing land use change. Mean LST change was determined for each location before and after the land use change. Results indicate that NDVI composite data for 15 years proved sufficient for delineating land use change. Significant spatial changes include the transformation from agriculture to urban land, which increased the LST by 1.7 °C during the 13 years and the transformation of bare land to agriculture, which decreased the LST by 0.52 °C for the same period. Due to the explosive population growth in the Nile Delta, urban encroachment upon agricultural land could, hence, promote a prolonged regional warming by modifying the micro-climate and other climate-related phenomena.

  4. Decadal land cover change dynamics in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Hammad; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Phuntso, Phuntso; Pradhan, Sudip; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta

    2015-01-15

    Land cover (LC) is one of the most important and easily detectable indicators of change in ecosystem services and livelihood support systems. This paper describes the decadal dynamics in LC changes at national and sub-national level in Bhutan derived by applying object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques to 1990, 2000, and 2010 Landsat (30 m spatial resolution) data. Ten LC classes were defined in order to give a harmonized legend land cover classification system (LCCS). An accuracy of 83% was achieved for LC-2010 as determined from spot analysis using very high resolution satellite data from Google Earth Pro and limited field verification. At the national level, overall forest increased from 25,558 to 26,732 km(2) between 1990 and 2010, equivalent to an average annual growth rate of 59 km(2)/year (0.22%). There was an overall reduction in grassland, shrubland, and barren area, but the observations were highly dependent on time of acquisition of the satellite data and climatic conditions. The greatest change from non-forest to forest (277 km(2)) was in Bumthang district, followed by Wangdue Phodrang and Trashigang, with the least (1 km(2)) in Tsirang. Forest and scrub forest covers close to 75% of the land area of Bhutan, and just over half of the total area (51%) has some form of conservation status. This study indicates that numerous applications and analyses can be carried out to support improved land cover and land use (LCLU) management. It will be possible to replicate this study in the future as comparable new satellite data is scheduled to become available.

  5. The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.

    PubMed

    Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  6. The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  7. Relation of land use/land cover to resource demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, C.

    1981-01-01

    Predictive models for forecasting residential energy demand are investigated. The models are examined in the context of implementation through manipulation of geographic information systems containing land use/cover information. Remotely sensed data is examined as a possible component in this process.

  8. AVHRR channel selection for land cover classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Hoffer, R.M.; Chapman, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Mapping land cover of large regions often requires processing of satellite images collected from several time periods at many spectral wavelength channels. However, manipulating and processing large amounts of image data increases the complexity and time, and hence the cost, that it takes to produce a land cover map. Very few studies have evaluated the importance of individual Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channels for discriminating cover types, especially the thermal channels (channels 3, 4 and 5). Studies rarely perform a multi-year analysis to determine the impact of inter-annual variability on the classification results. We evaluated 5 years of AVHRR data using combinations of the original AVHRR spectral channels (1-5) to determine which channels are most important for cover type discrimination, yet stabilize inter-annual variability. Particular attention was placed on the channels in the thermal portion of the spectrum. Fourteen cover types over the entire state of Colorado were evaluated using a supervised classification approach on all two-, three-, four- and five-channel combinations for seven AVHRR biweekly composite datasets covering the entire growing season for each of 5 years. Results show that all three of the major portions of the electromagnetic spectrum represented by the AVHRR sensor are required to discriminate cover types effectively and stabilize inter-annual variability. Of the two-channel combinations, channels 1 (red visible) and 2 (near-infrared) had, by far, the highest average overall accuracy (72.2%), yet the inter-annual classification accuracies were highly variable. Including a thermal channel (channel 4) significantly increased the average overall classification accuracy by 5.5% and stabilized interannual variability. Each of the thermal channels gave similar classification accuracies; however, because of the problems in consistently interpreting channel 3 data, either channel 4 or 5 was found to be a more

  9. Impacts of altered agricultural land cover patterns on carbon and water cycling in the central plains of the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.; Brunsell, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    The grasslands in the central plains of the U.S. are the main agricultural regions of the world. The goal of this project was to ascertain the carbon and water cycle impacts due to changing landcover and changing climate in response to differential cropping strategies in conjunction with landcover change and future climate projections. We utilized one hundred and twelve years (1900- 2011) of daily precipitation and temperature records across the state of Kansas to quantify the temporal dynamics associated with different landcover. We used the Agro-BGC model to estimate carbon fluxes from each of the meteorological stations for each of the different landcover classes. In addition, we investigated the role of landcover change by forcing landcover transitions and assessing the responses in the carbon and water fluxes and storage pools. Budyko curves were utilized to explain annual water-energy balance for different landcover types. The sensitivity to the timing of meteorological events were assessed using a critical climate period analysis, which indicated precipitation and temperature around summer (121st day - 180th day, window size=60 for both net primary production (NPP) and evapotranspiration (ET)) had contributed most for annual NPP and ET, but the critical time period was later in the western regions of the domain. Finally, the impacts of climate change over next 100 years were assessed using a stochastic weather generator to produce synthetic sequences of daily weather consistent with future climate projections. Taken together, these results illustrate the importance of considering landcover, disturbance, and future climate change in conjunction in order to assess future viability of agricultural production in the central U.S.

  10. Land cover changes on the coastal zone of Candarli Bay, Turkey using remotely sensed data.

    PubMed

    Kesgin, Birsen; Nurlu, Engin

    2009-10-01

    Land cover of the Earth is changing dramatically because of human activities. Information about changes is useful for management of natural resources. Rapid land cover changes have taken place in many coastal areas of Turkey over the last two decades due to urbanization and land degradation. In this paper, land cover change dynamics were investigated by the combined use of satellite remote sensing and geographical information systems. The main objective of the study was to determine land-cover transition rates among land cover types in coastal areas of Turkey. A time series of Landsat TM and ASTER images were used to gather land cover change data of the coastal line of Candarli Bay, Izmir, Turkey. The images were classified using supervised classification and a post-classification comparison approach was used in change detection. The results show significant increase in urban areas but decrease in semi natural and agricultural areas.

  11. Using an ecoregion framework to analyze land-cover and land-use dynamics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallant, A.L.; Loveland, T.R.; Sohl, T.L.; Napton, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    The United States has a highly varied landscape because of wide-ranging differences in combinations of climatic, geologic, edaphic, hydrologic, vegetative, and human management (land use) factors. Land uses are dynamic, with the types and rates of change dependent on a host of variables, including land accessibility, economic considerations, and the internal increase and movement of the human population. There is a convergence of evidence that ecoregions are very useful for organizing, interpreting, and reporting information about land-use dynamics. Ecoregion boundaries correspond well with patterns of land cover, urban settlement, agricultural variables, and resource-based industries. We implemented an ecoregion framework to document trends in contemporary land-cover and land-use dynamics over the conterminous United States from 1973 to 2000. Examples of results from six eastern ecoregions show that the relative abundance, grain of pattern, and human alteration of land-cover types organize well by ecoregion and that these characteristics of change, themselves, change through time.

  12. A comparative analysis of the Global Land Cover 2000 and MODIS land cover data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Reed, B.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date global land cover data sets are necessary for various global change research studies including climate change, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem assessment, and environmental modeling. In recent years, substantial advancement has been achieved in generating such data products. Yet, we are far from producing geospatially consistent high-quality data at an operational level. We compared the recently available Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC-2000) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) global land cover data to evaluate the similarities and differences in methodologies and results, and to identify areas of spatial agreement and disagreement. These two global land cover data sets were prepared using different data sources, classification systems, and methodologies, but using the same spatial resolution (i.e., 1 km) satellite data. Our analysis shows a general agreement at the class aggregate level except for savannas/shrublands, and wetlands. The disagreement, however, increases when comparing detailed land cover classes. Similarly, percent agreement between the two data sets was found to be highly variable among biomes. The identified areas of spatial agreement and disagreement will be useful for both data producers and users. Data producers may use the areas of spatial agreement for training area selection and pay special attention to areas of disagreement for further improvement in future land cover characterization and mapping. Users can conveniently use the findings in the areas of agreement, whereas users might need to verify the informaiton in the areas of disagreement with the help of secondary information. Learning from past experience and building on the existing infrastructure (e.g., regional networks), further research is necessary to (1) reduce ambiguity in land cover definitions, (2) increase availability of improved spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric resolution satellite data, and (3) develop advanced

  13. Land Cover Monitoring for Water Resources Management in Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, Irina; Navarro, Ana; Rolim, Joao; Catalao, Joao; Silva, Joel; Painho, Marco; Vekerdy, Zoltan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of improved temporal resolution and multi-source satellite data (SAR and optical) on land cover mapping and monitoring for efficient water resources management. For that purpose, we developed an integrated approach based on image classification and on NDVI and SAR backscattering (VV and VH) time series for land cover mapping and crop's irrigation requirements computation. We analysed 28 SPOT-5 Take-5 images with high temporal revisiting time (5 days), 9 Sentinel-1 dual polarization GRD images and in-situ data acquired during the crop growing season. Results show that the combination of images from different sources provides the best information to map agricultural areas. The increase of the images temporal resolution allows the improvement of the estimation of the crop parameters, and then, to calculate of the crop's irrigation requirements. However, this aspect was not fully exploited due to the lack of EO data for the complete growing season.

  14. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  15. Urbanization and agricultural land loss in India: comparing satellite estimates with census data.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Bhartendu; Seto, Karen C

    2015-01-15

    We examine the impacts of urbanization on agricultural land loss in India from 2001 to 2010. We combined a hierarchical classification approach with econometric time series analysis to reconstruct land-cover change histories using time series MODIS 250 m VI images composited at 16-day intervals and night time lights (NTL) data. We compared estimates of agricultural land loss using satellite data with agricultural census data. Our analysis highlights six key results. First, agricultural land loss is occurring around smaller cities more than around bigger cities. Second, from 2001 to 2010, each state lost less than 1% of its total geographical area due to agriculture to urban expansion. Third, the northeastern states experienced the least amount of agricultural land loss. Fourth, agricultural land loss is largely in states and districts which have a larger number of operational or approved SEZs. Fifth, urban conversion of agricultural land is concentrated in a few districts and states with high rates of economic growth. Sixth, agricultural land loss is predominantly in states with higher agricultural land suitability compared to other states. Although the total area of agricultural land lost to urban expansion has been relatively low, our results show that since 2006, the amount of agricultural land converted has been increasing steadily. Given that the preponderance of India's urban population growth has yet to occur, the results suggest an increase in the conversion of agricultural land going into the future.

  16. Metropolitan land cover inventory using multiseasonal Landsat data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Hill, R.N.; Henry, C.C.; Lake, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project (PNLRIDP), planners from State, regional, and local agencies in Oregon are working with scientists from the EROS Data Center (USGS), Ames Research Center (NASA), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) to obtain practical training and experience in the analysis of remotely sensed data collected from air and spacecraft. A 4,000 km2 area centered on metropolitan Portland was chosen as the demonstration site, and a four-date Landsat temporal overlay was created which contained January, April, July, and October data collected in 1973. Digital multispectral analysis of single dates and two-date combinations revealed that the spring-summer and summer-fall combinations were the most satisfactory for land cover inventory. Residential, commercial and industrial, improved open space, water, forested, and agriculture land cover categories were obtained consistently in the majority of classification iterations. Census tract and traffic zone boundaries were digitized and registered with the Landsat data to facilitate integration of the land cover information with socioeconomic and environmental data already available to Oregon planners.

  17. Assessing Landslide Risk Areas Using Statistical Models and Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. G.; Lee, D. K.; Park, C.; Ahn, Y.; Sung, S.; Park, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, damages due to landslides have increased in Republic of Korea. Extreme weathers like typhoon, heavy rainfall related to climate change are the main factor of the damages. Especially, Inje-gun, Gangwon-do had severe landslide damages in 2006 and 2007. In Inje-gun, 91% areas are forest, therefore, many land covers related to human activities were adjacent to forest land. Thus, establishment of adaptation plans to landslides was urgently needed. Landslide risk assessment can serve as a good information to policy makers. The objective of this study was assessing landslide risk areas to support establishment of adaptation plans to reduce landslide damages. Statistical distribution models (SDMs) were used to evaluate probability of landslide occurrence. Various SDMs were used to make landslide probability maps considering uncertainty of SDMs. The types of land cover were classified into 5 grades considering vulnerable level to landslide. The landslide probability maps were overlaid with land cover map to calculate landslide risk. As a result of overlay analysis, landslide risk areas were derived. Especially agricultural areas and transportation areas showed high risk and large areas in the risk map. In conclusion, policy makers in Inje-gun must consider the landslide risk map to establish adaptation plans effectively.

  18. Land-use and land-cover change in montane mainland southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jefferson; Vogler, John B

    2005-09-01

    This paper summarizes land-cover and land-use change at eight sites in Thailand, Yunnan (China), Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos over the last 50 years. Project methodology included incorporating information collected from a combination of semiformal, key informant, and formal household interviews with the development of spatial databases based on aerial photographs, satellite images, topographic maps, and GPS data. Results suggest that land use (e.g. swidden cultivation) and land cover (e.g. secondary vegetation) have remained stable and the minor amount of land-use change that has occurred has been a change from swidden to monocultural cash crops. Results suggest that two forces will increasingly determine land-use systems in this region. First, national land tenure policies-the nationalization of forest lands and efforts to increase control over upland resources by central governments-will provide a push factor making it increasingly difficult for farmers to maintain their traditional swidden land-use practices. Second, market pressures-the commercialization of subsistence resources and the substitution of commercial crops for subsistence crops-will provide a pull factor encouraging farmers to engage in new and different forms of commercial agriculture. These results appear to be robust as they come from eight studies conducted over the last decade. But important questions remain in terms of what research protocols are needed, if any, when linking social science data with remotely sensed data for understanding human-environment interactions.

  19. High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    As the Nation?s population grows, quantifying, monitoring, and managing land use becomes increasingly important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover (LULC) mapping that has been the model both nationally and internationally for over 20 years. At present, the USGS is producing high-resolution LULC data for several watershed and urban areas within the United States. This high-resolution LULC mapping is part of an ongoing USGS Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP). The four components of the LCCP are global (1:2,000,000-scale), national (1:100,000-scale), urban (1:24,000-scale), and special projects (various scales and time periods). Within the urban and special project components, the USGS Rocky Mountain Mapping Center (RMMC) is collecting historical as well as contemporary high-resolution LULC data. RMMC?s high-resolution LULC mapping builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS LULC programs and provides LULC information to meet user requirements.

  20. Estimation of Croplands in West Africa using Global Land Cover and Land Use Datasets: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, P.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    Africa is vulnerable to the effects of global climate change resulting in reduced agricultural production and worsening food security. Studies show that Africa has the lowest cereal yield compared to other regions of the world. The situation is particularly dire in East, Central and West Africa. Despite their low cereal yield, the population of East, Central and West Africa has doubled between 1980 and 2007. Furthermore, West Africa has a history of severe and long droughts which have occasionally caused widespread famine. To understand how global climate change and land cover change have impacted crop production (yield) it is important to estimate croplands in the region. The objective of this study is to compare ten publicly available land cover and land use datasets, covering different time periods, to estimate croplands in West Africa. The land cover and land use data sets used cover the period from early 1990s to 2010. Preliminary results show a high variability in cropland estimates. For example, in Benin, the estimated cropland area varies from 2.5 to 21% of the total area, while it varies from 3 to 8% in Niger. Datasets with a finer resolution (≤ 1,000 m) have consistently estimated comparable cropland areas across all countries. Several categorical verification statistics such as probability of detection (POD), false alarm ratio (FAR) and critical success index are also used to analyze the correspondence between estimated and observed cropland pixels at the scales of 1 Km and 10 Km.

  1. Agricultural Land Use classification from Envisat MERIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, L.; Kodesova, R.

    2009-04-01

    This study focuses on evaluation of a crop classification from middle-resolution images (Envisat MERIS) at national level. The main goal of such Land Use product is to provid spatial data for optimisation of monitoring of surface and groundwater pollution in the Czech Republic caused by pesticides use in agriculture. As there is a lack of spatial data on the pesticide use and their distribution, the localisation can be done according to the crop cover on arable land derived from the remote sensing images. Often high resolution data are used for agricultural Land Use classification but only at regional or local level. Envisat MERIS data, due to the wide satellite swath, can be used also at national level. The high temporal and also spectral resolution of MERIS data has indisputable advantage for crop classification. Methodology of a pixel-based MERIS classification applying an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique was proposed and performed at a national level, the Czech Republic. Five crop groups were finally selected - winter crops, spring crops, summer crops and other crops to be classified. Classification models included a linear, radial basis function (RBF) and a multi-layer percepton (MLP) ANN with 50 networks tested in training. The training data set consisted of about 200 samples per class, on which bootstrap resampling was applied. Selection of a subset of independent variables (Meris spectral channels) was used in the procedure. The best selected ANN model (MLP: 3 in, 13 hidden, 3 out) resulted in very good performance (correct classification rate 0.974, error 0.103) applying three crop types data set. In the next step data set with five crop types was evaluated. The ANN model (MLP: 5 in, 12 hidden, 5 out) performance was also very good (correct classification rate 0.930, error 0.370). The study showed, that while accuracy of about 80 % was achieved at pixel level when classifying only three crops, accuracy of about 70 % was achieved for five crop

  2. Projected Changes in Precipitation Variability and Distribution Due to Land Cover Change in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. J.; Lofgren, B. M.; Andresen, J. A.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Olson, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Climate-Land Interactions Project (CLIP) is studying climate impacts coupled to land use/land cover (LULC) change in East Africa. Accompanying dramatic shifts in population distribution and economic drivers in eastern Africa are changes in global climate forcings; e.g. the melting of Kilimanjaro's glaciers, shifts in the Indian Ocean Dipole periodicity, and greater drought frequency. These socioeconomic factors can alter the surface energy balance, thereby influencing climate, and climate shifts can in turn influence patterns and practices in agriculture that will affect LULC. Here we present preliminary results from regional climate model simulations under current (2000-2010) and future (2040-2050) climate conditions driven by boundary conditions from NCAR's CCSM model (using scenario A1B), with land cover prognosed by a land transformation model. Prognosed land cover is driven by projected socioeconomic forces ranging from urban migration to agricultural expansion into marginal lands. We first simulate only future (2040-2050) land cover with current (2000-2010) boundary conditions, then current land cover with future CCSM boundary conditions, then finally both future and cover and boundary conditions. In this way, we will be able to observe effects solely from land cover change, effects solely from climate change, and the synergistic effects of both combined.

  3. Ground surface temperature simulation for different land covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, William R.; Janke, Ben; Mohseni, Omid; Stefan, Heinz G.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryA model for predicting temperature time series for dry and wet land surfaces is described, as part of a larger project to assess the impact of urban development on the temperature of surface runoff and coldwater streams. Surface heat transfer processes on impervious and pervious land surfaces were investigated for both dry and wet weather periods. The surface heat transfer equations were combined with a numerical approximation of the 1-D unsteady heat diffusion equation to calculate pavement and soil temperature profiles to a depth of 10 m. Equations to predict the magnitude of the radiative, convective, conductive and evaporative heat fluxes at a dry or wet surface, using standard climate data as input, were developed. A model for the effect of plant canopies on surface heat transfer was included for vegetated land surfaces. Given suitable climate data, the model can simulate the land surface and sub-surface temperatures continuously throughout a six month time period or for a single rainfall event. Land surface temperatures have been successfully simulated for pavements, bare soil, short and tall grass, a forest, and two agricultural crops (corn and soybeans). The simulations were run for three different locations in US, and different years as imposed by the availability of measured soil temperature and climate data. To clarify the effect of land use on surface temperatures, the calibrated coefficients for each land use and the same soil coefficients were used to simulate surface temperatures for a six year climate data set from Albertville, MN. Asphalt and concrete give the highest surface temperatures, as expected, while vegetated surfaces gave the lowest. Bare soil gives surface temperatures that lie between those for pavements and plant-covered surfaces. The soil temperature model predicts hourly surface temperatures of bare soil and pavement with root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of 1-2 °C, and hourly surface temperatures of vegetation-covered surfaces

  4. West Africa land use land cover time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Cushing, W. Matthew; Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.; Hutchinson, John A.; Dalsted, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    The West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project provides AGRHYMET and its 17 participating countries a comprehensive two-kilometer (2-km) resolution land use land cover (LULC) dataset of the region for three time periods; 1975, 2000, and 2013. Hundreds of Landsat images were visually interpreted to develop a 2-km LULC dataset for each of the three time periods. To assist in validating the interpretations, thousands of aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images were used. From the initial datasets produced by national teams, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted an independent, detailed review of the interpretations. In concurrence with the respective country teams, the data have been revised to produce an accurate and consistent LULC assessment from within the countries and respective transboundary areas. This West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project represents an effort to document and quantify the impacts of change in both time and space, of the environmental and land resource trends across West Africa. The project was carried out through the AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, in partners from 17 participating countries, the Sahel Institute (INSAH), the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), and with major support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) West Africa Regional Program. The overarching goal of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project is to promote the awareness of the trends and use of spatial information about natural resource trends among national and regional decision-makers. For a complete description of project visit https://eros.usgs.gov/westafrica

  5. Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

  6. Land use, land cover, and drainage on the Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula, Eastern North Carolina, 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    A land use, land cover, and drainage map of the 2,000-square-mile Albermarle-Pamlico peninsula of eastern North Carolina has been prepared, at a scale of 1:125,000, as part of a larger study of the effects of large-scale land clearing on regional hydrology. The peninsula includes the most extensive area of wetland in North Carolina and one of the largest in the country. In recent years the pace of land clearing on the peninsula has accelerated as land is being converted from forest, swamp, and brushland to agricultural use. Conversion of swamps to intensive farming operations requires profound changes in the landscape. Vegetation is uprooted and burned and ditches and canals are dug to remove excess water. What is the impact of these changes on ground-water supplies and on the streams and surrounding coastal waters which receive the runoff This map will aid in answering these and similar questions that have arisen about the patterns of land use and the artificial drainage system that removes excess water from the land. By showing both land use and drainage, this map can be used to identify those areas where water-related problems may occur and help assess the nature and causes of these problems. The map covers the entire area east of the Suffolk Scarp, an area of about 2,000 square miles, for the year 1974 using data from 1974-76. Land use and land cover were compiled and modified from the U.S. Geological Survey 's Rocky Mount and Manteo LUDA maps. Additional information came from U.S. Geological Survey orthophotoquads, Landsat imagery, and field checking. Drainage was mapped from orthophotoquads, some field inspection, and 7-1/2 minute topographic quadrangle maps.

  7. Analysing the impact of urban pressures on agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Ece; Schröder, Christoph; Fons, Jaume; Gregor, Mirko; Louwagie, Geertrui

    2015-04-01

    Land, and here in particular soil, is a finite and essentially non-renewable resource. EU-wide, land take, i.e. the increase of settlement area over time, consumes more than 1000 km2 annually of which half is actually sealed and, hence, lost under impermeable surfaces. Land take and in particular soil sealing has already been identified as one of the major soil threats in the 2006 EC Communication 'Towards a Thematic Strategy on Soil Protection' (Soil Thematic Strategy), and has been confirmed as such in the report on the implementation of this strategy. The aim of this study is to relate the potential of land for a particle use in a given region with the actual land use. This allows evaluating whether land (in particular the soil dimension) is used according to its (theoretical) potential. To this aim, the impact of a number of land cover flows related to urban development on soils with a good, average and poor production potential were assessed and mapped. Thus, the amount and quality (potentials and/or suitability for agricultural production) of agricultural land lost between the years 2000 and 2006 was identified. In addition, areas with high productivity potential around urban areas indicating areas of potential future land use conflicts for Europe were identified.

  8. Land Cover Indicators for U.S. National Climate Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channan, S.; Thomson, A. M.; Collins, K. M.; Sexton, J. O.; Torrens, P.; Emanuel, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    Land is a critical resource for human habitat and for the vast majority of human activities. Many natural resources are derived from terrestrial ecosystems or otherwise extracted from the landscape. Terrestrial biodiversity depends on land attributes as do people's perceptions of the value of land, including its value for recreation or tourism. Furthermore, land surface properties and processes affect weather and climate, and land cover change and land management affect emissions of greenhouse gases. Thus, land cover with its close association with climate is so pervasive that a land cover indicator is of fundamental importance to U.S. national climate assessments and related research. Moderate resolution remote sensing products (MODIS) were used to provide systematic data on annual distributions of land cover over the period 2001-2012. Selected Landsat observations and data products further characterize land cover at higher resolution. Here we will present the prototype for a suite of land cover indicators including land cover maps as well as charts depicting attributes such as composition by land cover class, statistical indicators of landscape characteristics, and tabular data summaries indispensable for communicating the status and trends of U.S. land cover at national, regional and state levels.

  9. Investigating the Impact of Land between the Lakes (LBL) and Land Use/Land Cover Change on Precipitation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degu, A. M.; Hossain, F.

    2012-12-01

    Large dams/reservoirs as open water surface and as a mechanism of triggering land use/land cover changes in their vicinity have impacted local climate and extreme precipitation patterns as study show. Urbanization, agricultural development, and forestation are some of the Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCC) that are result of development of large dams/reservoirs. Thus creating heterogeneities. It is believed that such heterogeneities bring about a boundary of different air masses that triggers convection due to differential heating as well as variation in soil moisture. One such heterogeneities is of the Land Between the Lakes (LBL). LBL is an inland peninsula formed by Lake Kentucky on Tennessee River and Lake Barkley on Cumberland River in Western Kentucky. The development of the two lakes brought about an area of 680 sq.km forest cover. The LBL renders unique land use/land cover heterogeneities with in a shorter distance providing open water for evaporation and forest for evapotranspiration. Reports as well as a preliminary investigation of nearby weather radar data showed storms dying out as it approaches the inland peninsula and gaining strength east of LBL. The storm exhibits a wave like strength, attenuating before LBL and gaining strength after. The purpose of this study mainly is to investigate the impact of LBL and in general LULCC on precipitation in the area. In this study the following specific scientific question will be addressed a. Has the development of LBL modified precipitation in the region? b. Which LULCC predominately affects storm formation? Summer radar reflectivity data from Paducah, KY station along with North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) geopotential height and wind direction data will be analyzed for identification of LBL effect precipitation and synoptic effect precipitation, respectively. A Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) will be setup to investigate what land use/land cover predominately modifies precipitation in

  10. Impact of land cover change on the environmental hydrology characteristics in Kelantan river basin, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatkhah, Nader; Mansor, Shattri; Khuzaimah, Zailani; Asmat, Arnis; Adnan, Noraizam; Adam, Siti Noradzah

    2016-09-01

    Changing the land cover/ land use has serious environmental impacts affecting the ecosystem in Malaysia. The impact of land cover changes on the environmental functions such as surface water, loss water, and soil moisture is considered in this paper on the Kelantan river basin. The study area at the east coast of the peninsular Malaysia has suffered significant land cover changes in the recent years. The current research tried to assess the impact of land cover changes in the study area focused on the surface water, loss water, and soil moisture from different land use classes and the potential impact of land cover changes on the ecosystem of Kelantan river basin. To simulate the impact of land cover changes on the environmental hydrology characteristics, a deterministic regional modeling were employed in this study based on five approaches, i.e. (1) Land cover classification based on Landsat images; (2) assessment of land cover changes during last three decades; (3) Calculation the rate of water Loss/ Infiltration; (4) Assessment of hydrological and mechanical effects of the land cover changes on the surface water; and (5) evaluation the impact of land cover changes on the ecosystem of the study area. Assessment of land cover impact on the environmental hydrology was computed with the improved transient rainfall infiltration and grid based regional model (Improved-TRIGRS) based on the transient infiltration, and subsequently changes in the surface water, due to precipitation events. The results showed the direct increased in surface water from development area, agricultural area, and grassland regions compared with surface water from other land covered areas in the study area. The urban areas or lower planting density areas tend to increase for surface water during the monsoon seasons, whereas the inter flow from forested and secondary jungle areas contributes to the normal surface water.

  11. Monitoring urban land cover change by updating the national land cover database impervious surface products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 is widely used as a baseline for national land cover and impervious conditions. To ensure timely and relevant data, it is important to update this base to a more recent time period. A prototype method was developed to update the land cover and impervious surface by individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season from both 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, impervious surface was estimated for areas of change by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain a variety of metropolitan areas. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of impervious surface changes associated with urban developments were accurately captured and updated. The approach optimizes mapping efficiency and can provide users a flexible method to generate updated impervious surface at national and regional scales. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  12. Continental land cover classification using satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Tucker, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Four different approaches to the classification of land cover for whole continents using multitemporal images of the normalized difference vegetation index derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer of the NOAA series of satellites are discussed. The first approach uses only two dates from different seasons and classification dependent upon subdivision of the resultant two-dimensional feature space by an analyst using a track ball. The second approach involves a similar method of partitioning the feature space, but with the two dimensions being the first and second principal components derived from 13 four-week composite images. The third approach uses the maximum likelihood rule to derive the classified map. In the fourth approach, the amount of deviation from characteristic curves is used as a basis for classification.

  13. Effect of land cover data on nitrous oxide inventory in fen meadows.

    PubMed

    Nol, Linda; Verburg, Peter H; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Molenaar, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Landscape representations based on land cover databases differ significantly from the real landscape. Using a land cover database with high uncertainty as input for emission inventory analyses can cause propagation of systematic and random errors. The objective of this study was to analyze how different land cover representations introduce systematic errors into the results of regional N2O emission inventories. Surface areas of grassland, ditches, and ditch banks were estimated for two polders in the Dutch fen meadow landscape using five land cover representations: four commonly used databases and a detailed field map, which most closely resembles the real landscape. These estimated surface areas were scaled up to the Dutch western fen meadow landscape. Based on the estimated surface areas agricultural N2O emissions were estimated using different inventory techniques. All four common databases overestimated the grassland area when compared to the field map. This caused a considerable overestimation of agricultural N2O emissions, ranging from 9% for more detailed databases to 11% for the coarsest database. The effect of poor land cover representation was larger for an inventory method based on a process model than for inventory methods based on simple emission factors. Although the effect of errors in land cover representations may be small compared to the effect of uncertainties in emission factors, these effects are systematic (i.e., cause bias) and do not cancel out by spatial upscaling. Moreover, bias in land cover representations can be quantified or reduced by careful selection of the land cover database.

  14. Land cover diversity increases predator aggregation and consumption of prey.

    PubMed

    Penn, Hannah J; Athey, Kacie J; Lee, Brian D

    2017-03-28

    A lower diversity of land cover types is purported to decrease arthropod diversity in agroecosystems and is dependent on patterns of land use and fragmentation. Ants, important providers of ecosystem services such as biological control, are susceptible to landscape-level changes. We determined the relationships between land cover diversity and fragmentation on the within-field spatial associations of ants to pests and resulting predation events by combining mapping and molecular tools. Increased land cover diversity and decreased fragmentation increased ant abundance, spatial association to pests and predation. Land cover diversity and fragmentation were more explanatory than land cover types. Even so, specific land cover types, such as deciduous forest, influenced ant and pest diversity more so than abundance. These results indicate that geospatial techniques and molecular gut content analysis can be combined to determine the role of land use in influencing predator-prey interactions and resulting predation events in agroecosystems.

  15. Simulating Land-Cover Change in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jefferson; Vogler, John B.; Sen, Omer L.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Ziegler, Alan D.

    2012-05-01

    We used the conversion of land use and its effects (CLUE-s) model to simulate scenarios of land-cover change in Montane mainland southeast Asia (MMSEA), a region in the midst of transformation due to rapid intensification of agriculture and expansion of regional trade markets. Simulated changes affected approximately 10 % of the MMSEA landscape between 2001 and 2025 and 16 % between 2001 and 2050. Roughly 9 % of the current vegetation, which consists of native species of trees, shrubs, and grasses, is projected to be replaced by tree plantations, tea, and other evergreen shrubs during the 50 years period. Importantly, 4 % of this transition is expected to be due to the expansion of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis), a tree plantation crop that may have important implications for local-to-regional scale hydrology because of its potentially high water consumption in the dry season.

  16. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of § 3400.3-1, the...

  17. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of § 3400.3-1, the...

  18. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of § 3400.3-1, the...

  19. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of § 3400.3-1, the...

  20. Inferring non-point pollution from land cover analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Richard F.

    Best Management Practices (BMP's) in farming were found to significantly reduce agricultural non-point water pollution in Central Indiana. Through the implementation of systems of conservation tillage practices and structural measures at the farm level, reductions in runoff were achieved, thereby minimizing erosion and subsequent sedimentation and pollution of the surface water system. These conclusions resulted from a three and one-half year study entitled, ``The Indiana Heartland Model Implementation Project'' administered by the Indiana Heartland Coordinating Commission, involving cooperation and coordination of farmers, citizens, and a multi-agency, multi-disciplinary team comprised of four universities and numerous governmental agencies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded research, while the U.S. Department of Agriculture provided cost share monies for BMP implementation. A comprehensive geographically encoded computer-aided data base was constructed which included information on land cover, elevation, slope, aspect, soils, etc. Land cover map files were compiled through remote sensing including Landsat MSS digital data and low altitude color infrared aerial photography sources. This digital data base was suited for spatial and statistical analyses and transferred easily as input to Purdue University's ANSWERS Model for further watershed assessment. The ANSWERS Model is a distributed deterministic model which simulates the monitored reaction of subwatersheds to actual storm events. Through this model inferences were made as to the expected water quality improvements, given BMP's were implemented at critical areas for erosion throughout both watersheds.

  1. Land Cover and Landscape Diversity Analysis in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Szymon; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to present the land cover structure and landscape diversity in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve. The land cover classification was performed using Object Based Image Analysis in Trimble eCognition Developer 8 software. The retrospective land cover changes analysis in 3 lake catchments (Kleszczów, Moszne, Bia³eW³odawskie Lakes)was performed on the basis of archival aerial photos taken in 1952, 1971, 1984, 1992, 2007 and one satellite scene from 2003 (IKONOS).On the basis of land cover map structure, Shannon diversity index was estimated with the moving window approach enabled in Fragstats software. The conducted research has shown that the land cover structure of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve is diverse and can be simply described by selected landscape metrics. The highest level of land cover diversity, as showed by Shannon Diversity Index, was identified in the western part of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve, which is closely related to the agricultural character of land cover structure in those regions. The examples of three regional retrospective land cover analyses demonstrated that the character of land cover structure has changed dramatically over the last 40 years.

  2. Using land-cover change as dynamic variables in surface-water and water-quality models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista A.; Warner, Kelly L.; Kuhn, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Land-cover data are typically used in hydrologic modeling to establish or describe land surface dynamics. This project is designed to demonstrate the use of land-cover change data in surface-water and water-quality models by incorporating land-cover as a variable condition. The project incorporates three different scenarios that vary hydrologically and geographically: 1) Agriculture in the Plains, 2) Loon habitat in New England, and 3) Forestry in the Ozarks.

  3. Computer-aided boundary delineation of agricultural lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Thomas D.; Angelici, Gary L.; Slye, Robert E.; Ma, Matt

    1989-01-01

    The National Agricultural Statistics Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) presently uses labor-intensive aerial photographic interpretation techniques to divide large geographical areas into manageable-sized units for estimating domestic crop and livestock production. Prototype software, the computer-aided stratification (CAS) system, was developed to automate the procedure, and currently runs on a Sun-based image processing system. With a background display of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and United States Geological Survey Digital Line Graph data, the operator uses a cursor to delineate agricultural areas, called sampling units, which are assigned to strata of land-use and land-cover types. The resultant stratified sampling units are used as input into subsequent USDA sampling procedures. As a test, three counties in Missouri were chosen for application of the CAS procedures. Subsequent analysis indicates that CAS was five times faster in creating sampling units than the manual techniques were.

  4. Integrated modelling of anthropogenic land-use and land-cover change on the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaldach, R.; Koch, J.; Alcamo, J.

    2009-04-01

    In many cases land-use activities go hand in hand with substantial modifications of the physical and biological cover of the Earth's surface, resulting in direct effects on energy and matter fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. For instance, the conversion of forest to cropland is changing climate relevant surface parameters (e.g. albedo) as well as evapotranspiration processes and carbon flows. In turn, human land-use decisions are also influenced by environmental processes. Changing temperature and precipitation patterns for example are important determinants for location and intensity of agriculture. Due to these close linkages, processes of land-use and related land-cover change should be considered as important components in the construction of Earth System models. A major challenge in modelling land-use change on the global scale is the integration of socio-economic aspects and human decision making with environmental processes. One of the few global approaches that integrates functional components to represent both anthropogenic and environmental aspects of land-use change, is the LandSHIFT model. It simulates the spatial and temporal dynamics of the human land-use activities settlement, cultivation of food crops and grazing management, which compete for the available land resources. The rational of the model is to regionalize the demands for area intensive commodities (e.g. crop production) and services (e.g. space for housing) from the country-level to a global grid with the spatial resolution of 5 arc-minutes. The modelled land-use decisions within the agricultural sector are influenced by changing climate and the resulting effects on biomass productivity. Currently, this causal chain is modelled by integrating results from the process-based vegetation model LPJmL model for changing crop yields and net primary productivity of grazing land. Model output of LandSHIFT is a time series of grid maps with land-use/land-cover information

  5. Impact of land cover and land use change on runoff characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sajikumar, N; Remya, R S

    2015-09-15

    Change in Land Cover and Land Use (LCLU) influences the runoff characteristics of a drainage basin to a large extent, which in turn, affects the surface and groundwater availability of the area, and hence leads to further change in LCLU. This forms a vicious circle. Hence it becomes essential to assess the effect of change in LCLU on the runoff characteristics of a region in general and of small watershed levels (sub-basin levels) in particular. Such an analysis can effectively be carried out by using watershed simulation models with integrated GIS frame work. SWAT (Soil and Water Analysis Tool) model, being one of the versatile watershed simulation models, is found to be suitable for this purpose as many GIS integration modules are available for this model (e.g. ArcSWAT, MWSWAT). Watershed simulation using SWAT requires the land use and land cover data, soil data and many other features. With the availability of repository of satellite imageries, both from Indian and foreign sources, it becomes possible to use the concurrent local land use and land cover data, thereby enabling more accurate modelling of small watersheds. Such availability will also enable us to assess the effect of LCLU on runoff characteristics and their reverse impact. The current study assesses the effect of land use and land cover on the runoff characteristics of two watersheds in Kerala, India. It also assesses how the change in land use and land cover in the last few decades affected the runoff characteristics of these watersheds. It is seen that the reduction in the forest area amounts to 60% and 32% in the analysed watersheds. However, the changes in the surface runoff for these watersheds are not comparable with the changes in the forest area but are within 20%. Similarly the maximum (peak) value of runoff has increased by an amount of 15% only. The lesser (aforementioned) effect than expected might be due to the fact that forest has been converted to agricultural purpose with major

  6. Past and predicted future changes in the land cover of the Upper Mississippi River floodplain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Jager, N. R.; Rohweder, J.J.; Nelson, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides one historical and two alternative future contexts for evaluating land cover modifications within the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) floodplain. Given previously documented changes in land use, river engineering, restoration efforts and hydro-climatic changes within the UMR basin and floodplain, we wanted to know which of these changes are the most important determinants of current and projected future floodplain land cover. We used Geographic Information System data covering approximately 37% of the UMR floodplain (3232 km2) for ca 1890 (pre-lock and dam) and three contemporary periods (1975, 1989 and 2000) across which river restoration actions have increased and hydro-climatic changes have occurred. We further developed two 50-year future scenarios from the spatially dependent land cover transitions that occurred from 1975 to 1989 (scenario A) and from 1989 to 2000 (scenario B) using Markov models.Land cover composition of the UMR did not change significantly from 1975 to 2000, indicating that current land cover continues to reflect historical modifications that support agricultural production and commercial navigation despite some floodplain restoration efforts and variation in river discharge. Projected future land cover composition based on scenario A was not significantly different from the land cover for 1975, 1989 or 2000 but was different from the land cover of scenario B, which was also different from all other periods. Scenario B forecasts transition of some forest and marsh habitat to open water by the year 2050 for some portions of the northern river and projects that some agricultural lands will transition to open water in the southern portion of the river. Future floodplain management and restoration planning efforts in the UMR should consider the potential consequences of continued shifts in hydro-climatic conditions that may occur as a result of climate change and the potential effects on floodplain land cover.

  7. Land cover characterization and mapping of continental southeast Asia using multi-resolution satellite sensor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Defourny, Pierre; Shrestha, Surendra

    2003-01-01

    Land use/land cover change, particularly that of tropical deforestation and forest degradation, has been occurring at an unprecedented rate and scale in Southeast Asia. The rapid rate of economic development, demographics and poverty are believed to be the underlying forces responsible for the change. Accurate and up-to-date information to support the above statement is, however, not available. The available data, if any, are outdated and are not comparable for various technical reasons. Time series analysis of land cover change and the identification of the driving forces responsible for these changes are needed for the sustainable management of natural resources and also for projecting future land cover trajectories. We analysed the multi-temporal and multi-seasonal NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data of 1985/86 and 1992 to (1) prepare historical land cover maps and (2) to identify areas undergoing major land cover transformations (called ‘hot spots’). The identified ‘hot spot’ areas were investigated in detail using high-resolution satellite sensor data such as Landsat and SPOT supplemented by intensive field surveys. Shifting cultivation, intensification of agricultural activities and change of cropping patterns, and conversion of forest to agricultural land were found to be the principal reasons for land use/land cover change in the Oudomxay province of Lao PDR, the Mekong Delta of Vietnam and the Loei province of Thailand, respectively. Moreover, typical land use/land cover change patterns of the ‘hot spot’ areas were also examined. In addition, we developed an operational methodology for land use/land cover change analysis at the national level with the help of national remote sensing institutions.

  8. The Potential Radiative Forcing of Global Land Use and Land Cover Change Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Given the expected increase in pressure on land resources over the next century, there is a need to understand the total impacts of activities associated with land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify these impacts using the radiative forcing metric, including forcings from changes in long-lived greenhouse gases, tropospheric ozone, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We estimate radiative forcings from the different agents for historical LULCC and for six future projections using simulations from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model and Community Atmosphere Models and additional offline analyses. When all forcing agents are considered together we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day (2010) anthropogenic radiative forcing can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC radiative forcing by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the forcing from CO2 alone. In contrast, the non-CO2 forcings from fossil fuel burning are roughly neutral, due largely to the negative (cooling) impact of aerosols from these sources. We partition the global LULCC radiative forcing into three major sources: direct modification of land cover (e.g. deforestation), agricultural activities, and fire regime changes. Contributions from deforestation and agriculture are roughly equal in the present day, while changes to wildfire activity impose a small negative forcing globally. In 2100, deforestation activities comprise the majority of the LULCC radiative forcing for all projections except one (Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5). This suggests that realistic scenarios of future forest area change are essential for projecting the contribution of LULCC to climate change. However, the commonly used RCP land cover change projections all include decreases in global deforestation rates over the next 85 years. To place an upper bound on the potential

  9. Controls on Watershed Biogeochemistry by Climate, Land Cover, and Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, T. R.; Sutton, A. J.; Gustafson, A. B.; Koskelo, A. I.; Fox, R. J.; Stone, J.

    2006-05-01

    Water and elemental discharge from catchments is largely controlled by climate, soils, and land cover. Seasonal temperature and rainfall patterns determine the water available for stream discharge, and average annual air temperature is inversely correlated with the proportion of rainfall that is annually discharged as stream flow. At higher temperatures, an increasing fraction of the soil water is evapotranspired to the atmosphere as water vapor rather than discharged as stream flow. Hydrologic soil drainage properties determine whether precipitation is primarily directed horizontally as overland flow or vertically as infiltration to groundwater for baseflow. Concentrations of N in groundwater, primarily nitrate, reflect the surface land uses, particularly agriculture and residential areas with septic systems. However, hydric soils act as a trap for anthropogenic nitrate in groundwater, probably by denitrification in oxygen-poor, C-rich, micro-environments. Likewise, the P content of surface soils controls the P concentration in overland flow due to leaching of soluble P and erosion of particulate P. At the watershed scale, concentrations of N and P in stream discharge are augmented in proportion to the fraction of the basin in anthropogenic land uses such as agriculture and urban areas, which contribute nutrients via application of fertilizers and disposal of human waste. This anthropogenic fraction of a basin's land uses represents the human footprint upon the land which primarily determines the elevated N and P losses from the basin. N is relatively easily sampled because it is primarily transported as highly soluble nitrate in groundwater-supported baseflow; however, P sampling is more difficult because transport largely occurs episodically following storm events when both stream flow and P concentrations are high during brief periods. As a result, P concentrations and fluxes are almost certainly undersampled and underestimated compared to N fluxes, and fewer

  10. Land use and land cover changes in Zêzere watershed (Portugal)--Water quality implications.

    PubMed

    Meneses, B M; Reis, R; Vale, M J; Saraiva, R

    2015-09-15

    To understand the relations between land use allocation and water quality preservation within a watershed is essential to assure sustainable development. The land use and land cover (LUC) within Zêzere River watershed registered relevant changes in the last decades. These land use and land cover changes (LUCCs) have impacts in water quality, mainly in surface water degradation caused by surface runoff from artificial and agricultural areas, forest fires and burnt areas, and caused by sewage discharges from agroindustry and urban sprawl. In this context, the impact of LUCCs in the quality of surface water of the Zêzere watershed is evaluated, considering the changes for different types of LUC and establishing their possible correlations to the most relevant water quality changes. The results indicate that the loss of coniferous forest and the increase of transitional woodland-shrub are related to increased water's pH; while the growth in artificial surfaces and pastures leads mainly to the increase of soluble salts and fecal coliform concentration. These particular findings within the Zêzere watershed, show the relevance of addressing water quality impact driven from land use and should therefore be taken into account within the planning process in order to prevent water stress, namely within watersheds integrating drinking water catchments.

  11. Estimation of late twentieth century land-cover change in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Wilson, Tamara S.; Soulard, Christopher E.; Liu, Jinxun

    2011-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive multi-temporal analysis of land-cover change for California across its major ecological regions and primary land-cover types. Recently completed satellite-based estimates of land-cover and land-use change information for large portions of the United States allow for consistent measurement and comparison across heterogeneous landscapes. Landsat data were employed within a pure-panel stratified one-stage cluster sample to estimate and characterize land-cover change for 1973-2000. Results indicate anthropogenic and natural disturbances, such as forest cutting and fire, were the dominant changes, followed by large fluctuations between agriculture and rangelands. Contrary to common perception, agriculture remained relatively stable over the 27-year period with an estimated loss of 1.0% of agricultural land. The largest net declines occurred in the grasslands/shrubs class at 5,131 km2 and forest class at 4,722 km2. Developed lands increased by 37.6%, composing an estimated 4.2% of the state?s land cover by 2000.

  12. Estimation of late twentieth century land-cover change in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Wilson, Tamara S.; Soulard, Christopher E.; Liu, Jinxun

    2011-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive multi-temporal analysis of land-cover change for California across its major ecological regions and primary land-cover types. Recently completed satellite-based estimates of land-cover and land-use change information for large portions of the United States allow for consistent measurement and comparison across heterogeneous landscapes. Landsat data were employed within a pure-panel stratified one-stage cluster sample to estimate and characterize land-cover change for 1973–2000. Results indicate anthropogenic and natural disturbances, such as forest cutting and fire, were the dominant changes, followed by large fluctuations between agriculture and rangelands. Contrary to common perception, agriculture remained relatively stable over the 27-year period with an estimated loss of 1.0% of agricultural land. The largest net declines occurred in the grasslands/shrubs class at 5,131 km2 and forest class at 4,722 km2. Developed lands increased by 37.6%, composing an estimated 4.2% of the state’s land cover by 2000.

  13. Reconstructed historical land cover and biophysical parameters for studies of land-atmosphere interactions within the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steyaert, Louis T.; Knox, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 350 years, the eastern half of the United States experienced extensive land cover changes. These began with land clearing in the 1600s, continued with widespread deforestation, wetland drainage, and intensive land use by 1920, and then evolved to the present-day landscape of forest regrowth, intensive agriculture, urban expansion, and landscape fragmentation. Such changes alter biophysical properties that are key determinants of land-atmosphere interactions (water, energy, and carbon exchanges). To understand the potential implications of these land use transformations, we developed and analyzed 20-km land cover and biophysical parameter data sets for the eastern United States at 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992 time slices. Our approach combined potential vegetation, county-level census data, soils data, resource statistics, a Landsat-derived land cover classification, and published historical information on land cover and land use. We reconstructed land use intensity maps for each time slice and characterized the land cover condition. We combined these land use data with a mutually consistent set of biophysical parameter classes, to characterize the historical diversity and distribution of land surface properties. Time series maps of land surface albedo, leaf area index, a deciduousness index, canopy height, surface roughness, and potential saturated soils in 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992 illustrate the profound effects of land use change on biophysical properties of the land surface. Although much of the eastern forest has returned, the average biophysical parameters for recent landscapes remain markedly different from those of earlier periods. Understanding the consequences of these historical changes will require land-atmosphere interactions modeling experiments.

  14. Modeled historical land use and land cover for the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan; Bouchard, Michelle A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Dornbierer, Jordan; Wika, Steve; Quenzer, Robert; Friesz, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    The landscape of the conterminous United States has changed dramatically over the last 200 years, with agricultural land use, urban expansion, forestry, and other anthropogenic activities altering land cover across vast swaths of the country. While land use and land cover (LULC) models have been developed to model potential future LULC change, few efforts have focused on recreating historical landscapes. Researchers at the US Geological Survey have used a wide range of historical data sources and a spatially explicit modeling framework to model spatially explicit historical LULC change in the conterminous United States from 1992 back to 1938. Annual LULC maps were produced at 250-m resolution, with 14 LULC classes. Assessment of model results showed good agreement with trends and spatial patterns in historical data sources such as the Census of Agriculture and historical housing density data, although comparison with historical data is complicated by definitional and methodological differences. The completion of this dataset allows researchers to assess historical LULC impacts on a range of ecological processes.

  15. Seasonal land-cover regions of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Merchant, James W.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Reed, Bradley C.; Olson, Paul; Hutchinson, John

    1995-01-01

    Global-change investigations have been hindered by deficiencies in the availability and quality of land-cover data. The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln have collaborated on the development of a new approach to land-cover characterization that attempts to address requirements of the global-change research community and others interested in regional patterns of land cover. An experimental 1 -kilometer-resolution database of land-cover characteristics for the coterminous U.S. has been prepared to test and evaluate the approach. Using multidate Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data complemented by elevation, climate, ecoregions, and other digital spatial datasets, the authors define 152, seasonal land-cover regions. The regionalization is based on a taxonomy of areas with respect to data on land cover, seasonality or phenology, and relative levels of primary production. The resulting database consists of descriptions of the vegetation, land cover, and seasonal, spectral, and site characteristics for each region. These data are used in the construction of an illustrative 1:7,500,000-scaIe map of the seasonal land-cover regions as well as of smaller-scale maps portraying general land cover and seasonality. The seasonal land-cover characteristics database can also be tailored to provide a broad range of other landscape parameters useful in national and global-scale environmental modeling and assessment.

  16. Classifying Multi-year Land Use and Land Cover using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, B.

    2015-12-01

    Cultivated ecosystems constitute a particularly frequent form of human land use. Long-term management of a cultivated ecosystem requires us to know temporal change of land use and land cover (LULC) of the target system. Land use and land cover changes (LUCC) in agricultural ecosystem is often rapid and unexpectedly occurs. Thus, longitudinal LULC is particularly needed to examine trends of ecosystem functions and ecosystem services of the target system. Multi-temporal classification of land use and land cover (LULC) in complex heterogeneous landscape remains a challenge. Agricultural landscapes often made up of a mosaic of numerous LULC classes, thus spatial heterogeneity is large. Moreover, temporal and spatial variation within a LULC class is also large. Under such a circumstance, standard classifiers would fail to identify the LULC classes correctly due to the heterogeneity of the target LULC classes. Because most standard classifiers search for a specific pattern of features for a class, they fail to detect classes with noisy and/or transformed feature data sets. Recently, deep learning algorithms have emerged in the machine learning communities and shown superior performance on a variety of tasks, including image classification and object recognition. In this paper, we propose to use convolutional neural networks (CNN) to learn from multi-spectral data to classify agricultural LULC types. Based on multi-spectral satellite data, we attempted to classify agricultural LULC classes in Soyang watershed, South Korea for the three years' study period (2009-2011). The classification performance of support vector machine (SVM) and CNN classifiers were compared for different years. Preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve classification performance compared to the SVM classifier. The SVM classifier failed to identify classes when trained on a year to predict another year, whilst CNN could reconstruct LULC maps of the catchment over the study

  17. Land cover change impacts on surface ozone: an observation-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Lin, Jintai

    2016-04-01

    Ozone air quality is a critical global environmental issue. Although it is clear that industrialization and urbanization has increased surface ozone through enhanced emissions of its precursors, much less is known about the role of changes in land cover and land use. Human activities have substantially altered the global land cover and land use through agriculture, urbanization, deforestation, and afforestation. Changes in Land cover and land use affect the ozone levels by altering soil emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and dry deposition of ozone itself. This study performs a series of experiments with a chemical transport model based on satellite observation of land types to analyze the influences of changes in land cover/land use and their impact on surface ozone concentration. Our results indicate that land cover change explains 1-2 ppbv of summertime surface ozone increase in the Western United States and 1-6 ppbv of increase in Southern China between 2001 and 2012. This is largely driven by enhanced isoprene emissions and soil NOx emissions. It is also found that land cover change itself elevates summertime surface zone in Canadian coniferous forests by up to 4 ppbv mainly through substantial decreases in ozone dry deposition associated with increased vegetation density in a warmer climate.

  18. Necessity to adapt land use and land cover classification systems to readily accept radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.

    1977-01-01

    A hierarchial, four level, standardized system for classifying land use/land cover primarily from remote-sensor data (USGS system) is described. The USGS system was developed for nonmicrowave imaging sensors such as camera systems and line scanners. The USGS system is not compatible with the land use/land cover classifications at different levels that can be made from radar imagery, and particularly from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The use of radar imagery for classifying land use/land cover at different levels is discussed, and a possible revision of the USGS system to more readily accept land use/land cover classifications from radar imagery is proposed.

  19. Land cover/land use change in semi-arid Inner Mongolia: 1992-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Ranjeet; Chen, Jiquan; Lu, Nan; Wilske, Burkhard

    2009-10-01

    The semi-arid grasslands in Inner Mongolia (IM) are under increasing stress owing to climate change and rapid socio-economic development in the recent past. We investigated changes in land cover/land use and landscape structure between 1992 and 2004 through the analysis of AVHRR and MODIS derived land cover data. The scale of analysis included the regional level (i.e. the whole of IM) as well as the level of the dominant biomes (i.e. the grassland and desert). We quantified proportional change, rate of change and the changes in class-level landscape metrics using the landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS. The dominant land cover types, grassland and barren, 0.47 and 0.27 million km2, respectively, have increased proportionally. Cropland and urban land use also increased to 0.15 million km2 and 2197 km2, respectively. However, the results further indicated increases in both the homogeneity and fragmentation of the landscape. Increasing homogeneity was mainly related to the reduction in minority cover types such as savanna, forests and permanent wetlands and increasing cohesion, aggregation index and clumpy indices. Conversely, increased fragmentation of the landscape was based on the increase in patch density and the interspersion/juxtaposition index (IJI). It is important to note the socio-economic growth in this fragile ecosystem, manifested by an increasing proportion of agricultural and urban land use not just at the regional level but also at the biome level in the context of regional climate change and increasing water stress.

  20. Agricultural land management options following large-scale environmental contamination - evaluation for Fukushima affected agricultural land

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2013-07-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils, the transfer in the food chain and the possibility of continued restricted future land use. This paper summarizes what is generally understood about the application of agricultural countermeasures as a land management option to reduce the radionuclides transfer in the food chain and to facilitate the return of potentially affected soils to agricultural practices in areas impacted by a nuclear accident. (authors)

  1. NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC): an interdisciplinary research program.

    PubMed

    Justice, Chris; Gutman, Garik; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-15

    Understanding Land Cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) in diverse regions of the world and at varied spatial scales is one of the important challenges in global change research. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the NASA LCLUC program, its focus areas, and the importance of satellite remote sensing observations in LCLUC research including future directions. The LCLUC Program was designed to be a cross-cutting theme within NASA's Earth Science program. The program aims to develop and use remote sensing technologies to improve understanding of human interactions with the environment. Since 1997, the NASA LCLUC program has supported nearly 280 research projects on diverse topics such as forest loss and carbon, urban expansion, land abandonment, wetland loss, agricultural land use change and land use change in mountain systems. The NASA LCLUC program emphasizes studies where land-use changes are rapid or where there are significant regional or global LCLUC implications. Over a period of years, the LCLUC program has contributed to large regional science programs such as Land Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the Monsoon Area Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). The primary emphasis of the program will remain on using remote sensing datasets for LCLUC research. The program will continue to emphasize integration of physical and social sciences to address regional to global scale issues of LCLUC for the benefit of society.

  2. Application of Time Series Landsat Images to Examining Land-use/Land-cover Dynamic Change

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Hetrick, Scott; Moran, Emilio; Li, Guiying

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical-based classification method was designed to develop time series land-use/land-cover datasets from Landsat images between 1977 and 2008 in Lucas do Rio Verde, Mato Grosso, Brazil. A post-classification comparison approach was used to examine land-use/land-cover change trajectories, which emphasis is on the conversions from vegetation or agropasture to impervious surface area, from vegetation to agropasture, and from agropasture to regenerating vegetation. Results of this research indicated that increase in impervious surface area mainly resulted from the loss of cerrado in the initial decade of the study period and from loss of agricultural lands in the last two decades. Increase in agropasture was mainly at the expense of losing cerrado in the first two decades and relatively evenly from the loss of primary forest and cerrado in the last decade. When impervious surface area was less than approximately 40 km2 before 1999, impervious surface area was negatively related to cerrado and forest, and positively related to agropasture areas, but after impervious surface area reached 40 km2 in 1999, no obvious relationship exists between them. PMID:25328256

  3. Integration of land use and land cover inventories for landscape management and planning in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sallustio, Lorenzo; Munafò, Michele; Riitano, Nicola; Lasserre, Bruno; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    There are both semantic and technical differences between land use (LU) and land cover (LC) measurements. In cartographic approaches, these differences are often neglected, giving rise to a hybrid classification. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding and characterization of the two classification schemes using a comparison that allows maximization of the informative power of both. The analysis was carried out in the Molise region (Central Italy) using sample information from the Italian Land Use Inventory (IUTI). The sampling points were classified with a visual interpretation of aerial photographs for both LU and LC in order to estimate surfaces and assess the changes that occurred between 2000 and 2012. The results underscore the polarization of land use and land cover changes resulting from the following: (a) recolonization of natural surfaces, (b) strong dynamisms between the LC classes in the natural and semi-natural domain and (c) urban sprawl on the lower hills and plains. Most of the observed transitions are attributable to decreases in croplands, natural grasslands and pastures, owing to agricultural abandonment. The results demonstrate that a comparison between LU and LC estimates and their changes provides an understanding of the causes of misalignment between the two criteria. Such information may be useful for planning policies in both natural and semi-natural contexts as well as in urban areas.

  4. Land use/land cover in Swisher County and Deaf Smith County locations, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Agriculture is the major land use/land cover in the Swisher and Deaf Smith County locations. Most of the agricultural land is irrigated. Furrow, center pivot, and lateral-wheel irrigation systems are in common use. Rangeland is the second most abundant land use/land cover; it is typically associated with stream valleys and playas. The rangeland supports cattle, which are an important source of income. The main urban areas in or near the locations are Tulia and Happy, in Swisher County, and Hereford and Vega, in Deaf Smith County. Most of the land within the locations is privately owned - corporate and government ownership is extremely limited - and large portions are currently under lease for oil exploration. County and regional agencies have no authority to regulate land-use patterns in the locations, although the Panhandle Regional Planning Commission can provide guidance to local jurisdictions. Land use within the corporate limits and extraterritorial jurisdictions of Tulia and Hereford is controlled by zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations. According to projections for the locations, agriculture will remain the major land use in the foreseeable future. Dryland farming and rangeland will become more prevalent as irrigation costs increase and marginal areas are taken out of production.

  5. The 1980 land cover for the Puget Sound region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, R. D.; Westerlund, F. V.; Eby, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Both LANDSAT imagery and the video information communications and retrieval software were used to develop a land cover classifiction of the Puget Sound of Washington. Planning agencies within the region were provided with a highly accurate land cover map registered to the 1980 census tracts which could subsequently be incorporated as one data layer in a multi-layer data base. Many historical activities related to previous land cover mapping studies conducted in the Puget Sound region are summarized. Valuable insight into conducting a project with a large community of users and in establishing user confidence in a multi-purpose land cover map derived from LANDSAT is provided.

  6. The Impact of Anthropogenic Land Cover Change on Continental River Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, S. M.; Ducharne, A.; Polcher, J.

    2006-12-01

    The 2003 World Water Forum highlighted a water crisis that forces over one billion people to drink contaminated water and leaves countless millions with insufficient supplies for agriculture industry. This crisis has spurred numerous recent calls for improved science and understanding of how we alter the water cycle. Here we investigate how this global water crisis is affected by human-caused land cover change. We examine the impact of the present extent of land cover change on the water cycle, in particular on evapotranspiration and streamflow, through numerical experiments with the ORCHIDEE land surface model. Using Geographic Information Systems, we characterise land cover change by assembling and modifying existing global-scale maps of land cover change. To see how the land cover change impacts river runoff streamflow, we input the maps into ORCHIDEE and run 50-year "potential vegetation" and "current land cover" simulations of the land surface and energy fluxes, forced by the 50-year NCC atmospheric forcing data set. We present global maps showing the "hotspot" areas with the largest change in ET and streamflow due to anthropogenic land cover change. The results of this project enhance scientific understanding of the nature of human impact on the global water cycle.

  7. Regional characterization of land cover using multiple sources of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, J.E.; Sohl, T.; Howard, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many organizations require accurate intermediate-scale land-cover information for many applications, including modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff, understanding spatial patterns of biodiversity, land-use planning, and policy development. While many techniques have been successfully used to classify land cover in relatively small regions, there are substantial obstacles in applying these methods to large, multiscene regions. The purpose of this study was to generate and evaluate a large region land-cover classification product using a multiple-layer land-characteristics database approach. To derive land-cover information, mosaicked Landsat thematic mapper (TM) scenes were analyzed in conjunction with digital elevation data (and derived slope, aspect, and shaded relief), population census information, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program city lights data, prior land-use and land-cover data, digital line graph data, and National Wetlands Inventory data. Both leaf-on and leaf-off TM data sets were analyzed. The study area was U.S. Federal Region III, which includes the states of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia. The general procedure involved (1) generating mosaics of multiple scenes of leaves-on TM data using histogram equalization methods; (2) clustering mosaics into 100 spectral classes using unsupervised classification; (3) interpreting and labeling spectral classes into approximately 15 land-cover categories (analogous to Anderson Level 1 and 2 classes) using aerial photographs; (4) developing decision-making rules and models using from one to several ancillary data layers to resolve confusion in spectral classes that represented two or more targeted land-cover categories; and (5) incorporating data from other sources (for example, leaf-off TM data and National Wetlands Inventory data) to yield a final land-cover product. Although standard accuracy assessments were not done, a series of consistency checks using available

  8. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  9. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  10. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  11. 43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands covered by application to close lands to...

  12. Determination of the Impact of Urbanization on Agricultural Lands using Multi-temporal Satellite Sensor Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, S.; Alganci, U.; Sertel, E.; Ustundag, B.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the history, agricultural activities have been performed close to urban areas. Main reason behind this phenomenon is the need of fast marketing of the agricultural production to urban residents and financial provision. Thus, using the areas nearby cities for agricultural activities brings out advantage of easy transportation of productions and fast marketing. For decades, heavy migration to cities has directly and negatively affected natural grasslands, forests and agricultural lands. This pressure has caused agricultural lands to be changed into urban areas. Dense urbanization causes increase in impervious surfaces, heat islands and many other problems in addition to destruction of agricultural lands. Considering the negative impacts of urbanization on agricultural lands and natural resources, a periodic monitoring of these changes becomes indisputably important. At this point, satellite images are known to be good data sources for land cover / use change monitoring with their fast data acquisition, large area coverages and temporal resolution properties. Classification of the satellite images provides thematic the land cover / use maps of the earth surface and changes can be determined with GIS based analysis multi-temporal maps. In this study, effects of heavy urbanization over agricultural lands in Istanbul, metropolitan city of Turkey, were investigated with use of multi-temporal Landsat TM satellite images acquired between 1984 and 2011. Images were geometrically registered to each other and classified using supervised maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Resulting thematic maps were exported to GIS environment and destructed agricultural lands by urbanization were determined using spatial analysis.

  13. Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. K.; Abdullah, K.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach.

  14. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, C.; Pengra, B.; Long, J.; Loveland, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m-1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (˜30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  15. USGS Historical, Current, and Projected Future Land Cover Mapping for the Northern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohl, T. L.; Gallant, A.; Sayler, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover in the Northern Great Plains has changed considerably in the last several decades. While a significant proportion of the landscape has been cultivated for over one hundred years, the intensity of cultivation, crop type, and management practices have changed in response to shifts in government policy, commodity prices, access to water, and technological advances. Changes in land cover impact a wide variety of ecosystem processes and services, including carbon balances, climate, hydrology and water quality, and biodiversity. A consistent record of historical land cover is required to understand relations between land- cover change and these ecological processes, while projections of future land cover are needed for planning and potential mitigation efforts. Several U.S. Geological Survey efforts have been completed or are ongoing in the Northern Great Plains, resulting in the compilation of an unmatched record of historical, current, and future land-cover information for the region. The USGS Land Cover Trends project is using the historical record of Landsat imagery and a robust sampling approach to examine the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change on an ecoregional basis for the conterminous United States. Results from completed Trends analyses for Great Plains ecoregions revealed changes in the proportion and distribution of grassland/shrubland and agricultural uses during the study period; Some areas exhibited considerable loss in cultivated land after initiation of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the mid 1980s. In recent years (post-2000), agricultural commodity prices have skyrocketed as food and energy compete for use of agricultural products, which in conjunction with the expiration of many CRP contracts, has led to expansion of cultivated land. In the coming decades, calls for U.S. energy independence and the development of biofuels from cellulosic stock could result in a transformation of the Great

  16. CORINE land cover and floristic variation in a Mediterranean wetland.

    PubMed

    Giallonardo, Tommaso; Landi, Marco; Frignani, Flavio; Geri, Francesco; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Angiolini, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate whether CORINE land cover classes reflect significant differences in floristic composition, using a very detailed CORINE land cover map (scale 1:5000); (2) decompose the relationships between floristic assemblages and three groups of explanatory variables (CORINE land cover classes, environmental characteristics and spatial structure) into unique and interactive components. Stratified sampling was used to select a set of 100-m(2) plots in each land cover class identified in the semi-natural wetland surrounding a lake in central Italy. The following six classes were considered: stable meadows, deciduous oak dominated woods, hygrophilous broadleaf dominated woods, heaths and shrublands, inland swamps, canals or watercourses. The relationship between land cover classes and floristic composition was tested using several statistical techniques in order to determine whether the results remained consistent with different procedures. The variation partitioning approach was applied to identify the relative importance of three groups of explanatory variables in relation to floristic variation. The most important predictor was land cover, which explained 20.7% of the variation in plant distribution, although the hypothesis that each land cover class could be associated with a particular floristic pattern was not verified. Multi Response Permutation Analysis did not indicate a strong floristic separability between land cover classes and only 9.5% of species showed a significant indicator value for a specific land cover class. We suggest that land cover classes linked with hygrophilous and herbaceous communities in a wetland may have floristic patterns that vary with fine scale and are not compatible with a land cover map.

  17. Stormwater runoff quality in correlation to land use and land cover development in Yongin, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Paule, M A; Memon, S A; Lee, B-Y; Umer, S R; Lee, C-H

    2014-01-01

    Stormwater runoff quality is sensitive to land use and land cover (LULC) change. It is difficult to understand their relationship in predicting the pollution potential and developing watershed management practices to eliminate or reduce the pollution risk. In this study, the relationship between LULC change and stormwater runoff quality in two separate monitoring sites comprising a construction area (Site 1) and mixed land use (Site 2) was analyzed using geographic information system (GIS), event mean concentration (EMC), and correlation analysis. It was detected that bare land area increased, while other land use areas such as agriculture, commercial, forest, grassland, parking lot, residential, and road reduced. Based on the analyses performed, high maximum range and average EMCs were found in Site 2 for most of the water pollutants. Also, urban areas and increased conversion of LULC into bare land corresponded to degradation of stormwater quality. Correlation analysis between LULC and stormwater quality showed the influence of different factors such as farming practices, geographical location, and amount of precipitation, vegetation loss, and anthropogenic activities in monitoring sites. This research found that GIS application was an efficient tool for monthly monitoring, validation and statistical analysis of LULC change in the study area.

  18. Land-cover change in the Gulf Coastal Plains and Ozarks Landscape Conservation Cooperative, 1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, Mark A.; Stier, Michael P.; Coffin, Alisa W.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes baseline land-cover change information for four time intervals from between 1973 and 2000 for the Gulf Coastal Plains and Ozarks Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC). The study used sample data from the USGS Land Cover Trends dataset to develop estimates of change for 10 land-cover classes in the LCC. The results show that an estimated 17.7 percent of the LCC land cover had a change during the 27-year period. Cyclic forest dynamics—of timber harvest and regrowth—are the most extensive types of land conversion. Agricultural land had an estimated net decline of 3.5 percent as cropland and pasture were urbanized and developed and converted to forest use. Urban and other developed land covers expanded from 2.0 percent of the LCC in 1973 to 3.1 percent in 2000. The report also highlights causes and challenges of land-cover change.

  19. Recent land-use/land-cover change in the Central California Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Wilson, Tamara S.

    2013-01-01

    Open access to Landsat satellite data has enabled annual analyses of modern land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) for the Central California Valley ecoregion between 2005 and 2010. Our annual LULCC estimates capture landscape-level responses to water policy changes, climate, and economic instability. From 2005 to 2010, agriculture in the region fluctuated along with regulatory-driven changes in water allocation as well as persistent drought conditions. Grasslands and shrublands declined, while developed lands increased in former agricultural and grassland/shrublands. Development rates stagnated in 2007, coinciding with the onset of the historic foreclosure crisis in California and the global economic downturn. We utilized annual LULCC estimates to generate interval-based LULCC estimates (2000–2005 and 2005–2010) and extend existing 27 year interval-based land change monitoring through 2010. Resulting change data provides insights into the drivers of landscape change in the Central California Valley ecoregion and represents the first, continuous, 37 year mapping effort of its kind.

  20. Hydrologic and land-cover features of the Loxahatchee River Basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; Sabanska, Maryann

    1980-01-01

    Historically the Loxahatchee River basin covered about 270 square miles in southeast Florida. Today the basin covers about 210 square miles and is defined by both topography, manmade features, and water-management policies. About 50% of the basin is wetlands. Urban and agricultural lands cover 17 and 18% of the basin, respectively. Soils are predominantly sandy and poorly drained. Water drains into the estuary, a shallow water body of about 2 square miles. (USGS)

  1. The Effect of No Agricultural Productivity Growth on Future Land Use and Climate through Biogeophysical Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Jones, C.

    2012-12-01

    Future land use and the consequent land cover change will have a significant impact on future climate through biogeophysical (albedo, surface roughness and latent heat transfer, etc.) as well as biogeochemical (greenhouse gas emissions etc.) mechanisms. One of the major determinants of the extent of land use induced land cover change is the agricultural productivity growth within the socio-economic models used for developing the RCP scenarios. There are considerable uncertainties in the size of agricultural productivity under climate change, as yields are projected to vary spatially in signal and strength. Previous climate modeling work has considered the impacts to the carbon cycle of different levels of agricultural productivity growth, but has failed to consider the biogeophysical effects of the land use induced land cover change on climate. Here we examine the climate impacts of the assumption of agricultural productivity growth and business as usual land use. The effects are considered through the biogeophysical land use induced land cover change, using the Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM2. The model simulations use the set biogeochemical climate forcing of the RCP 4.5 scenario, but the biogeophysical land use change specification is altered over a 100 year simulation. Simulations are run with combinations of no land use change; standard RCP 4.5 land use change; business as usual land use change; and zero agricultural productivity growth. The key effect of no agricultural productivity growth is that more cropland is required to feed the same population, necessitating cropland expansion. The expansion of cropland and consequent deforestation increases the albedo and gives an extensive cooling effect in the northern hemisphere (up to 2°C). Differences in global mean temperature between the zero agricultural productivity growth with business as usual land use change specified run and the standard RCP 4.5 run are -0.2°C by 2040 and -0.7°C by 2100. There is

  2. EVALUATING ECOREGIONS FOR SAMPLING AND MAPPING LAND-COVER PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecoregional stratification has been proposed for sampling and mapping land- cover composition and pattern over time. Using a wall-to-wall land-cover map of the United States, we evaluated geographic scales of variance for 17 landscape pattern indices, and compared stratification ...

  3. Estimating Landscape Pattern Metrics from a Sample of Land Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although landscape pattern metrics can be computed directly from wall-to-wall land-cover maps, statistical sampling offers a practical alternative when complete coverage land-cover information is unavailable. Partitioning a region into spatial units (“blocks”) to create a samplin...

  4. Satellite images for land cover monitoring - Navigating through the maze

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Künzer, Claudia; Fosnight, Gene

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this publication is satellite systems for land cover monitoring. On the reverse is a table that compares a selection of these systems, whose data are globally available in a form suitable for land cover analysis. We hope the information presented will help you assess the utility of remotely sensed image to meet your needs.

  5. Seasonal land-cover regions of the US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Merchant, James W.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Reed, Bradley C.; Olson, Paul; Hutchinson, John

    1995-01-01

    Global-change investigations have been hindered by deficiencies in the availability and quality of land-cover data. The US Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln have collaborated on the development of a new approach to land-cover characterization that attempts to address requirements of the global-change research community and others interested in regional patterns of land cover. An experimental 1-km-resolution database of land-cover characteristics for the coterminous US has been prepared to test and evaluate the approach. Using multidate Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data complemented by elevation, climate, ecoregions, and other digital spatial datasets, the authors define 15?? seasonal land-cover regions. Data are used in the construction of an illustrative 1:7500 000-scale map of the seasonal land-cover regions as well as of smaller-scale maps portraying general land cover and seasonality. The seasonal land-cover characteristics database can also be tailored to provide a broad range of other landscape parameters useful in national and global-scale environmental modeling and assessment. -from Authors

  6. Land cover as an important factor for landslide risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promper, C.; Glade, T.; Puissant, A.; Malet, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Landcover change is a crucial component of hazard and vulnerability in terms of quantification of possible future landslide risk, and the importance for spatial planners but also individuals is obvious. Damage of property, losses of agricultural land, loss of production but also damaged infrastructures and fatalities may be the result of landslide hazards. To avoid these economic damages as well as possible fatalities in the future, a method of assessing spatial but also temporal patterns of landslides is necessary. This study represents results of landcover modeling as a first step to the proposition of scenario of landslide risk for the future. The method used for future land cover analysis is the CLUE modeling framework combining past and actual observed landcover conditions. The model is based on a statistical relationship between the actual land cover and driving forces. The allocation of landcover pixel is modified by possible autonomous developments and competition between land use types. (Verburg et al. 1999) The study area is located in a district in the alpine foreland of Lower Austria: Waidhofen/Ybbs, of about 130km2. The topography is characterized by narrow valleys, flat plateau and steep slopes. The landcover is characterized by region of densely populated areas in the valley bottom along the Ybbs River, and a series of separated farm houses on the top of the plateau. Population density is about 90 persons / km2 which represent the observed population density of Austria. The initial landcover includes forest, grassland, culture, built-up areas and individual farms. Most of the observed developments are controlled by the topography (along the valleys) and the actual road network. The results of the landcover model show different scenarios of changes in the landslide prone landcover types. These maps will be implemented into hazard analysis but also into vulnerability assessment regarding elements at risk. Verburg, P.H., de Koning, G.H.J., Kok, K

  7. Improving Land Cover Product-Based Estimates of the Extent of Fragmented Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The effects of changing land use/land cover on regional and global climate ecosystems depends on accurate estimates of the extent of critical land cover types such as Arctic wetlands and fire scars in boreal forests. To address this information requirement, land cover products at coarse spatial resolution such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) -based maps and the MODIS Land Cover Product are being produced. The accuracy of the extent of highly fragmented cover types such as fire scars and ponds is in doubt because much (the numerous scars and ponds smaller than the pixel size) is missed. A promising method for improving areal estimates involves modeling the observed distribution of the fragment sizes as a type of truncated distribution, then estimating the sum of unobserved sizes in the lower, truncated tail and adding it to the sum of observed fragment sizes. The method has been tested with both simulated and actual cover products.

  8. Land cover classification for Puget Sound, 1974-1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eby, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Digital analysis of LANDSAT data for land cover classification projects in the Puget Sound region is surveyed. Two early rural and urban land use classifications and their application are described. After acquisition of VICAR/IBIs software, another land use classification of the area was performed, and is described in more detail. Future applications are considered.

  9. Application of remote sensing data to land use and land cover assessment in the Tubarao River coastal plain, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    By means of aerial photography and MSS-LANDSAT data a land use/land cover classification was applied to the Tubarao River coastal plain. The following classes were identified: coal related areas, permanently flooded wetlands, periodically flooded wetlands, agricultural lands, bare soils, water bodies, urban areas, forestlands.

  10. Cost, drivers and action against land degradation through land use and cover change in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Alexey; Strokov, Anton; Johnson, Timothy; Mirzabaev, Alisher

    2016-04-01

    The natural conditions and socio-economic factors determine the structure and the principles of land use in Russia. The increasing degradation of land resources in many parts of Russia manifested in numerous forms such as desertification, soil erosion, secondary salinization, water-logging and overgrazing. The major drivers of degradation include: climatic change, unsustainable agricultural practices, industrial and mining activities, expansion of crop production to fragile and marginal areas, inadequate maintenance of irrigation and drainage networks. Several methods for estimating Total Economic Value of land-use and land-cover change were used: 1) the cost of production per hectare (only provisional services were included); 2) the value of ecosystem services provided by Costanza et al, 1997; 3) coefficients of basic transfer and contingent approaches based on Tianhong et al, 2008 and Xie et al, 2003, who interviewed 200 ecologists to give a value of ecosystem services of different land types in China; 4) coefficients on a basic transfer and contingent approaches based on author's interview of 20 experts in Lomonosov Moscow State University. In general, the estimation of the prices for action and inaction in addressing the degradation and improvement of the land resources on a national scale (the Federal districts) with an emphasis on the period of economic reforms from 1990-2009 in Russia, where the area of arable lands decreased by 25% showed that the total land use/cover dynamic changes are about 130 mln ha, and the total annual costs of land degradation due to land-use change only, are about 189 bln USD in 2009 as compared with 2001, e.g. about 23.6 bln USD annually, or about 2% of Russia's Gross Domestic Product in 2010. The costs of action against land degradation are lower than the costs of inaction in Russia by 5-6 times over the 30 year horizon. Almost 92% of the costs of action are made up of the opportunity costs of action. The study was performed with

  11. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  12. Regional Climate Change Impact on Agricultural Land Use in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, K. F.; Wang, G.; You, L.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is a key element of the human-induced land use land cover change (LULCC) that is influenced by climate and can potentially influence regional climate. Temperature and precipitation directly impact the crop yield (by controlling photosynthesis, respiration and other physiological processes) that then affects agricultural land use pattern. In feedback, the resulting changes in land use and land cover play an important role to determine the direction and magnitude of global, regional and local climate change by altering Earth's radiative equilibrium. The assessment of future agricultural land use is, therefore, of great importance in climate change study. In this study, we develop a prototype land use projection model and, using this model, project the changes to land use pattern and future land cover map accounting for climate-induced yield changes for major crops in West Africa. Among the inputs to the land use projection model are crop yield changes simulated by the crop model DSSAT, driven with the climate forcing data from the regional climate model RegCM4.3.4-CLM4.5, which features a projected decrease of future mean crop yield and increase of inter-annual variability. Another input to the land use projection model is the projected changes of food demand in the future. In a so-called "dumb-farmer scenario" without any adaptation, the combined effect of decrease in crop yield and increase in food demand will lead to a significant increase in agricultural land use in future years accompanied by a decrease in forest and grass area. Human adaptation through land use optimization in an effort to minimize agricultural expansion is found to have little impact on the overall areas of agricultural land use. While the choice of the General Circulation Model (GCM) to derive initial and boundary conditions for the regional climate model can be a source of uncertainty in projecting the future LULCC, results from sensitivity experiments indicate that the changes

  13. Long-term changes in Serengeti-Mara wildebeest and land cover: pastoralism, population, or policies?

    PubMed

    Homewood, K; Lambin, E F; Coast, E; Kariuki, A; Kikula, I; Kivelia, J; Said, M; Serneels, S; Thompson, M

    2001-10-23

    Declines in habitat and wildlife in semiarid African savannas are widely reported and commonly attributed to agropastoral population growth, livestock impacts, and subsistence cultivation. However, extreme annual and shorter-term variability of rainfall, primary production, vegetation, and populations of grazers make directional trends and causal chains hard to establish in these ecosystems. Here two decades of changes in land cover and wildebeest in the Serengeti-Mara region of East Africa are analyzed in terms of potential drivers (rainfall, human and livestock population growth, socio-economic trends, land tenure, agricultural policies, and markets). The natural experiment research design controls for confounding variables, and our conceptual model and statistical approach integrate natural and social sciences data. The Kenyan part of the ecosystem shows rapid land-cover change and drastic decline for a wide range of wildlife species, but these changes are absent on the Tanzanian side. Temporal climate trends, human population density and growth rates, uptake of small-holder agriculture, and livestock population trends do not differ between the Kenyan and Tanzanian parts of the ecosystem and cannot account for observed changes. Differences in private versus state/communal land tenure, agricultural policy, and market conditions suggest, and spatial correlations confirm, that the major changes in land cover and dominant grazer species numbers are driven primarily by private landowners responding to market opportunities for mechanized agriculture, less by agropastoral population growth, cattle numbers, or small-holder land use.

  14. Long-term changes in Serengeti-Mara wildebeest and land cover: Pastoralism, population, or policies?

    PubMed Central

    Homewood, K.; Lambin, E. F.; Coast, E.; Kariuki, A.; Kikula, I.; Kivelia, J.; Said, M.; Serneels, S.; Thompson, M.

    2001-01-01

    Declines in habitat and wildlife in semiarid African savannas are widely reported and commonly attributed to agropastoral population growth, livestock impacts, and subsistence cultivation. However, extreme annual and shorter-term variability of rainfall, primary production, vegetation, and populations of grazers make directional trends and causal chains hard to establish in these ecosystems. Here two decades of changes in land cover and wildebeest in the Serengeti-Mara region of East Africa are analyzed in terms of potential drivers (rainfall, human and livestock population growth, socio-economic trends, land tenure, agricultural policies, and markets). The natural experiment research design controls for confounding variables, and our conceptual model and statistical approach integrate natural and social sciences data. The Kenyan part of the ecosystem shows rapid land-cover change and drastic decline for a wide range of wildlife species, but these changes are absent on the Tanzanian side. Temporal climate trends, human population density and growth rates, uptake of small-holder agriculture, and livestock population trends do not differ between the Kenyan and Tanzanian parts of the ecosystem and cannot account for observed changes. Differences in private versus state/communal land tenure, agricultural policy, and market conditions suggest, and spatial correlations confirm, that the major changes in land cover and dominant grazer species numbers are driven primarily by private landowners responding to market opportunities for mechanized agriculture, less by agropastoral population growth, cattle numbers, or small-holder land use. PMID:11675492

  15. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Findell, K.L.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P.C.D.; Stouffer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, eastern China, and the eastern United States. Smaller areas of change are present in various tropical regions. This study focuses on the impacts of biophysical changes associated with the land cover change (albedo, root and stomatal properties, roughness length), which is almost exclusively a conversion from forest to grassland in the model; the effects of irrigation or other water management practices and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes associated with land cover conversion are not included in these experiments. The model suggests that observed land cover changes have little or no impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2-m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in a simulation with 1990 land cover compared to a simulation with potential natural vegetation cover). Differences in the annual mean climatic fields analyzed did not exhibit global field significance. Within some of the regions of land cover change, however, there are relatively large changes of many surface climatic variables. These changes are highly significant locally in the annual mean and in most months of the year in eastern Europe and northern India. They can be explained mainly as direct and indirect consequences of model-prescribed increases in surface albedo, decreases in rooting depth, and changes of stomatal control that accompany deforestation. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  16. Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) Change Detection in Islamabad and its Comparison with Capital Development Authority (CDA) 2006 Master Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasaan, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    Remote sensing is very useful for the production of land use and land cover statistics which can be beneficial to determine the distribution of land uses. Using remote sensing techniques to develop land use classification mapping is a convenient and detailed way to improve the selection of areas designed to agricultural, urban and/or industrial areas of a region. In Islamabad city and surrounding the land use has been changing, every day new developments (urban, industrial, commercial and agricultural) are emerging leading to decrease in vegetation cover. The purpose of this work was to develop the land use of Islamabad and its surrounding area that is an important natural resource. For this work the eCognition Developer 64 computer software was used to develop a land use classification using SPOT 5 image of year 2012. For image processing object-based classification technique was used and important land use features i.e. Vegetation cover, barren land, impervious surface, built up area and water bodies were extracted on the basis of object variation and compared the results with the CDA Master Plan. The great increase was found in built-up area and impervious surface area. On the other hand vegetation cover and barren area followed a declining trend. Accuracy assessment of classification yielded 92% accuracies of the final land cover land use maps. In addition these improved land cover/land use maps which are produced by remote sensing technique of class definition, meet the growing need of legend standardization.

  17. Pre- and Post-Columbian Land Cover Changes and Associated Climate Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. I.; Puma, M. J.; Kaplan, J. O.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Central America experienced extensive expansion of agricultural land during development of the major Central American societies, followed by widespread abandonment and regrowth of natural vegetation after the European conquest. Here we use a high resolution climate model, in combination with a new land cover reconstruction, to investigate the impact of pre- (1490 C.E.) and post- (1650 C.E.) Columbian land cover change on climate in this region. Pre-Columbian land cover causes significant precipitation reductions over coastal Mexico, the Yucatan, and southern Mexico during the wet season, as replacement of forests with agricultural land reduces evapotranspiration fluxes to the atmosphere. Conversely, precipitation over the Yucatan increases during the dry season, as increased surface warming moves additional moisture into this region from the surrounding oceans. With the post-Columbian period, during which major population declines led to large scale agricultural abandonment, the forest recovery results in a partial, though not complete, return to wetter conditions. Our study finds support for previous work speculating that land cover change associated with the Mayan civilizations may have amplified major droughts in the region, and points to the possibility of a direct biogeophysical response to the forest recovery following the arrival of Europeans.

  18. Reconstructing a century of agricultural land use and drivers of change from social and environmental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, Heather; Smith, Hugh; Riley, Mark; Sellami, Haykel; Chiverrell, Richard; Boyle, John

    2016-04-01

    Changes to agricultural land use practices and climate represent serious challenges to the future management of rural landscapes. In Britain, the modern rural landscape may seem comparatively stable relative to the long history of human impact. However, there have been important changes linked to the intensification of agricultural practices during the last ca. 100 years and more recently improvements in land management designed to reduce impacts on land and water resources. Few studies attempt high-resolution spatial reconstruction of historic land use change, which is essential for understanding such human-environment interactions in the recent past. Specifically, the absence of detailed spatio-temporal records of agricultural land use/land cover change at the catchment-scale presents a challenge in assessing recent developments in land use policies and management. Here, we generate a high-resolution time-series of historic land use at the catchment-scale for hydrological modelling applications. Our reconstructions focus on three catchments in England ((1) Brotherswater (NE Lake District); (2) Crose Mere (Shropshire); (3) Loweswater (NW Lake District)) spanning a range of agricultural environments subject to different levels of land use change; from intensively-farmed lowlands to upland catchments subject to lower-intensity grazing. Temporal reconstructions of changes in land management practices and vegetation cover are based on historic aerial photography (1940s-2000s) and satellite-derived land cover maps (1990, 2000, and 2007), in combination with annual records of parish-level agricultural census data (1890s-1970s) and farmer interviews, in order to produce an integrated series of digital land cover and land practice maps. The datasets are coupled with composite temperature and precipitation series produced from a number of local stations. Combined, these spatio-temporal datasets allow a comprehensive assessment of land use and management change against the

  19. Combined analysis of land cover change and NDVI trends in the Northern Eurasian grain belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Christopher K.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2012-06-01

    We present an approach to regional environmental monitoring in the Northern Eurasian grain belt combining time series analysis of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data over the period 2001-2008 and land cover change (LCC) analysis of the 2001 and 2008 MODIS Global Land Cover product (MCD12Q1). NDVI trends were overwhelmingly negative across the grain belt with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) positive trends covering only 1% of the land surface. LCC was dominated by transitions between three classes; cropland, grassland, and a mixed cropland/natural vegetation mosaic. Combining our analyses of NDVI trends and LCC, we found a pattern of agricultural abandonment (cropland to grassland) in the southern range of the grain belt coinciding with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) negative NDVI trends and likely driven by regional drought. In the northern range of the grain belt we found an opposite tendency toward agricultural intensification; in this case, represented by LCC from cropland mosaic to pure cropland, and also associated with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) negative NDVI trends. Relatively small clusters of statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) positive NDVI trends corresponding with both localized land abandonment and localized agricultural intensification show that land use decision making is not uniform across the region. Land surface change in the Northern Eurasian grain belt is part of a larger pattern of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in Eastern Europe, Russia, and former territories of the Soviet Union following realignment of socialist land tenure and agricultural markets. Here, we show that a combined analysis of LCC and NDVI trends provides a more complete picture of the complexities of LCLUC in the Northern Eurasian grain belt, involving both broader climatic forcing, and narrower anthropogenic impacts, than might be obtained from either analysis alone.

  20. National Land Cover and Resource Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, A. B.; Bjørkelo, K.

    2012-08-01

    An overall societal aim is to ensure a sustainable use and management of a country's land resources. This requires continuous deliv-ery of reliable and up-to-date information to decision-makers. To be able to deliver this information the Norwegian Forest and Land-scape Institute (Skog og landskap) produces, among others, land resource statistics for all municipalities in Norway. The statistics are also produced on a county level and for the whole country. The acreage numbers are retrieved from a combination of different na-tional datasets in various scales together with interpretation of satellite images. Through a reclassification, statistics are calculated for certain land resource classes like arable land, pasture, forest based on productivity class, fresh water, snow and glacier, mountain-ous/scarcely vegetated area and built up area. Skog og landskap has for the last couple of years been using open source software. The whole statistics production line is carried out by the means of such software. The results are stored in XML-files that are published on the internet. The production requires processing of several databases with national coverage, and needs to handle geometric opera-tions efficiently and without error. The open software solution is reliable, stable and fast.

  1. Updating the 2001 National Land Cover Database land cover classification to 2006 by using Landsat imagery change detection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.; Fry, J.

    2009-01-01

    The recent release of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001, which represents the nation's land cover status based on a nominal date of 2001, is widely used as a baseline for national land cover conditions. To enable the updating of this land cover information in a consistent and continuous manner, a prototype method was developed to update land cover by an individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season in 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, land cover classifications at the full NLCD resolution for 2006 areas of change were completed by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain several metropolitan areas including Seattle, Washington; San Diego, California; Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Jackson, Mississippi; and Manchester, New Hampshire. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of land cover change was captured and updated with overall land cover classification accuracies of 78.32%, 87.5%, 88.57%, 78.36%, and 83.33% for these areas. The method optimizes mapping efficiency and has the potential to provide users a flexible method to generate updated land cover at national and regional scales by using NLCD 2001 as the baseline. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  2. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Land Cover by Block Group

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of each block group that is classified as impervious, forest, green space, wetland, and agriculture. Impervious is a combination of dark and light impervious. Forest is combination of trees and forest and woody wetlands. Green space is a combination of trees and forest, grass and herbaceous, agriculture, woody wetlands, and emergent wetlands. Wetlands includes both Woody and Emergent Wetlands. This dataset also includes the area per capita for each block group for impervious, forest, and green space land cover. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  3. Land Cover Classification Method Oriented to Geographic National Conditions Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.

    2014-04-01

    Developing the project of geographic national conditions investigation is in order to obtain land cover change information which is caused by natural and human social and economic activities, and serve the information for government, enterprise and public. Land cover is an important method to describe the geographic national conditions information, which can truly reflect the land surface material type and its natural attribute. It has been contained in the content system preliminary scheme as an important portion. In this paper, it discusses and analyzes on the method and key technology, with according to the land cover content that geographic national conditions watches on. Then it evaluates the applicability of automatic classification method using in land cover information extraction, and comprehensively analyzes various extraction methods' maximum effectiveness. Finally, it proposes a method that is based on high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery and can be used in engineering applications, which provides a reference method for geographic national conditions investigation.

  4. Land use/land cover change and implications for ecosystems services in the Likangala River Catchment, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullanikkatil, Deepa; Palamuleni, Lobina G.; Ruhiiga, Tabukeli M.

    2016-06-01

    Likangala River catchment in Zomba District of Southern Malawi is important for water resources, agriculture and provides many ecosystem services. Provisioning ecosystem services accrued by the populations within the catchment include water, fish, medicinal plants and timber among others. In spite of its importance, the River catchment is under threat from anthropogenic activities and land use change. This paper studies land uses and land cover change in the catchment and how the changes have impacted on the ecosystem services. Landsat 5 and 8 images (1984, 1994, 2005 and 2013) were used to map land cover change and subsequent inventorying of provisioning ecosystem services. Participatory Geographic Information Systems and Focus group discussions were conducted to identify provisioning ecosystems services that communities benefit from the catchment and indicate these on the map. Post classification comparisons indicate that since 1984, there has been a decline in woodlands from 135.3 km2 in 1984 to 15.5 km2 in 2013 while urban areas increased from 9.8 km2 to 23.8 km2 in 2013. Communities indicated that provisioning ecosystems services such as forest products, wild animals and fruits and medicinal plants have been declining over the years. In addition, evidence of catchment degradation through waste disposal, illegal sand mining, deforestation and farming on marginal lands were observed. Population growth, urbanization and demand for agricultural lands have contributed to this land use and land cover change. The study suggests addressing catchment degradation through integrated method where an ecosystems approach is used. Thus, both the proximate and underlying driving factors of land-use and land cover change need to be addressed in order to sustainably reduce ecosystem degradation.

  5. MODIS land cover uncertainty in regional climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue; Messina, Joseph P.; Moore, Nathan J.; Fan, Peilei; Shortridge, Ashton M.

    2017-02-01

    MODIS land cover datasets are used extensively across the climate modeling community, but inherent uncertainties and associated propagating impacts are rarely discussed. This paper modeled uncertainties embedded within the annual MODIS Land Cover Type (MCD12Q1) products and propagated these uncertainties through the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). First, land cover uncertainties were modeled using pixel-based trajectory analyses from a time series of MCD12Q1 for Urumqi, China. Second, alternative land cover maps were produced based on these categorical uncertainties and passed into RAMS. Finally, simulations from RAMS were analyzed temporally and spatially to reveal impacts. Our study found that MCD12Q1 struggles to discriminate between grasslands and croplands or grasslands and barren in this study area. Such categorical uncertainties have significant impacts on regional climate model outputs. All climate variables examined demonstrated impact across the various regions, with latent heat flux affected most with a magnitude of 4.32 W/m2 in domain average. Impacted areas were spatially connected to locations of greater land cover uncertainty. Both biophysical characteristics and soil moisture settings in regard to land cover types contribute to the variations among simulations. These results indicate that formal land cover uncertainty analysis should be included in MCD12Q1-fed climate modeling as a routine procedure.

  6. Assessment of land use and land cover change using spatiotemporal analysis of landscape: case study in south of Tehran.

    PubMed

    Sabr, Abutaleb; Moeinaddini, Mazaher; Azarnivand, Hossein; Guinot, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    In the recent years, dust storms originating from local abandoned agricultural lands have increasingly impacted Tehran and Karaj air quality. Designing and implementing mitigation plans are necessary to study land use/land cover change (LUCC). Land use/cover classification is particularly relevant in arid areas. This study aimed to map land use/cover by pixel- and object-based image classification methods, analyse landscape fragmentation and determine the effects of two different classification methods on landscape metrics. The same sets of ground data were used for both classification methods. Because accuracy of classification plays a key role in better understanding LUCC, both methods were employed. Land use/cover maps of the southwest area of Tehran city for the years 1985, 2000 and 2014 were obtained from Landsat digital images and classified into three categories: built-up, agricultural and barren lands. The results of our LUCC analysis showed that the most important changes in built-up agricultural land categories were observed in zone B (Shahriar, Robat Karim and Eslamshahr) between 1985 and 2014. The landscape metrics obtained for all categories pictured high landscape fragmentation in the study area. Despite no significant difference was evidenced between the two classification methods, the object-based classification led to an overall higher accuracy than using the pixel-based classification. In particular, the accuracy of the built-up category showed a marked increase. In addition, both methods showed similar trends in fragmentation metrics. One of the reasons is that the object-based classification is able to identify buildings, impervious surface and roads in dense urban areas, which produced more accurate maps.

  7. Land cover mapping in Latvia using hyperspectral airborne and simulated Sentinel-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Filipovs, Jevgenijs; Brauns, Agris; Taskovs, Juris; Erins, Gatis

    2016-08-01

    Land cover mapping in Latvia is performed as part of the Corine Land Cover (CLC) initiative every six years. The advantage of CLC is the creation of a standardized nomenclature and mapping protocol comparable across all European countries, thereby making it a valuable information source at the European level. However, low spatial resolution and accuracy, infrequent updates and expensive manual production has limited its use at the national level. As of now, there is no remote sensing based high resolution land cover and land use services designed specifically for Latvia which would account for the country's natural and land use specifics and end-user interests. The European Space Agency launched the Sentinel-2 satellite in 2015 aiming to provide continuity of free high resolution multispectral satellite data thereby presenting an opportunity to develop and adapted land cover and land use algorithm which accounts for national enduser needs. In this study, land cover mapping scheme according to national end-user needs was developed and tested in two pilot territories (Cesis and Burtnieki). Hyperspectral airborne data covering spectral range 400-2500 nm was acquired in summer 2015 using Airborne Surveillance and Environmental Monitoring System (ARSENAL). The gathered data was tested for land cover classification of seven general classes (urban/artificial, bare, forest, shrubland, agricultural/grassland, wetlands, water) and sub-classes specific for Latvia as well as simulation of Sentinel-2 satellite data. Hyperspectral data sets consist of 122 spectral bands in visible to near infrared spectral range (356-950 nm) and 100 bands in short wave infrared (950-2500 nm). Classification of land cover was tested separately for each sensor data and fused cross-sensor data. The best overall classification accuracy 84.2% and satisfactory classification accuracy (more than 80%) for 9 of 13 classes was obtained using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with 109 band

  8. Polarization in the land distribution, land use and land cover change in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    D'ANTONA, Alvaro; VANWEY, Leah; LUDEWIGS, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present Polarization of Agrarian Structure as a single, more complete representation than models emphasizing rural exodus and consolidation of land into large agropastoral enterprises of the dynamics of changing land distribution, land use / cover, and thus the rural milieu of Amazonia. Data were collected in 2003 using social surveys on a sample of 587 lots randomly selected from among 5,086 lots on a cadastral map produced in the 1970s. Georeferencing of current property boundaries in the location of these previously demarcated lots allows us to relate sociodemographic and biophysical variables of the surveyed properties to the changes in boundaries that have occurred since the 1970s. As have other authors in other Amazonian regions, we found concentration of land ownership into larger properties. The approach we took, however, showed that changes in the distribution of land ownership is not limited to the appearance of larger properties, those with 200 ha or more; there also exists substantial division of earlier lots into properties with fewer than five hectares, many without any agropastoral use. These two trends are juxtaposed against the decline in establishments with between five and 200 ha. The variation across groups in land use / land cover and population distribution shows the necessity of developing conceptual models, whether from socioeconomic, demographic or environmental perspectives, look beyond a single group of people or properties. PMID:24639597

  9. Monthly fractional green vegetation cover associated with land cover classes of the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Tarpley, Dan; Mitchell, Ken; Csiszar, Ivan; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Reed, Bradley C.

    2001-01-01

    The land cover classes developed under the coordination of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) have been analyzed for a study area that includes the Conterminous United States and portions of Mexico and Canada. The 1-km resolution data have been analyzed to produce a gridded data set that includes within each 20-km grid cell: 1) the three most dominant land cover classes, 2) the fractional area associated with each of the three dominant classes, and 3) the fractional area covered by water. Additionally, the monthly fraction of green vegetation cover (fgreen) associated with each of the three dominant land cover classes per grid cell was derived from a 5-year climatology of 1-km resolution NOAA-AVHRR data. The variables derived in this study provide a potential improvement over the use of monthly fgreen linked to a single land cover class per model grid cell.

  10. Spatially explicit land-use and land-cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Bouchard, Michelle A.; Reker, Ryan R.; Bennett, Stacie L.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Kanengieter, Ronald L.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    The Great Plains of the United States has undergone extensive land-use and land-cover change in the past 150 years, with much of the once vast native grasslands and wetlands converted to agricultural crops, and much of the unbroken prairie now heavily grazed. Future land-use change in the region could have dramatic impacts on ecological resources and processes. A scenario-based modeling framework is needed to support the analysis of potential land-use change in an uncertain future, and to mitigate potentially negative future impacts on ecosystem processes. We developed a scenario-based modeling framework to analyze potential future land-use change in the Great Plains. A unique scenario construction process, using an integrated modeling framework, historical data, workshops, and expert knowledge, was used to develop quantitative demand for future land-use change for four IPCC scenarios at the ecoregion level. The FORE-SCE model ingested the scenario information and produced spatially explicit land-use maps for the region at relatively fine spatial and thematic resolutions. Spatial modeling of the four scenarios provided spatial patterns of land-use change consistent with underlying assumptions and processes associated with each scenario. Economically oriented scenarios were characterized by significant loss of natural land covers and expansion of agricultural and urban land uses. Environmentally oriented scenarios experienced modest declines in natural land covers to slight increases. Model results were assessed for quantity and allocation disagreement between each scenario pair. In conjunction with the U.S. Geological Survey's Biological Carbon Sequestration project, the scenario-based modeling framework used for the Great Plains is now being applied to the entire United States.

  11. A supervised land cover classification of a western Kenya lowland endemic for human malaria: associations of land cover with larval Anopheles habitats

    PubMed Central

    Mutuku, FM; Bayoh, MN; Hightower, AW; Vulule, JM; Gimnig, JE; Mueke, JM; Amimo, FA; Walker, ED

    2009-01-01

    Background A supervised land cover classification was developed from very high resolution IKONOS satellite data and extensive ground truth sampling of a ca. 10 sq km malaria-endemic lowland in western Kenya. The classification was then applied to an investigation of distribution of larval Anopheles habitats. The hypothesis was that the distribution and abundance of aquatic habitats of larvae of various species of mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles is associated with identifiable landscape features. Results and discussion The classification resulted in 7 distinguishable land cover types, each with a distinguishable vegetation pattern, was highly accurate (89%, Kappa statistic = 0.86), and had a low rate of omission and commission errors. A total of 1,198 habitats and 19,776 Anopheles larvae of 9 species were quantified in samples from a rainy season, and 184 habitats and 582 larvae from a dry season. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the dominant species complex (51% of total) and A. arabiensis the dominant species. Agricultural land covers (mature maize fields, newly cultivated fields, and pastured grasslands) were positively associated with presence of larval habitats, and were located relatively close to stream channels; whilst nonagricultural land covers (short shrubs, medium shrubs, tall shrubs, and bare soil around residences) were negatively associated with presence of larval habitats and were more distant from stream channels. Number of larval habitats declined exponentially with distance from streams. IKONOS imagery was not useful in direct detection of larval habitats because they were small and turbid (resembling bare soil), but was useful in localization of them through statistical associations with specific land covers. Conclusion A supervised classification of land cover types in rural, lowland, western Kenya revealed a largely human-modified and fragmented landscape consisting of agricultural and domestic land uses. Within it, larval habitats of Anopheles

  12. Evaluation of Resources of Agricultural Lands Using Fuzzy Indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With ever increasing demands on agriculture, it is essential that we be able to adequately evaluate agriculture land resources. Recently, efforts have been undertaken to develop methods and tools for the purpose of evaluating agricultural land resources. However, to be successful, assessments need...

  13. Hydrogeomorphic features mediate the effects of land use/cover on reservoir productivity and food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bremigan, M.T.; Soranno, P.A.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Bunnell, D.B.; Arend, K.K.; Renwick, W.H.; Stein, R.A.; Vanni, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Although effects of land use/cover on nutrient concentrations in aquatic systems are well known, half or more of the variation in nutrient concentration remains unexplained by land use/cover alone. Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) landscape features can explain much remaining variation and influence food web interactions. To explore complex linkages among land use/cover, HGM features, reservoir productivity, and food webs, we sampled 11 Ohio reservoirs, ranging broadly in agricultural catchment land use/cover, for 3 years. We hypothesized that HGM features mediate the bottom-up effects of land use/cover on reservoir productivity, chlorophyll a, zooplankton, and recruitment of gizzard shad, an omnivorous fish species common throughout southeastern U.S. reservoirs and capable of exerting strong effects on food web and nutrient dynamics. We tested specific hypotheses using a model selection approach. Percent variation explained was highest for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.92), moderately high for total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, and rotifer biomass (R2 = 0.57 to 0.67), relatively low for crustacean zooplankton biomass and larval gizzard shad hatch abundance (R2 = 0.43 and 0.42), and high for larval gizzard shad survivor abundance (R2 = 0.79). The trophic status models included agricultural land use/cover and an HGM predictor, whereas the zooplankton models had few HGM predictors. The larval gizzard shad models had the highest complexity, including more than one HGM feature and food web components. We demonstrate the importance of integrating land use/cover, HGM features, and food web interactions to investigate critical interactions and feedbacks among physical, chemical, and biological components of linked land-water ecosystems.

  14. Evaluation of Agricultural Land Suitability: Application of Fuzzy Indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The problem of evaluation of agricultural land suitability is considered as a fuzzy modeling task. The application of individual fuzzy indicators provides an opportunity for assessment of lsand suitability of lands as degree or grade of performance when the lands are used for agricultural purposes....

  15. Land-Cover Change in the East Central Texas Plains, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2009-01-01

    Project Background: The Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends project is focused on understanding the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary U.S. land-use and land-cover change. The objectives of the study are to: (1) develop a comprehensive methodology for using sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data for measuring regional land-cover change across the United States, (2) characterize the types, rates and temporal variability of change for a 30-year period, (3) document regional driving forces and consequences of change, and (4) prepare a national synthesis of land-cover change (Loveland and others, 1999). Using the 1999 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions derived from Omernik (1987) as the geographic framework, geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000 were processed and analyzed to characterize ecosystem responses to land-use changes. The 27-year study period was divided into five temporal periods: 1973-1980, 1980-1986, 1986-1992, 1992-2000, and 1973-2000. General land-cover classes such as water, developed, grassland/shrubland, and agriculture for these periods were interpreted from Landsat MSS, TM, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to categorize land-cover change and evaluate using a modified Anderson Land-Use Land-Cover Classification System for image interpretation. The interpretation of these land-cover classes complement the program objective of looking at land-use change with cover serving as a surrogate for land use. The land-cover change rates are estimated using a stratified, random sampling of 10-kilometer (km) by 10-km blocks allocated within each ecoregion. For each sample block, satellite images are used to interpret land-cover change for the five time periods previously mentioned. Additionally, historical aerial photographs from similar timeframes and other

  16. Continuous and consistent land use/cover change estimates using socio-ecological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Michael; Norton-Griffiths, Michael; Herr, Harvey; Lamprey, Richard; Sheffield, Justin; Vagen, Tor; Okotto-Okotto, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    A growing body of research shows the importance of land use/cover change (LULCC) on modifying the Earth system. Land surface models are used to stimulate land-atmosphere dynamics at the macroscale, but model bias and uncertainty remain that need to be addressed before the importance of LULCC is fully realized. In this study, we propose a method of improving LULCC estimates for land surface modeling exercises. The method is driven by projectable socio-ecological geospatial predictors available seamlessly across sub-Saharan Africa and yielded continuous (annual) estimates of LULCC at 5 km × 5 km spatial resolution. The method was developed with 2252 sample area frames of 5 km × 5 km consisting of the proportion of several land cover types in Kenya over multiple years. Forty-three socio-ecological predictors were evaluated for model development. Machine learning was used for data reduction, and simple (functional) relationships defined by generalized additive models were constructed on a subset of the highest-ranked predictors (p ≤ 10) to estimate LULCC. The predictors explained 62 and 65 % of the variance in the proportion of agriculture and natural vegetation, respectively, but were less successful at estimating more descriptive land cover types. In each case, population density on an annual basis was the highest-ranked predictor. The approach was compared to a commonly used remote sensing classification procedure, given the wide use of such techniques for macroscale LULCC detection, and outperformed it for each land cover type. The approach was used to demonstrate significant trends in expanding (declining) agricultural (natural vegetation) land cover in Kenya from 1983 to 2012, with the largest increases (declines) occurring in densely populated high agricultural production zones. Future work should address the improvement (development) of existing (new) geospatial predictors and issues of model scalability and transferability.

  17. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and NO3--N levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4–5 times during each growing season and analyzed for NO3--N and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3—N. Red clover cover crop increased NO3--N by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on NO3--N in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop agricultural systems. PMID:26600462

  18. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    PubMed

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row

  19. Land cover change mapping using MODIS time series to improve emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Saldaña, Gerardo; Quaife, Tristan; Clifford, Debbie

    2016-04-01

    MELODIES is an FP7 funded project to develop innovative and sustainable services, based upon Open Data, for users in research, government, industry and the general public in a broad range of societal and environmental benefit areas. Understanding and quantifying land surface changes is necessary for estimating greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, and for meeting air quality limits and targets. More sophisticated inventories methodologies for at least key emission source are needed due to policy-driven air quality directives. Quantifying land cover changes on an annual basis requires greater spatial and temporal disaggregation of input data. The main aim of this study is to develop a methodology for using Earth Observations (EO) to identify annual land surface changes that will improve emissions inventories from agriculture and land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in the UK. First goal is to find the best sets of input features that describe accurately the surface dynamics. In order to identify annual and inter-annual land surface changes, a times series of surface reflectance was used to capture seasonal variability. Daily surface reflectance images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500m resolution were used to invert a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model to create the seamless time series. Given the limited number of cloud-free observations, a BRDF climatology was used to constrain the model inversion and where no high-scientific quality observations were available at all, as a gap filler. The Land Cover Map 2007 (LC2007) produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) was used for training and testing purposes. A land cover product was created for 2003 to 2015 and a bayesian approach was created to identified land cover changes. We will present the results of the time series development and the first exercises when creating the land cover and land cover changes products.

  20. Effects Of Land Cover Change On The Hydrologic Regime Of Kabompo River Basin, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampata, J. M.; Rientjes, T. H. M.; Timmermans, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decades, the Kabompo River Basin in Zambia is affected by deforestation and land degradation as a consequence of intensified agriculture and mining. Changes presumably have affected the hydrological catchment behaviour and related seasonal flow regimes. Impact assessments are unknown for the basin. In this study multi-decadal time series of rainfall and stream flow were evaluated by trend analysis, change point detection methods and analysis on high and low flow exceedance probabilities. Results are combined with satellite based land cover observations for 1984, 1994, 2001 and 2009. Unsupervised classification of the Landsat images indicate pronounced land cover changes. Preliminary results of this study show that i) precipitation time series are not directly affected by climate change and ii) changes in stream flow can be linked to changes in land cover.

  1. Land use/land cover change geo-informative Tupu of Nujiang River in Northwest Yunnan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-liang; Yang, Yue-yuan; Huang, You-ju; Fu, Lei; Rao, Qing

    2008-10-01

    Land Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) is the core components of global change researches. It is significant for understanding regional ecological environment and LUCC mechanism of large scale to develop the study of LUCC of regional level. Nujiang River is the upper reaches of a big river in the South Asia--Salween River. Nujiang River is a typical mountainous river which is 3200 kilometer long and its basin area is 32.5 × 105 square kilometer. It locates in the core of "Three Parallel Rivers" World Natural Heritage. It is one of international biodiversity conservation center of the world, the ecological fragile zone and key ecological construction area, as well as a remote undeveloped area with high diversity ethnic. With the rapidly development of society and economy, the land use and land cover changed in a great degree. The function of ecosystem has being degraded in some areas which will not only impact on the ecological construction of local area, but also on the ecological safety of lower reaches -- Salween River. Therefore it is necessary to carry out the research of LUCC of Nujiang River. Based on the theory and methods of geo-information Tupu, the "Spatial Pattern" and "Change Process" of land use of middle reach in Nujiang River from 1974 to 2004 had been studied in quantification and integration, so as to provide a case study in local area and mesoscale in time. Supported by the remote sensing and GIS technology, LUCC Tupu of 1974-2004 had been built and the characteristics of LUCC have been analyzed quantificationally. The results showed that the built-up land (Included in this category are cities, towns, villages, strip developments along highways, transportation, power, and communications facilities, and areas such as those occupied by mills, shopping centers, industrial and commercial complexes, and institutions that may, in some instances, be isolated from urban areas), agriculture land, shrubbery land, meadow & grassland, difficultly/unused land

  2. Survey methods for assessing land cover map accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nusser, S.M.; Klaas, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing availability of digital photographic materials has fueled efforts by agencies and organizations to generate land cover maps for states, regions, and the United States as a whole. Regardless of the information sources and classification methods used, land cover maps are subject to numerous sources of error. In order to understand the quality of the information contained in these maps, it is desirable to generate statistically valid estimates of accuracy rates describing misclassification errors. We explored a full sample survey framework for creating accuracy assessment study designs that balance statistical and operational considerations in relation to study objectives for a regional assessment of GAP land cover maps. We focused not only on appropriate sample designs and estimation approaches, but on aspects of the data collection process, such as gaining cooperation of land owners and using pixel clusters as an observation unit. The approach was tested in a pilot study to assess the accuracy of Iowa GAP land cover maps. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design addressed sample size requirements for land covers and the need for geographic spread while minimizing operational effort. Recruitment methods used for private land owners yielded high response rates, minimizing a source of nonresponse error. Collecting data for a 9-pixel cluster centered on the sampled pixel was simple to implement, and provided better information on rarer vegetation classes as well as substantial gains in precision relative to observing data at a single-pixel.

  3. Increasing agricultural land use is associated with the spread of an invasive fish (Gambusia affinis).

    PubMed

    Lee, Finnbar; Simon, Kevin S; Perry, George L W

    2017-05-15

    Land-use change and invasive species pose major threats to ecosystems globally. These stressors can act together, with disturbance due to changes in land-use facilitating invasion. We examined the potential for agricultural land use to facilitate the establishment and population growth (abundance) of a globally invasive fish (Gambusia affinis). To achieve this we examined Gambusia presence, abundance, and life history traits in 31 streams spanning an agricultural land use gradient in the North Island of New Zealand. We used regression models to quantify the relationship between agricultural land use and in-stream physiochemical and habitat variables, and zero-inflated models to explore the relationship among physiochemical, habitat and catchment-scale variables and Gambusia's distribution and abundance. The percentage of the catchment in agricultural land use was associated with changes to physiochemical and habitat conditions. Increasing agricultural land use was associated with increasing macrophyte cover and water temperature and decreasing velocity in streams. Catchment-scale variables (land use and site position in the network) and water temperature were the most important determinants of whether Gambusia occurred at a site. Local in-stream habitat (macrophyte cover and water velocity) and nutrient conditions were the most influential predictors of Gambusia abundance given Gambusia were present. Gambusia life-history traits, sex ratio and body length varied among sites but were not predicted by physiochemical gradients. The distribution of Gambusia in streams in New Zealand is partially controlled by catchment-scale conditions via a combination of dispersal limitation and environmental filtering, both of which are affected by agricultural land use. Agricultural land use alters local in-stream conditions, resulting in systems that are similar to those in Gambusia's natural range; these altered systems have the potential to support an increased abundance of

  4. Consistency in bird use of tree cover across tropical agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Vilchez Mendoza, Sergio; Harvey, Celia A; Sáenz, Joel C; Casanoves, Fernando; Pablo Carvajal, Jose; González Villalobos, Jorge; Hernandez, Blas; Medina, Arnulfo; Montero, Jorge; Sánchez Merlo, Dalia; Sinclair, Fergus L

    2014-01-01

    conservation (particularly for forest species) than live fences and pastures with tree cover. Consequently, agricultural and land use policies that promote the retention of secondary and riparian forests and increase tree cover within pastures would greatly benefit bird conservation, regardless of the landscape in which they are applied.

  5. The impact of clouds, land use and snow cover on climate in the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Alan K.; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Worth, Devon E.

    2016-03-01

    This study uses 55 years of hourly observations of air temperature, relative humidity, daily precipitation, snow cover and cloud cover from 15 climate stations across the Canadian Prairies to analyze biosphere-atmosphere interactions. We will provide examples of the coupling between climate, snow cover, clouds, and land use. Snow cover acts as a fast climate switch. With the first snow fall, air temperature falls by 10 °C, and a similar increase in temperature occurs with snow melt. Climatologically, days with snow cover are 10 °C cooler than days with no snow cover in Alberta. However the interannual variability has a larger range, so that for every 10 % decrease in days with snow cover, the mean October to April climate is warmer by 1.4 to 1.5 °C. Snow cover also transforms the coupling between clouds and the diurnal cycle of air temperature from a boundary layer regime dominated by shortwave cloud forcing in the warm season to one dominated by longwave cloud forcing with snow cover. Changing agricultural land use in the past thirty years, specifically the reduction of summer fallowing, has cooled and moistened the growing season climate and increased summer precipitation. These hourly climate data provide a solid observational basis for understanding land surface coupling, which can be used to improve the representation of clouds and land-surface processes in atmospheric models.

  6. Completion of the 2011 National Land Cover Database for the Conterminous United States – Representing a Decade of Land Cover Change Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides nationwide data on land cover and land cover change at the native 30-m spatial resolution of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The database is designed to provide five-year cyclical updating of United States land cover and associat...

  7. US agricultural policy, land use change, and biofuels: are we driving our way to the next dust bowl?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Christopher K.

    2015-05-01

    Lark et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 044003), analyze recent shifts in US agricultural land use (2008-2012) using newly-available, high-resolution geospatial information, the Cropland Data Layer. Cropland expansion documented by Lark et al suggests the need to reform national agricultural policies in the wake of an emerging, new era of US agriculture characterized by rapid land cover/land use change.

  8. Relationships between aerodynamic roughness and land use and land cover in Baltimore, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholas, F.W.; Lewis, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Urbanization changes the radiative, thermal, hydrologic, and aerodynamic properties of the Earth's surface. Knowledge of these surface characteristics, therefore, is essential to urban climate analysis. Aerodynamic or surface roughness of urban areas is not well documented, however, because of practical constraints in measuring the wind profile in the presence of large buildings. Using an empirical method designed by Lettau, and an analysis of variance of surface roughness values calculated for 324 samples averaging 0.8 hectare (ha) of land use and land cover sample in Baltimore, Md., a strong statistical relation was found between aerodynamic roughness and urban land use and land cover types. Assessment of three land use and land cover systems indicates that some of these types have significantly different surface roughness characteristics. The tests further indicate that statistically significant differences exist in estimated surface roughness values when categories (classes) from different land use and land cover classification systems are used as surrogates. A Level III extension of the U.S. Geological Survey Level II land use and land cover classification system provided the most reliable results. An evaluation of the physical association between the aerodynamic properties of land use and land cover and the surface climate by numerical simulation of the surface energy balance indicates that changes in surface roughness within the range of values typical of the Level III categories induce important changes in the surface climate.

  9. Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiong; Grunwald, Sabine; Myers, D Brenton; Ross, C Wade; Harris, Willie G; Comerford, Nicolas B

    2014-09-15

    Historically, Florida soils stored the largest amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) among the conterminous U.S. states (2.26 Pg). This region experienced rapid land use/land cover (LULC) shifts and climate change in the past decades. The effects of these changes on SOC sequestration are unknown. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the change in SOC stocks in Florida to determine if soils have acted as a net sink or net source for carbon (C) over the past four decades and 2) identify the concomitant effects of LULC, LULC change, and climate on the SOC change. A total of 1080 sites were sampled in the topsoil (0-20 cm) between 2008 and 2009 representing the current SOC stocks, 194 of which were selected to collocate with historical sites (n = 1251) from the Florida Soil Characterization Database (1965-1996) for direct comparison. Results show that SOC stocks significantly differed among LULC classes--sugarcane and wetland contained the highest SOC, followed by improved pasture, urban, mesic upland forest, rangeland, and pineland while crop, citrus and xeric upland forest remained the lowest. The surface 20 cm soils acted as a net sink for C with the median SOC significantly increasing from 2.69 to 3.40 kg m(-2) over the past decades. The SOC sequestration rate was LULC dependent and controlled by climate factors interacting with LULC. Higher temperature tended to accelerate SOC accumulation, while higher precipitation reduced the SOC sequestration rate. Land use/land cover change observed over the past four decades also favored the C sequestration in soils due to the increase in the C-rich wetland area by ~140% and decrease in the C-poor agricultural area by ~20%. Soils are likely to provide a substantial soil C sink considering the climate and LULC projections for this region.

  10. Big Earth observation data analytics for land use and land cover change information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Câmara, Gilberto

    2015-04-01

    Current scientific methods for extracting information for Earth observation data lag far behind our capacity to build complex satellites. In response to this challenge, our work explores a new type of knowledge platform to improve the extraction of land use and land cover change information from big Earth Observation data sets. We take a space-time perspective of Earth Observation data, considering that each sensor revisits the same place at regular intervals. Sensor data can, in principle, be calibrated so that observations of the same place in different times are comparable and each measure from a sensor is mapped into a three dimensional array in space-time. To fully enable the use of space-time arrays for working with Earth Observation data, we use the SciDB array database. Arrays naturally fit the data structure of Earth Observation images, breaking the image-as-a-snapshot paradigm. Thus, entire collections of images can be stored as multidimensional arrays. However, array databases do not understand the specific nature of geographical data, and do not capture the meaning and the differences between spatial and temporal dimensions. In our work, we have extended SciDB to include additional information about satellite image metadata, cartographical projections, and time. We are currently developing methods to extract land use and land cover information based on space-time analysis on array databases. Our experiments show these space-time methods give us significant improvements over current space-only remote sensing image processing methods. We have been able to capture tropical forest degradation and forest regrowth and also to distinguish between single-cropping and double-cropping practices in tropical agriculture.

  11. Precipitation Response to Land Cover Changes in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, E.; Lenderink, G.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Holtslag, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation has increased by 25% over the last century in the Netherlands. In this period, conversion of peat areas into grassland, expansion of urban areas, and the creation of new land in Lake Ijssel were the largest land cover changes. Both station data analysis (Daniels et al. 2014) and high-resolution (2.5 km) simulations with the atmospheric Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model suggest that the observed increase in precipitation is not due to these land cover changes. Instead, the change from historical (1900) to present (2000) land cover decreases precipitation in WRF (Figure). However, WRF seems to be very sensitive to changes in evapotranspiration. The creation of new land and the expansion of urban areas are similar from a moisture perspective, since they locally decrease evapotranspiration, and therefore affect the soil moisture-precipitation feedback mechanism. In our simulations, the resulting feedback is always positive, as a reduction in evapotranspiration causes a reduction of precipitation. There is a difference between urban areas and land in WRF however. Over urban areas, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height increases more than the lifting condensation level (LCL), and the potential to trigger precipitation hereby increases. This in turn decreases the strength, but not sign, of the soil moisture-precipitation feedback. WRF is therefore unable to reproduce the observed precipitation enhancement downwind of urban areas. In all, it seems the sensitivity of WRF to changes in surface moisture might be too high and this questions the applicability of the model to investigate land cover changes. Daniels, E. E., G. Lenderink, R. W. A. Hutjes, and A. A. M. Holtslag, 2014: Spatial precipitation patterns and trends in The Netherlands during 1951-2009. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 1773-1784. Figure: Composite summer precipitation (mm) based on 19 single day cases (a), showing the decreases resulting from changing present to

  12. Estimating Agricultural Land Use Change in Karamoja, NE. Uganda Using Very High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakalembe, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Land use information is useful for deriving biophysical variables for effective planning and management of natural resources. Land use information is also needed to understand negative environmental impacts of land use while maintaining economic and social benefits. Recent maps of land cover and land use have been generated for Africa at the continental scale from coarse resolution data (e.g. MODIS, Spot Vegetation, MERIS, and Landsat). In these map products, croplands and rangelands are generally poorly represented, particularly in semi-arid regions like Karamoja. Products derived from coarse resolution data also fail at mapping subsistence croplands and are limited in their use for extraction of land-cover specific temporal profiles for agricultural monitoring in the study area (Fritz, See, & Rembold, 2010). Given the subsistence nature of agriculture, most fields in Karamoja are very small that care not discernible from other land uses in coarse resolution data and data products such as FAO Africover2000. product derived from 30m Landsat data is one such product. There is a high level of disagreement and large errors of omission and omission due to the coarse resolution of the data used to derive the product. In addition population growth and policy changes in the region have resulted in a shift to agro-pastoralism and systematic expansion of cropland area since 2000. This research will produce an updated agricultural land use map for Karamoja. The land cover map will be used to estimate agricultural land use change in the region and as a filter to extract agricultural land use specific temporal profiles specific to agriculture to compare to crop statistics.

  13. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover.

    PubMed

    Coomes, Oliver T; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2011-08-23

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time--with community enclosure--by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of "land-use" poverty traps--a "subsistence crop" trap and a "short fallow" trap--and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth.

  14. Geo-information Based Spatio-temporal Modeling of Urban Land Use and Land Cover Change in Butwal Municipality, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, U. K.

    2014-11-01

    Unscientific utilization of land use and land cover due to rapid growth of urban population deteriorates urban condition. Urban growth, land use change and future urban land demand are key concerns of urban planners. This paper is aimed to model urban land use change essential for sustainable urban development. GI science technology was employed to study the urban change dynamics using Markov Chain and CA-Markov and predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern. It was performed using the probability transition matrix from the Markov chain process, the suitability map of each land use/cover types and the contiguity filter. Suitability maps were generated from the MCE process where weight was derived from the pair wise comparison in the AHP process considering slope, land capability, distance to road, and settlement and water bodies as criterion of factor maps. Thematic land use land cover types of 1999, 2006, and 2013 of Landsat sensors were classified using MLC algorithm. The spatial extent increase from 1999 to 2013 in built up , bush and forest was observed to be 48.30 percent,79.48 percent and 7.79 percent, respectively, while decrease in agriculture and water bodies were 30.26 percent and 28.22 percent. The predicted urban LULC for 2020 and 2027 would provide useful inputs to the decision makers. Built up and bush expansion are explored as the main driving force for loss of agriculture and river areas and has the potential to continue in future also. The abandoned area of river bed has been converted to built- up areas.

  15. Bayesian spatial modelling and the significance of agricultural land use to scrub typhus infection in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wardrop, Nicola A; Kuo, Chi-Chien; Wang, Hsi-Chieh; Clements, Archie C A; Lee, Pei-Fen; Atkinson, Peter M

    2013-11-01

    Scrub typhus is transmitted by the larval stage of trombiculid mites. Environmental factors, including land cover and land use, are known to influence breeding and survival of trombiculid mites and, thus, also the spatial heterogeneity of scrub typhus risk. Here, a spatially autoregressive modelling framework was applied to scrub typhus incidence data from Taiwan, covering the period 2003 to 2011, to provide increased understanding of the spatial pattern of scrub typhus risk and the environmental and socioeconomic factors contributing to this pattern. A clear spatial pattern in scrub typhus incidence was observed within Taiwan, and incidence was found to be significantly correlated with several land cover classes, temperature, elevation, normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, population density, average income and the proportion of the population that work in agriculture. The final multivariate regression model included statistically significant correlations between scrub typhus incidence and average income (negatively correlated), the proportion of land that contained mosaics of cropland and vegetation (positively correlated) and elevation (positively correlated). These results highlight the importance of land cover on scrub typhus incidence: mosaics of cropland and vegetation represent a transitional land cover type which can provide favourable habitats for rodents and, therefore, trombiculid mites. In Taiwan, these transitional land cover areas tend to occur in less populated and mountainous areas, following the frontier establishment and subsequent partial abandonment of agricultural cultivation, due to demographic and socioeconomic changes. Future land use policy decision-making should ensure that potential public health outcomes, such as modified risk of scrub typhus, are considered.

  16. Growth of Cities and Loss of Streams: Land Cover Change Impacts on Stream Channel Loss in Central Oklahoma from 1874 to 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central Oklahoma has undergone substantial land cover changes since the 1800’s. Accordingly, regional watersheds have been covered by impervious surfaces, peripheral agricultural areas have been subdivided or intensified, and large reservoirs have been constructed. Here, we...

  17. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, Todd M.; Kim, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000 – 2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time was determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990 ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121 ha have likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and- gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, injection wells, etc.), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  18. Controls on nutrients across a prairie stream watershed: land use and riparian cover effects.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Walter K; Oakes, Robert M

    2006-05-01

    Nutrient inputs generally are increased by human-induced land use changes and can lead to eutrophication and impairment of surface waters. Understanding the scale at which land use influences nutrient loading is necessary for the development of management practices and policies that improve water quality. The authors assessed the relationships between land use and stream nutrients in a prairie watershed dominated by intermittent stream flow in the first-order higher elevation reaches. Total nitrogen, nitrate, and phosphorus concentrations were greater in tributaries occupying the lower portions of the watershed, closely mirroring the increased density of row crop agriculture from headwaters to lower-elevation alluvial areas. Land cover classified at three spatial scales in each sub-basin above sampling sites (riparian in the entire catchment, catchment land cover, and riparian across the 2 km upstream) was highly correlated with variation in both total nitrogen (r(2) = 53%, 52%, and 49%, respectively) and nitrate (r(2) = 69%, 65%, and 56%, respectively) concentrations among sites. However, phosphorus concentrations were not significantly associated with riparian or catchment land cover classes at any spatial scale. Separating land use from riparian cover in the entire watershed was difficult, but riparian cover was most closely correlated with in-stream nutrient concentrations. By controlling for land cover, a significant correlation of riparian cover for the 2 km above the sampling site with in-stream nutrient concentrations could be established. Surprisingly, land use in the entire watershed, including small intermittent streams, had a large influence on average downstream water quality although the headwater streams were not flowing for a substantial portion of the year. This suggests that nutrient criteria may not be met only by managing permanently flowing streams.

  19. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Preston, Todd M; Kim, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000-2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time were determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121ha has likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and-gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, and injection wells), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  20. Radiative forcing over the conterminous United States due to contemporary land cover land use albedo change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Christopher; Roy, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Recently available satellite land cover land use (LCLU) and albedo data are used to study the impact of LCLU change from 1973 to 2000 on surface albedo and radiative forcing for 36 ecoregions covering 43% of the conterminous United States (CONUS). Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-free broadband albedo values are derived from Landsat LCLU classification maps located using a stratified random sampling methodology to estimate ecoregion estimates of LCLU induced albedo change and surface radiative forcing. The results illustrate that radiative forcing due to LCLU change may be disguised when spatially and temporally explicit data sets are not used. The radiative forcing due to contemporary LCLU albedo change varies geographically in sign and magnitude, with the most positive forcings (up to 0.284 Wm−2) due to conversion of agriculture to other LCLU types, and the most negative forcings (as low as −0.247 Wm−2) due to forest loss. For the 36 ecoregions considered a small net positive forcing (i.e., warming) of 0.012 Wm−2 is estimated.

  1. Assessment of land use/land cover dynamics of Tso Moriri Lake, a Ramsar site in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sharad Kumar; Shukla, Dericks Praise

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands accounts for 6% area of the Earth's land cover and nearly 17% of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. They are of utmost importance to climate dynamics and are critical links between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Despite the need of high attention towards conserving and managing wetland resources, mapping them is a least practiced activity. This study shows the temporal change in land use and land cover pattern of Tso Moriri Lake, the highest altitude lake in India and designated as Ramsar site in year 2002, using multi-sensor and multi-date imagery. Due to change in hydro-meteorological conditions of the region, this lake area has been reduced. Since the lake recharge is dependent on snowmelt, hence change in climatic conditions (less snowfall in winters), to a certain extent, is also responsible for the decrease in water level and water spread of the lake. The result shows that the lake area has reduced approximately 2 km(2) in the last 15 years, and also, agriculture, grasslands, and vegetation cover have increased to a significant extent. Agricultural land and grasslands have doubled while the vegetation cover has increased more than six times, showing the coupled effect of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Trend of temperature and precipitation corroborates the effects of climate change in this region.

  2. A land-cover map for South and Southeast Asia derived from SPOT-VEGETATION data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stibig, H.-J.; Belward, A.S.; Roy, P.S.; Rosalina-Wasrin, U.; Agrawal, S.; Joshi, P.K.; ,; Beuchle, R.; Fritz, S.; Mubareka, S.; Giri, C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim  Our aim was to produce a uniform ‘regional’ land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia based on ‘sub-regional’ mapping results generated in the context of the Global Land Cover 2000 project.Location  The ‘region’ of tropical and sub-tropical South and Southeast Asia stretches from the Himalayas and the southern border of China in the north, to Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the south, and from Pakistan in the west to the islands of New Guinea in the far east.Methods  The regional land-cover map is based on sub-regional digital mapping results derived from SPOT-VEGETATION satellite data for the years 1998–2000. Image processing, digital classification and thematic mapping were performed separately for the three sub-regions of South Asia, continental Southeast Asia, and insular Southeast Asia. Landsat TM images, field data and existing national maps served as references. We used the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) for coding the sub-regional land-cover classes and for aggregating the latter to a uniform regional legend. A validation was performed based on a systematic grid of sample points, referring to visual interpretation from high-resolution Landsat imagery. Regional land-cover area estimates were obtained and compared with FAO statistics for the categories ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’.Results  The regional map displays 26 land-cover classes. The LCCS coding provided a standardized class description, independent from local class names; it also allowed us to maintain the link to the detailed sub-regional land-cover classes. The validation of the map displayed a mapping accuracy of 72% for the dominant classes of ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’; regional area estimates for these classes correspond reasonably well to existing regional statistics.Main conclusions  The land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia provides a synoptic view of the distribution of land cover of tropical and sub

  3. Land Cover Trends in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of land use and land cover change in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion for the period from 1973 to 2000. The ecoregion is one of 84 level III ecoregions defined by the Environmental Protection Agency; ecoregions have been designed to serve as a spatial framework for environmental resource management and denote areas that contain a geographically distinct assemblage of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion covers an area of approximately 22,407 square kilometers [8,651 square miles] across the lower portion of the Florida peninsula, from Lake Okeechobee southward through the Florida Keys. It comprises flat plains with wet soils, marshland and swamp land cover with Everglades and palmetto prairie vegetation types.

  4. Land cover classification and economic assessment of citrus groves using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Rahul J.; Gebelein, Jennifer L.

    The citrus industry has the second largest impact on Florida's economy, following tourism. Estimation of citrus area coverage and annual forecasts of Florida's citrus production are currently dependent on labor-intensive interpretation of aerial photographs. Remotely sensed data from satellites has been widely applied in agricultural yield estimation and cropland management. Satellite data can potentially be obtained throughout the year, making it especially suitable for the detection of land cover change in agriculture and horticulture, plant health status, soil and moisture conditions, and effects of crop management practices. In this study, we analyzed land cover of citrus crops in Florida using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery from the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF). We hypothesized that an interdisciplinary approach combining citrus production (economic) data with citrus land cover area per county would yield a correlation between observable spectral reflectance throughout the year, and the fiscal impact of citrus on local economies. While the data from official sources based on aerial photography were positively correlated, there were serious discrepancies between agriculture census data and satellite-derived cropland area using medium-resolution satellite imagery. If these discrepancies can be resolved by using imagery of higher spatial resolution, a stronger correlation would be observed for citrus production based on satellite data. This would allow us to predict the economic impact of citrus from satellite-derived spectral data analysis to determine final crop harvests.

  5. Analysis of land cover change and its driving forces in a desert oasis landscape of southern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amuti, T.; Luo, G.

    2014-07-01

    The combined effects of drought, warming and the changes in land cover have caused severe land degradation for several decades in the extremely arid desert oases of Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China. This study examined land cover changes during 1990-2008 to characterize and quantify the transformations in the typical oasis of Hotan. Land cover classifications of these images were performed based on the supervised classification scheme integrated with conventional vegetation and soil indexes. Change-detection techniques in remote sensing (RS) and a geographic information system (GIS) were applied to quantify temporal and spatial dynamics of land cover changes. The overall accuracies, Kappa coefficients, and average annual increase rate or decrease rate of land cover classes were calculated to assess classification results and changing rate of land cover. The analysis revealed that major trends of the land cover changes were the notable growth of the oasis and the reduction of the desert-oasis ecotone, which led to accelerated soil salinization and plant deterioration within the oasis. These changes were mainly attributed to the intensified human activities. The results indicated that the newly created agricultural land along the margins of the Hotan oasis could result in more potential areas of land degradation. If no effective measures are taken against the deterioration of the oasis environment, soil erosion caused by land cover change may proceed. The trend of desert moving further inward and the shrinking of the ecotone may lead to potential risks to the eco-environment of the Hotan oasis over the next decades.

  6. LAND COVER TRENDS: RATES, CAUSES, AND CONSEQUENCES OF LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY U.S LAND COVER CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information on the rates, driving forces, and consequences of land use and land cover change is important in studies addressing issues ranging from the health of aquatic resources to climate change. This four-year research project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. ...

  7. Temporal Land Cover Analysis for Net Ecosystem Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Yinghai; Coleman, Andre M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2013-04-09

    We delineated 8 watersheds contributing to previously defined river reaches within the 1,468-km2 historical floodplain of the tidally influenced lower Columbia River and estuary. We assessed land-cover change at the watershed, reach, and restoration site scales by reclassifying remote-sensing data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Change Analysis Program’s land cover/land change product into forest, wetland, and urban categories. The analysis showed a 198.3 km2 loss of forest cover during the first 6 years of the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program, 2001–2006. Total measured urbanization in the contributing watersheds of the estuary during the full 1996-2006 change analysis period was 48.4 km2. Trends in forest gain/loss and urbanization differed between watersheds. Wetland gains and losses were within the margin of error of the satellite imagery analysis. No significant land cover change was measured at restoration sites, although it was visible in aerial imagery, therefore, the 30-m land-cover product may not be appropriate for assessment of early-stage wetland restoration. These findings suggest that floodplain restoration sites in reaches downstream of watersheds with decreasing forest cover will be subject to increased sediment loads, and those downstream of urbanization will experience effects of increased impervious surfaces on hydrologic processes.

  8. Global land cover mapping: a review and uncertainty analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congalton, Russell G.; Gu, Jianyu; Yadav, Kamini; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    Given the advances in remotely sensed imagery and associated technologies, several global land cover maps have been produced in recent times including IGBP DISCover, UMD Land Cover, Global Land Cover 2000 and GlobCover 2009. However, the utility of these maps for specific applications has often been hampered due to considerable amounts of uncertainties and inconsistencies. A thorough review of these global land cover projects including evaluating the sources of error and uncertainty is prudent and enlightening. Therefore, this paper describes our work in which we compared, summarized and conducted an uncertainty analysis of the four global land cover mapping projects using an error budget approach. The results showed that the classification scheme and the validation methodology had the highest error contribution and implementation priority. A comparison of the classification schemes showed that there are many inconsistencies between the definitions of the map classes. This is especially true for the mixed type classes for which thresholds vary for the attributes/discriminators used in the classification process. Examination of these four global mapping projects provided quite a few important lessons for the future global mapping projects including the need for clear and uniform definitions of the classification scheme and an efficient, practical, and valid design of the accuracy assessment.

  9. Mapping and measuring land-cover characteristics of New River Basin, Tennessee, using Landsat digital tapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollyday, E.F.; Sauer, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Land-cover information is needed to select subbasins within the New River basin, Tennessee, for the study of hydrologic processes and is also needed to transfer study results to other sites affected by coal mining. This study demonstrates that digital processing of Landsat tapes can produce maps and tables of the areal extent of selected land-cover categories. The relative area of each category within the basin is agriculture, 5 percent; evergreens, 7 percent; bare earth, 6 percent; three categories of hardwoods, 81 percent; and water, rock, and uncategorized areas, each less than 1 percent. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Mapping decadal land cover changes in the woodlands of north eastern Namibia using the Landsat satellite archive (1975-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingate, Vladimir; Phinn, Stuart; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    Woodland savannahs provide essential ecosystem functions and services to communities. On the African continent, they are widely utilized and converted to intensive land uses. This study investigates the land cover changes over 108,038 km2 in NE Namibia using multi-sensor Landsat imagery, at decadal intervals from 1975 to 2014, with a post-classification change detection method and supervised Regression Tree classifiers. We discuss likely impacts of land tenure and reforms over the past four decades on changes in land use and land cover. These included losses, gains and exchanges between predominant land cover classes. Exchanges comprised logical conversions between woodland and agricultural classes, implying woodland clearing for arable farming, cropland abandonment and vegetation succession. The dominant change was a reduction in the area of the woodland class due to the expansion of the agricultural class, specifically, small-scale cereal and pastoral production. Woodland area decreased from 90% of the study area in 1975 to 83% in 2014, while cleared land increased from 9% to 14%. We found that the main land cover changes are conversion from woodland to agricultural and urban land uses, driven by urban expansion and woodland clearing for subsistence-based agriculture and pastoralism.

  11. Selection of classification techniques for land use/land cover change investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Han, Dawei; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel A.; Bray, Michaela; Islam, Tanvir

    2012-11-01

    The concerns over land use/land cover (LULC) change have emerged on the global stage due to the realisation that changes occurring on the land surface also influence climate, ecosystem and its services. As a result, the importance of accurate mapping of LULC and its changes over time is on the increase. Landsat satellite is a major data source for regional to global LULC analysis. The main objective of this study focuses on the comparison of three classification tools for Landsat images, which are maximum likelihood classification (MLC), support vector machine and artificial neural network (ANN), in order to select the best method among them. The classifiers algorithms are well optimized for the gamma, penalty, degree of polynomial in case of SVM, while for ANN minimum output activation threshold and RMSE are taken into account. The overall analysis shows that the ANN is superior to the kernel based SVM (linear, radial based, sigmoid and polynomial) and MLC. The best tool (ANN) is then applied on detecting the LULC change over part of Walnut Creek, Iowa. The change analysis of the multi temporal images indicates an increase in urban areas and a major shift in the agricultural practices.

  12. Impact of land cover types and components on urban heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, L. T.; Cai, G. Y.

    2015-12-01

    This paper discussed the impact of the distribution of parks including water bodies on the relief of urban heat. An image of QuickBird on Aug. 30, 2013 was employed to perform the detailed land cover classification. One swath of Landsat 8 THIR image was collected to derive the land surface temperature. After some necessary preprocessing procedures, object-based classification method was used to classify the land cover as residential region, square and road, water body, as well as park. The results showed that water bodies and parks play an important role in reducing the land surface temperature. Grass, shrub and trees were extracted out respectively by manual from parks that were adopted to test the influence of proportions among trees, shrubs and grass on the fluctuation of land surface temperature in urban area. The results achieved in this paper could be helpful for the local governments to make a decision in urban plan and management.

  13. Wildfire selectivity for land cover type: does size matter?

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana M G; Pereira, José M C

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that fires burn certain land cover types disproportionally to their abundance. We used quantile regression to study land cover proneness to fire as a function of fire size, under the hypothesis that they are inversely related, for all land cover types. Using five years of fire perimeters, we estimated conditional quantile functions for lower (avoidance) and upper (preference) quantiles of fire selectivity for five land cover types - annual crops, evergreen oak woodlands, eucalypt forests, pine forests and shrublands. The slope of significant regression quantiles describes the rate of change in fire selectivity (avoidance or preference) as a function of fire size. We used Monte-Carlo methods to randomly permutate fires in order to obtain a distribution of fire selectivity due to chance. This distribution was used to test the null hypotheses that 1) mean fire selectivity does not differ from that obtained by randomly relocating observed fire perimeters; 2) that land cover proneness to fire does not vary with fire size. Our results show that land cover proneness to fire is higher for shrublands and pine forests than for annual crops and evergreen oak woodlands. As fire size increases, selectivity decreases for all land cover types tested. Moreover, the rate of change in selectivity with fire size is higher for preference than for avoidance. Comparison between observed and randomized data led us to reject both null hypotheses tested ([Formula: see text] = 0.05) and to conclude it is very unlikely the observed values of fire selectivity and change in selectivity with fire size are due to chance.

  14. Development of an Independent Global Land Cover Validation Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulla-Menashe, D. J.; Olofsson, P.; Woodcock, C. E.; Holden, C.; Metcalfe, M.; Friedl, M. A.; Stehman, S. V.; Herold, M.; Giri, C.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate information related to the global distribution and dynamics in global land cover is critical for a large number of global change science questions. A growing number of land cover products have been produced at regional to global scales, but the uncertainty in these products and the relative strengths and weaknesses among available products are poorly characterized. To address this limitation we are compiling a database of high spatial resolution imagery to support international land cover validation studies. Validation sites were selected based on a probability sample, and may therefore be used to estimate statistically defensible accuracy statistics and associated standard errors. Validation site locations were identified using a stratified random design based on 21 strata derived from an intersection of Koppen climate classes and a population density layer. In this way, the two major sources of global variation in land cover (climate and human activity) are explicitly included in the stratification scheme. At each site we are acquiring high spatial resolution (< 1-m) satellite imagery for 5-km x 5-km blocks. The response design uses an object-oriented hierarchical legend that is compatible with the UN FAO Land Cover Classification System. Using this response design, we are classifying each site using a semi-automated algorithm that blends image segmentation with a supervised RandomForest classification algorithm. In the long run, the validation site database is designed to support international efforts to validate land cover products. To illustrate, we use the site database to validate the MODIS Collection 4 Land Cover product, providing a prototype for validating the VIIRS Surface Type Intermediate Product scheduled to start operational production early in 2013. As part of our analysis we evaluate sources of error in coarse resolution products including semantic issues related to the class definitions, mixed pixels, and poor spectral separation between

  15. Linking land cover and water quality in New York City's water supply watersheds.

    PubMed

    Mehaffey, M H; Nash, M S; Wade, T G; Ebert, D W; Jones, K B; Rager, A

    2005-08-01

    The Catskill/Delaware reservoirs supply 90% of New York City's drinking water. The City has implemented a series of watershed protection measures, including land acquisition, aimed at preserving water quality in the Catskill/Delaware watersheds. The objective of this study was to examine how relationships between landscape and surface water measurements change between years. Thirty-two drainage areas delineated from surface water sample points (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria concentrations) were used in step-wise regression analyses to test landscape and surface-water quality relationships. Two measurements of land use, percent agriculture and percent urban development, were positively related to water quality and consistently present in all regression models. Together these two land uses explained 25 to 75% of the regression model variation. However, the contribution of agriculture to water quality condition showed a decreasing trend with time as overall agricultural land cover decreased. Results from this study demonstrate that relationships between land cover and surface water concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria counts over a large area can be evaluated using a relatively simple geographic information system method. Land managers may find this method useful for targeting resources in relation to a particular water quality concern, focusing best management efforts, and maximizing benefits to water quality with minimal costs.

  16. Analysis of the Effects of Different Land Use and Land Cover Classification on Surface Meteorological Variables using WRF Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sati, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The continuous population growth and the subsequent economic expansion over centuries have been the primary drivers of land use /land cover (LULC) changes resulting in the environmental changes across the globe. Most of the urban areas being developed today are on the expense of agricultural or barren lands and the changes result from various practices such as deforestation, changing agriculture practices, rapid expansion of urban centers etc.For modeling applications, classification of land use is important and periodic updates of land cover are necessary to capture change due to LULC changes.Updated land cover and land use data derived from satellites offer the possibility of consistent and regularly collected information on LULC. In this study we explore the application of Landsat based LULC classification inWeather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in predicting the meteorology over Delhi, India. The supervised classification of Landsat 8 imagery over Delhi region is performed which update the urban extent as well as other Land use for the region. WRF model simulations are performed using LULC classification from Landsat data, United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for various meteorological parameters. Modifications in LULC showed a significant effect on various surface meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind circulations and other underlying surface parameters. There is a considerable improvement in the spatial distribution of the surface meteorological parameters with correction in input LULC. The study demonstrates the improved LULC classification from Landsat data than currently in vogue and their potential to improve numerical weather simulations especially for expanding urban areas.The continuous population growth and the subsequent economic expansion over centuries have been the primary drivers of land use /land cover (LULC) changes resulting in the environmental changes

  17. Reconstructing Colonial Land Cover Changes Across the Northeastern United States to Understand Hydrologic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Duncan, J.; Kumar, S.; Pastore, C.; Bain, D.; Green, M.; Pellerin, B.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover change is one of the most important drivers of hydrologic change. While we understand the North American landscape was substantially altered during the colonial period (1600-1800), the highly variable spatial and temporal dynamics of land cover change have not been yet resolved. Past land cover changes have important implications for the hydrologic history of the region and impart legacy effects on contemporary hydrologic systems. Before European arrival, the northern portion of the region was predominantly a game economy with increasing predominance of subsistence agriculture as one moved south. Upon arrival of Europeans, the region was transformed to a resource extraction economy, predominantly export oriented logging and agriculture production. Several authors have reconstructed historical land use change history at a variety of scales (county, watershed, and globe) based on paleo signatures in sediment cores, historical anecdotes, export data, and population based model. However, fewer integrated efforts utilize these historical land cover reconstructions to inform our understanding of hydrologic change, particularly at the regional scale. Therefore, we synthesize a variety of approaches to reconstruct a regionally coherent/consistent picture of land cover change in the northeast from 1600 to 1800. Our study region is divided into two major hydrological sub-regions based on glaciation history and contemporary climate gradients: the New England region and the Chesapeake Bay regions. We try to clarify uncertainty of each study and difference between them due to diverse research methods and scales. Using a meta-analysis approach and geospatial representation we have hypothesized that intensive land cover changes along coastal lines and navigable river reaches had a significant impact on the regional hydrology.

  18. Impacts of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change over South America: a modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, M. G. D.; Herdies, D. L.; Souza, D. O. D.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in patterns of land use and land cover have great influence on hydrology, climate and biogeochemical cycles. In this work the influences caused by changes in patterns of land cover and land use in Brazil on the behavior of the water balance over South America were evaluated. To fulfill this objective numerical experiments were carried out with the regional model ETA for the period between 1979 and 2008, in which three different conditions of land use and land cover in Brazil was used: 1) Potential Experiment, which are not included the anthropogenic changes in vegetation cover; 2) Control Experiment, in which the map of land use and land cover used the conditions of the 90s; 3) New Experiment, which represents the current conditions of land use and land cover. The results show clearly that the constant changes in patterns of land cover and land use in Brazil cause an increase in precipitation and moisture convergence, and reduced evapotranspiration over the Amazon Region. In other words, it can be stated that with the advance of changes in patterns of land use and land cover, Amazon further intensified their behavior as a sink of moisture, mainly due to increased precipitation and significant reduction in evapotranspiration, noting also that reduction of moisture available in the atmosphere was not offset by increased moisture convergence. The results on the La Plata Basin shows that initially (CONTROL) there is an increase in precipitation and evapotranspiration over the region and reduction in moisture convergence, which is later (NEW) modified to a pattern of reduction in precipitation and evapotranspiration followed by an increase in moisture convergence. These changes in the patterns of land use and land cover of the 90s make the area potentially source of moisture to the atmosphere, even with the reduction in moisture convergence, but reversing their behavior to sink moisture by inserting current vegetation cover modifications, mainly due to reduced

  19. Assessment of Classification Accuracies of SENTINEL-2 and LANDSAT-8 Data for Land Cover / Use Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale Topaloğlu, Raziye; Sertel, Elif; Musaoğlu, Nebiye

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to compare classification accuracies of land cover/use maps created from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 data. Istanbul metropolitan city of Turkey, with a population of around 14 million, having different landscape characteristics was selected as study area. Water, forest, agricultural areas, grasslands, transport network, urban, airport- industrial units and barren land- mine land cover/use classes adapted from CORINE nomenclature were used as main land cover/use classes to identify. To fulfil the aims of this research, recently acquired dated 08/02/2016 Sentinel-2 and dated 22/02/2016 Landsat-8 images of Istanbul were obtained and image pre-processing steps like atmospheric and geometric correction were employed. Both Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 images were resampled to 30m pixel size after geometric correction and similar spectral bands for both satellites were selected to create a similar base for these multi-sensor data. Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) supervised classification methods were applied to both data sets to accurately identify eight different land cover/ use classes. Error matrix was created using same reference points for Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 classifications. After the classification accuracy, results were compared to find out the best approach to create current land cover/use map of the region. The results of MLC and SVM classification methods were compared for both images.

  20. Multi-Scalar Land Cover Influences on Benthic Invertebrate Assemblages in Agricultural Streams. F.B. Daniel, M.B. Griffith, M.E. Troyer, and J.E. Lazorchak Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, F. B.; Griffith, M. B.; Troyer, M. E.; Lazorchak, J. E.

    2005-05-01

    The northern half of the Little Miami River watershed (LMRW) was graded by the Wisconsinan glacier; the southern half lies beyond the glacier terminus and is set in an older, Illinoisan landscape. Benthic invertebrates were collected in 35 headwater streams (sub-watersheds) in the LMRW for four consecutive years and the land cover was quantified at three spatial scales (the catchment, the riparian corridor, and sampled reach) for each sub-watershed. In the northern sub-watersheds (N=19) a significantly greater percentage of land surface is committed to row crop agriculture and significantly lesser percent is covered in permanent grasses or forest relative to those in the south (N=16). Analysis of the invertebrate samples showed that Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) constituted a significantly greater proportion of those assemblages collected from the southern sub-watersheds compared to those from the northern section In contrast, Coleoptera (Cole) and Odonata (Odon) were significantly increased in the northern streams. Approximately 60 % of the variation in the invertebrate assemblages, e.g., the ratio of EPT/(EPT+Cole+Odon), at these sites can be accounted for by consideration of land cover at either the catchment or riparian scale but not at the reach scale.

  1. Using the FORE-SCE model to project land-cover change in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2008-01-01

    A wide variety of ecological applications require spatially explicit current and projected land-use and land-cover data. The southeastern United States has experienced massive land-use change since European settlement and continues to experience extremely high rates of forest cutting, significant urban development, and changes in agricultural land use. Forest-cover patterns and structure are projected to change dramatically in the southeastern United States in the next 50 years due to population growth and demand for wood products [Wear, D.N., Greis, J.G. (Eds.), 2002. Southern Forest Resource Assessment. General Technical Report SRS-53. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC, 635 pp]. Along with our climate partners, we are examining the potential effects of southeastern U.S. land-cover change on regional climate. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends project is analyzing contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change in the conterminous United States, providing ecoregion-by-ecoregion estimates of the rates of change, descriptive transition matrices, and changes in landscape metrics. The FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-cover (FORE-SCE) model used Land Cover Trends data and theoretical, statistical, and deterministic modeling techniques to project future land-cover change through 2050 for the southeastern United States. Prescriptions for future proportions of land cover for this application were provided by ecoregion-based extrapolations of historical change. Logistic regression was used to develop relationships between suspected drivers of land-cover change and land cover, resulting in the development of probability-of-occurrence surfaces for each unique land-cover type. Forest stand age was initially established with Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data and tracked through model iterations. The spatial allocation procedure placed patches of new land cover on the landscape until the scenario

  2. Characterizing Land-cover Changes Since 1650 in the Southeastern United States for Application to Regional Climate Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reker, R. R.; Loveland, T. R.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Hostetler, S. W.; Sundquist, E. T.; Thompson, R. S.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Land-cover change is a fundamental contributor to changes in climate, hydrology, and carbon cycling. European settlers introduced a series of widespread land-cover changes in eastern North America beginning in the early 17th century. These changes varied both temporally and spatially, and were related to population growth, emerging technology, and land-use. To examine the potential influence of historical land-cover changes on local to regional climate, we adapted reconstructed fractional land cover from 1650, 1850, and 1920 as well as land cover interpreted from Landsat imagery circa 1992 (Steyaert and Knox, 2008) as input for regional climate model experiments. Observed changes included: deforestation and conversion to agriculture in the mid-Atlantic region from 1650 to 1850, region-wide expansion of agriculture from 1850 to 1920, and wetland drainage, reforestation, and increased urbanization from 1920 to 1992. We translated the land cover datasets to the BATS (Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme) thematic classification on a 20 km2 grid for ingestion into the RegCM4 regional climate model. In BATS, land-cover classifications determine biophysical parameters such as the seasonal albedo cycle, fractional vegetation condition, stomatal resistance, leaf area index (LAI), and rooting depth. By defining and characterizing land cover in a consistent manner across the four time slices, we are able to explore interactions and feedbacks between land cover and regional climate in late prehistoric and historic times. Steyaert, L. T., & Knox, R. G. (2008). Reconstructed historical land cover and biophysical parameters for studies of land-atmosphere interactions within the eastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D2).

  3. Dependence of Polarimetric Scattering Mechanisms on Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, D. K.; Meyer, F.

    2011-03-01

    A method for statistically representing the polarimetric SAR scattering mechanisms of individual land cover classes is introduced and applied to ALOS PALSAR L-band quad-pol data. PALSAR scattering signatures are correlated with land cover classification maps to determine typical scattering mechanisms. The approach utilizes two free, open-source software tools, ESA's PolSARpro and the Alaska Satellite Facility's MapReady Remote Sensing Toolbox as well as Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, to compute the probability density functions of normalized decomposition components for each land cover class.The proposed method provides the ability to compare polarimetric decompositions, investigate scattering mechanisms, detect change in land cover classification, and discover inhomogeneities in the spectral characteristics of individual classes. The approach is first employed to compare the Freeman and Van Zyl three-component decomposition techniques, where the former is shown to introduce many pixels with 100% volume saturation.Ideally, the method yields distinctive scattering peaks for each land cover class with minimal variance in the individual scattering components. However, in some instances, bimodal peaks are found. These are shown to either represent changes between the original land classification and the SAR acquisitions, or the existence of spectral subclasses that were not differentiated in the original classification. Last, the method is used to determine the impact of Polarimetric Orientation Angle (POA) correction on the scattering signatures of urban land cover classes. POA compensation is shown to bring about a significant reduction in the volume scattering component.A method for statistically representing the polarimetric SAR scattering mechanisms of individual land cover classes is introduced and applied to ALOS PALSAR L-band quad-pol data. PALSAR scattering signatures are correlated with land cover classification maps to determine typical

  4. Using macroinvertebrates to identify biota-land cover optima at multiple scales in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, R.W.; Munn, M.D.; Plotnikoff, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental variables were evaluated at 45 stream sites throughout the Puget Sound Basin, Washington, USA. Environmental variables were measured at 3 spatial scales: reach, local, and whole watershed. Macroinvertebrate distributions were related to environmental variables using canonical correspondence analysis to determine which variables and spatial scales best explained the observed community composition and to identify biota-land cover optima. The calculation of a biota-land cover optimum was a 2-step process. First, an individual taxon's optimum was estimated for a particular land cover by weighting the mean value for that land cover by the abundance of that taxon at all sites. Second, the biota-land cover optimum was determined as the point at which the greatest numbers of taxa, at their calculated optima, appeared for a particular land cover. Sampling reaches were located on streams in watersheds with varying levels of forest, agriculture, and urban/suburban land cover that represented the full range of physical conditions typically found in Puget Sound streams. At the reach scale, taxa composition was correlated with conductivity and mean velocity. At the local and whole-watershed scales, taxa composition was correlated with % forest and agricultural land cover and % forest and bedrock land cover, respectively. For all of the scales, the dominant environmental variables represented an anthropogenic gradient. There was little difference in the amount of variability explained by each spatial scale. At the local-watershed scale, a biota-land cover optimum of ???80 to 90% forest land cover was identified. The total number of taxa at their optima declined rapidly as forest land cover within the local scale declined below 80 to 90%. At the whole-watershed scale, a biota-land cover optimum of 70 to 80% forest land cover was identified. The total number of taxa at their optima declined rapidly as forest land cover within the

  5. Farming the Planet: Agricultural land use and the transformation of Planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramankutty, N.

    2008-12-01

    Agriculture has dramatically altered the face of our planet. Roughly a third of the world's landscape is currently being used for cultivation or grazing cattle. Furthermore, over the last 50 years, our food production system has been driven by agricultural intensification, through increased use of irrigation and fertilization. Such large-scale changes in land cover and land use can have major Earth system consequences. Nonetheless, few descriptions are available of the nature and extent of these changes. In this talk, I will describe recent work in the use of remote-sensing and ground-based data to derive global data sets of agricultural land cover and land use practices. I will present results from mapping the world's croplands and pastures, the harvested area and yield of 175 different crops, and fertilizer application rates for the Year 2000.

  6. Validation of Land Cover Maps Utilizing Astronaut Acquired Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Gebelein, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    This report is produced in accordance with the requirements outlined in the NASA Research Grant NAG9-1032 titled "Validation of Land Cover Maps Utilizing Astronaut Acquired Imagery". This grant funds the Remote Sensing Research Unit of the University of California, Santa Barbara. This document summarizes the research progress and accomplishments to date and describes current on-going research activities. Even though this grant has technically expired, in a contractual sense, work continues on this project. Therefore, this summary will include all work done through and 5 May 1999. The principal goal of this effort is to test the accuracy of a sub-regional portion of an AVHRR-based land cover product. Land cover mapped to three different classification systems, in the southwestern United States, have been subjected to two specific accuracy assessments. One assessment utilizing astronaut acquired photography, and a second assessment employing Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, augmented in some cases, high aerial photography. Validation of these three land cover products has proceeded using a stratified sampling methodology. We believe this research will provide an important initial test of the potential use of imagery acquired from Shuttle and ultimately the International Space Station (ISS) for the operational validation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) land cover products.

  7. Classifying Urban Land Covers Using Local Indices of Spatial Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arumugam, Mahesh; Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The skewed statistical distributions of land cover types in complex, heterogeneous urban areas limits the effectiveness of traditional spectrally based maximum-likelihood classifiers. This work examines the utility of fractal dimension and Moran's I index of spatial autocorrelation in segmenting high-resolution panchromatic and lower-resolution multispectral imagery. Tools available in the Image Characterization and Modeling System (ICAMS) were used to analyze multi-temporal and multi-platform imagery of Atlanta, Georgia. In this example, land cover change trajectories from forest or grassland to built up land covers lead to decreased spatial autocorrelation. In lower resolution imagery such as Landsat MSS, the complex details of forested land covers and urbanized areas are smoothed, and texture-based change detection is less effective. Although segmentation of panchromatic images is possible using fractal dimension or Moran's I, widely differing land covers often yield similar values of these indices. Better results are obtained when a surface of local fractal dimension or spatial autocorrelation is combined as an additional layer in a supervised maximum-likelihood multispectral classification.

  8. Landsat continuity: Issues and opportunities for land cover monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Goward, S.N.; Masek, J.G.; Irons, J.R.; Herold, M.; Cohen, W.B.; Loveland, T.R.; Woodcock, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Initiated in 1972, the Landsat program has provided a continuous record of earth observation for 35 years. The assemblage of Landsat spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, over a reasonably sized image extent, results in imagery that can be processed to represent land cover over large areas with an amount of spatial detail that is absolutely unique and indispensable for monitoring, management, and scientific activities. Recent technical problems with the two existing Landsat satellites, and delays in the development and launch of a successor, increase the likelihood that a gap in Landsat continuity may occur. In this communication, we identify the key features of the Landsat program that have resulted in the extensive use of Landsat data for large area land cover mapping and monitoring. We then augment this list of key features by examining the data needs of existing large area land cover monitoring programs. Subsequently, we use this list as a basis for reviewing the current constellation of earth observation satellites to identify potential alternative data sources for large area land cover applications. Notions of a virtual constellation of satellites to meet large area land cover mapping and monitoring needs are also presented. Finally, research priorities that would facilitate the integration of these alternative data sources into existing large area land cover monitoring programs are identified. Continuity of the Landsat program and the measurements provided are critical for scientific, environmental, economic, and social purposes. It is difficult to overstate the importance of Landsat; there are no other systems in orbit, or planned for launch in the short-term, that can duplicate or approach replication, of the measurements and information conferred by Landsat. While technical and political options are being pursued, there is no satellite image data stream poised to enter the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive should system failures

  9. Dynamics of land use and land cover change (LULCC) using geospatial techniques: a case study of Islamabad Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Zahra; Shabbir, Rabia; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed; Malik, Amir Haider; Aziz, Neelam; Butt, Amna; Erum, Summra

    2016-01-01

    One of the detailed and useful ways to develop land use classification maps is use of geospatial techniques such as remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS). It vastly improves the selection of areas designated as agricultural, industrial and/or urban sector of a region. In Islamabad city and its surroundings, change in land use has been observed and new developments (agriculture, commercial, industrial and urban) are emerging every day. Thus, the rationale of this study was to evaluate land use/cover changes in Islamabad from 1992 to 2012. Quantification of spatial and temporal dynamics of land use/cover changes was accomplished by using two satellite images, and classifying them via supervised classification algorithm and finally applying post-classification change detection technique in GIS. The increase was observed in agricultural area, built-up area and water body from 1992 to 2012. On the other hand forest and barren area followed a declining trend. The driving force behind this change was economic development, climate change and population growth. Rapid urbanization and deforestation resulted in a wide range of environmental impacts, including degraded habitat quality.

  10. The effects of war on land-use/land-cover change: An analysis of Landsat imagery for northeast Bosnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witmer, Frank D. W.

    The use of satellite technology by military planners has a relatively long history as a tool of warfare, but little research has used satellite technology to study the effects of war. This research addresses this gap by applying satellite remote sensing imagery to study the effects of war on land-use/land-cover change in northeast Bosnia. The war in Bosnia, 1992-1995, resulted in over 100,000 deaths, many more wounded, and the mass displacement of nearly half the population of 4.2 million. When combined with the destruction of much of the transportation infrastructure and housing stock, widespread mine placement, and loss of agricultural machinery, the impacts to both the people and land were dramatic. Though the most severe war impacts are visible at local scales (e.g. destroyed buildings), this study focuses on impacts to agricultural land, a larger scale visible to satellite sensors. Multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data (30m pixels) from before and during the war in addition to recent imagery from 2004/05 were used to detect abandoned agricultural land. The satellite images were co-registered to enable a perpixel analysis of changes based on the statistical properties of the pixels using multiple change detection methods. Ground reference data were collected in May of 2006 at survey sites selected using a stratified random sampling approach based on the derived map of abandoned agricultural land. Fine resolution (60cm) Quickbird imagery was also used to verify the accuracy of the classification. The remote sensing analysis results were then used to test two hypotheses related to war outcomes: (a) land abandonment is due to wartime minefields and (b) land abandonment is greater in pre-war Croat areas and areas where ethnic cleansing was heaviest. The effects of minefields on land abandonment was first tested in a geographic information system (GIS), and then by using multiple regression models that account for spatial autocorrelation among observations

  11. Land Cover Change in the Boston Mountains, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends project is focused on understanding the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary U.S. land-cover change. The objectives of the study are to: (1) to develop a comprehensive methodology for using sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data to measure regional land-cover change across the United States; (2) to characterize the types, rates, and temporal variability of change for a 30-year period; (3) to document regional driving forces and consequences of change; and (4) to prepare a national synthesis of land-cover change (Loveland and others, 1999). The 1999 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions derived from Omernik (1987) provide the geographic framework for the geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000. The 27-year study period was divided into five temporal periods: 1973-1980, 1980-1986, 1986-1992, 1992-2000, and 1973-2000, and the data are evaluated using a modified Anderson Land Use Land Cover Classification System (Anderson and others, 1976) for image interpretation. The rates of land-cover change are estimated using a stratified, random sampling of 10-kilometer (km) by 10-km blocks allocated within each ecoregion. For each sample block, satellite images are used to interpret land-cover change for the five time periods previously mentioned. Additionally, historic aerial photographs from similar time frames and other ancillary data, such as census statistics and published literature, are used. The sample block data are then incorporated into statistical analyses to generate an overall change matrix for the ecoregion. Field data of the sample blocks include direct measurements of land cover, particularly ground-survey data collected for training and validation of image classifications (Loveland and others, 2002). The field experience allows for additional

  12. Characterizing the relationship between land use land cover change and land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Duy X.; Pla, Filiberto; Latorre-Carmona, Pedro; Myint, Soe W.; Caetano, Mario; Kieu, Hoan V.

    2017-02-01

    Exploring changes in land use land cover (LULC) to understand the urban heat island (UHI) effect is valuable for both communities and local governments in cities in developing countries, where urbanization and industrialization often take place rapidly but where coherent planning and control policies have not been applied. This work aims at determining and analyzing the relationship between LULC change and land surface temperature (LST) patterns in the context of urbanization. We first explore the relationship between LST and vegetation, man-made features, and cropland using normalized vegetation, and built-up indices within each LULC type. Afterwards, we assess the impacts of LULC change and urbanization in UHI using hot spot analysis (Getis-Ord Gi∗ statistics) and urban landscape analysis. Finally, we propose a model applying non-parametric regression to estimate future urban climate patterns using predicted land cover and land use change. Results from this work provide an effective methodology for UHI characterization, showing that (a) LST depends on a nonlinear way of LULC types; (b) hotspot analysis using Getis Ord Gi∗ statistics allows to analyze the LST pattern change through time; (c) UHI is influenced by both urban landscape and urban development type; (d) LST pattern forecast and UHI effect examination can be done by the proposed model using nonlinear regression and simulated LULC change scenarios. We chose an inner city area of Hanoi as a case-study, a small and flat plain area where LULC change is significant due to urbanization and industrialization. The methodology presented in this paper can be broadly applied in other cities which exhibit a similar dynamic growth. Our findings can represent an useful tool for policy makers and the community awareness by providing a scientific basis for sustainable urban planning and management.

  13. Combining satellite data with ancillary data to produce a refined land-use/land-cover map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages Study Unit, a current map of land use and land cover is needed to gain a better understanding of how land use and land cover may influence water quality. Satellite data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper provides a means to map and measure the type and amount of various land-cover types across the Study Unit and can be easily updated as changes occur in the landscape or in water quality. Translating these land cover categories to land use, however, requires the use of other thematic maps or ancillary data layers, such as wetland inventories, population data, or road networks. This report describes a process of (1) using satellite imagery to produce a land-cover map for the Fox/Wolf River basin, a portion of the Western Lake Michigan Drainages NAWQA Study Unit and (2) improving the satellite-derived land-cover map by using other thematic maps. The multiple data layers are processed in a geographic information system (GIS), and the combination provides more information than individual sources alone.

  14. Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here.

  15. Land Cover and Topography Affect the Land Transformation Caused by Wind Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here. PMID:24558449

  16. Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities.

    PubMed

    Diffendorfer, Jay E; Compton, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here.

  17. The Biogeophysical Impacts of Land Use/Land Cover Change in the Southeastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenburg, W. L., II; McNider, R. T.; Cruise, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation explores the biogeophysical impacts of land use/land cover (LULC) in the Southeastern U.S. over the past century. A reconstructed LULC change dataset was constructed from a series of existing LULC datasets. Land surface and satellite observations were analyzed to estimate the net radiative forcing due to LULC change. Albedo and latent energy were specifically addressed for the dominant land use change of agriculture to evergreen forests. The results show that in the Southeastern U.S. for the period of 1920 to 1992 the change in sensible (as a result of albedo) and latent energies are in direct competition with each other. In the spring and early summer months, the croplands are in peak production and the latent energy associated with their ET is comparable to that of the forested areas, so the change in radiation due to albedo dominates the signal. However, during the late summer and fall months most major crops have matured (or been harvested) thus reducing their transpiration rate while forests (particularly evergreens) maintain their foliage; and with their deep roots, are able to continue to transpire as long as atmospheric conditions are favorable. This later influence of latent energy appears to more than offset the increased radiative forcing from the spring and early summer. Overall, the mean annual net radiative forcing as a result of the LULC change from cropland and forests is estimated to be -1.06 w/m2. This result supports a probable contribution to the 'warming hole' over the Southeast during the majority of the 20th century.

  18. Regional carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change in Asia, 1980-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle, Leonardo; Canadell, Josep G.; Patra, Prabir; Ciais, Philippe; Ichii, Kazuhito; Tian, Hanqin; Kondo, Masayuki; Piao, Shilong; Arneth, Almut; Harper, Anna B.; Ito, Akihiko; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charlie; Sitch, Stephen; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Vivoy, Nicolas; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke; Poulter, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    We present a synthesis of the land-atmosphere carbon flux from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in Asia using multiple data sources and paying particular attention to deforestation and forest regrowth fluxes. The data sources are quasi-independent and include the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization-Forest Resource Assessment (FAO-FRA 2015; country-level inventory estimates), the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3), the ‘Houghton’ bookkeeping model that incorporates FAO-FRA data, an ensemble of 8 state-of-the-art Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), and 2 recently published independent studies using primarily remote sensing techniques. The estimates are aggregated spatially to Southeast, East, and South Asia and temporally for three decades, 1980-1989, 1990-1999 and 2000-2009. Since 1980, net carbon emissions from LULCC in Asia were responsible for 20%-40% of global LULCC emissions, with emissions from Southeast Asia alone accounting for 15%-25% of global LULCC emissions during the same period. In the 2000s and for all Asia, three estimates (FAO-FRA, DGVM, Houghton) were in agreement of a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with mean estimates ranging between 0.24 to 0.41 Pg C yr-1, whereas EDGARv4.3 suggested a net carbon sink of -0.17 Pg C yr-1. Three of 4 estimates suggest that LULCC carbon emissions declined by at least 34% in the preceding decade (1990-2000). Spread in the estimates is due to the inclusion of different flux components and their treatments, showing the importance to include emissions from carbon rich peatlands and land management, such as shifting cultivation and wood harvesting, which appear to be consistently underreported.

  19. Using satellite data to monitor land-use land-cover change in North-eastern Latvia.

    PubMed

    Fonji, Simon Foteck; Taff, Gregory N

    2014-01-01

    Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC), especially those caused by human activities, is one of the most important components of global environmental change (Jessen 3(rd) edition: 1-526 2005). In this study the effects of geographic and demographic factors on LULCC are analyzed in northeastern Latvia using official estimates from census and vital statistics data, and using remotely sensed satellite imagery (Landsat Thematic Mapper) acquired from 1992 and 2007. The remote sensing images, elevation data, in-situ ground truth and ground control data (using GPS), census and vital statistics data were processed, integrated, and analyzed in a geographic information system (GIS). Changes in six categories of land-use and land-cover (wetland, water, agriculture, forest, bare field and urban/suburban) were studied to determine their relationship to demographic and geographic factors between 1992 and 2007. Supervised classifications were performed on the Landsat images. Analysis of land cover change based on "change-to" categories between the 1992 and 2007 images revealed that changes to forest were the most common type of change (17.1% of pixels), followed by changes to agriculture (8.6%) and the fewest were changes to urban/suburban (0.8%). Integration of population data and land-cover change data revealed key findings: areas near to roads underwent more LULCC and areas far away from Riga underwent less LULCC. Range in elevation was positively correlated with all LULCC categories. Population density was found to be associated with most LULCC categories but the direction of effect was scale dependent. This paper shows how socio-demographic data can be integrated with satellite image data and cartographic data to analyze drivers of LULCC at multiple spatial scales.

  20. Major forest changes and land cover transitions based on plant functional types derived from the ESA CCI Land Cover product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Peng, Shushi; Defourny, Pierre; Bontemps, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Land use and land cover change are of prime concern due to their impacts on CO2 emissions, climate change and ecological services. New global land cover products at 300 m resolution from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI LC) project for epochs centered around 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed to investigate forest area change and land cover transitions. Plant functional types (PFTs) fractions were derived from these land cover products according to a conversion table. The gross global forest loss between 2000 and 2010 is 172,171 km2, accounting for 0.6% of the global forest area in year 2000. The forest changes are mainly distributed in tropical areas such as Brazil and Indonesia. Forest gains were only observed between 2005 and 2010 with a global area of 9844 km2, mostly from crops in Southeast Asia and South America. The predominant PFT transition is deforestation from forest to crop, accounting for four-fifths of the total increase of cropland area between 2000 and 2010. The transitions from forest to bare soil, shrub, and grass also contributed strongly to the total areal change in PFTs. Different PFT transition matrices and composition patterns were found in different regions. The highest fractions of forest to bare soil transitions were found in the United States and Canada, reflecting forest management practices. Most of the degradation from grassland and shrubland to bare soil occurred in boreal regions. The areal percentage of forest loss and land cover transitions generally decreased from 2000-2005 to 2005-2010. Different data sources and uncertainty in the conversion factors (converting from original LC classes to PFTs) contribute to the discrepancy in the values of change in absolute forest area.

  1. Weed science and management, in soil sciences, land cover, and land use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integral component of conservation agriculture systems in cotton is the use of a high-residue winter cover crop; however, terminating such cover crops is a cost and planting into high-residue is a challenge. Black oat, rye, and wheat winter cover crops were flattened with a straight-blade mechan...

  2. Assessment of Large Scale Land Cover Change Classifications and Drivers of Deforestation in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaya, A.; Sugardiman Budiharto, R. A.; Tosiani, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Verchot, L. V.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia possesses the third largest tropical forests coverage following Brazilian Amazon and Congo Basin regions. This country, however, suffered from the highest deforestation rate surpassing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon in 2012. National capacity for forest change assessment and monitoring has been well-established in Indonesia and the availability of national forest inventory data could largely assist the country to report their forest carbon stocks and change over more than two decades. This work focuses for refining forest cover change mapping and deforestation estimate at national scale applying over 10,000 scenes of Landsat scenes, acquired in 1990, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2011 and 2012. Pre-processing of the data includes, geometric corrections and image mosaicking. The classification of mosaic Landsat data used multi-stage visual observation approaches, verified using ground observations and comparison with other published materials. There are 23 land cover classes identified from land cover data, presenting spatial information of forests, agriculture, plantations, non-vegetated lands and other land use categories. We estimated the magnitude of forest cover change and assessed drivers of forest cover change over time. Forest change trajectories analysis was also conducted to observe dynamics of forest cover across time. This study found that careful interpretations of satellite data can provide reliable information on forest cover and change. Deforestation trend in Indonesia was lower in 2000-2012 compared to 1990-2000 periods. We also found that over 50% of forests loss in 1990 remains unproductive in 2012. Major drivers of forest conversion in Indonesia range from shrubs/open land, subsistence agriculture, oil palm expansion, plantation forest and mining. The results were compared with other available datasets and we obtained that the MOF data yields reliable estimate of deforestation.

  3. Cropland for sub-Saharan Africa: A synergistic approach using five land cover data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Steffen; You, Liangzhi; Bun, Andriy; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian; Schill, Christian; Perger, Christoph; Liu, Junguo; Hansen, Matt; Obersteiner, Michael

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the creation of a cropland map for Africa through the combination of five existing land cover products: GLC-2000, MODIS Land Cover, GlobCover, MODIS Crop Likelihood and AfriCover. A synergy map is created in which the products are ranked by experts, which reflects the likelihood or probability that a given pixel is cropland. The cropland map is then calibrated with national and sub-national crop statistics using a novel approach. Preliminary validation of the map was undertaken and the results are presented. The resulting cropland map has an accuracy of 83%, which is higher than the accuracy of any of the individual maps. The cropland map is freely available at agriculture.geo-wiki.org.

  4. Land cover controls the export of terminal electron acceptors from boreal catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Lehtoranta, Jouni; Ekholm, Petri; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Kortelainen, Pirkko

    2015-04-01

    NO3, Mn, Fe and SO4 act as terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) modifying mineralization pathways and coupling biogeochemical cycles. Although single TEA concentrations and fluxes have been intensively studied, the factors regulating the simultaneous fluxes and molar ratios of TEAs are poorly elucidated. We studied the mean concentrations, exports and molar ratios of TEAs from 27 boreal catchments differing in land cover (percentage of agricultural land, peatland, forest and built-up area) in the years 2000-2011. TEA exports and molar ratios were strongly controlled by land cover and only little by atmospheric deposition. There were a great variability of the export of TEAs from different land cover classes. Fields produced the highest export of TEAs, particularly NO3. Peatland was linked to low NO3 and SO4 but high Fe exports. NO3, Mn and Fe exports from forests were low, SO4 having proportionally the highest export. Together, the percentages of field and peatland predicted 93%, 80%, 75% and 67% of the variation in the export of NO3, Mn, Fe and SO4, respectively. Our results showed that the export and molar ratios of TEAs in northern European boreal catchments are predominantly a function of land cover and catchment processes rather than atmospheric deposition. The variable export of TEAs having different availability and physical behavior may create different premises for anaerobic mineralization in downstream systems, which adds a new dimension to the link between terrestrial system, land use and environmental problems such as eutrophication and climate change.

  5. Land-cover effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a European city.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; McCormack, Sarah A; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-02-15

    Soil is the vital foundation of terrestrial ecosystems storing water, nutrients, and almost three-quarters of the organic carbon stocks of the Earth's biomes. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks vary with land-cover and land-use change, with significant losses occurring through disturbance and cultivation. Although urbanisation is a growing contributor to land-use change globally, the effects of urban land-cover types on SOC stocks have not been studied for densely built cities. Additionally, there is a need to resolve the direction and extent to which greenspace management such as tree planting impacts on SOC concentrations. Here, we analyse the effect of land-cover (herbaceous, shrub or tree cover), on SOC stocks in domestic gardens and non-domestic greenspaces across a typical mid-sized U.K. city (Leicester, 73 km(2), 56% greenspace), and map citywide distribution of this ecosystem service. SOC was measured in topsoil and compared to surrounding extra-urban agricultural land. Average SOC storage in the city's greenspace was 9.9 kg m(-2), to 21 cm depth. SOC concentrations under trees and shrubs in domestic gardens were greater than all other land-covers, with total median storage of 13.5 kg m(-2) to 21 cm depth, more than 3 kg m(-2) greater than any other land-cover class in domestic and non-domestic greenspace and 5 kg m(-2) greater than in arable land. Land-cover did not significantly affect SOC concentrations in non-domestic greenspace, but values beneath trees were higher than under both pasture and arable land, whereas concentrations under shrub and herbaceous land-covers were only higher than arable fields. We conclude that although differences in greenspace management affect SOC stocks, trees only marginally increase these stocks in non-domestic greenspaces, but may enhance them in domestic gardens, and greenspace topsoils hold substantial SOC stores that require protection from further expansion of artificial surfaces e.g. patios and driveways.

  6. Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Data for Modeling of Dryland Evapotranspiration and Land Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, R.; Hartfield, K. A.; Barrera, P.; Van Leeuwen, W. J. D.; Papuga, S. A.; Scott, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Water security is an increasing concern around the globe. The goal of this research is to better understand the complex relationships which exist between land cover change and water use within a dryland ecosystem. The Santa Cruz watershed in southeastern Arizona is experiencing increasing population growth and reduced water resources, highlighting a direct relationship between land cover change and water use. Using multi-source and multi-scale data sets including multispectral imagery, thermal imagery, and climate variables, we present the following three-step research approach: 1) land cover change, 2) evapotranspiration modeling, and 3) data validation. Assessment of land cover change between 2003 and 2013 was performed using Landsat data and validated via high resolution imagery. Regional evapotranspiration was calculated using the Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) model. Validation of the METRIC model was performed using measurements from multiple flux towers within the watershed. With the capability to observe historical changes as well as current events, this approach integrates multiple public data sources representing varying scales to accurately monitor and assess environmental change. Overall, this approach demonstrates how remote sensing capabilities combined with surface measurements can be utilized to ascertain and validate complex ecosystem relationships. Preliminary results suggest that land cover change alters the amount of evapotranspiration within the Santa Cruz watershed. We also show that METRIC performed better in agricultural areas compared to naturally vegetated shrubland areas. Finally, this research will be used as a prototype to evaluate other dryland regions of the Americas.

  7. Land Cover Classification overEurope Using SAR Imaging Innovative Methodologies and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntouanoglou, K.; Mouratidis, A.

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasingly growing interest in observing the Earth's surface from space. This can be done in several ways, such as using visible and radar imaging - the latter significantly less popular amongst members of the international scientific community. The purpose of this study is the exploitation of the advantages of radar satellite data, namely independence from cloud cover and solar illumination, for land cover classification. The properties of the recorded radar data heavily depend on the type of land cover, season and weather conditions. Therefore, it is possible to utilize the variability of these factors, in order to develop various methodologies and innovative techniques that can be used for classifying land surfaces. Although the study focuses on four main land cover types in Europe (urban, mountainous, agricultural-low vegetation and forested areas), the same principles can be extended worldwide, concluding to useful results for designing future satellite missions or as a guideline for researchers interested in an in- depth studying of a specific land cover type.

  8. Land use and land cover digital data from 1:250,000- and 1:100,000- scale maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1990-01-01

    The Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC) distribute digital cartographic/geographic data files produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Mapping Program. The data files are grouped into four basic types. The first type, called a Digital Line Graph (DLG), is line map information in digital form. These data files include information on planimetric base categories, such as transportation, hydrography, and boundaries. The second type, called a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists of a sampled array of elevations for ground positions that are usually at regularly spaced intervals. The third type, Land Use and Land Cover digital data, provide information on nine major classes of land use such as urban, agricultural, or forest as well as associated map data such as political units and Federal land ownership. The fourth type, the Geographic Names Information System, provides primary information for known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name.

  9. Monitoring of rapid land cover changes in eastern Japan using Terra/MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, I.; Hara, K.; Park, J.; Asanuma, I.; Tomita, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Short, K.; Fujihara, M.,

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation and land cover in Japan are rapidly changing. Abandoned farmland in 2010, for example, was 396,000 ha, or triple that of 1985. Efficient monitoring of changes in land cover is vital to both conservation of biodiversity and sustainable regional development. The Ministry of Environment is currently producing 1/25,000 scale vegetation maps for all of Japan, but the work is not yet completed. Traditional research is time consuming, and has difficulty coping with the rapid nature of change in the modern world. In this situation, classification of various scale remotely sensed data can be of premier use for efficient and timely monitoring of changes in vegetation.. In this research Terra/MODIS data is utilized to classify land cover in all of eastern Japan. Emphasis is placed on the Tohoku area, where large scale and rapid changes in vegetation have occurred in the aftermath of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Large sections of coastal forest and agricultural lands, for example, were directly damaged by the earthquake or inundated by subsequent tsunami. Agricultural land was also abandoned due to radioactive contamination from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The classification results are interpreted within the framework of a Landscape Transformation Sere model developed by Hara et al (2010), which presents a multi-staged pattern for tracking vegetation changes under successively heavy levels of human interference. The results of the research will be useful for balancing conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems with the needs for regional redevelopment.

  10. Remote sensing imageries for land cover and water quality dynamics on the west coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minha; Han, Seungjae

    2013-11-01

    As human activities influence land cover changes, the environment on human life such as water quality, has been impacted. In particular, huge constructions or reclamation projects are responsible for dramatic land cover changes. The Saemangeum area in South Korea has been one of the largest reclamation projects to progress nearly in two decades. In this study, Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images were used to classify land cover types in the Saemangeum area. A change detection method was utilized to determine the impacts of the reclamation project. While wetland, grassland, and urban areas were increased, forest, water, and agricultural areas were decreased during the reclamation progress. Water quality analysis related to the land cover changes was conducted to determine the influence of reclamation construction on the environment. Chemical oxygen demand and suspended sediment variability were significantly impacted by the sea current changes after the dyke construction. On the contrary, water temperature and dissolved oxygen were affected by the seasonal influences rather than the reclamation construction. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus were influenced by the fertilizers and pesticides as a result of agricultural activity. The trends of suspended sediment from Landsat images were similar with those from the ground observation sites and also impacted by the dyke construction.

  11. Land cover associations of nesting territories of three sympatric buteos in shortgrass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, S.; O'Connell, T. J.; Leslie, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Buteo hawks nest sympatrically in the southern Great Plains of the United States. Dietary overlap among them is broad and we tested the hypothesis these species partition their breeding habitat spatially. We compared land cover and topography around 224 nests of the three species breeding in shortgrass prairie in 2004 and 2005. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) nested almost exclusively in riparian timber surrounded by prairie (95% prairie land cover around nests) and disproportionately used areas with greater topographic relief within prairie landscapes. Swainson's Hawks (B. swainsoni) commonly nested in low-relief areas dominated by small-grain production agriculture but generally used habitats in proportion to availability. Most nest sites of Ferruginous Hawks (B. regalis) were in prairie (78% prairie land cover around nests), but some were in areas that were at least partially agricultural. Ferruginous Hawks had at least two times more sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) around their nests than their two congeners. We conclude that sympatric breeding Buteos on the southern Great Plains spatially partitioned nest sites according to subtle differences in land cover and topography.

  12. Mediterranean Land Use and Land Cover Classification Assessment Using High Spatial Resolution Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhag, Mohamed; Boteva, Silvena

    2016-10-01

    Landscape fragmentation is noticeably practiced in Mediterranean regions and imposes substantial complications in several satellite image classification methods. To some extent, high spatial resolution data were able to overcome such complications. For better classification performances in Land Use Land Cover (LULC) mapping, the current research adopts different classification methods comparison for LULC mapping using Sentinel-2 satellite as a source of high spatial resolution. Both of pixel-based and an object-based classification algorithms were assessed; the pixel-based approach employs Maximum Likelihood (ML), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and, the object-based classification uses the Nearest Neighbour (NN) classifier. Stratified Masking Process (SMP) that integrates a ranking process within the classes based on spectral fluctuation of the sum of the training and testing sites was implemented. An analysis of the overall and individual accuracy of the classification results of all four methods reveals that the SVM classifier was the most efficient overall by distinguishing most of the classes with the highest accuracy. NN succeeded to deal with artificial surface classes in general while agriculture area classes, and forest and semi-natural area classes were segregated successfully with SVM. Furthermore, a comparative analysis indicates that the conventional classification method yielded better accuracy results than the SMP method overall with both classifiers used, ML and SVM.

  13. The dynamics of human-induced land cover change in miombo ecosystems of southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiteh, Malanding Sambou

    Understanding human-induced land cover change in the miombo require the consistent, geographically-referenced, data on temporal land cover characteristics as well as biophysical and socioeconomic drivers of land use, the major cause of land cover change. The overall goal of this research to examine the applications of high-resolution satellite remote sensing data in studying the dynamics of human-induced land cover change in the miombo. Specific objectives are to: (1) evaluate the applications of computer-assisted classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data for land cover mapping in the miombo and (2) analyze spatial and temporal patterns of landscape change locations in the miombo. Stepwise Thematic Classification, STC (a hybrid supervised-unsupervised classification) procedure for classifying Landsat TM data was developed and tested using Landsat TM data. Classification accuracy results were compared to those from supervised and unsupervised classification. The STC provided the highest classification accuracy i.e., 83.9% correspondence between classified and referenced data compared to 44.2% and 34.5% for unsupervised and supervised classification respectively. Improvements in the classification process can be attributed to thematic stratification of the image data into spectrally homogenous (thematic) groups and step-by-step classification of the groups using supervised or unsupervised classification techniques. Supervised classification failed to classify 18% of the scene evidence that training data used did not adequately represent all of the variability in the data. Application of the procedure in drier miombo produced overall classification accuracy of 63%. This is much lower than that of wetter miombo. The results clearly demonstrate that digital classification of Landsat TM can be successfully implemented in the miombo without intensive fieldwork. Spatial characteristics of land cover change in agricultural and forested landscapes in central Malawi

  14. Land use, population dynamics, and land-cover change in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter B in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, William A.; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Pares-Ramos, Isabel K.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed current and historic land use and land cover in the Luquillo Mountains and surrounding area in eastern Puerto Rico, including four small subwatersheds that are study watersheds of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. This region occupies an area of 1,616 square kilometers, about 18 percent of the total land in Puerto Rico. Closed forests occupy about 37 percent of the area, woodlands and shrublands 7 percent, nonforest vegetation 43 percent, urban development 10 percent, and water and natural barrens total less than 2 percent. The area has been classified into three main land-use categories by integrating recent census information (population density per barrio in the year 2000) with satellite image analyses (degree of developed area versus natural land cover). Urban land use (in this analysis, land with more than 20 percent developed cover within a 1-square-kilometer area and population density greater than 500 people per square kilometer) covered 16 percent of eastern Puerto Rico. Suburban land use (more than 80 percent natural land cover, more than 500 people per square kilometer, and primarily residential) covers 50 percent of the area. Rural land use (more than 80 percent natural land cover, less than 500 people per square kilometer, and primarily active or abandoned agricultural, wetland, steep slope, or protected conservation areas) covered 34 percent of the area. Our analysis of land-cover change indicates that in the 1990s, forest cover increased at the expense of woodlands and grasslands. Urban development increased by 16 percent during that time. The most pronounced change in the last seven decades has been the shift from a nonforested to a forested landscape and the intensification of the ring of urbanization that surrounds the long-protected Luquillo Experimental Forest.

  15. Recent land cover changes and sensitivity of the model simulations to various land cover datasets for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Ma, Zhuguo; Mahmood, Rezaul; Zhao, Tianbao; Li, Zhenhua; Li, Yanping

    2016-09-01

    Reliable land cover data are important for improving numerical simulation by regional climate model, because the land surface properties directly affect climate simulation by partitioning of energy, water and momentum fluxes and by determining temperature and moisture at the interface between the land surface and atmosphere. China has experienced significant land cover change in recent decades and accurate representation of these changes is, hence, essential. In this study, we used a climate model to examine the changes experienced in the regional climate because of the different land cover data in recent decades. Three sets of experiments are performed using the same settings, except for the land use/cover (LC) data for the years 1990, 2000, 2009, and the model default LC data. Three warm season periods are selected, which represented a wet (1998), normal (2000) and a dry year (2011) for China in each set of experiment. The results show that all three sets of land cover experiments simulate a warm bias relative to the control with default LC data for near-surface temperature in summertime in most parts of China. It is especially noticeable in the southwest China and south of the Yangtze River, where significant changes of LC occurred. Deforestation in southwest China and to the south of Yangtze River in the experiment cases may have contributed to the negative precipitation bias relative to the control cases. Large LC changes in northwestern Tibetan Plateau for 2000 and 2009 datasets are also associated with changes in surface temperature, precipitation, and heat fluxes. Wind anomalies and energy budget changes are consistent with the precipitation and temperature changes.

  16. GIS analysis of land cover changes on the territory of the Prokuplje Municipality.

    PubMed

    Valjarević, Aleksandar; Živković, Dragica; Valjarević, Dragana; Stevanović, Vladica; Golijanin, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of the territory of Prokuplje Municipality was done based on 1 : 25,000 topographic maps in three different time periods (1969, 1974, and 1984) and land cover map in 2012. Analogous topographic maps done in 1969, 1974, and 1984 were used, while in 2012 the land cover map obtained by using CORINE-like approach was used. Topographic maps are developed by aerial campaign, and today they are replaced by satellite images. Topographic maps were scanned, and raster form was transformed to vector data with Geo Media Professional 6.1 and Global Mapper software. The monitoring in the period of 1969-2012, on the area of 758300000 m(2), was performed, where some parameters were analyzed. In particular, the changes of natural resources, primarily forest lands, were observed as well as the type of land susceptible to primary erosion, including the level of urbanization and level of agricultural land. The obtained results clearly showed changes in forestation within the 43-year-long period, as well as changes in primary erosion and urbanization, while at the level of agricultural land, slight changes were found. The paper also involved transition of social factors from 1969 to 2012, expressed as a change between the earth and forest layer.

  17. GIS Analysis of Land Cover Changes on the Territory of the Prokuplje Municipality

    PubMed Central

    Valjarević, Aleksandar; Živković, Dragica; Valjarević, Dragana; Stevanović, Vladica; Golijanin, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of the territory of Prokuplje Municipality was done based on 1 : 25,000 topographic maps in three different time periods (1969, 1974, and 1984) and land cover map in 2012. Analogous topographic maps done in 1969, 1974, and 1984 were used, while in 2012 the land cover map obtained by using CORINE-like approach was used. Topographic maps are developed by aerial campaign, and today they are replaced by satellite images. Topographic maps were scanned, and raster form was transformed to vector data with Geo Media Professional 6.1 and Global Mapper software. The monitoring in the period of 1969–2012, on the area of 758300000 m2, was performed, where some parameters were analyzed. In particular, the changes of natural resources, primarily forest lands, were observed as well as the type of land susceptible to primary erosion, including the level of urbanization and level of agricultural land. The obtained results clearly showed changes in forestation within the 43-year-long period, as well as changes in primary erosion and urbanization, while at the level of agricultural land, slight changes were found. The paper also involved transition of social factors from 1969 to 2012, expressed as a change between the earth and forest layer. PMID:25165745

  18. Strong dependence of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land cover change on initial land cover and soil carbon parametrization

    DOE PAGES

    Goll, Daniel S.; Brovkin, Victor; Liski, Jari; ...

    2015-08-12

    The quantification of sources and sinks of carbon from land use and land cover changes (LULCC) is uncertain. We investigated how the parametrization of LULCC and of organic matter decomposition, as well as initial land cover, affects the historical and future carbon fluxes in an Earth System Model (ESM). Using the land component of the Max Planck Institute ESM, we found that the historical (1750–2010) LULCC flux varied up to 25% depending on the fraction of biomass which enters the atmosphere directly due to burning or is used in short-lived products. The uncertainty in the decadal LULCC fluxes of themore » recent past due to the parametrization of decomposition and direct emissions was 0.6 Pg C yr$-$1, which is 3 times larger than the uncertainty previously attributed to model and method in general. Preindustrial natural land cover had a larger effect on decadal LULCC fluxes than the aforementioned parameter sensitivity (1.0 Pg C yr$-$1). Regional differences between reconstructed and dynamically computed land covers, in particular, at low latitudes, led to differences in historical LULCC emissions of 84–114 Pg C, globally. This effect is larger than the effects of forest regrowth, shifting cultivation, or climate feedbacks and comparable to the effect of differences among studies in the terminology of LULCC. Finally, in general, we find that the practice of calibrating the net land carbon balance to provide realistic boundary conditions for the climate component of an ESM hampers the applicability of the land component outside its primary field of application.« less

  19. Implications of agricultural land use change to ecosystem services in the Ganges delta.

    PubMed

    Islam, G M Tarekul; Islam, A K M Saiful; Shopan, Ahsan Azhar; Rahman, Md Munsur; Lázár, Attila N; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-09-15

    Ecosystems provide the basis for human civilization and natural capital for green economy and sustainable development. Ecosystem services may range from crops, fish, freshwater to those that are harder to see such as erosion regulation, carbon sequestration, and pest control. Land use changes have been identified as the main sources of coastal and marine pollution in Bangladesh. This paper explores the temporal variation of agricultural land use change and its implications with ecosystem services in the Ganges delta. With time agricultural lands have been decreased and wetlands have been increased at a very high rate mainly due to the growing popularity of saltwater shrimp farming. In a span of 28 years, the agricultural lands have been reduced by approximately 50%, while the wetlands have been increased by over 500%. A large portion (nearly 40%) of the study area is covered by the Sundarbans which remained almost constant which can be attributed to the strict regulatory intervention to preserve the Sundarbans. The settlement & others land use type has also been increased to nearly 5%. There is a gradual uptrend of shrimp and fish production in the study area. The findings suggest that there are significant linkages between agricultural land use change and ecosystem services in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. The continuous decline of agricultural land (due to salinization) and an increase of wetland have been attributed to the conversion of agricultural land into shrimp farming in the study area. Such land use change requires significant capital, therefore, only investors and wealthier land owners can get the higher profit from the land conversion while the poor people is left with the environmental consequences that affect their long-term lives and livelihood. An environmental management plan is proposed for sustainable land use in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh.

  20. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter.

    PubMed

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  1. Bacterial pathogens in Hawaiian coastal streams--associations with fecal indicators, land cover, and water quality.

    PubMed

    Viau, Emily J; Goodwin, Kelly D; Yamahara, Kevan M; Layton, Blythe A; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Burns, Siobhán L; Tong, Hsin-I; Wong, Simon H C; Lu, Yuanan; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-05-01

    This work aimed to understand the distribution of five bacterial pathogens in O'ahu coastal streams and relate their presence to microbial indicator concentrations, land cover of the surrounding watersheds, and physical-chemical measures of stream water quality. Twenty-two streams were sampled four times (in December and March, before sunrise and at high noon) to capture seasonal and time of day variation. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus were widespread -12 of 22 O'ahu streams had all five pathogens. All stream waters also had detectable concentrations of four fecal indicators and total vibrio with log mean ± standard deviation densities of 2.2 ± 0.8 enterococci, 2.7 ± 0.7 Escherichia coli, 1.1 ± 0.7 Clostridium perfringens, 1.2 ± 0.8 F(+) coliphages, and 3.6 ± 0.7 total vibrio per 100 ml. Bivariate associations between pathogens and indicators showed enterococci positively associated with the greatest number of bacterial pathogens. Higher concentrations of enterococci and higher incidence of Campylobacter were found in stream waters collected before sunrise, suggesting these organisms are sensitive to sunlight. Multivariate regression models of microbes as a function of land cover and physical-chemical water quality showed positive associations between Salmonella and agricultural and forested land covers, and between S. aureus and urban and agricultural land covers; these results suggested that sources specific to those land covers may contribute these pathogens to streams. Further, significant associations between some microbial targets and physical-chemical stream water quality (i.e., temperature, nutrients, turbidity) suggested that organism persistence may be affected by stream characteristics. Results implicate streams as a source of pathogens to coastal waters. Future work is recommended to determine infectious risks of recreational waterborne illness related to O'ahu stream exposures and to

  2. Land use and land cover mapping: City of Palm Bay, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, D. D.; Pierce, R.

    1977-01-01

    Two different computer systems were compared for use in making land use and land cover maps. The Honeywell 635 with the LANDSAT signature development program (LSDP) produced a map depicting general patterns, but themes were difficult to classify as specific land use. Urban areas were unclassified. The General Electric Image 100 produced a map depicting eight land cover categories classifying 68 percent of the total area. Ground truth, LSDP, and Image 100 maps were all made to the same scale for comparison. LSDP agreed with the ground truth 60 percent and 64 percent within the two test areas compared and Image 100 was in agreement 70 percent and 80 percent.

  3. ASSESSING ACCURACY OF NET CHANGE DERIVED FROM LAND COVER MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Net change derived from land-cover maps provides important descriptive information for environmental monitoring and is often used as an input or explanatory variable in environmental models. The sampling design and analysis for assessing net change accuracy differ from traditio...

  4. Monitoring vegetative land cover and water use using satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative land cover and water use are the key indicators required by the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) for promoting the production and use of modern bioenergy, particularly in the developing world. Since the statistical data and field observations are limited in the developing countries, re...

  5. Land Cover - Nutrient Export Relationships in Space and Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between watershed land-cover composition and nutrient export has been well established through several meta-analyses. The meta-analyses reveal that nutrient loads from watersheds dominated by natural vegetation tend to be lower than nutrient loads from watershed...

  6. D Land Cover Classification Based on Multispectral LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral Lidar System can emit simultaneous laser pulses at the different wavelengths. The reflected multispectral energy is captured through a receiver of the sensor, and the return signal together with the position and orientation information of sensor is recorded. These recorded data are solved with GNSS/IMU data for further post-processing, forming high density multispectral 3D point clouds. As the first commercial multispectral airborne Lidar sensor, Optech Titan system is capable of collecting point clouds data from all three channels at 532nm visible (Green), at 1064 nm near infrared (NIR) and at 1550nm intermediate infrared (IR). It has become a new source of data for 3D land cover classification. The paper presents an Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach to only use multispectral Lidar point clouds datasets for 3D land cover classification. The approach consists of three steps. Firstly, multispectral intensity images are segmented into image objects on the basis of multi-resolution segmentation integrating different scale parameters. Secondly, intensity objects are classified into nine categories by using the customized features of classification indexes and a combination the multispectral reflectance with the vertical distribution of object features. Finally, accuracy assessment is conducted via comparing random reference samples points from google imagery tiles with the classification results. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most of the land cover types. Over 90% of overall accuracy is achieved via using multispectral Lidar point clouds for 3D land cover classification.

  7. Denitrification in Headwater Wetlands with Varying Surrounding Land Cover Types

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are recognized for their significant role in providing a range of ecosystem services. In light of this, research is currently being performed to characterize how forcing functions (e.g., climate change and land cover change) affect the provision of ecosystem services by ...

  8. GREAT LAKES BASIN LAND-COVER DATA: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a consistent land-cover (LC) data set for the entire 480,000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). The acquisition of consistent LC data has proven difficult both within the US and across GLB political boundaries due to disparate...

  9. APPLICATION OF LAND-COVER DATA FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many parts of the United States, urbanization is a pervasive dynamic that has many environmental consequences. Land-cover and related (e.g. Landsat) data are fundamental for studying urbanization itself and its environmental effects.

    Well established models in economic...

  10. OVERVIEW OF US NATIONAL LAND-COVER MAPPING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of escalating costs amid growing needs for large-scale, satellite-based landscape information, a group of US federal agencies agreed to pool resources and operate as a consortium to acquire the necessary data land-cover mapping of the nation . The consortium was initiated...

  11. Upper Kalamazoo watershed land cover inventory. [based on remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richason, B., III; Enslin, W.

    1973-01-01

    Approximately 1000 square miles of the eastern portion of the watershed were inventoried based on remote sensing imagery. The classification scheme, imagery and interpretation procedures, and a cost analysis are discussed. The distributions of land cover within the area are tabulated.

  12. Land Cover Change in Colombia: Surprising Forest Recovery Trends between 2001 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Cuervo, Ana María; Aide, T. Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L.; Etter, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Background Monitoring land change at multiple spatial scales is essential for identifying hotspots of change, and for developing and implementing policies for conserving biodiversity and habitats. In the high diversity country of Colombia, these types of analyses are difficult because there is no consistent wall-to-wall, multi-temporal dataset for land-use and land-cover change. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this problem, we mapped annual land-use and land-cover from 2001 to 2010 in Colombia using MODIS (250 m) products coupled with reference data from high spatial resolution imagery (QuickBird) in Google Earth. We used QuickBird imagery to visually interpret percent cover of eight land cover classes used for classifier training and accuracy assessment. Based on these maps we evaluated land cover change at four spatial scales country, biome, ecoregion, and municipality. Of the 1,117 municipalities, 820 had a net gain in woody vegetation (28,092 km2) while 264 had a net loss (11,129 km2), which resulted in a net gain of 16,963 km2 in woody vegetation at the national scale. Woody regrowth mainly occurred in areas previously classified as mixed woody/plantation rather than agriculture/herbaceous. The majority of this gain occurred in the Moist Forest biome, within the montane forest ecoregions, while the greatest loss of woody vegetation occurred in the Llanos and Apure-Villavicencio ecoregions. Conclusions The unexpected forest recovery trend, particularly in the Andes, provides an opportunity to expand current protected areas and to promote habitat connectivity. Furthermore, ecoregions with intense land conversion (e.g. Northern Andean Páramo) and ecoregions under-represented in the protected area network (e.g. Llanos, Apure-Villavicencio Dry forest, and Magdalena-Urabá Moist forest ecoregions) should be considered for new protected areas. PMID:22952816

  13. Land Cover Signature on the Convective Rainfall Mechanism over a Sudanian Savannah Basin, Tambarga, Burkina Faso.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mande, T.; Ceperley, N. C.; Katul, G. G.; Yacouba, H.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    For water limited areas such as southeastern Burkina Faso where the main activity is rainfed agriculture, it is crucial to understand the rainfall mechanism and its main drivers. The triggering convective mechanisms are important and contribute to more than 30% of the total rainfall. Several studies were devoted to the convective rainfall characterization. However, the rainfall partitioning between convective and non-convective events and the effects of land cover signature on the rainfall type at small scales remain relatively unexplored topics. The following study aims to investigate the triggering mechanisms of rainfall and their interaction with land cover. For this purpose a simple realistic model combining the mixed layer growth (ML) and lifting condensation level (LCL) was implemented for convective rainfall tracking. Convective events occur when the LCL and ML curves intersect at the time corresponding to the rain event start. Sensible heat flux, air temperature and humidity measurements used for this analysis were collected over three years with twelve advanced weather monitoring Sensorscope stations and two eddy flux towers distributed over two different landscapes, an agricultural field and an savanna forest The land cover signature evidence is highlighted by the similarity of the pdf of the rainfall over the forested region and agricultural fields with a slope -1.5. While a 10 to 30% difference in total yearly precipitation is observed between the agriculture zone and the forest region. Therefore, in addition to the soil moisture, higher temperature (Clausius-Clapeyron) and CO2 effect on rainfall mechanisms, the local land cover signature should be added for better rainfall modeling.

  14. Hydrologic and land-cover features of the Caloosahatchee River Basin, Lake Okeechobee to Franklin Lock, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaRose, Henry R.; McPherson, Benjamin F.

    1980-01-01

    The freshwater part of the Caloosahatchee River basin, Fla., from Franklin Lock to Lake Okeechobee, is shown at a scale of 1 inch equals 1 mile on an aerial photomosaic, dated January 1979. The basin is divided into 16 subbasins, and the land cover and land use in each subbasin are given. The basin is predominantly rangeland and agricultural land. Surface-water flow in the basin is largely controlled. Some selected data on water quality are given. (USGS)

  15. Annual land cover change mapping using MODIS time series to improve emissions inventories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Saldaña, G.; Quaife, T. L.; Clifford, D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding and quantifying land surface changes is necessary for estimating greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, and for meeting air quality limits and targets. More sophisticated inventories methodologies for at least key emission source are needed due to policy-driven air quality directives. Quantifying land cover changes on an annual basis requires greater spatial and temporal disaggregation of input data. The main aim of this study is to develop a methodology for using Earth Observations (EO) to identify annual land surface changes that will improve emissions inventories from agriculture and land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in the UK. First goal is to find the best sets of input features that describe accurately the surface dynamics. In order to identify annual and inter-annual land surface changes, a times series of surface reflectance was used to capture seasonal variability. Daily surface reflectance images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500m resolution were used to invert a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model to create the seamless time series. Given the limited number of cloud-free observations, a BRDF climatology was used to constrain the model inversion and where no high-scientific quality observations were available at all, as a gap filler. The Land Cover Map 2007 (LC2007) produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) was used for training and testing purposes. A prototype land cover product was created for 2006 to 2008. Several machine learning classifiers were tested as well as different sets of input features going from the BRDF parameters to spectral Albedo. We will present the results of the time series development and the first exercises when creating the prototype land cover product.

  16. Land Cover / Climate Interaction at Global and Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover and climate interact at regional and global scales through biophysical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes. Land cover change (LCC) affects regional climate through impacts on surface albedo and surface net radiation, on the partitioning of available energy between sensible and latent heat fluxes, on the atmospheric heating, moisture flux convergence and circulation, and the partitioning of rainfall between evaporation and runoff. Meanwhile, the climate variability and change also affect the LCC. Based on historical anthropogenic land cover change data from 1948-2005, numerical experiments that were designed to test its impact using general circulation models indicate that the LCC enhances the global warming in past half century. This is because after land degradation, reduction of evaporation is dominant, leading to surface warming. The reduction of net radiation due to high surface albedo plays a secondary role. Meanwhile, its impact on the regional monsoon is significant. The produced monsoon rainfall anomaly is not only limited within the land degradation area but extend to much large area through its interaction with the atmospheric circulations. The warming climate and climate variability also affect the vegetation distribution. For instance, with a coupled biophysical and dynamic vegetation model forced by the observed meteorological data, the North America leaf area index (LAI) shows an increasing trend after the 1970s in responding to warming. Meanwhile, the effects of the severe drought during 1987-1992 and the last decade in the southwestern U.S. on vegetation are also evident from the simulated and satellite-derived LAIs. The land covers in some parts of North America also show substantial changes. Evaluations of these simulations using satellite data are crucial. The critical issues in applying satellite data for LCC studies are also discussed.

  17. [Influence of land use change on vegetation cover dynamics in Dapeng Peninsula of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province of South China].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yao-Qin; Zeng, Hui; Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    To study the vegetation cover dynamics under urbanization is of significance to direct regional ecological conservation. Based on the 1995-2007 remote sensing data and the investigation data of 1996 and 2007 land use change in Shenzhen, and by using NDVI index tracking and algebraic overlay calculation, this paper analyzed the vegetation types and their spatial differentiation, land use change pattern, and the relationships between land use change and vegetation cover dynamics in Dapeng Peninsula of Shenzhen. In 1995-2007, the vegetation cover in 65% of the study area changed significantly, with an overall increasing trend. Land use change was mainly caused by the development of urbanization and commercial agriculture, with 31% of the land surface changed in land use function. The land use change was one of the main causes of vegetation cover dynamics, and about 35% of the region where vegetation cover significantly degraded was related to land use change. 55% of the region where land use function changed due to mechanical disturbance caused the degradation of vegetation cover, but by the end of the study period, the vegetation cover in most of the degraded region had being improved significantly.

  18. Characterizing patterns of agricultural land use in Amazonia by merging satellite imagery and census data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardille, Jeffrey Alan

    In recent decades, millions of hectares of Amazonian primary forest, cerrado, and secondary forest have been cleared to support a dramatically increasing number of cattle and humans. With plans proposed for major new highways and utilities in the basin, development is highly likely to continue in coming years. Conversion to human use threatens to change the climate, ecosystems, and natural resources of Amazonia, and these effects are due not only to changes in land cover but to the land use management practices that follow. Unfortunately, we lack basin-wide information about land use across Amazonia. A key reason for this dearth of information is that earth-observing satellites designed to interpret land cover are prone to miss the land use changes within; in an area encompassing millions of square kilometers, it is impossible to visit more than a small portion of the study region to quantify land use activities. Agricultural censuses suggest a strategy to fill this gap: in Amazonia, they provide the only ground-surveyed land use information---yet because they are not easily reconciled with satellite-based land cover information, census data are underutilized. The research forming this dissertation presents a new, basin-wide depiction of land use in Amazonia by developing and applying new tools for understanding the past, current, and future impact of agricultural development. Specifically, this dissertation: (1) presents a new detailed understanding of the distribution and density of agricultural land use practices in Amazonia in the mid-1990s by fusing agricultural census data with satellite-derived land cover classifications; (2) assesses historical changes in agriculture of the previous decades; and (3) describes and applies new general techniques for the rapid update of land use data sets and maps using satellite imagery and census data. The fusion of census and satellite data described here advances our understanding by uniting the strengths of two distinct

  19. African land-cover classification using satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Goff, T. E.; Townshend, J. R. G.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer sensor on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's operational series of meteorological satellites were used to classify land cover and monitor vegetation dynamics for Africa over a 19-month period. There was a correspondence between seasonal variations in the density and extent of green leaf vegetation and the patterns of rainfall associated with the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Regional variations, such as the 1983 drought in the Sahel of western Africa, were observed. Integration of the weekly satellite data with respect to time for a 12-month period produced a remotely sensed estimate of primary production based upon the density and duration of green leaf biomass. Eight of the 21-day composited data sets covering an 11-month period were used to produce a general land-cover classification that corresponded well with those of existing maps.

  20. Environmental, land cover and land use constraints on the distributional patterns of anurans: Leptodacylus species (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from Dry Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Regina Gabriela; Aráoz, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical dry forests are among the most vulnerable biomes to land transformation at a global scale. Among them, the Dry Chaco suffers an accelerated change due to agriculture expansion and intensification. The Dry Chaco ecoregion is characterized by high levels of endemisms and species diversity, which are the result of a variety of climates and reliefs, allowing a wide variety of environments. The amphibian group exhibits a high richness in the Dry Chaco, which has been barely studied in relation to land cover changes. We used ecological niche models (ENMs) to assess the potential geographic distribution of 10 Leptodactylus species (Anura, Leptodactylidae), which are mainly distributed within the Dry Chaco. We characterized these distributions environmentally, analyzed their overlap with land cover classes, and assessed their diversity of ecoregions. Also, we evaluated how these species potential distribution is affected by the transformation of land, and quantified the proportional area of the potential distribution in protected areas. We found that temperature seasonality is the main constraint to the occurrence of the species studied, whose main habitats are savannas, grasslands and croplands. The main threats to these species are the effects of climate change over spatial patterns of seasonality, which could affect their breeding and reproduction mode; the loss of their natural habitat; the exposure to contaminants used by intensive agriculture and their underrepresentation in protected areas. PMID:27833796

  1. Boreal Forest Land Cover Mapping in Iceland and Finland Using Sentinel-1A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarpaintner, J.; Davids, C.; Storvold, R.; Johansen, K. S.; Arnason, K.; Rauste, Y.; Mutanen, T.

    2016-08-01

    The complete Sentinel-1A (S1A) data set since autumn 2014 until September 2015 over two test sites of the EU FP7 project NorthState has been collected: Hallormsstaður in the north-east of Iceland of 50x50 km2 and Hyytiälä in southern Finland of 200x200 km2. The dense 20m-resolution dual-polarization S1A time series allow for a new level of forest land cover monitoring capabilities compared to ESA's former Envisat A(dvanced)SAR sensor. Temporal filtered dual- polarized mosaics clearly show different land covers that can be classified into forest land cover (FLC) products. Even single agricultural fields can be distinguished from these mosaics. The S1A data set also allowed the construction of a precise water mask for these sites. Results of S1A-based FLC based on two different approaches are compared to 2010 ALOS PALSAR derived FLC results and very high resolution (VHR) NDVI aerial photos. The forest land cover classes extracted are forest, disturbed forest, peatland, grassland, bare land, and settlements.

  2. Identification of Land Cover in the Past Using Infrared Images at Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šafář, V.; Ždímal, V.

    2012-07-01

    Czech landscape is an old residential area used by humans since ancient times. People have influenced it since their arrival and various activities in different periods create landscape layers called a palimpsest. Land Cover of one location could have changed several times. The most important reason is meandering and subsequent straightening of rivers, deforestation, relocation and change in soil layers. These changes in the past affected the present management and it is important to identify them. A suitable tool for the determination of different sites is remote sensing in the infrared spectrum, which monitors changes in the vegetation with the support of archival materials. After identifying the different places you can search the archival materials, how the land cover looked in the past. There have been used these archival materials: maps II. and III. military mapping, basic maps and other maps and historical orthophotomap. Czech Republic has a national archive of aerial photographs with aerial photographs from the thirties of the last century maintained by MGHO Dobruska. A comparative analysis of Land Cover shows the increases and decreases in agricultural land, changes in communication line elements, forest losses and increases, comparing the legal and actual status of the forest boundaries and their changes over time, changes in the built areas and links to the surrounding countryside. Land Cover of this study was created primarily with a visual interpretation of each area with their vectorization and assigning attributes to these areas and then comparing each of archival materials.

  3. Shuttle landing facility cloud cover study: Climatological analysis and two tenths cloud cover rule evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atchison, Michael K.; Schumann, Robin; Taylor, Greg; Warburton, John; Wheeler, Mark; Yersavich, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The two-tenths cloud cover rule in effect for all End Of Mission (EOM) STS landings at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) states: 'for scattered cloud layers below 10,000 feet, cloud cover must be observed to be less than or equal to 0.2 at the de-orbit burn go/no-go decision time (approximately 90 minutes before landing time)'. This rule was designed to protect against a ceiling (below 10,000 feet) developing unexpectedly within the next 90 minutes (i.e., after the de-orbit burn decision and before landing). The Applied Meteorological Unit (AMU) developed and analyzed a database of cloud cover amounts and weather conditions at the Shuttle Landing Facility for a five-year (1986-1990) period. The data indicate the best time to land the shuttle at KSC is during the summer while the worst time is during the winter. The analysis also shows the highest frequency of landing opportunities occurs for the 0100-0600 UTC and 1300-1600 UTC time periods. The worst time of the day to land a shuttle is near sunrise and during the afternoon. An evaluation of the two-tenths cloud cover rule for most data categorizations has shown that there is a significant difference in the proportions of weather violations one and two hours subsequent to initial conditions of 0.2 and 0.3 cloud cover. However, for May, Oct., 700 mb northerly wind category, 1500 UTC category, and 1600 UTC category there is some evidence that the 0.2 cloud cover rule may be overly conservative. This possibility requires further investigation. As a result of these analyses, the AMU developed nomograms to help the Spaceflight Meteorological Group (SMG) and the Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility (CCFF) forecast cloud cover for EOM and Return to Launch Site (RTLS) at KSC. Future work will include updating the two tenths database, further analysis of the data for several categorizations, and developing a proof of concept artificial neural network to provide forecast guidance of weather constraint violations for shuttle

  4. Stratifying Tropical Fires by Land Cover: Insights into Amazonian Fires, Aerosol Loading, and Regional Deforestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TenHoeve, J. E.; Remer, L. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes changes in the number of fires detected on forest, grass, and transition lands during the 2002-2009 biomass burning seasons using fire detection data and co-located land cover classifications from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the total number of detected fires correlates well with MODIS mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) from year to year, in accord with other studies. However, we also show that the ratio of forest to savanna fires varies substantially from year to year. Forest fires have trended downward, on average, since the beginning of 2006 despite a modest increase in 2007. Our study suggests that high particulate matter loading detected in 2007 was likely due to a large number of savanna/agricultural fires that year. Finally, we illustrate that the correlation between annual Brazilian deforestation estimates and MODIS fires is considerably higher when fires are stratified by MODIS-derived land cover classifications.

  5. Land Cover Changes between 1974 and 2008 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, H.; Kinoshita, T.; Yamagata, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In the past 35 years, a combination of human actions and natural causes has led to a significant decline in land quality in Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia. Human causes include changes in conventional livestock husbandry, overgrazing, and exploitation for traditional uses. Natural causes include a harsh, dry climate, short growing seasons, and thin soils. Since 1995, many herders left the countryside to come to the city in search of new opportunities, the Ger areas (wooden houses and Ger) have expended, resulting in urban sprawl. Since urbanization usually advance in an uncontrolled or unorganized way in Mongolia, they have destructive effects on the environment, particularly on basic ecosystems, wildlife habitat, and pollution of natural resources (e.g. air and water). Land use and land cover changes occurred in the region are investigated using satellite images acquired in 1974 (Landsat MSS), 1990 (Landsat TM), 2000 (ASTER), 2006 (IKONOS), and 2008 (ALOS). Pre-processing of all data included orthorectification and registration to precisely geolocated imagery. In the detection of changes, classification approaches were employed using a self-organizing map (SOM) neural network classifier (Fig. 1a) and new developed subspace classification method (Fig. 1b). From the time-series classified remote sensing images, we extract the land cover and land cover temporal changes from 1974 to 2008. The results show some important findings regarding the size and nature of the change occurred in the study area. A significant amount of steppe and forest lands have been destroyed or replaced by residential areas; as a result, the total area of urban region doubled in the 35-year period with a higher urbanization rate between 2000 and 2008. Key words: Environment; Land Cover; Urban; Change detection; Classification. References Chinbat,B., Bayantur,M., & Amarsaikhan.D. (2006). Investigation of the internal structure changes of ulaanbaatar city using RS and GIS. ISPRS

  6. Change In Minimum Temperature As A Response To Land Cover Change In South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, H. P.; Melesse, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Replacement of higher evapotranspirative surface materials such as water and vegetation cover by other materials such as buildings, roads, and pavements increases the Bowen's ratio from about 0.5-2.0 in rural to about ≈ 5.0 in urban areas resulting in higher surface and near surface atmospheric temperatures in the urban areas (Taha, 1997). This effect is intensified by low emissivity surfaces of the urban covers storing more heat energy during day time, but emitting less during night compared to the energy emitted by rural covers causing higher night time temperatures in urban centers, an effect called Urban Heat Island (UHI). South Florida has undergone tremendous land cover change from its pre-drainage vegetated and wetlands to post drainage agricultural and urban lands, especially after late 20th century. The objective of this study was to simultaneously analyze the land use/ land cover change and the rural/ urban minimum temperatures in south Florida for the period representing pre and post drainage states. The result shows urban sprawl increased from 8% at the beginning of the analysis period to about 14% at the end. Green vegetated areas, shrubs, and forests are found to be declined. The minimum temperature is found increased as maximum as 2°F in the urbanized stations, which remained constant or shows negligible increase in rural stations. The study dictates further micro level scrutiny in order to reach a conclusion on the development of UHI in south Florida. Key words: Bowen's ratio, emissivity, urban heat island

  7. A small-scale land-sparing approach to conserving biological diversity in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Richard B; King, David I; Raudales, Raul; Trubey, Richard; Chandler, Carlin; Chávez, Víctor Julio Arce

    2013-08-01

    Two contrasting strategies have been proposed for conserving biological diversity while meeting the increasing demand for agricultural products: land sparing and land sharing production systems. Land sparing involves increasing yield to reduce the amount of land needed for agriculture, whereas land-sharing agricultural practices incorporate elements of native ecosystems into the production system itself. Although the conservation value of these systems has been extensively debated, empirical studies are lacking. We compared bird communities in shade coffee, a widely practiced land-sharing system in which shade trees are maintained within the coffee plantation, with bird communities in a novel, small-scale, land-sparing coffee-production system (integrated open canopy or IOC coffee) in which farmers obtain higher yields under little or no shade while conserving an area of forest equal to the area under cultivation. Species richness and diversity of forest-dependent birds were higher in the IOC coffee farms than in the shade coffee farms, and community composition was more similar between IOC coffee and primary forest than between shade coffee and primary forest. Our study represents the first empirical comparison of well-defined land sparing and land sharing production systems. Because IOC coffee farms can be established by allowing forest to regenerate on degraded land, widespread adoption of this system could lead to substantial increases in forest cover and carbon sequestration without compromising agricultural yield or threatening the livelihoods of traditional small farmers. However, we studied small farms (<5 ha); thus, our results may not generalize to large-scale land-sharing systems. Furthermore, rather than concluding that land sparing is generally superior to land sharing, we suggest that the optimal approach depends on the crop, local climate, and existing land-use patterns.

  8. Modeling tropical land-use and land-cover change related to sugarcane crops using remote sensing and soft computing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, L. E.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Friedel, M. J.; Zullo, J.; Victoria, D.; Gomes, D.; Bayma, G.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture is closely related to land-use/cover changes (LUCC). The increase in demand for ethanol necessitates the expansion of areas occupied by corn and sugar cane. In São Paulo state, the conversion of this land raises concern for impacts on food security, such as the decrease in traditional food crop production areas. We used remote sensing data to train and evaluate future land-cover scenarios using a machine-learning algorithm. The land cover classification procedure was based on Landsat 5 TM images, obtained from the Global Land Survey, covering three time periods over twenty years (1990 - 2010). Landsat images were segmented into homogeneous objects, which represent areas on the ground with similar spatial and spectral characteristics. These objects are related to the distinct land cover types that occur in each municipality. Based on the object shape, texture and spectral characteristics, land use/cover was visually identified, considering the following classes: sugarcane plantations, pasture lands, natural cover, forest plantation, permanent crop, short cycle crop, water bodies and urban areas. Results for the western regions of São Paulo state indicate that sugarcane crop area advanced mostly upon pasture areas with few areas of food crops being replaced by sugarcane.

  9. Sensitivity of summer climate to anthropogenic land-cover change over the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluates the first-order effect of land-use/land-cover change (LULCC) on the summer climate of one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region. High-resolution-2-km grid spacing-Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) simulations of three "wet" and three "dry" summers were carried out for two different land-cover reconstructions for the region: a circa 1992 representation based on satellite observations, and a hypothetical land-cover scenario where the anthropogenic landscape of irrigated agriculture and urban pixels was replaced with current semi-natural vegetation. Model output is evaluated with respect to observed air temperature, dew point, and precipitation. Our results suggest that development of extensive irrigated agriculture adjacent to the urban area has dampened any regional-mean warming due to urbanization. Consistent with previous observationally based work, LULCC produces a systematic increase in precipitation to the north and east of the city, though only under dry conditions. This is due to a change in background atmospheric stability resulting from the advection of both warmth from the urban core and moisture from the irrigated area. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vegetation dynamics, and land use and land cover change in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Yohannes; Stahlmann, Reinhold; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2012-12-01

    Shifts in biological communities are occurring at rapid rates as human activities induced global climate change increases. Understanding the effects of the change on biodiversity is important to reduce loss of biodiversity and mass extinction, and to insure the long-term persistence of natural resources and natures' services. Especially in remote landscapes of developing countries, precise knowledge about on-going processes is scarce. Here we apply satellite imagery to assess spatio-temporal land use and land cover change (LULCC) in the Bale Mountains for a period of four decades. This study aims to identify the main drivers of change in vegetation patterns and to discuss the implications of LULCC on spatial arrangements and trajectories of floral communities. Remote sensing data acquired from Landsat MSS, Landsat ETM + and SPOT for four time steps (1973, 1987, 2000, and 2008) were analyzed using 11 LULC units defined based on the dominant plant taxa and cover types of the habitat. Change detection matrices revealed that over the last 40 years, the area has changed from a quite natural to a more cultural landscape. Within a representative subset of the study area (7,957.5 km(-2)), agricultural fields have increased from 1.71% to 9.34% of the total study area since 1973. Natural habitats such as upper montane forest, afroalpine grasslands, afromontane dwarf shrubs and herbaceous formations, and water bodies also increased. Conversely, afromontane grasslands have decreased in size by more than half (going from 19.3% to 8.77%). Closed Erica forest also shrank from 15.0% to 12.37%, and isolated Erica shrubs have decreased from 6.86% to 5.55%, and afroalpine dwarf shrubs and herbaceous formations reduced from 5.2% to 1.56%. Despite fluctuations the afromontane rainforest (Harenna forest), located south of the Bale Mountains, has remained relatively stable. In conclusion this study documents a rapid and ecosystem-specific change of this biodiversity hotspot due to

  11. Land use and land cover, 1972-77, Culpeper Basin, Virginia-Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1980-01-01

    In showing land use and land cover in the Culpeper Basin, this map features a consistent level of detail and standardization of categories.  The use of the 1:125,000 compilation scale is appropriate, because this type of data is used frequently for different purposes by people representing several disciplines- land use planners, land managers, resource managemnet planners, and others.  For example, maps and data similar to this publication have been used for river basin planning, for analysis of land use and land cover changes relative to recreation, for river quality assessment, for preparation of environmental impact statements, and for studies on urbanization.  These efforts have been made at the multicounty regional, State, and Federal levels.

  12. Land-use pressure and a transition to forest-cover loss in the Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, M.A.; Loveland, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary land-use pressures have a significant impact on the extent and condition of forests in the eastern United States, causing a regional-scale decline in forest cover. Earlier in the 20th century, land cover was on a trajectory of forest expansion that followed agricultural abandonment. However, the potential for forest regeneration has slowed, and the extent of regional forest cover has declined by more than 4.0%. Using remote-sensing data, statistical sampling, and change-detection methods, this research shows how land conversion varies spatially and temporally across the East from 19732000, and how those changes affect regional land-change dynamics. The analysis shows that agricultural land use has continued to decline, and that this enables forest recovery; however, an important land-cover transition has occurred, from a mode of regional forest-cover gain to one of forest-cover loss caused by timber cutting cycles, urbanization, and other land-use demands. ?? 2010 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  13. Land-cover change in the conterminous United States from 1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Auch, Roger F.; Acevedo, William; Drummond, Mark A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2013-01-01

    Land-cover change in the conterminous United States was quantified by interpreting change from satellite imagery for a sample stratified by 84 ecoregions. Gross and net changes between 11 land-cover classes were estimated for 5 dates of Landsat imagery (1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). An estimated 673,000 km2(8.6%) of the United States’ land area experienced a change in land cover at least one time during the study period. Forest cover experienced the largest net decline of any class with 97,000 km2 lost between 1973 and 2000. The large decline in forest cover was prominent in the two regions with the highest percent of overall change, the Marine West Coast Forests (24.5% of the region experienced a change in at least one time period) and the Eastern Temperate Forests (11.4% of the region with at least one change). Agriculture declined by approximately 90,000 km2 with the largest annual net loss of 12,000 km2 yr−1 occurring between 1986 and 1992. Developed area increased by 33% and with the rate of conversion to developed accelerating rate over time. The time interval with the highest annual rate of change of 47,000 km2 yr−1 (0.6% per year) was 1986–1992. This national synthesis documents a spatially and temporally dynamic era of land change between 1973 and 2000. These results quantify land change based on a nationally consistent monitoring protocol and contribute fundamental estimates critical to developing understanding of the causes and consequences of land change in the conterminous United States.

  14. Protocols for Mapping and Characterizing Land Use/Land Cover in Riparian Zones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    of Land-Use/Land-Cover Data Sources The first step in compiling LULC data is to obtain the best available orthoimagery (1:12,000-scale or greater...using orthoimagery as the base (fig. 1). Begin by creat- ing a new (empty) coverage, CENTERLINE, and digitize the 4 Protocols for Mapping and

  15. Relation between inherent optical properties and land use and land cover across Gulf Coast estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land use and land cover (LULC) can affect the watershed exports of optically active constituents such as suspended particulate matter and colored dissolved organic matter, and in turn affect estuarine optical properties. We collected optical data from six estuaries in the northea...

  16. Land-use/land-cover drives variation in the specific inherent optical properties of estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in land-use/land-cover (LULC) can impact the exports of optically and biogeochemically active constituents to estuaries. Specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs) of estuarine optically active constituents (OACs) are directly related to the composition of the OACs, and...

  17. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in land-use and land-cover inventory tasks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.

    1978-01-01

    The bibliography contains more than 300 citations of selected publications on the application of remote-sensing techniques to regional and metropolitan land-use and land-cover inventroy and analysis tasks.  Most of the citations were published between January 1968 and June 1977, although some earlier works of continuing interest are included.

  18. Early Agriculture: Land Clearance and Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    In the 2003 AGU Emiliani Lecture, I proposed the 'early anthropogenic hypothesis' --the idea that major anthropogenic effects on greenhouse gases and climate occurred thousands of years before the industrial era. In the decade since then, several dozen published papers have argued its pros and cons. In the 2013 Tyndall History of Global Change Lecture I will update where matters now stand. I will show figures from the 2003 Climate Change paper that laid out the initial hypothesis, and then update subsequent evidence from ice-core drilling, archeology, and land-use histories. The primary claims in the 2003 hypothesis were these: (1) the CH4 rise since 5000 years ago is anthropogenic; (2) the CO2 rise since 7000 years ago is also anthropogenic; (3) the amount of carbon emitted from preindustrial deforestation was roughly twice the amount released during the industrial era; (4) global temperature would have been cooler by about 0.8oC by the start of the industrial era if agricultural CO2 and CH4 emissions had not occurred; (5) early anthropogenic warming prevented the inception of new ice sheets at high northern latitudes; and (6) pandemics and other population catastrophes during the last 2000 years caused CO2 decreases lasting decades to centuries. The new evidence shows that these claims have held up well. The late-Holocene CO2 and CH4 rises are anomalous compared to average gas trends during previous interglaciations of the last 800,000 years. Land-use models based on historical data simulate pre-industrial CO2 carbon releases more than twice the industrial amounts. Archeological estimates of CH4 emissions from expanding rice irrigation account for much of the late Holocene CH4 rise, even without including livestock emissions or biomass burning. Model simulations show that the large pre-industrial greenhouse-gas emissions indicated by these historical and archeological estimates would have warmed global climate by more than 1oC and prevented northern glacial

  19. Land-cover classes to characterize watersheds in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  20. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants.

    PubMed

    Pinho, P; Augusto, S; Martins-Loução, M A; Pereira, M J; Soares, A; Máguas, C; Branquinho, C

    2008-08-01

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO2 and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic.

  1. Remote sensing of land use/cover changes and its effect on wind erosion potential in southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sameni, Abdolmajid; Fallah Shamsi, Seyed Rashid; Bartholomeus, Harm

    2016-01-01

    Wind erosion is a complex process influenced by different factors. Most of these factors are stable over time, but land use/cover and land management practices are changing gradually. Therefore, this research investigates the impact of changing land use/cover and land management on wind erosion potential in southern Iran. We used remote sensing data (Landsat ETM+ and Landsat 8 imagery of 2004 and 2013) for land use/cover mapping and employed the Iran Research Institute of Forest and Rangeland (IRIFR) method to estimate changes in wind erosion potential. For an optimal mapping, the performance of different classification algorithms and input layers was tested. The amount of changes in wind erosion and land use/cover were quantified using cross-tabulation between the two years. To discriminate land use/cover related to wind erosion, the best results were obtained by combining the original spectral bands with synthetic bands and using Maximum Likelihood classification algorithm (Kappa Coefficient of 0.8 and 0.9 for Landsat ETM+ and Landsat 8, respectively). The IRIFR modelling results indicate that the wind erosion potential has increased over the last decade. The areas with a very high sediment yield potential have increased, whereas the areas with a low, medium, and high sediment yield potential decreased. The area with a very low sediment yield potential have remained constant. When comparing the change in erosion potential with land use/cover change, it is evident that soil erosion potential has increased mostly in accordance with the increase of the area of agricultural practices. The conversion of rangeland to agricultural land was a major land-use change which lead to more agricultural practices and associated soil loss. Moreover, results indicate an increase in sandification in the study area which is also a clear evidence of increasing in soil erosion. PMID:27547511

  2. Remote sensing of land use/cover changes and its effect on wind erosion potential in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mahrooz; Sameni, Abdolmajid; Fallah Shamsi, Seyed Rashid; Bartholomeus, Harm

    2016-01-01

    Wind erosion is a complex process influenced by different factors. Most of these factors are stable over time, but land use/cover and land management practices are changing gradually. Therefore, this research investigates the impact of changing land use/cover and land management on wind erosion potential in southern Iran. We used remote sensing data (Landsat ETM+ and Landsat 8 imagery of 2004 and 2013) for land use/cover mapping and employed the Iran Research Institute of Forest and Rangeland (IRIFR) method to estimate changes in wind erosion potential. For an optimal mapping, the performance of different classification algorithms and input layers was tested. The amount of changes in wind erosion and land use/cover were quantified using cross-tabulation between the two years. To discriminate land use/cover related to wind erosion, the best results were obtained by combining the original spectral bands with synthetic bands and using Maximum Likelihood classification algorithm (Kappa Coefficient of 0.8 and 0.9 for Landsat ETM+ and Landsat 8, respectively). The IRIFR modelling results indicate that the wind erosion potential has increased over the last decade. The areas with a very high sediment yield potential have increased, whereas the areas with a low, medium, and high sediment yield potential decreased. The area with a very low sediment yield potential have remained constant. When comparing the change in erosion potential with land use/cover change, it is evident that soil erosion potential has increased mostly in accordance with the increase of the area of agricultural practices. The conversion of rangeland to agricultural land was a major land-use change which lead to more agricultural practices and associated soil loss. Moreover, results indicate an increase in sandification in the study area which is also a clear evidence of increasing in soil erosion.

  3. Mapping land cover gradients through analysis of hyper-temporal NDVI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Amjad; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Skidmore, A. K.; Scarrott, R. G.; Hamad, Amina; Venus, V.; Lymberakis, Petros

    2013-08-01

    The green cover of the earth exhibits various spatial gradients that represent gradual changes in space of vegetation density and/or in species composition. To date, land cover mapping methods differentiate at best, mapping units with different cover densities and/or species compositions, but typically fail to express such differences as gradients. Present interpretation techniques still make insufficient use of freely available spatial-temporal Earth Observation (EO) data that allow detection of existing land cover gradients. This study explores the use of hyper-temporal NDVI imagery to detect and delineate land cover gradients analyzing the temporal behavior of NDVI values. MODIS-Terra MVC-images (250 m, 16-day) of Crete, Greece, from February 2000 to July 2009 are used. The analysis approach uses an ISODATA unsupervised classification in combination with a Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA). Clustering of class-specific temporal NDVI profiles through HCA resulted in the identification of gradients in landcover vegetation growth patterns. The detected gradients were arranged in a relational diagram, and mapped. Three groups of NDVI-classes were evaluated by correlating their class-specific annual average NDVI values with the field data (tree, shrub, grass, bare soil, stone, litter fraction covers). Multiple regression analysis showed that within each NDVI group, the fraction cover data were linearly related with the NDVI data, while NDVI groups were significantly different with respect to tree cover (adj. R2 = 0.96), shrub cover (adj. R2 = 0.83), grass cover (adj. R2 = 0.71), bare soil (adj. R2 = 0.88), stone cover (adj. R2 = 0.83) and litter cover (adj. R2 = 0.69) fractions. Similarly, the mean Sorenson dissimilarity values were found high and significant at confidence interval of 95% in all pairs of three NDVI groups. The study demonstrates that hyper-temporal NDVI imagery can successfully detect and map land cover gradients. The results may improve land

  4. Global land cover products tailored to the needs of the climate modeling community - Land Cover project of the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontemps, S.; Defourny, P.; Radoux, J.; Kalogirou, V.; Arino, O.

    2012-04-01

    Improving the systematic observation of land cover, as an Essential Climate Variable, will support the United Framework Convention on Climate Change effort to reduce the uncertainties in our understanding of the climate system and to better cope with climate change. The Land Cover project of the ESA Climate Change Initiative aims at contributing to this effort by providing new global land cover products tailored to the expectations of the climate modeling community. During the first three months of the project, consultation mechanisms were established with this community to identify its specific requirements in terms of satellite-based global land cover products. This assessment highlighted specific needs in terms of land cover characterization, accuracy of products, as well as stability and consistency, needs that are currently not met or even addressed. Based on this outcome, the project revisits the current land cover representation and mapping approaches. First, the stable and dynamic components of land cover are distinguished. The stable component refers to the set of land surface features that remains stable over time and thus defines the land cover independently of any sources of temporary or natural variability. Conversely, the dynamic component is directly related to this temporary or natural variability that can induce some variation in land observation over time but without changing the land cover state in its essence (e.g. flood, snow on forest, etc.). Second, the project focuses on the possibility to generate such stable global land cover maps. Previous projects, like GlobCover and MODIS Land Cover, have indeed shown that products' stability is a key issue. In delivering successive global products derived from the same sensor, they highlighted the existence of spurious year-to-year variability in land cover labels, which were not associated with land cover change but with phenology, disturbances or landscape heterogeneity. An innovative land cover

  5. Impact of future land use and land cover changes on atmospheric chemistry-climate interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzeveld, Laurens; Bouwman, Lex; Stehfest, Elke; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Eickhout, Bas; Lelieveld, Jos

    2010-12-01

    To demonstrate potential future consequences of land cover and land use changes beyond those for physical climate and the carbon cycle, we present an analysis of large-scale impacts of land cover and land use changes on atmospheric chemistry using the chemistry-climate model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) constrained with present-day and 2050 land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions scenarios. Future land use and land cover changes are expected to result in an increase in global annual soil NO emissions by ˜1.2 TgN yr-1 (9%), whereas isoprene emissions decrease by ˜50 TgC yr-1 (-12%). The analysis shows increases in simulated boundary layer ozone mixing ratios up to ˜9 ppbv and more than a doubling in hydroxyl radical concentrations over deforested areas in Africa. Small changes in global atmosphere-biosphere fluxes of NOx and ozone point to compensating effects. Decreases in soil NO emissions in deforested regions are counteracted by a larger canopy release of NOx caused by reduced foliage uptake. Despite this decrease in foliage uptake, the ozone deposition flux does not decrease since surface layer mixing ratios increase because of a reduced oxidation of isoprene by ozone. Our study indicates that the simulated impact of land cover and land use changes on atmospheric chemistry depends on a consistent representation of emissions, deposition, and canopy interactions and their dependence on meteorological, hydrological, and biological drivers to account for these compensating effects. It results in negligible changes in the atmospheric oxidizing capacity and, consequently, in the lifetime of methane. Conversely, we expect a pronounced increase in oxidizing capacity as a consequence of anthropogenic emission increases.

  6. Land use and land cover change detection in Karinca river catchment (NW Turkey) using GIS and RS techniques.

    PubMed

    Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Curebal, Isa; Sonmez, Suleyman

    2012-04-01

    The basin of Karinca river, in the north-west of Turkey, covers an area of 29,840 ha. Pronounced changes in land use emerged as a result of the development of activities in the tourism sector in Turkey in the 1970's. The basin has been significantly affected in the course of this process. This study was conducted in order to determine the land use changes (as well as the type of changes and their direction) occurring in the use of land in the Karinca river catchment for the period 1979-2007. The geographical data were gathered by using 1:25000 scale topographical maps as a basis. Thus, the existing soil and land use data from 1979 were processed on these bases and the the main materials rendering the land use were produced. Geometric verification was made by putting the previously prepared bases onto landsat ETM+ and satellite images of 2007. In the final stage, results pertaining to the changes in land use were obtained by overlapping the two sets of data. All processes were done using the ArcGIS Desktop v9.x program. According to the data of the year 1979, the catchment area consisted of 43.4% forest, 26.5% grassland, 18.3% olive groves, 10.6% agriculture and 1.2% built-up lands. Comparing these coverage with the data of 2007, show a clear shift among residential areas, olive groves and forest terrain. It was found that the agricultural areas, particularly along the shoreline, were converted into resort houses and that the olive groves (the dominant land use) shifted from lower regions to its upper sectors. All these changes caused loss of natural habitats leading to degradation.

  7. Quantitative Geomorphological Analysis & Land Use/ Land Cover Change Detection of Two Sub-Watersheds in NE region of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, M.; Singh, S.; Verma, V. K.; Pateriya, B.

    2014-11-01

    Morphometric analysis is the measurement and mathematical analysis of the landforms. The delineation of drainage system is of utmost importance in understanding hydrological system of an area, water resource management and it's planning in an effective manner. Morphometric analysis and land use change detection of two sub-watersheds namely Kukar Suha and Ratewal of district Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar, Punjab, India was carried out for quantitative description of drainage and characterisation. The stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, and other morphometric analysis like bifurcation ratio, drainage density, texture, relief ratio, ruggedness number etc. were measured. The drainage pattern of Kukar Suha and Ratewal is mainly dendritic. The agriculture and settlements came up along the drainage network causes the pattern disturbance in the watershed. The study was undertaken to spotlight the morphometric parameters, their impact on the basin and the land use land cover changes occurred over the period of time. Morphometric parameters such as linear aspect, areal aspect and relief aspect of the watershed are computed. The land use/land cover change was extracted from LISS IV Mx + Cartosat1 PAN data. ASTER data is used to prepare DEM (digital elevation model) and geographical information system (GIS) was used to evaluate various morphometric parameters in ArcGIS10 software.

  8. Land Covering Classifications of Boreas Modeling Grid Using AIRSAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Rignot, Eric

    1996-01-01

    Mapping forest types in the boreal ecosystem in an integrated part of any modeling excercise of biogeophysical processes characterizing the interaction of forest with the atmosphere. In this paper, we report the results of the land cover classification of the SAR data acquired during the BOREAS (BOReal Ecosystem Atmospheric Study) intensive field campaigns over the modeling sub-grid of the southern study area in Saskatchewan , Canada. A Bayesian-maximum-a-posteriori classifier has been applied on the NASA/JPL AIRSAR images covering the region during the peak of the growing season in July, 1994.

  9. Land Use and Land Cover Changes 1977 to 2000 in the Steppe Region of Ukraine, and Preliminary Results of Evaluating its Ecological and Land Form Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, G. J.; Prydatko, V.; Luhmann, E. P.

    2001-05-01

    Ukraine's history as agro-economic region dates back hundreds of years, being the most productive portion of the "black earth region" for the now defunct Soviet Union. This incredible level of agricultural production brought tremendous changes to the landscape matrix, largely eliminating forests and prairie systems from the southern steppe regions of Ukraine. The age of industrialization has had far less significant impacts to the land use patterns as large farms were operated and managed under Soviet Era cooperatives. The recent, 1992, independence of Ukraine has brought new pressures to the landscape. These pressures are initiated by economic needs of Ukraine seeking to be resolved through increased farm production and rapid land and industrial privatization. This study examines land cover changes between 1977, 1988 and 2000 within a representative region of southern Ukraine and northern Crimea. The region covers prototypical landscapes of the steppe region of agriculture at various scales and crops. The study area also allows an examination of changes along coastal areas in the Azov and Black Seas, specifically barrier systems. Additionally, areas of rapid privatization of industries and introduction of western industries exist within this region. The years selected for documentation were chosen as being one near the height of Soviet autonomy, near separation of the Soviet Union and independence of Ukraine and current times. The study looks at ways of documenting land cover change using satellite imagery with ancillary ground based information. The study evaluates effects of these land cover changes through associated losses of hydrologic characteristics in the landscape such as stream, as well as landform changes especially in coastal barrier systems. These changes are correlated to landscape changes and ecological parameters recorded during this nearly 30 year period. Preliminary conclusions are presented as to alternative land use practices and actions for

  10. Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting land cover change estimation by use of the National Land Cover Dataset and raingage network partitioning analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharpe, Jennifer B.; Soong, David T.

    2015-01-01

    This study used the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) and developed an automated process for determining the area of the three land cover types, thereby allowing faster updating of future models, and for evaluating land cover changes by use of historical NLCD datasets. The study also carried out a raingage partitioning analysis so that the segmentation of land cover and rainfall in each modeled unit is directly applicable to the HSPF modeling. Historical and existing impervious, grass, and forest land acreages partitioned by percentages covered by two sets of raingages for the Lake Michigan diversion SCAs, gaged basins, and ungaged basins are presented.

  11. Monitoring Land Use/Land Cover Changes in a River Basin due to Urbanization using Remote Sensing and GIS Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Khire, M. V.; Gedam, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    Faster pace of urbanization, industrialization, unplanned infrastructure developments and extensive agriculture result in the rapid changes in the Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) of the sub-tropical river basins. Study of LU/LC transformations in a river basin is crucial for vulnerability assessment and proper management of the natural resources of a river basin. Remote sensing technology is very promising in mapping the LU/LC distribution of a large region on different spatio-temporal scales. The present study is intended to understand the LU/LC changes in the Upper Bhima river basin due to urbanization using modern geospatial techniques such as remote sensing and GIS. In this study, the Upper Bhima river basin is divided into three adjacent sub-basins: Mula-Mutha sub-basin (ubanized), Bhima sub-basin (semi-urbanized) and Ghod sub-basin (unurbanized). Time series LU/LC maps were prepared for the study area for a period of 1980, 2002 and 2009 using satellite datasets viz. Landsat MSS (October, 1980), Landsat ETM+ (October, 2002) and IRS LISS III (October 2008 and November 2009). All the satellite images were classified into five LU/LC classes viz. built-up lands, agricultural lands, waterbodies, forests and wastelands using supervised classification approach. Post classification change detection method was used to understand the LU/LC changes in the study area. Results reveal that built up lands, waterbodies and agricultural lands are increasing in all the three sub-basins of the study area at the cost of decreasing forests and wastelands. But the change is more drastic in urbanized Mula-Mutha sub-basin compared to the other two sub-basins.

  12. Land Cover Change Related to Residential Housing Development in the United States From 1990 to 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jantz, P.; Davis, F.

    2008-12-01

    Habitat loss from conversion to urban and agricultural uses is a major threat to biodiversity globally. In the U.S., habitat loss was identified by a majority of state fish and game departments as a primary concern and is a leading cause of species endangerment. Residential housing growth, commercial development, and associated road building are major sources of habitat loss in the U.S. From 1990 to 2000, almost 250,000 miles of paved road and over 13.5 million housing units were constructed nationwide. To understand how recent trends in housing development affect land cover, it is crucial to establish how rates of conversion to anthropogenic uses and types of lands affected vary across the U.S. and why. For example, while most of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed in the Eastern U.S. is forested, agricultural lands were preferentially developed from 1990 to 2000. However, in the Piedmont ecoregion, which runs from the Chesapeake Bay southwest to Alabama, forested lands were disproportionately developed from 1992 to 2000. Several studies have assessed land use and land cover dynamics in various regions of the U.S. by combining satellite or aerial imagery with GIS data. However, because of a lack of consistent national land cover maps for more than one time period, assessments were either restricted to a single time period or change maps were independently developed for small areas. Recently, a nationally consistent map of Anderson Level I land cover change from 1992 to 2001 for the contiguous U.S. was made available through the United States Geological Survey National Land Cover Database (NLCD). We use geographically weighted regression (GWR) to compare changes in U.S. Census Bureau derived housing density with changes in NLCD derived land cover from 1990 to 2000 and assess how that relationship varies regionally due to heterogeneity in land cover, existing housing density, and other biophysical and economic variables. To characterize the NLCD map, we compare it with

  13. Change in agricultural land use constrains adaptation of national wildlife refuges to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas limits their ability to conserve biodiversity by altering ecological processes such as natural hydrologic and disturbance regimes, facilitating species invasions, and interfering with dispersal of organisms. This paper informs USA National Wildlife Refuge System conservation planning by predicting future land-use change on lands within 25 km distance of 461 refuges in the USA using an econometric model. The model contained two differing policy scenarios, namely a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario and a ‘pro-agriculture’ scenario. Regardless of scenario, by 2051, forest cover and urban land use were predicted to increase around refuges, while the extent of range and pasture was predicted to decrease; cropland use decreased under the business-as-usual scenario, but increased under the pro-agriculture scenario. Increasing agricultural land value under the pro-agriculture scenario slowed an expected increase in forest around refuges, and doubled the rate of range and pasture loss. Intensity of land-use change on lands surrounding refuges differed by regions. Regional differences among scenarios revealed that an understanding of regional and local land-use dynamics and management options was an essential requirement to effectively manage these conserved lands. Such knowledge is particularly important given the predicted need to adapt to a changing global climate.

  14. Land Cover and Rainfall Interact to Shape Waterbird Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Studds, Colin E.; DeLuca, William V.; Baker, Matthew E.; King, Ryan S.; Marra, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    Human land cover can degrade estuaries directly through habitat loss and fragmentation or indirectly through nutrient inputs that reduce water quality. Strong precipitation events are occurring more frequently, causing greater hydrological connectivity between watersheds and estuaries. Nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion that occur following these events are known to limit populations of benthic macroinvertebrates and commercially harvested species, but the consequences for top consumers such as birds remain largely unknown. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to understand how land cover and annual variation in rainfall interact to shape waterbird community composition in Chesapeake Bay, USA. The MDS ordination indicated that urban subestuaries shifted from a mixed generalist-specialist community in 2002, a year of severe drought, to generalist-dominated community in 2003, of year of high rainfall. The SEM revealed that this change was concurrent with a sixfold increase in nitrate-N concentration in subestuaries. In the drought year of 2002, waterbird community composition depended only on the direct effect of urban development in watersheds. In the wet year of 2003, community composition depended both on this direct effect and on indirect effects associated with high nitrate-N inputs to northern parts of the Bay, particularly in urban subestuaries. Our findings suggest that increased runoff during periods of high rainfall can depress water quality enough to alter the composition of estuarine waterbird communities, and that this effect is compounded in subestuaries dominated by urban development. Estuarine restoration programs often chart progress by monitoring stressors and indicators, but rarely assess multivariate relationships among them. Estuarine management planning could be improved by tracking the structure of relationships among land cover, water quality, and waterbirds. Unraveling these

  15. Multitemporal RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data for urban land-cover mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Ban, Yifang

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of multitemporal RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data for urban land use/land-cover classification. Three dates of RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data were acquired during the summer of 2008 over the rural-urban fringe of the Greater Toronto Area. The major land-cover types are residential areas, industry areas, bare land, golf courses, forest, and agricultural crops. The methodology used in this study follow the manner that first extracting the features and then carrying out the supervised classification taking the different feature combinations as an input. Support vectors machine is selected to be the classifier. SAR features including amplitude, intensity, long-term coherence, Freeman-Durden decomposition are extracted and compared by evaluating the classification abilities. Long-term coherence plays an important role in building discrimination in this study. The best classification results achieved by using the three dates HH, VH, HV amplitude layers and the coherence map. The overall accuracy is 82.3%. The results indicate that RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data has a potential to urban land-cover classification with the proper feature combinations.

  16. Multitemporal RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data for urban land-cover mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Ban, Yifang

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of multitemporal RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data for urban land use/land-cover classification. Three dates of RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data were acquired during the summer of 2008 over the rural-urban fringe of the Greater Toronto Area. The major land-cover types are residential areas, industry areas, bare land, golf courses, forest, and agricultural crops. The methodology used in this study follow the manner that first extracting the features and then carrying out the supervised classification taking the different feature combinations as an input. Support vectors machine is selected to be the classifier. SAR features including amplitude, intensity, long-term coherence, Freeman-Durden decomposition are extracted and compared by evaluating the classification abilities. Long-term coherence plays an important role in building discrimination in this study. The best classification results achieved by using the three dates HH, VH, HV amplitude layers and the coherence map. The overall accuracy is 82.3%. The results indicate that RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data has a potential to urban land-cover classification with the proper feature combinations.

  17. Object-based approach to national land cover mapping using HJ satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Xiaosong; Yuan, Quanzhi; Liu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    To meet the carbon storage estimate in ecosystems for a national carbon strategy, we introduce a consistent database of China land cover. The Chinese Huan Jing (HJ) satellite is proven efficient in the cloud-free acquisition of seasonal image series in a monsoon region and in vegetation identification for mesoscale land cover mapping. Thirty-eight classes of level II land cover are generated based on the Land Cover Classification System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization that follows a standard and quantitative definition. Twenty-four layers of derivative spectral, environmental, and spatial features compose the classification database. Object-based approach characterizing additional nonspectral features is conducted through mapping, and multiscale segmentations are applied on object boundary match to target real-world conditions. This method sufficiently employs spatial information, in addition to spectral characteristics, to improve classification accuracy. The algorithm of hierarchical classification is employed to follow step-by-step procedures that effectively control classification quality. This algorithm divides the dual structures of universal and local trees. Consistent universal trees suitable to most regions are performed first, followed by local trees that depend on specific features of nine climate stratifications. The independent validation indicates the overall accuracy reaches 86%.

  18. Stream fish occurrence in response to impervious cover, historic land use, and hydrogeomorphic factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenger, Seth J.; Peterson, James T.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, Byron J.; Homans, D. David

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated competing models explaining the occurrence of five stream fishes in an urbanizing watershed to determine the relative importance of (a) impervious surface and other indicators of current land use, (b) historic land use (e.g., agriculture, impoundments), and (c) hydrogeomorphic characteristics (e.g., stream size, elevation, geology). For four of five species, the best-supported models were those that included both current effective impervious cover and historic land use predictor variables, although models with only effective impervious cover were equally well supported for two of those species. For the best-supported models for three species, occurrence probability was predicted to approach zero at levels of development equivalent to about 2%–4% effective impervious cover in the surrounding region. Data were drawn from 357 fish collections made in the Etowah River basin, Georgia, USA, between 1998 and 2003 and analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression accounting for imperfect species detection. This is the first study we know of to examine the response of individual fish species to both increasing impervious cover and historic land use. Such individual species assessments will be increasingly necessary to guide policies for managing urban effects and preventing extirpations of sensitive species.

  19. The Change of Land Cover/Land Use in Ejina Oasis over 20 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyou; Men, Tongtong; Zhou, Maoxian

    Land use and land cover change have been of great concern in global change research in recent years. Base on comparison with the remote sensing data in1982 and 2000 and field investigation, the results of land cover and land use change were obtained by the method of landscape analysis. Ten types of land use were identified: riparian woods, riparian shrubbery, desert shrubbery, desert grassland, river-way and water area, salinised land, town, Gobi, shift sand dune, denudative upland. The results show that, (1) there were obvious Changes in land cover structure. The area of riparian woods decreased 0.97% and the number of patch decrease 376; The area of riparian shrubbery increased 0.92% and the number of patch decreased 1316. Meanwhile, the index of %LAND of desert shrubbery increased from 4.49% to 5.65%; patch of river-way and water area decreased from 40 to 6. The index of % dune increased 0.42%. (2) the area of riparian woods dominated by Populus euphratica and desert grassland decreased to 45.02% and 14.55%. However, the areas of riparian shrubbery dominated by Tamarix SPP and desert shrubbery increase to 35.03% and 25.88%. The transition probability is shrubbery and desert grassland. The succession trend of ecosystem was obtained: riparian woods riparian shrubbery and grassland desert grassland. Meanwhile, the succession velocity becomes higher and higher.

  20. Land use and land cover change based on historical space-time model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiong; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Min; Zhang, Yongjing

    2016-09-01

    Land use and cover change is a leading edge topic in the current research field of global environmental changes and case study of typical areas is an important approach understanding global environmental changes. Taking the Qiantang River (Zhejiang, China) as an example, this study explores automatic classification of land use using remote sensing technology and analyzes historical space-time change by remote sensing monitoring. This study combines spectral angle mapping (SAM) with multi-source information and creates a convenient and efficient high-precision land use computer automatic classification method which meets the application requirements and is suitable for complex landform of the studied area. This work analyzes the histological space-time characteristics of land use and cover change in the Qiantang River basin in 2001, 2007 and 2014, in order to (i) verify the feasibility of studying land use change with remote sensing technology, (ii) accurately understand the change of land use and cover as well as historical space-time evolution trend, (iii) provide a realistic basis for the sustainable development of the Qiantang River basin and (iv) provide a strong information support and new research method for optimizing the Qiantang River land use structure and achieving optimal allocation of land resources and scientific management.

  1. Theorizing Land Cover and Land Use Changes: The Case of Tropical Deforestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses land-cover and land-use dynamics from the perspective of regional science and economic geography. It first provides an account of the so-called spatially explicit model, which has emerged in recent years as a key empirical approach to the issue. The article uses this discussion as a springboard to evaluate the potential utility of von Thuenen to the discourse on land-cover and land-use change. After identifying shortcomings of current theoretical approaches to land use in mainly urban models, the article filters a discussion of deforestation through the lens of bid-rent and assesses its effectiveness in helping us comprehend the destruction of tropical forest in the Amazon basin. The article considers the adjustments that would have to be made to existing theory to make it more useful to the empirical issues.

  2. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Long‐term land‐use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed on the San Pedro River Basin to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time. This methodology was then expanded and utilized to characterize the changing hydrology on the South Platte River Basin. Future urban growth is represented by housingdensity maps generated in decadal intervals from 2010 to 2100, produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Climate and Land‐Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize hydrologic impacts from future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The objectives of this project were to 1) develop and describe a methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as anapproach to evaluate basin‐wide impacts of development on water‐quantity and ‐quality, 2) present initial results from the application of the methodology to

  3. Continental land cover classification using meteorological satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Goff, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    The use of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite data for classifying land cover and monitoring of vegetation dynamics over an extremely large area is demonstrated for the continent of Africa. Data from 17 imaging periods of 21 consecutive days each were composited by a technique sensitive to the in situ green-leaf biomass to provide cloud-free imagery for the whole continent. Virtually cloud-free images were obtainable even for equatorial areas. Seasonal variation in the density and extent of green leaf vegetation corresponded to the patterns of rainfall associated with the inter-tropical convergence zone. Regional variations, such as the 1982 drought in east Africa, were also observed. Integration of the weekly satellite data with respect to time produced a remotely sensed assessment of biological activity based upon density and duration of green-leaf biomass. Two of the 21-day composited data sets were used to produce a general land cover classification. The resultant land cover distributions correspond well to those of existing maps.

  4. Evaluation of space SAR as a land-cover classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisco, B.; Ulaby, F. T.; Williams, T. H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The multidimensional approach to the mapping of land cover, crops, and forests is reported. Dimensionality is achieved by using data from sensors such as LANDSAT to augment Seasat and Shuttle Image Radar (SIR) data, using different image features such as tone and texture, and acquiring multidate data. Seasat, Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A), and LANDSAT data are used both individually and in combination to map land cover in Oklahoma. The results indicates that radar is the best single sensor (72% accuracy) and produces the best sensor combination (97.5% accuracy) for discriminating among five land cover categories. Multidate Seasat data and a single data of LANDSAT coverage are then used in a crop classification study of western Kansas. The highest accuracy for a single channel is achieved using a Seasat scene, which produces a classification accuracy of 67%. Classification accuracy increases to approximately 75% when either a multidate Seasat combination or LANDSAT data in a multisensor combination is used. The tonal and textural elements of SIR-A data are then used both alone and in combination to classify forests into five categories.

  5. A prototype for automation of land-cover products from Landsat Surface Reflectance Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rover, J.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Steinwand, D.; Nelson, K.; Coan, M.; Wylie, B. K.; Dahal, D.; Wika, S.; Quenzer, R.

    2014-12-01

    Landsat data records of surface reflectance provide a three-decade history of land surface processes. Due to the vast number of these archived records, development of innovative approaches for automated data mining and information retrieval were necessary. Recently, we created a prototype utilizing open source software libraries for automatically generating annual Anderson Level 1 land cover maps and information products from data acquired by the Landsat Mission for the years 1984 to 2013. The automated prototype was applied to two target areas in northwestern and east-central North Dakota, USA. The approach required the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and two user-input target acquisition year-days. The Landsat archive was mined for scenes acquired within a 100-day window surrounding these target dates, and then cloud-free pixels where chosen closest to the specified target acquisition dates. The selected pixels were then composited before completing an unsupervised classification using the NLCD. Pixels unchanged in pairs of the NLCD were used for training decision tree models in an iterative process refined with model confidence measures. The decision tree models were applied to the Landsat composites to generate a yearly land cover map and related information products. Results for the target areas captured changes associated with the recent expansion of oil shale production and agriculture driven by economics and policy, such as the increase in biofuel production and reduction in Conservation Reserve Program. Changes in agriculture, grasslands, and surface water reflect the local hydrological conditions that occurred during the 29-year span. Future enhancements considered for this prototype include a web-based client, ancillary spatial datasets, trends and clustering algorithms, and the forecasting of future land cover.

  6. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 2, Northeast United States: NLCD01_2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  7. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 1, Northwest United States: NLCD01_1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  8. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 3, Southwest United States: NLCD01_3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg).The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  9. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 4, Southeast United States: NLCD01_4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  10. Land cover mapping at sub-pixel scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makido, Yasuyo Kato

    One of the biggest drawbacks of land cover mapping from remotely sensed images relates to spatial resolution, which determines the level of spatial details depicted in an image. Fine spatial resolution images from satellite sensors such as IKONOS and QuickBird are now available. However, these images are not suitable for large-area studies, since a single image is very small and therefore it is costly for large area studies. Much research has focused on attempting to extract land cover types at sub-pixel scale, and little research has been conducted concerning the spatial allocation of land cover types within a pixel. This study is devoted to the development of new algorithms for predicting land cover distribution using remote sensory imagery at sub-pixel level. The "pixel-swapping" optimization algorithm, which was proposed by Atkinson for predicting sub-pixel land cover distribution, is investigated in this study. Two limitations of this method, the arbitrary spatial range value and the arbitrary exponential model of spatial autocorrelation, are assessed. Various weighting functions, as alternatives to the exponential model, are evaluated in order to derive the optimum weighting function. Two different simulation models were employed to develop spatially autocorrelated binary class maps. In all tested models, Gaussian, Exponential, and IDW, the pixel swapping method improved classification accuracy compared with the initial random allocation of sub-pixels. However the results suggested that equal weight could be used to increase accuracy and sub-pixel spatial autocorrelation instead of using these more complex models of spatial structure. New algorithms for modeling the spatial distribution of multiple land cover classes at sub-pixel scales are developed and evaluated. Three methods are examined: sequential categorical swapping, simultaneous categorical swapping, and simulated annealing. These three methods are applied to classified Landsat ETM+ data that has

  11. Potential impact of climate and socioeconomic changes on future agricultural land use in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan Ahmed, Kazi; Wang, Guiling; You, Liangzhi; Yu, Miao

    2016-02-01

    Agriculture is a key component of anthropogenic land use and land cover changes that influence regional climate. Meanwhile, in addition to socioeconomic drivers, climate is another important factor shaping agricultural land use. In this study, we compare the contributions of climate change and socioeconomic development to potential future changes of agricultural land use in West Africa using a prototype land use projection (LandPro) algorithm. The algorithm is based on a balance between food supply and demand, and accounts for the impact of socioeconomic drivers on the demand side and the impact of climate-induced crop yield changes on the supply side. The impact of human decision-making on land use is explicitly considered through multiple "what-if" scenarios. In the application to West Africa, future crop yield changes were simulated by a process-based crop model driven with future climate projections from a regional climate model, and future changes of food demand is projected using a model for policy analysis of agricultural commodities and trade. Without agricultural intensification, the climate-induced decrease in crop yield together with future increases in food demand is found to cause a significant increase in cropland areas at the expense of forest and grassland by the mid-century. The increase in agricultural land use is primarily climate-driven in the western part of West Africa and socioeconomically driven in the eastern part. Analysis of results from multiple scenarios of crop area allocation suggests that human adaptation characterized by science-informed decision-making can potentially minimize future land use changes in many parts of the region.

  12. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Land Use and Land Cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the estimated area of land use and land cover from the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte, 2008), compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for 2001. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality

  13. Land cover changes assessment using object-based image analysis in the Binah River watershed (Togo and Benin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badjana, Hèou Maléki; Helmschrot, Jörg; Selsam, Peter; Wala, Kpérkouma; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert; Afouda, Abel; Akpagana, Koffi

    2015-10-01

    In this study, land cover changes between 1972 and 2013 were investigated in the Binah River watershed (North of Togo and Benin) using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. Multitemporal satellite images—Landsat MSS (1972), TM (1987), and OLI-TIRS (2013)—were processed using object-based image analysis and post-classification comparison methods including landscape metrics and changes trajectories analysis. Land cover maps referring to five main land cover classes, namely, agricultural land, forest land, savannah, settlements, and water bodies, were produced for each acquisition date. The overall accuracies were 76.64% (1972), 83.52% (1987), and 88.84% (2013) with respective Kappa statistics of 0.69, 0.78, and 0.86. The assessment of the spatiotemporal pattern of land cover changes indicates that savannah, the main vegetation type, has undergone the most dominant change, decreasing from 67% of the basin area in 1972 to 56% in 1987 and 33% in 2013. At the same time, agricultural land has significantly increased from 15% in 1972 to 24% in 1987 and 43% in 2013, while some proportions of agricultural land were converted to savannah relating to fallow agriculture. In total, more than 55% of the landscape experienced changes between 1972 and 2013. These changes are primarily due to human activities and population growth. In addition, agricultural activities significantly contributed to the increase in the number of patches, degree of division, and splitting index of forest and savannah vegetations and the decrease in their effective mesh sizes. These results indicate further fragmentation of forest and savannah vegetations between 1972 and 2013. Further research is needed to quantitatively evaluate the influences of individual factors of human activities and to separate these from the impacts of climate change-driven disturbances.

  14. Use of Remote Sensed Imagery to Evaluate Land Cover Change: North Platte River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, G.; Piburn, J.; Rudolph, J.; Tootle, G.; Marks, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    High resolution remote sensed data for land cover classification, such as LiDAR, is often times not readily available in rural areas. For basin-wide and other small-scale projects, proprietary LiDAR collection may not be cost effective and an alternative is found with the use of the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP imagery provides 1-meter resolution aerial imagery for the entire United States, temporally updated on a state by state basis at no charge to the user. NAIP imagery was used to classify forest cover change due to beetle infestation in the roughly 4,000 square-mile North Platte River Basin (NPRB). Using an interactive classification method with an underlying maximum likelihood classification algorithm, it was found that forest cover in the NPRB decreased by approximately 25% from 2005-2006 to 2009. Using focal histograms to refine the classifications to large-scale USGS 7.5 minute quadrangles, the land cover results will be used as parameters in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Macroscale Hydrologic Model to estimate how this physical change in land cover affects the riparian system of the NPRB, specifically streamflow response.

  15. Development of deforestation and land cover database for Bhutan (1930-2014).

    PubMed

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Satish, K V; Jha, C S; Diwakar, P G; Murthy, Y V N Krishna; Dadhwal, V K

    2016-12-01

    Bhutan is a mountainous country located in the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot. This study has quantified the total area under land cover types, estimated the rate of forest cover change, analyzed the changes across forest types, and modeled forest cover change hotpots in Bhutan. The topographical maps and satellite remote sensing images were analyzed to get the spatial patterns of forest and associated land cover changes over the past eight decades (1930-1977-1987-1995-2005-2014). Forest is the largest land cover in Bhutan and constitutes 68.3% of the total geographical area in 2014. Subtropical broad leaved hill forest is predominant type occupies 34.1% of forest area in Bhutan, followed by montane dry temperate (20.9%), montane wet temperate (18.9%), Himalayan moist temperate (10%), and tropical moist sal (8.1%) in 2014. The major forest cover loss is observed in subtropical broad leaved hill forest (64.5 km(2)) and moist sal forest (9.9 km(2)) from 1977 to 2014. The deforested areas have mainly been converted into agriculture and contributed for 60.9% of forest loss from 1930 to 2014. In spite of major decline of forest cover in time interval of 1930-1977, there is no net rate of deforestation is recorded in Bhutan since 1995. Forest cover change analysis has been carried out to evaluate the conservation effectiveness in "Protected Areas" of Bhutan. Hotspots that have undergone high transformation in forest cover for afforestation and deforestation were highlighted in the study for conservation prioritisation. Forest conservation policies in Bhutan are highly effective in controlling deforestation as compared to neighboring Asian countries and such service would help in mitigating climate change.

  16. Assessing land use and cover change effects on hydrological response in the river C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, A.

    2009-04-01

    Assessing the impacts of land use change, especially the role of vegetation, on hydrological response from the plot to the catchment scale has become one of the widespread issues of scientific concern,in recent decades. The continuous expansion of urban areas, the dramatic changes in land-cover and land-use patterns and the climate change which have taken place on a global scale explain this increasing interest. Although scientists have long recognized that changes in land use and land cover are important factors affecting water circulation and the spatial-temporal variations in the distribution of water resources, little is known about the quantitative relation between land use/coverage characteristics and runoff generation or processes. Therefore, a better understanding of how land-use changes impact watershed hydrological processes will become a crucial issue for the planning, management, and sustainable development of water resources. In the past decades, abandonment of marginal agricultural land has been a widespread phenomenon in Portugal, as well as in many other countries of Europe, especially in the Mediterranean countries. The abandonment of arable land typically leads to natural succession and to the development of shrub and woodland. Shrubs like Cytisus spp.usually establish in study area. A Quercus pyrenaica Willd. wood generally appears after a long time, about 3 or 4 decades. The general aim of this work is to analyse the temporal evolution of water supplies in a Côa basins (located between 41°00'' N and 40°15'' N and 7°15'' W and 6°55'' W Greenwich)and relate its behaviour with changes undergone by the plant cover and by the main climatic variables (temperatures and precipitation). To achieve this goal, dynamics on the land use and land cover were estimated after the second half of the 20th century. The hydrological response under different land uses and plant covers were monitored during 2005 and 2006, using small permanently establish bounded

  17. A GIS-based hedonic price model for agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetriou, Demetris

    2015-06-01

    Land consolidation is a very effective land management planning approach that aims towards rural/agricultural sustainable development. Land reallocation which involves land tenure restructuring is the most important, complex and time consuming component of land consolidation. Land reallocation relies on land valuation since its fundamental principle provides that after consolidation, each landowner shall be granted a property of an aggregate value that is approximately the same as the value of the property owned prior to consolidation. Therefore, land value is the crucial factor for the land reallocation process and hence for the success and acceptance of the final land consolidation plan. Land valuation is a process of assigning values to all parcels (and its contents) and it is usually carried out by an ad-hoc committee. However, the process faces some problems such as it is time consuming hence costly, outcomes may present inconsistency since it is carried out manually and empirically without employing systematic analytical tools and in particular spatial analysis tools and techniques such as statistical/mathematical. A solution to these problems can be the employment of mass appraisal land valuation methods using automated valuation models (AVM) based on international standards. In this context, this paper presents a spatial based linear hedonic price model which has been developed and tested in a case study land consolidation area in Cyprus. Results showed that the AVM is capable to produce acceptable in terms of accuracy and reliability land values and to reduce time hence cost required by around 80%.

  18. LANDSAT image differencing as an automated land cover change detection technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, M. L.; Mckinney, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Image differencing was investigated as a technique for use with LANDSAT digital data to delineate areas of land cover change in an urban environment. LANDSAT data collected in April 1973 and April 1975 for Austin, Texas, were geometrically corrected and precisely registered to United States Geological Survey 7.5-minute quadrangle maps. At each pixel location reflectance values for the corresponding bands were subtracted to produce four difference images. Areas of major reflectance differences are isolated by thresholding each of the difference images. The resulting images are combined to obtain an image data set to total change. These areas of reflectance differences were found, in general, to correspond to areas of land cover change. Information on areas of land cover change was incorporated into a procedure to mask out all nonchange areas and perform an unsupervised classification only for data in the change areas. This procedure identified three broad categories: (1) areas of high reflectance (construction or extractive), (2) changes in agricultural areas, and (3) areas of confusion between agricultural and other areas.

  19. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  20. Completion of the 2006 National Land Cover Database Update for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the organization of the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) has been updated to characterize both land cover and land cover change from 2001 to 2006. An updated version of NLCD 2001 (Version 2.0) is also provided....

  1. Conversion of prime agricultural land to urban land uses in Kansas City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklee, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    In an expanding urban environment, agriculture and urban land uses are the two primary competitors for regional land resources. As a result of an increasing awareness of the effects which urban expansion has upon the regional environment, the conversion of prime agricultural land to urban land uses has become a point of concern to urban planners. A study was undertaken for the Kansas City Metropolitan Region, to determine the rate at which prime agricultural land has been converted to urban land uses over a five year period from 1969 to 1974. Using NASA high altitude color infrared imagery acquired over the city in October, 1969 and in May, 1974 to monitor the extent and location of urban expansion in the interim period, it was revealed that 42% of that expansion had occurred upon land classified as having prime agricultural potential. This involved a total of 10,727 acres of prime agricultural land and indicated a 7% increase over the 1969 which showed that 35% of the urban area had been developed on prime agricultural land.

  2. Late twentieth century land-cover change in the basin and range ecoregions of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the US Geological Survey's Land Cover Trends project, land-use/land-cover change estimates between 1973 and 2000 are presented for the basin and range ecoregions, including Northern, Central, Mojave, and Sonoran. Landsat data were employed to estimate and characterize land-cover change from 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000 using a post-classification comparison. Overall, spatial change was 2.5% (17,830 km2). Change increased steadily between 1973 and 1986 but decreased slightly between 1992 and 2000. The grassland/shrubland class, frequently used for livestock grazing, constituted the majority of the study area and had a net decrease from an estimated 83.8% (587,024 km2) in 1973 to 82.6% (578,242 km2) in 2000. The most common land-use/land-cover conversions across the basin and range ecoregions were indicative of the changes associated with natural, nonmechanical disturbances (i.e., fire), and grassland/shrubland loss to development, agriculture, and mining. This comprehensive look at contemporary land-use/land-cover change provides critical insight into how the deserts of the United States have changed and can be used to inform adaptive management practices of public lands.

  3. Environmental effects of growing short-rotation woody crops on former agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Thornton, F.C.; Joslin, J.D.

    1997-10-01

    Field-scale studies in the Southeast have been addressing the environmental effects of converting agricultural lands to biomass crop production since 1994. Erosion, surface water quality and quantity and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops are being compared. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes and crop productivity are also being monitored at the three sites. Maximum sediment losses occurred in the spring and fall. Losses were greater from sweetgum planted without a cover crop than with a cover crop. Nutrient losses of N and P in runoff and subsurface water occurred primarily after spring fertilizer application.

  4. The American Land. Its History, Soil, Water, Wildlife, Agricultural Land Planning, and Land Problems of Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Presented in this booklet is the commentary for "The American Land," a television series prepared by the Soil Conservation Service and the Graduate School, United States Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with WETA - TV, Washington, D.C. It explores the resource of land in America, its history, soil, water, wildlife, agricultural land…

  5. Land cover/use scenario building and its impact on runoff process inside the Iligan river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, Alan E.; Suson, Peter D.; Salcedo, Stephanie Mae B.; Blasco, Jennifer G.; Ignacio, Teresa T.

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to assess the results of runoff volume, peak flow and the lag time between peak rainfall and peak river discharge or peak flow when no proper land use management is done and another is when sound land use management is adopted. Hence, two (2) land cover/use scenarios were created. The first scenario is the Projected Land Cover. This scenario was created using a Trend Analysis function from MS Excel derived from the 1973, 1989, 1998, 2008 and 2010 land cover scenarios. The second scenario is the Desired Land Use wherein it makes use of slope as the basis in assigning the different land uses. Specifically, agriculture and built-up were assign to 0-18% slope, 18-30% slope for agroforestry, 30-50% for production forest and >50% for protection forest. Limitedly available LiDAR DEM strips was integrated into the IFSAR DEM to generate a detailed basin model and slope in GIS. The HEC-HMS was used for simulating runoff models. The Projected Land Cover has a higher total runoff volume and peak flow and shorter Lag time as compared to the Desired Land Use scenario in all the four (4) Rainfall Return Period these are 5 years, 25 years, 50 years and 100 years. The latter has twice as much forest vegetation that the projected land cover scenario, it has better forest cover quality and plus the presence of agroforestry. Such condition helps improve soil infiltration and thus reduces runoff volume and peak time. The study shows when land cover conditions are left by itself without any intervention, the impact of flood disaster is more likely to be magnified. The study also shows that flood disaster can be mitigated if the Desired Land Use scenario will be adopted as one of the course of action in flood disaster risk reduction management.

  6. Enhancing the performance of regional land cover mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weicheng; Zucca, Claudio; Karam, Fadi; Liu, Guangping

    2016-10-01

    Different pixel-based, object-based and subpixel-based methods such as time-series analysis, decision-tree, and different supervised approaches have been proposed to conduct land use/cover classification. However, despite their proven advantages in small dataset tests, their performance is variable and less satisfactory while dealing with large datasets, particularly, for regional-scale mapping with high resolution data due to the complexity and diversity in landscapes and land cover patterns, and the unacceptably long processing time. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the comparatively highest performance of an operational approach based on integration of multisource information ensuring high mapping accuracy in large areas with acceptable processing time. The information used includes phenologically contrasted multiseasonal and multispectral bands, vegetation index, land surface temperature, and topographic features. The performance of different conventional and machine learning classifiers namely Malahanobis Distance (MD), Maximum Likelihood (ML), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Random Forests (RFs) was compared using the same datasets in the same IDL (Interactive Data Language) environment. An Eastern Mediterranean area with complex landscape and steep climate gradients was selected to test and develop the operational approach. The results showed that SVMs and RFs classifiers produced most accurate mapping at local-scale (up to 96.85% in Overall Accuracy), but were very time-consuming in whole-scene classification (more than five days per scene) whereas ML fulfilled the task rapidly (about 10 min per scene) with satisfying accuracy (94.2-96.4%). Thus, the approach composed of integration of seasonally contrasted multisource data and sampling at subclass level followed by a ML classification is a suitable candidate to become an operational and effective regional land cover mapping method.

  7. Impact of land use and land cover changes on ecosystem services in Menglun, Xishuangbanna, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huabin; Liu, Wenjun; Cao, Min

    2008-11-01

    Changing the landscape has serious environmental impacts affecting the ecosystem services, particularly in the tropics. In this paper, we report changes in ecosystem services in relation to land use and land cover over an 18-year period (1988--2006) in the Menglun Township, Xishuangbanna, Southwest China. We used Landsat TM/ETM and Quickbird data sets to estimate changes in ten land use and land cover categories, and generalized value coefficients to estimate changes in the ecosystem services provided by each land category. The results showed that over the 18-year period, the land use and land cover in the study area experienced significant changes. Rubber plantations increased from 12.10% of total land cover to 45.63%, while forested area and swidden field decreased from 48.73 and 13.14 to 27.57 and 0.46%, respectively. During this period, the estimated value of ecosystem services dropped by US $11.427 million (approximately 27.73%). Further analysis showed that there were significant changes in ecological functions such as nutrient cycling, erosion control, climate regulation and water treatment as well as recreation; the obvious increase in the ecological function is provision of raw material (natural rubber). Our findings conclude that an abrupt shift in land use from ecologically important tropical forests and traditionally managed swidden fields to large-scale rubber plantations result in a great loss of ecosystem services in this area. Further, the study suggests that provision of alternative economic opportunities would help in maintaining ecosystem services and for an appropriate compensation mechanisms need to be established based on rigorous valuation.

  8. Targeting land-use change for nitratenitrogen load reductions in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jha, M.K.; Schilling, K.E.; Gassman, P.W.; Wolter, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    The research was conducted as part of the USDA's Conservation Effects Assessment Project. The objective of the project was to evaluate the environmental effects of land-use changes, with a focus on understanding how the spatial distribution throughout a watershed influences their effectiveness.The Soil and Water AssessmentTool (SWAT) water quality model was applied to the Squaw Creek watershed, which covers 4,730 ha (11,683 ac) of prime agriculture land in southern Iowa. The model was calibrated (2000 to 2004) and validated (1996 to 1999) for overall watershed hydrology and for streamflow and nitrate loadings at the watershed outlet on an annual and monthly basis. Four scenarios for land-use change were evaluated including one scenario consistent with recent land-use changes and three scenarios focused on land-use change on highly erodible land areas, upper basin areas, and floodplain areas. Results for the Squaw Creek watershed suggested that nitrate losses were sensitive to land-use change. If land-use patterns were restored to 1990 conditions, nitrate loads may be reduced 7% to 47% in the watershed and subbasins, whereas converting row crops to grass in highly erodible land, upper basin, and floodplain areas would reduce nitrate loads by 47%, 16%, and 8%, respectively. These SWAT model simulations can provide guidance on how to begin targeting land-use change for nitrate load reductions in agricultural watersheds.

  9. Impacts of Biomass Burning on the Land Use / Land Cover Dynamics in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa and Associated Alteration of Local Emission Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, L.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major anthropogenic event in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA), which contributes 15-20% of the global annual total of particulate matter emissions from fires. This burning is mostly for agricultural, grazing or hunting purposes, and thus has a great potential for driving changes in the land use and land cover distribution in that region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have two complimentary data products to support this research: the MOD14/MYD14 active fire products measuring fire locations and strengths, and the MCD12 land cover type product, which includes the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land-cover classification system used in this analysis. More specifically, the MCD12Q1 tiled data product at 500 m was used to match against the 1 km active fire product resolution for the current analysis. Paired data between instantaneous fire measurements and the underlying land cover types for the particular year over the study period of 2003-2013 reveals a dominant burning of savanna, followed by cropland land cover type throughout the region. There are a few indications of the interchange between savanna and cropland due to burning practices. Even though the fire activity in the whole NSSA region is decreasing at a rate of 1.4%/yr during the study period, some land cover types in parts of NSSA show an increase, including local increases in sensitive land cover types such as forest and wetland, which could have serious ecological implications. The changes in the overall redistribution of biomass burning amongst the different land cover types in NSSA dictate that there is also a redistribution of biomass burning emissions. The extent of these changes will also be covered in this presentation.

  10. Governance, agricultural intensification, and land sparing in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Ceddia, Michele Graziano; Bardsley, Nicholas Oliver; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Sedlacek, Sabine

    2014-05-20

    In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South American countries and quantify the effects of major determinants of agricultural land expansion, including various dimensions of governance, over the period 1970-2006. The results indicate that the effect of agricultural intensification on agricultural expansion is conditional on the quality and type of governance. When considering conventional aspects of governance, agricultural intensification leads to an expansion of agricultural area when governance scores are high. When looking specifically at environmental aspects of governance, intensification leads to a spatial contraction of agriculture when governance scores are high, signaling a sustainable intensification process.

  11. Governance, agricultural intensification, and land sparing in tropical South America

    PubMed Central

    Ceddia, Michele Graziano; Bardsley, Nicholas Oliver; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Sedlacek, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South American countries and quantify the effects of major determinants of agricultural land expansion, including various dimensions of governance, over the period 1970–2006. The results indicate that the effect of agricultural intensification on agricultural expansion is conditional on the quality and type of governance. When considering conventional aspects of governance, agricultural intensification leads to an expansion of agricultural area when governance scores are high. When looking specifically at environmental aspects of governance, intensification leads to a spatial contraction of agriculture when governance scores are high, signaling a sustainable intensification process. PMID:24799696

  12. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001–2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km2 of urban gain and −21,017 km2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km2) and closed shrubland (60,854 km2) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development. PMID:27874092

  13. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-11-22

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001-2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km(2) of urban gain and -21,017 km(2) of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km(2)) and closed shrubland (60,854 km(2)) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development.

  14. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-11-01

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001–2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km2 of urban gain and ‑21,017 km2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km2) and closed shrubland (60,854 km2) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development.

  15. Land use and land cover change in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 1975-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parmenter, A.W.; Hansen, A.; Kennedy, R.E.; Cohen, W.; Langner, U.; Lawrence, R.; Maxwell, B.; Gallant, A.; Aspinall, R.

    2003-01-01

    Shifts in the demographic and economic character of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are driving patterns of land cover and land use change in the region. Such changes may have important consequences for ecosystem functioning. The objective of this paper is to quantify the trajectories and rates of change in land cover and use across the GYE for the period 1975-1995 using satellite imagery. Spectral and geographic variables were used as inputs to classification tree regression analysis (CART) to find "rules" which defined land use and land cover classes on the landscape. The resulting CART functions were used to map land cover and land use across seven Landsat TM scenes for 1995. We then used a thresholding technique to identify locations that differed in spectral properties between the 1995 and 1985 time periods. These "changed" locations were classified using CART functions derived from spectral and geographic data from 1985. This was similarly done for the year 1975 based on Landsat MSS data. Differences between the 1975, 1985, and 1995 maps were considered change in land cover and use. We calibrated and tested the accuracy of our models using data acquired through manual interpretation of aerial photos. Elevation and vegetative indices derived from the remotely sensed satellite imagery explained the most variance in the land use and land cover classes (-i.e., defined the "rules" most often). Overall accuracies from our study were good, ranging from 94% at the coarsest level of detail to 74% at the finest. The largest changes over the study period were the increases in burned, urban, and mixed conifer-herbaceous classes and decreases in woody deciduous, mixed woody deciduous-herbaceous, and conifer habitats. These changes have important implications for ecological function and biodiversity. The expansion of mixed conifer classes may increase fuel loads and enhance risk to the growing number of rural homes. The reduction of woody deciduous cover types is

  16. Modeling Agriculture and Land Use in an Integrated Assessment Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, Ronald D.; Leimbach, Marian

    2003-01-01

    The Agriculture and Land Use (AgLU) model is a top-down economic model with just enough structure to simulate global land use change and the resulting carbon emissions over one century. These simulations are done with and without a carbon policy represented by a positive carbon price. Increases in the carbon price create incentives for production of commercial biomass that affect the distribution of other land types and, therefore, carbon emissions from land use change. Commercial biomass provides a link between the agricultural and energy systems. The ICLIPS core model uses AgLU to provide estimates of carbon emissions from land use change as one component of total greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Mapping of agricultural land use from ERTS-1 digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. D.; Max, G. A.; Peterson, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    A study area was selected in Lancaster and Lebanon Counties, two of the major agricultural counties in Pennsylvania. This area was delineated on positive transparencies on MSS data collected on October 11, 1972 (1080-15185). Channel seven was used to delineate general land forms, drainage patterns, water and urban areas. Channel five was used to delineate highway networks. These identifiable features were useful aids for locating areas on the computer output. Computer generated maps were used to delineate broad land use categories, such as forest land, agricultural land, urban areas and water. These digital maps have a scale of approximately 1:24,000 thereby allowing direct comparison with U.S.G.S. 7.5 minute quadrangle sheets. Aircraft data were used as a form of ground truth useful for the delineation of land use patterns.

  18. Spatial resolution requirements for urban land cover mapping from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, William J.; Wrigley, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Very low resolution (VLR) satellite data (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, DMSP Operational Linescan System), low resolution (LR) data (Landsat MSS), medium resolution (MR) data (Landsat TM), and high resolution (HR) satellite data (Spot HRV, Large Format Camera) were evaluated and compared for interpretability at differing spatial resolutions. VLR data (500 m - 1.0 km) is useful for Level 1 (urban/rural distinction) mapping at 1:1,000,000 scale. Feature tone/color is utilized to distinguish generalized urban land cover using LR data (80 m) for 1:250,000 scale mapping. Advancing to MR data (30 m) and 1:100,000 scale mapping, confidence in land cover mapping is greatly increased, owing to the element of texture/pattern which is now evident in the imagery. Shape and shadow contribute to detailed Level II/III urban land use mapping possible if the interpreter can use HR (10-15 m) satellite data; mapping scales can be 1:25,000 - 1:50,000.

  19. Towards monitoring land-cover and land-use changes at a global scale: the global land survey 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutman, G.; Byrnes, Raymond A.; Masek, J.; Covington, S.; Justice, C.; Franks, S.; Headley, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Land cover is a critical component of the Earth system, infl uencing land-atmosphere interactions, greenhouse gas fl uxes, ecosystem health, and availability of food, fi ber, and energy for human populations. The recent Integrated Global Observations of Land (IGOL) report calls for the generation of maps documenting global land cover at resolutions between 10m and 30m at least every fi ve years (Townshend et al., in press). Moreover, despite 35 years of Landsat observations, there has not been a unifi ed global analysis of land-cover trends nor has there been a global assessment of land-cover change at Landsat-like resolution. Since the 1990s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have supported development of data sets based on global Landsat observations (Tucker et al., 2004). These land survey data sets, usually referred to as GeoCover ™, provide global, orthorectifi ed, typically cloud-free Landsat imagery centered on the years 1975, 1990, and 2000, with a preference for leaf-on conditions. Collectively, these data sets provided a consistent set of observations to assess land-cover changes at a decadal scale. These data are freely available via the Internet from the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) (see http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov or http://glovis.usgs.gov). This has resulted in unprecedented downloads of data, which are widely used in scientifi c studies of land-cover change (e.g., Boone et al., 2007; Harris et al., 2005; Hilbert, 2006; Huang et al. 2007; Jantz et al., 2005, Kim et al., 2007; Leimgruber, 2005; Masek et al., 2006). NASA and USGS are continuing to support land-cover change research through the development of GLS2005 - an additional global Landsat assessment circa 20051 . Going beyond the earlier initiatives, this data set will establish a baseline for monitoring changes on a 5-year interval and will pave the way toward continuous global land-cover

  20. Comparative Accuracy Assessment of Global Land Cover Datasets Using Existing Reference Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsendbazar, N. E.; de Bruin, S.; Mora, B.; Herold, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover is a key variable to monitor the impact of human and natural processes on the biosphere. As one of the Essential Climate Variables, land cover observations are used for climate models and several other applications. Remote sensing technologies have enabled the generation of several global land cover (GLC) products that are based on different data sources and methods (e.g. legends). Moreover, the reported map accuracies result from varying validation strategies. Such differences make the comparison of the GLC products challenging and create confusion on selecting suitable datasets for different applications. This study aims to conduct comparative accuracy assessment of GLC datasets (LC-CCI 2005, MODIS 2005, and Globcover 2005) using the Globcover 2005 reference data which can represent the thematic differences of these GLC maps. This GLC reference dataset provides LCCS classifier information for 3 main land cover types for each sample plot. The LCCS classifier information was translated according to the legends of the GLC maps analysed. The preliminary analysis showed some challenges in LCCS classifier translation arising from missing important classifier information, differences in class definition between the legends and absence of class proportion of main land cover types. To overcome these issues, we consolidated the entire reference data (i.e. 3857 samples distributed at global scale). Then the GLC maps and the reference dataset were harmonized into 13 general classes to perform the comparative accuracy assessments. To help users on selecting suitable GLC dataset(s) for their application, we conducted the map accuracy assessments considering different users' perspectives: climate modelling, bio-diversity assessments, agriculture monitoring, and map producers. This communication will present the method and the results of this study and provide a set of recommendations to the GLC map producers and users with the aim to facilitate the use of GLC maps.

  1. Global land-cover and land-use change of the last 6000 years for climate modelling studies: the PAGES LandCover6k initiative and its first achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Morrison, Kathleen; Madella, Marco; Whitehouse, Nicki J.; Pages Landcover6k Sub-Coordinators

    2016-04-01

    as such (i and ii above), and/or the revised HYDE and KK ALCCs. The LandCover6k working group focuses on regions of the world where humans have had a significant impact on land cover during the last 6000 (6k) calendar years (in some regions earlier than 6k ago) through deforestation and diverse agricultural practices, i.e. the Americas, Western and Eastern Africa, Europe, and Asia. In Asia, the emphasis has been placed so far on China, India and Japan. References: Kaplan JO et al. (2009) Quaternary Science Reviews 28(27-28): 3016-3034. doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev. 2009.09.028; Klein Goldewijk K et al. (2011) Global Ecology and Biogeography 20: 73-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00587.x; Pirzamanbein B et al. (2014) Ecol Complex 20:127-141; Trondman A-K et al. (2015) Glob Chang Biol 21:676-697. doi:10.1111/gcb.12737.

  2. Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes. PMID:23610175

  3. Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E P

    2013-06-05

    The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes.

  4. AVHRR composite period selection for land cover classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Hoffer, R.M.; Chapman, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Multitemporal satellite image datasets provide valuable information on the phenological characteristics of vegetation, thereby significantly increasing the accuracy of cover type classifications compared to single date classifications. However, the processing of these datasets can become very complex when dealing with multitemporal data combined with multispectral data. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) biweekly composite data are commonly used to classify land cover over large regions. Selecting a subset of these biweekly composite periods may be required to reduce the complexity and cost of land cover mapping. The objective of our research was to evaluate the effect of reducing the number of composite periods and altering the spacing of those composite periods on classification accuracy. Because inter-annual variability can have a major impact on classification results, 5 years of AVHRR data were evaluated. AVHRR biweekly composite images for spectral channels 1-4 (visible, near-infrared and two thermal bands) covering the entire growing season were used to classify 14 cover types over the entire state of Colorado for each of five different years. A supervised classification method was applied to maintain consistent procedures for each case tested. Results indicate that the number of composite periods can be halved-reduced from 14 composite dates to seven composite dates-without significantly reducing overall classification accuracy (80.4% Kappa accuracy for the 14-composite data-set as compared to 80.0% for a seven-composite dataset). At least seven composite periods were required to ensure the classification accuracy was not affected by inter-annual variability due to climate fluctuations. Concentrating more composites near the beginning and end of the growing season, as compared to using evenly spaced time periods, consistently produced slightly higher classification values over the 5 years tested (average Kappa) of 80.3% for the heavy early

  5. Hydrochemistry and land cover in the upper Naryn river basin, Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, K.; Dernedde, Y.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

    2009-04-01

    concentrations remain below detection limit for the most part. The study shows that tributaries of high electrical conductivity do not affect hydrochemistry of the main river during summer because glacier and snow melt dominates runoff generation. Daily cycles of increased runoff due to snow and ice melt in the afternoon could be observed along the tributaries in the upper parts of the study area. Effects of agricultural production on ecohydrology remain weak as application of fertilizers and pesticides is currently low due to financial constraints. The data will be linked to land use data derived from satellite image products in order to analyse the effect of land cover and land cover changes on ecohydrological processes. Former observation of remote sensing data and related literature showed evidence for a change in land use management in the Naryn Valley. In 2008 training areas of land use classes for a supervised classification of 2008 remote sensing data have been recorded. A land use classification of the Naryn Valley on the base of Landsat ETM+ Data of 2008 and 1993 was done to get information on land use change on a regional scale. The classification uses spectral and spatial data in a hard classifier and object oriented combined approach. Comparing the two datasets with respect to changes in pattern of irrigated area and pasture area, change in cultivated crops and the change of agricultural cell sizes gives further information for hydrological modeling and land use monitoring purposes.

  6. Obtaining land-use information from a remotely sensed land cover map: results from a case study in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Louisa J. M.; Di Gregorio, Antonio

    2004-05-01

    The availability of land-use information allows decision-makers to develop short to long-term plans for the conservation, sustainable use and development of natural resources. Spatial land-use information often does not exist, whereas land cover information is mostly present in the form of maps derived from remotely sensed data. The latter could provide a basis for obtaining land-use information but there is currently no comprehensive methodology for how to obtain such information in a standardised manner. In Lebanon, with its wide variety of land cover types due to the diversity in landforms and variability in rainfall, a case study was carried out to try to develop a set of decision rules to obtain the dominant land uses from the existing 1:50,000-scale land cover maps. The development of the decision rules to allow such a transformation brought several problems to light concerning spatial and temporal variation of land cover, the accuracy of the input materials, the limitations of the developed decision rules and the complexity of the relation between land cover and land use. The decision rules were also analysed as to their general applicability for acquisition of land-use information and the implications for field survey data collection. Furthermore, quantification of the land cover and land-use classes allowed the examination of the nature of the land cover/use relationships in Lebanon. In addition, these data were compared to the FAO Production Yearbook statistics in order to link annual production estimates with the extent of land involved in the production of commodities. This comparison underlines the complexity of deducing land-use information from land cover data, especially where the land cover/land-use relation is weak and additional data is limited. Assumptions used to identify the spatial extent of certain land uses need to be thoroughly tested in the field for their validity as this is vital in obtaining reliable land-use information.

  7. Investigating the Effects of Land Cover Change on the Hydrology of the Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Coe, M. T.; Lenters, J. D.; Kucharik, C. J.; Donner, S.; Foley, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    Humans have greatly altered the Earth's landscape since the beginning of sedentary agriculture. Through the conversion of forests and grasslands to croplands and pasture, human land use activities have changed biogeochemical cycles including the water cycle. Using IBIS, a global land surface model with 0.5-degree resolution (Foley et al., 1996; Kucharik et al., 2000), and HYDRA, a runoff-routing algorithm with 5-minute resolution (Coe, 2000), we have studied how land cover change may affect the hydrology of the Mississippi River Basin. The IBIS model describes physical, physiological, and ecological processes occurring in vegetative canopies and soils. Through forcing from climate data and vegetation and soil properties, IBIS simulates energy, water, and biogeochemical cycles at small time-steps (30-60 minutes). Lenters et al. (2000) have validated the IBIS-modeled water budget over the Mississippi River Basin at several scales and HYDRA-modeled discharge has been compared favorably to United States Geological Survey stream gauge data (Donner et al., 2001). This work extends those studies through use of an improved version of IBIS. The IBIS model has been calibrated for use over the continental United States through an improved phenology routine and the inclusion of corn and soybeans as land cover types. Results from a comparison of a control run of natural vegetation with experimental runs of corn and soybean cover will be shown.

  8. Object Based Land Use and Land Cover Classification Using Sumbandilasat Imagery in Pretoria, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhangara, P.; Odindi, J.

    2012-04-01

    The launch of SumbandilaSat satellite on 17 September 2009 has ushered in new possibilities in land use/cover classification. SumbandilaSat has a ground sampling resolution of 6.25 m and possesses the red, red-edge and NIR spectral bands. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using SumbandilaSat imagery to classify land use/cover using an object-based classification ruleset that uses spectral indices, Haralick texture and the original spectral bands to classify urban land use and land cover in Pretoria, South Africa. High classification accuracies were achieved for water, forest, urban built up areas, irrigated-riparian vegetation and grass and sparse vegetation as shown by the very high KIAs higher than 0.85. Bare soil achieved a relatively low classification accuracy of 0.65. This study also showcases the value of SumbandilaSat imagery and the efficacy of object-oriented techniques in land use/cover classification as revealed by the overall accuracy of 0.93 and KIA of 0.91.

  9. Analysing land cover and land use change in the Matobo National Park and surroundings in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharsich, Valeska; Mtata, Kupakwashe; Hauhs, Michael; Lange, Holger; Bogner, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Natural forests are threatened worldwide, therefore their protection in National Parks is essential. Here, we investigate how this protection status affects the land cover. To answer this question, we analyse the surface reflectance of three Landsat images of Matobo National Park and surrounding in Zimbabwe from 1989, 1998 and 2014 to detect changes in land cover in this region. To account for the rolling countryside and the resulting prominent shadows, a topographical correction of the surface reflectance was required. To infer land cover changes it is not only necessary to have some ground data for the current satellite images but also for the old ones. In particular for the older images no recent field study could help to reconstruct these data reliably. In our study we follow the idea that land cover classes of pixels in current images can be transferred to the equivalent pixels of older ones if no changes occurred meanwhile. Therefore we combine unsupervised clustering with supervised classification as follows. At first, we produce a land cover map for 2014. Secondly, we cluster the images with clara, which is similar to k-means, but suitable for large data sets. Whereby the best number of classes were determined to be 4. Thirdly, we locate unchanged pixels with change vector analysis in the images of 1989 and 1998. For these pixels we transfer the corresponding cluster label from 2014 to 1989 and 1998. Subsequently, the classified pixels serve as training data for supervised classification with random forest, which is carried out for each image separately. Finally, we derive land cover classes from the Landsat image in 2014, photographs and Google Earth and transfer them to the other two images. The resulting classes are shrub land; forest/shallow waters; bare soils/fields with some trees/shrubs; and bare light soils/rocks, fields and settlements. Subsequently the three different classifications are compared and land changes are mapped. The main changes are

  10. Correlations between land covers and honey bee colony losses in a country with industrialized and rural regions.

    PubMed

    Clermont, Antoine; Eickermann, Michael; Kraus, François; Hoffmann, Lucien; Beyer, Marco

    2015-11-01

    High levels of honey bee colony losses were recently reported from Canada, China, Europe, Israel, Turkey and the United States, raising concerns of a global pollinator decline and questioning current land use practices, in particular intense agricultural cropping systems. Sixty-seven crops (data from the years 2010-2012) and 66 mid-term stable land cover classes (data from 2007) were analysed for statistical relationships with the honey bee colony losses experienced over the winters 2010/11-2012/13 in Luxembourg (Western Europe). The area covered by each land cover class, the shortest distance between each land cover class and the respective apiary, the number of plots covered by each land use class and the size of the biggest plot of each land cover class within radii of 2 km and 5 km around 166 apiaries (2010), 184 apiaries (2011) and 188 apiaries (2012) were tested for correlations with honey bee colony losses (% per apiary) experienced in the winter following the season when the crops were grown. Artificial water bodies, open urban areas, large industrial facilities including heavy industry, railways and associated installations, buildings and installations with socio-cultural purpose, camping-, sports-, playgrounds, golf courts, oilseed crops other than oilseed rape like sunflower or linseed, some spring cereals and former forest clearcuts or windthrows were the land cover classes most frequently associated with high honey bee colony losses. Grain maize, mixed forest and mixed coniferous forest were the land cover classes most frequently associated with low honey bee colony losses. The present data suggest that land covers related to transport, industry and leisure may have made a more substantial contribution to winter honey bee colony losses in developed countries than anticipated so far. Recommendations for the positioning of apiaries are discussed.

  11. Land cover controls on depression-focused recharge: an example from southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttle, J. M.; Greenwood, W. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM) is a critical hydrogeologic feature in southern Ontario. Although previous research has highlighted the implications of spatially-focused recharge in closed topographic depressions for regional groundwater resources, such depression-focused recharge (DFR) has not been empirically demonstrated on the ORM. Permeable surficial sands and gravels mantling much of the ORM imply that water fluxes will largely be vertical recharge rather than lateral downslope transfer into depressions. Nevertheless, lateral fluxes may occur in winter and spring, when concrete frost development encourages surface runoff of rainfall and snowmelt. The potential for DFR was examined under forest and agricultural land cover with similar soils and surficial geology. Soil water contents, soil temperatures and ground frost thickness were measured at the crest and base of closed depressions in two agricultural fields and two forest stands on permeable ORM outcrops. Recharge from late-fall to the end of spring snowmelt was estimated via 1-d water balances and surface-applied bromide tracing. Both forest and agricultural sites experienced soil freezing; however, greater soil water contents prior to freeze-up at the latter led to concrete soil frost development. This resulted in lateral movement of snowmelt and rainfall into topographic depressions and surface ponding, which did not occur in forest depressions. Water balance recharge exceeded estimates from the bromide tracer approach at all locations; nevertheless, both methods indicated DRF exceeded recharge at the depression crest in agricultural areas with little difference in forest areas. Water balance estimates suggest winter-spring DFR (1300 - 2000 mm) is 3-5× recharge on level agricultural sites. Differences in the potential for DFR between agricultural and forest land covers have important implications for the spatial variability of recharge fluxes and the quality of recharging water on the ORM.

  12. Land Cover Applications, Landscape Dynamics, and Global Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tieszen, Larry L.

    2007-01-01

    The Land Cover Applications, Landscape Dynamics, and Global Change project at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) seeks to integrate remote sensing and simulation models to better understand and seek solutions to national and global issues. Modeling processes related to population impacts, natural resource management, climate change, invasive species, land use changes, energy development, and climate mitigation all pose significant scientific opportunities. The project activities use remotely sensed data to support spatial monitoring, provide sensitivity analyses across landscapes and large regions, and make the data and results available on the Internet with data access and distribution, decision support systems, and on-line modeling. Applications support sustainable natural resource use, carbon cycle science, biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation, and robust simulation modeling approaches that evaluate ecosystem and landscape dynamics.

  13. Statistical Models of Areal Distribution of Fragmented Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C.; Dungan, J.; DAntoni, Hector

    1997-01-01

    Imagery of coarse resolution, such weather satellite imagery with 1 square kilometer pixels, is increasingly used to monitor dynamic and fragmented types of land surface types, such as scars from recent fires and ponds in wetlands. Accurate estimates of these land cover types at regional to global scales are required to assess the roles of fires and wetlands in global warming, yet difficult to compute when much of the area is accounted for by fragments about the same size as the pixels. In previous research, we found that size distribution of the fragments in several example scenes fit simple two-parameter models and related effects of coarse resolution to errors in area estimates based on pixel counts. We summarize our model based approach to improved area estimations and report on progress to develop accurate areas estimates based on modeling the size distribution of the fragments, including analysis of size distributions on an expanded set of maps developed from digital imagery.

  14. Using global land cover data to assess regional food production potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licker, R.; Kucharik, C. J.; Foley, J. A.; Johnston, M.; Monfreda, C.; Ramankutty, N.

    2009-12-01

    With over 900 million people living undernourished, food insecurity is one of the most important issues facing society today. In this study, we show how global Earth observation data can be used in concert with a variety of sources of information to consider both where and how additional food might be grown on already cultivated lands. In a previous study, we used global, gridded crop yield data derived in part from MODIS and GLC2000 land cover datasets, along with observed twentieth century global, gridded average climate data to determine how the yields of 18 dominant crops compare across regions with similar climate. In this study we move from the global scale, and focus on regions such as Western and Eastern Europe that have similar climates yet significantly different crop yields. We investigate the cause of these differences by considering additional drivers of crop yields such as fertilizer use, availability of crop varieties, agricultural subsidies, and land tenure. We provide a framework to integrate these agronomic, socioeconomic, political, and land use datasets with the biophysical factors already taken into account. We also consider additional biophysical parameters such as topography and soil conditions, as well as inter-annual climate variability. With this work, we aim to highlight how the recent availability of global land cover datasets can be used to improve our understanding of our prospect for increasing food availability, and how it is constrained by both natural and human-related factors.

  15. A proper Land Cover and Forest Type Classification Scheme for Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, S.; Maeda, P.; Wehrmann, T.; Argumedo Espinoza, J.; Schmidt, M.

    2015-04-01

    The imminent implementation of a REDD+ MRV system in Mexico in 2015, demanding operational annual land cover change reporting, requires highly accurate, annual and high resolution forest type maps; not only for monitoring but also to establish the historical baseline from the 1990s onwards. The employment of any supervised classifier demands exhaustive definition of land cover classes and the representation of all classes in the training stage. This paper reports the process of a data driven class separability analysis and the definition and application of a national land cover classification scheme. All Landsat data recorded over Mexico in the year 2000 with cloud coverage below 10 percent and a national digital elevation model have been used. Automatic wall-2-wall image classification has been performed trained by national reference data on land use and vegetation types with 66 classes. Validation has been performed against field plots of the national forest inventory. Groups of non-separable classes have subsequently been discerned by automatic iterative class aggregation. Class aggregations have finally been manually revised and modified towards a proposed national land cover classification scheme at 4 levels with 35 classes at the highest level including 13 classes for primary temperate and tropical forests, 2 classes for secondary temperate and tropical forest, 1 for induced or cultivated forest, as also 8 different scrubland classes. The remaining 11 classes cover agriculture, grassland, wetland, water bodies, urban and other vegetation land cover classes. The remaining 3 levels provide further hierarchic aggregations with 14, 10, and 8 classes, respectively. Trained by the relabeled training dataset wall-2-wall classification towards the 35 classes has been performed. The final national land cover dataset has been validated against more than 200,000 polygons randomly distributed all over the country with class labels derived by manual interpretation. The

  16. Digital elevation data as an aid to land use and land cover classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, Alden P.

    1981-01-01

    In relatively well mapped areas such as the United States and Europe, digital data can be developed from topographic maps or from the stereo aerial photographic movie. For poorer mapped areas (which involved most of the world's land areas), a satellite designed to obtain stereo data offers the best hope for a digital elevation database. Such a satellite, known as Mapsat, has been defined by the U.S. Geological Survey. Utilizing modern solid state technology, there is no reason why such stereo data cannot be acquired simultaneously with the multispectral response, thus simplifying the overall problem of land use and land cover classification.

  17. Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India

    PubMed Central

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

  18. Comparison of two Classification methods (MLC and SVM) to extract land use and land cover in Johor Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokni Deilmai, B.; Ahmad, B. Bin; Zabihi, H.

    2014-06-01

    Mapping is essential for the analysis of the land use and land cover, which influence many environmental processes and properties. For the purpose of the creation of land cover maps, it is important to minimize error. These errors will propagate into later analyses based on these land cover maps. The reliability of land cover maps derived from remotely sensed data depends on an accurate classification. In this study, we have analyzed multispectral data using two different classifiers including Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). To pursue this aim, Landsat Thematic Mapper data and identical field-based training sample datasets in Johor Malaysia used for each classification method, which results indicate in five land cover classes forest, oil palm, urban area, water, rubber. Classification results indicate that SVM was more accurate than MLC. With demonstrated capability to produce reliable cover results, the SVM methods should be especially useful for land cover classification.

  19. Collecting Sketch Maps to Understand Property Land Use and Land Cover in Large Surveys

    PubMed Central

    D’ANTONA, ÁLVARO DE OLIVEIRA; CAK, ANTHONY D.; VANWEY, LEAH K.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a method to collect data on the spatial organization of land use within a rural property as part of a large-scale project examining the linkages between household demographic change and land use and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon. Previous studies used several different spatial approaches, including maps and satellite images, to improve the information collected in standard survey questionnaires. However, few used sketch maps to obtain information from the point of view of the survey respondent about the spatial organization of land use and infrastructure. We developed a method of creating sketch maps with respondents to describe their properties. These maps then provided a spatially referenced database of the social and land use organization of the properties from the perspective of the respondent. Systematic rules allowed sketches to be used in subsequent spatial analyses in combination with satellite images and Global Positioning System reference points PMID:19789719

  20. Detecting land cover change over a 20 year time period in the Niagara Escarpment Plan using satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Holly

    The Niagara Escarpment is one of Southern Ontario's most important landscapes. Due to the nature of the landform and its location, the Escarpment is subject to various development pressures including urban expansion, mineral resource extraction, agricultural practices and recreation. In 1985, Canada's first large scale environmentally based land use plan was put in place to ensure that only development that is compatible with the Escarpment occurred within the Niagara Escarpment Plan (NEP). The southern extent of the NEP is of particular interest in this study, since a portion of the Plan is located within the rapidly expanding Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The Plan area located in the Regional Municipalities of Hamilton and Halton represent both urban and rural geographical areas respectively, and are both experiencing development pressures and subsequent changes in land cover. Monitoring initiatives on the NEP have been established, but have done little to identify consistent techniques for monitoring land cover on the Niagara Escarpment. Land cover information is an important part of planning and environmental monitoring initiatives. Remote sensing has the potential to provide frequent and accurate land cover information over various spatial scales. The goal of this research was to examine land cover change in the Regional Municipalities of Hamilton and Halton portions of the NEP. This was achieved through the creation of land cover maps for each region using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) remotely sensed data. These maps aided in determining the qualitative and quantitative changes that had occurred in the Plan area over a 20 year time period from 1986 to 2006. Change was also examined based on the NEP's land use designations, to determine if the Plan policy has been effective in protecting the Escarpment. To obtain land cover maps, five different supervised classification methods were explored: Minimum Distance, Mahalanobis Distance, Maximum Likelihood, Object

  1. Mapping irrigated lands at 250-m scale by merging MODIS data and National Agricultural Statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate geospatial information on the extent of irrigated land improves our understanding of agricultural water use, local land surface processes, conservation or depletion of water resources, and components of the hydrologic budget. We have developed a method in a geospatial modeling framework that assimilates irrigation statistics with remotely sensed parameters describing vegetation growth conditions in areas with agricultural land cover to spatially identify irrigated lands at 250-m cell size across the conterminous United States for 2002. The geospatial model result, known as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Irrigated Agriculture Dataset (MIrAD-US), identified irrigated lands with reasonable accuracy in California and semiarid Great Plains states with overall accuracies of 92% and 75% and kappa statistics of 0.75 and 0.51, respectively. A quantitative accuracy assessment of MIrAD-US for the eastern region has not yet been conducted, and qualitative assessment shows that model improvements are needed for the humid eastern regions where the distinction in annual peak NDVI between irrigated and non-irrigated crops is minimal and county sizes are relatively small. This modeling approach enables consistent mapping of irrigated lands based upon USDA irrigation statistics and should lead to better understanding of spatial trends in irrigated lands across the conterminous United States. An improved version of the model with revised datasets is planned and will employ 2007 USDA irrigation statistics.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Land Use and Land Cover Change on Global Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, N.; Yang, Y. E.; Choi, H. I.; Islam, A.; Charlotte, D. F.; Cai, X.; Kumar, P.

    2007-12-01

    Land use and land cover changes (LULCC) significantly modify the hydrological regime of the watersheds, affecting water resources and environment from regional to global scale. This study seeks to advance and integrate water and energy cycle observation, scientific understanding, and human impacts to assess future water availability. To achieve the research objective, we integrate and interpret past and current space based and in situ observations into a global hydrologic model (GHM). GHM is developed with enhanced spatial and temporal resolution, physical complexity, hydrologic theory and processes to quantify the impact of LULCC on physical variables: surface runoff, subsurface flow, groundwater, infiltration, ET, soil moisture, etc. Coupled with the common land model (CLM), a 3-dimensional volume averaged soil-moisture transport (VAST) model is expanded to incorporate the lateral flow and subgrid heterogeneity. The model consists of 11 soil-hydrology layers to predict lateral as well as vertical moisture flux transport based on Richard's equations. The primary surface boundary conditions (SBCs) include surface elevation and its derivatives, land cover category, sand and clay fraction profiles, bedrock depth and fractional vegetation cover. A consistent global GIS-based dataset is constructed for the SBCs of the model from existing observational datasets comprising of various resolutions, map projections and data formats. Global ECMWF data at 6-hour time steps for the period 1971 through 2000 is processed to get the forcing data which includes incoming longwave and shortwave radiation, precipitation, air temperature, pressure, wind components, boundary layer height and specific humidity. Land use land cover data, generated using IPCC scenarios for every 10 years from 2000 to 2100 is used for future assessment on water resources. Alterations due to LULCC on surface water balance components: ET, groundwater recharge and runoff are then addressed in the study. Land

  3. LandEx - Fast, FOSS-Based Application for Query and Retrieval of Land Cover Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, P.; Stepinski, T.

    2012-12-01

    The amount of satellite-based spatial data is continuously increasing making a development of efficient data search tools a priority. The bulk of existing research on searching satellite-gathered data concentrates on images and is based on the concept of Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR); however, available solutions are not efficient and robust enough to be put to use as deployable web-based search tools. Here we report on development of a practical, deployable tool that searches classified, rather than raw image. LandEx (Landscape Explorer) is a GeoWeb-based tool for Content-Based Pattern Retrieval (CBPR) contained within the National Land Cover Dataset 2006 (NLCD2006). The USGS-developed NLCD2006 is derived from Landsat multispectral images; it covers the entire conterminous U.S. with the resolution of 30 meters/pixel and it depicts 16 land cover classes. The size of NLCD2006 is about 10 Gpixels (161,000 x 100,000 pixels). LandEx is a multi-tier GeoWeb application based on Open Source Software. Main components are: GeoExt/OpenLayers (user interface), GeoServer (OGC WMS, WCS and WPS server), and GRASS (calculation engine). LandEx performs search using query-by-example approach: user selects a reference scene (exhibiting a chosen pattern of land cover classes) and the tool produces, in real time, a map indicating a degree of similarity between the reference pattern and all local patterns across the U.S. Scene pattern is encapsulated by a 2D histogram of classes and sizes of single-class clumps. Pattern similarity is based on the notion of mutual information. The resultant similarity map can be viewed and navigated in a web browser, or it can download as a GeoTiff file for more in-depth analysis. The LandEx is available at http://sil.uc.edu

  4. The Application of Remote Sensing Data to GIS Studies of Land Use, Land Cover, and Vegetation Mapping in the State of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Christine A.

    1996-01-01

    A land cover-vegetation map with a base classification system for remote sensing use in a tropical island environment was produced of the island of Hawaii for the State of Hawaii to evaluate whether or not useful land cover information can be derived from Landsat TM data. In addition, an island-wide change detection mosaic combining a previously created 1977 MSS land classification with the TM-based classification was produced. In order to reach the goal of transferring remote sensing technology to State of Hawaii personnel, a pilot project was conducted while training State of Hawaii personnel in remote sensing technology and classification systems. Spectral characteristics of young island land cover types were compared to determine if there are differences in vegetation types on lava, vegetation types on soils, and barren lava from soils, and if they can be detected remotely, based on differences in pigments detecting plant physiognomic type, health, stress at senescence, heat, moisture level, and biomass. Geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) were used to assist in image rectification and classification. GIS was also used to produce large-format color output maps. An interactive GIS program was written to provide on-line access to scanned photos taken at field sites. The pilot project found Landsat TM to be a credible source of land cover information for geologically young islands, and TM data bands are effective in detecting spectral characteristics of different land cover types through remote sensing. Large agriculture field patterns were resolved and mapped successfully from wildland vegetation, but small agriculture field patterns were not. Additional processing was required to work with the four TM scenes from two separate orbits which span three years, including El Nino and drought dates. Results of the project emphasized the need for further land cover and land use processing and research. Change in vegetation

  5. EnviroAtlas -- Fresno, California -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010) Web Service

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Fresno, CA EnviroAtlas One-Meter-scale Urban Land Cover Data were generated via supervised classification of combined aerial photography and LiDAR data. The air photos were United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) four band (red, green, blue, and near infrared) aerial photography at 1-m spatial resolution. Aerial photography ('imagery') was collected on multiple dates in summer 2010. Seven land cover classes were mapped: Water, impervious surfaces (Impervious), soil and barren (Soil), trees and forest (Tree), and grass and herbaceous non-woody vegetation (Grass), agriculture (Ag), and Orchards. An accuracy assessment of 500 completely random and 103 stratified random points yielded an overall User's fuzzy accuracy of 81.1 percent (see below). The area mapped is defined by the US Census Bureau's 2010 Urban Statistical Area for Fresno, CA plus a 1-km buffer. Where imagery was available, additional areas outside the 1-km boundary were also mapped but not included in the accuracy assessment. We expect the accuracy of the areas outside of the 1-km boundary to be consistent with those within. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with

  6. EnviroAtlas -- Fresno, California -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Fresno, CA EnviroAtlas One-Meter-scale Urban Land Cover Data were generated via supervised classification of combined aerial photography and LiDAR data. The air photos were United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) four band (red, green, blue, and near infrared) aerial photography at 1-m spatial resolution. Aerial photography ('imagery') was collected on multiple dates in summer 2010. Seven land cover classes were mapped: Water, impervious surfaces (Impervious), soil and barren (Soil), trees and forest (Tree), and grass and herbaceous non-woody vegetation (Grass), agriculture (Ag), and Orchards. An accuracy assessment of 500 completely random and 103 stratified random points yielded an overall User's fuzzy accuracy of 81.1 percent (see below). The area mapped is defined by the US Census Bureau's 2010 Urban Statistical Area for Fresno, CA plus a 1-km buffer. Where imagery was available, additional areas outside the 1-km boundary were also mapped but not included in the accuracy assessment. We expect the accuracy of the areas outside of the 1-km boundary to be consistent with those within. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The da

  7. Water resources and land use and cover in a humid region: the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Lockaby, B Graeme; Helms, Brian; Kalin, Latif; Stoeckel, Denise

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that forest and water resources are intricately linked. Globally, changes in forest cover to accommodate agriculture and urban development introduce additional challenges for water management. The U.S. Southeast typifies this global trend as predictions of land-use change and population growth suggest increased pressure on water resources in coming years. Close attention has long been paid to interactions between people and water in arid regions; however, based on information from regions such as the Southeast, it is evident that much greater focus is required to sustain a high-quality water supply in humid areas as well. To that end, we review hydrological, physicochemical, biological, and human and environmental health responses to conversion of forests to agriculture and urban land uses in the Southeast. Commonly, forest removal leads to increased stream sediment and nutrients, more variable flow, altered habitat and stream and riparian communities, and increased risk of human health effects. Although indicators such as the percentage of impervious cover signify overall watershed alteration, the threshold to disturbance, or the point at which effects can been observed in stream and riparian parameters, can be quite low and often varies with physiographic conditions. In addition to current land use, historical practices can greatly influence current water quality. General inferences of this study may extend to many humid regions concerning climate, environmental thresholds, and the causes and nature of effects.

  8. EnviroAtlas -Milwaukee, WI- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010) Web Service

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets